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8900.1 CHG 52

VOLUME 3 GENERAL TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATION

CHAPTER 18 OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS

Section 5 Part C Operations Specifications—Airplane Terminal Instrument Procedures and Airport Authorizations and Limitations

3-871    GENERAL. Part C is issued to operators who conduct Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 or part 135 operations with fixed‑wing airplanes. It is not issued to part 135 operators who conduct only helicopter operations. Instrument flight rules helicopter operators are issued Part H. Part C is not usually issued to part 135 on‑demand operators who are restricted to visual flight rules (VFR)‑only operations. In rare situations operations specification (OpSpec ) C070, of Part C is issued to part 135 VFR-only operators who are authorized to conduct commuter operations.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C049, DESTINATION AIRPORT ANALYSIS.

A.    General. OpSpec C049 is an optional authorization for 14 CFR part 135 certificate holders that have been issued OpSpec A057 as an eligible on‑demand operator for reducing effective runway length requirements for turbine‑engine‑powered, large transport‑category airplanes that must be met before a flight’s release, provided certain requirements are met by the operator. Management specification (MSpec) C049 is an optional authorization for 14 CFR part 91 subpart K (91K) fractional ownership operations program managers to reduce effective runway length requirements for turbine‑engine‑powered, large transport‑category airplanes that must be met before a flight’s release, provided the program manager meets certain requirements.

B.    Destination Airport Analysis. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations governing operations under part 91K and part 135 provide for reducing effective runway length requirements for turbine-engine–powered, large transport‑category airplanes that must be met before a flight’s release, provided the operator meets certain requirements. For destination airports, normal landing distance requirements for part 91K and part 135 operations are 60 percent of the available runway length. For alternate airport landing distance requirements, part 91K remains at 60 percent, while part 135 allows for 70 percent of the effective runway length. If an operator desires to reduce such requirements below 60 percent of the available runway length, that operator must meet regulatory requirements in two areas:

1)    Part 135 eligible on‑demand operator (OpSpec A057 must be issued) or part 91K program experience; and
2)    FAA‑approved Destination Airport Analysis Program (DAAP). The DAAP must address specific regulatory requirements and be approved for use through that operator’s MSpecs or OpSpecs, as applicable.

C.    Experience Requirements. An eligible on‑demand operator is defined in part 135, § 135.4. Fractional ownership programs must meet the same requirements and are identified in part 91K, §§ 91.1053 and 91.1055. The requirements include:

1)    An on‑demand or fractional ownership program operation that meets the following requirements:
a)    Two‑Pilot Crew. The flightcrew must consist of at least two qualified pilots employed or contracted by the certificate holder.
b)    Flightcrew Experience. The crewmembers must have met the applicable requirements of 14 CFR part 61 and have the following experience and ratings:

1.    Total flight time for all pilots:

·    Pilot in command (PIC)—A minimum of 1,500 hours.

·    Second in command (SIC)—A minimum of 500 hours.

2.    For multiengine, turbine‑powered fixed‑wing, and powered‑lift aircraft, the following FAA certification and ratings requirements:

·    PIC—Airline transport pilot and applicable type ratings.

·    SIC—Commercial pilot and instrument ratings.

3.    For all other aircraft, the following FAA certification and rating requirements:

·    PIC—Commercial pilot and instrument ratings.

·    SIC—Commercial pilot and instrument ratings.

c)    Pilot Operating Limitations. If the SIC of a fixed‑wing aircraft has fewer than 100 hours’ flight time as SIC flying in the aircraft make and model, and if a type rating is required in the type aircraft being flown, and the PIC is not an appropriately qualified check pilot, the PIC will make all takeoffs and landings in any of the following situations:

1.    Landings at the destination airport when a Destination Airport Analysis is required by part 135, § 135.385(f); and

2.    In any of the following conditions:

·    The prevailing visibility for the airport is at or below 3/4 mile;

·    The Runway Visual Range (RVR) for the runway to be used is at or below 4,000 feet;

·    The runway to be used has water, snow, slush, ice, or similar contamination that may adversely affect aircraft performance;

·    The braking action on the runway to be used is reported to be less than “good”;

·    The crosswind component for the runway to be used is in excess of 15 knots;

·    Wind shear is reported in the vicinity of the airport; and

·    Any other condition in which the PIC determines it to be prudent to exercise the PIC’s authority.

d)    Crew Pairing. Either the PIC or the SIC must have at least 75 hours of flight time in that aircraft make or model and, if a type rating is required for that type aircraft, either as PIC or SIC.

D.    Deviations. The Administrator may authorize deviations from the total flight time requirements of § 91.1053(a)(1) or crew pairing requirements of § 91.1055(b) if the FAA office that issued the OpSpecs  or MSpecs , as applicable, finds that the crewmember has comparable experience, and can effectively perform the functions associated with the position in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. The Administrator may, at any time, terminate any grant of deviation authority issued under this provision. Grants of deviation may be authorized after consideration of the size and scope of the operation, the qualifications of the intended operating pilots and the following circumstances:

1)    A newly authorized certificate holder does not employ any pilots who meet the minimum requirements of § 91.1055(b).
2)    An existing certificate holder adds to its fleet a new category and class aircraft not used before in its operation.
3)    An existing certificate holder establishes a new base to which it assigns pilots who will be required to become qualified on the aircraft operated from that base.

E.    Destination Airport Analysis Program (DAAP) Requirements. DAAP requirements are found in part 91, § 91.1025 and part 135, § 135.23. Specifically, if required by § 91.1037(c) or § 135.385, as applicable, the Destination Airport Analysis establishing runway safety margins must include the following elements, supported by aircraft performance data supplied by the aircraft manufacturer for the appropriate runway conditions at the airport(s) to be used, if a reduction below 60 percent of the available runway length is planned:

1)    Pilot Qualifications and Experience. The operator is responsible for including all applicable regulatory requirements to establish a pilot’s eligibility to reduce effective runway planning requirements below 60 percent of the available runway length. Experience requirements address pilots with less than 100 hours’ flight time in type (high minimum), total flight time, and crew pairing limitations (less than 75 hours in type).
2)    Aircraft Performance Data to Include Normal, Abnormal, and Emergency Procedures as Supplied by the Aircraft Manufacturer. Landing distance calculations should be completed using FAA‑approved procedures and data. Consideration must be given to abnormal and emergency procedures, as some of these procedures may increase approach speeds and consequently, landing distance requirements. Additionally, planned takeoff weight for the departure from that airport should be evaluated before operating into that airport.
3)    Airport Facilities and Topography. Consider what services are available at the airport. Services such as communications, maintenance, and fueling may have an impact on operations to and from that airport. Terrain features may Figure prominently in or near a particular airport. High, fast rising terrain may require special approach or departure procedures (DP), which may impact performance requirements. For example, an aircraft certification criterion uses a 3.5 degree glideslope angle in computing landing distance data. Glideslope angles of 2.5 to 3 degrees are common and have the effect of lengthening actual landing distance. Airports that sit on top of hilly terrain or downwind of mountainous terrain may occasionally experience conditions that include gusty conditions or winds shifting from a headwind to a tailwind. Such conditions are an important consideration during the landing maneuver, particularly during the flare, and increase landing distance requirements.
4)    Runway Conditions (including contamination). Runway features, such as slope and surface composition, can cause the actual landing distance to be longer than the calculated landing distance. Wet or slippery runways may preclude reductions from being taken and, in fact, require 115 percent of the distance derived from calculations, whether a reduction was used or not. This distance is calculated by increasing the distance required under dry conditions by an additional 15 percent (i.e., if Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) data show the actual landing distance will be 2,000 feet, the effective runway length required is 3,334 feet using 60 percent in this example. If the runway is expected to be wet or slippery upon arrival, the effective runway length required is 3,834 feet). Braking action always impacts the landing distance required as it deteriorates. Always consider the most current braking action report and the likelihood of an update prior to the flight’s arrival at a particular airport.
5)    Airport or Area Weather Reporting. Some airports may not have current weather reports and forecasts available for flight planning. Others may have automated observations for operational use. Still others may depend on a nearby airport’s forecast for operations. Area forecasts are also very valuable in evaluating weather conditions for a particular operation. Comparing forecasted conditions to current conditions will lend insight to changes taking place as weather systems move and forecasts are updated. Longer flight segments may lean more heavily on the forecast for the estimated time of arrival (ETA), as current conditions may change significantly as weather systems move. For example, if a flight is planned for 5 hours en route, the current conditions may not provide as much insight as a forecast for the arrival time, if a cold front is expected to pass through the area while a flight is en route.
6)    Appropriate Additional Runway Safety Margins, If Required. Displaced thresholds, airport construction, and temporary obstacles (such as cranes and drawbridges) may impact runway length available for landing. Notices to Airmen (NOTAMS) must be consulted before conducting a flight, and are a good source of information on items such as these.
7)    Airplane Inoperative Equipment. Thrust reversers, on airplanes so equipped, provide some effect of reducing landing rollout distance. However, they are not considered in landing distance performance requirements and data provided by airplane manufacturers during certification. Rather, they provide an added margin of safety when used. If thrust reversers are inoperable or not installed, that additional safety margin does not exist. Also, their effectiveness is directly related to many factors, including pilot technique, reverser deployment rates, engine speeds, and environmental conditions (e.g., wet or contaminated runways in conjunction with crosswinds). Their actual effectiveness varies greatly. Other airplane systems that directly impact landing distance requirements include antiskid and ground spoilers (if installed), brake and tire condition, and landing flap selection, to name a few.
8)    Environmental Conditions. Many environmental conditions directly and indirectly affect actual landing distance requirements. Frontal passage usually causes winds to shift, sometimes causing a tailwind component. Tailwinds generally have a significantly greater impact on landing distance than headwinds. Thunderstorms in the vicinity of airports can introduce wind gusts from different directions, including wind shear, to varying degrees that are difficult to predict in advance or during the actual landing maneuver itself. Density and pressure altitudes also directly impact landing distance requirements. Landing distance tables may take these factors into account. However, variations from planned conditions and actual conditions at time of landing can vary and impact actual landing distance requirements. Stronger than forecasted tailwinds en route can cause the airplane to weigh more than projected, causing the actual landing distance to be longer than planned. If icing conditions were encountered while en route and temperatures above freezing are not reached before landing, any ice remaining behind removal devices or on areas that are not protected add additional weight and drag to the airplane, which in turn requires higher airspeeds and longer landing distances.
9)    Other Criteria That Affect Aircraft Performance. Many other variables affect landing distance. Approach speed, flap configuration, airplane weight, tire and brake condition, airplane equipment, and environmental conditions, to name a few, all directly impact required landing distance. With these and many other factors considered, it is the pilot who must apply them through the use of procedures and technique, the latter being highly variable. While specific additives are provided by manufacturer’s landing data, a pilot usually applies techniques acquired through experience in dealing with similar circumstances. Pilots may opt for an especially smooth landing on longer runways by “floating” in ground effect, before touchdown. While possibly yielding a smooth landing, this technique will add to the landing distance requirement, as landing data provided by manufacturer’s data through the certification process assumes a touchdown rate of descent of 8 feet per second. The following tables provide additional insight into factors that affect landing distance requirements and policies and procedures addressing them should be included in the operator’s FAA‑approved DAAP.

Table 3-16, Reduction of Landing Distance Planning Requirements

GENERAL OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

Certification Criteria

Operational Consideration

Effect on Safety Margin

3.5 degree glideslope angle.

2.5 to 3 degrees typical.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

8 ft./sec touchdown rate of descent.

2 to 4 ft./sec typical.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

Assumes all approach speed additives bled off before reaching the 50-foot height.

5 to 10 knots exceedances not uncommon.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Longer flare distance (“float”).

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Less than full braking effort.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Delays in obtaining full braking configuration.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Higher temperatures not accounted for (temperature accountability not required).

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Downhill runway slope not accounted for (runway slope accountability not required).

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Icy, slippery, or contaminated runway surface.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Airplane heavier at time of landing than predicted at time of dispatch.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Airplane higher than 50 feet over the threshold.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Airport pressure altitude higher than predicted at time of dispatch.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

OTHER VARIABLE CONSIDERATIONS

Steady-State Variables

Non Steady-State Variables

Actual Operations vs. Flight Test

Actual vs. Forecast Conditions

Runway slope

Wind gusts/turbulence

Flare technique

Runway or direction (affecting slope)

Temperature

Flight path deviations

Time to activate deceleration devices

Airplane weight

Runway surface condition (dry, wet, icy, texture)

 

Flight path angle

Approach speed

Brake/tire condition

 

Rate of descent at touch down

Environmental conditions (for example, temperature, wind, pressure altitude)

Speed additives

 

Approach/touchdown speed

Engine failure

Crosswinds

 

Height at threshold

 

 

 

Speed control

 

F.    Operator Responsibility. Operators are responsible for preparing their Destination Airport Analysis program if they desire to reduce landing distance planning requirements below 60 percent of the effective runway length. Operators must ensure that their policies and procedures reflect at least minimum regulatory requ<a href="javascript:openPage('/WDocs/8900.1/V04 AC Equip & Auth/Chapter 08/04_008_001.htm','Section 1')">irements and adequate policies and procedures before submitting their program to the FAA for approval.

G.    Checklist. The checklist is available electronically in the guidance subsystem of the automated Operations Safety System (OPSS) in association with OpSpec/MSpec C049. The checklist should be used to ensure that the operator and its DAAP meets minimum regulatory requirements. This checklist should be completed by the operator and be provided to the FAA office having approval authority, along with the DAAP and request for approval and issuance of OpSpec C049 or MSpec C049, as applicable.

OPSPEC C050, SPECIAL PILOT IN COMMAND AIRPORT QUALIFICATIONS.

A.    General. OpSpec C050 is used to authorize 14 CFR part 121 air carrier certificate holders to conduct instrument flight rules (IFR) operations into special airports requiring special airport qualification in accordance with the provisions and limitations of the OpSpec and part 121, § 121.445. For detailed information refer to Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5, Selected Practices, paragraph 4‑602, Special Airports Requiring Special PIC Qualification.

B.    Operations into Special PIC Qualification Airports. Air carriers conducting domestic, flag, and supplemental operations require the pilot in command (PIC) to be qualified for operations into special PIC qualification airports. These PICs must be qualified in accordance with § 121.445.

1)    OpSpec C050, Special PIC Airport Qualification, is used to authorize special PIC qualification airports for domestic, flag, and supplemental part 121 air carriers.
2)    The list of Special Qualification Airports can be found in the OPSS guidance subsystem in association with OpSpec C050 and at http://www.opspecs.com.

C.    PIC Requirements. If both the ceiling and the visibility minimums are not satisfied as detailed in § 121.445(c), then the qualification requirements of § 121.445(b) apply. Section 121.445(b) specifies that for a pilot to serve as PIC on a flight to a special qualification airport, the PIC must have the benefit of one of the following:

1)    The PIC, within the preceding 12 calendar‑months, has made a takeoff and landing at that airport while serving as a pilot flight crewmember;
2)    The second in command (SIC), within the preceding 12 calendar‑months, has made a takeoff and landing at that airport while serving as a pilot flight crewmember; or
3)    Within the preceding 12 calendar‑months, the PIC has qualified by using pictorial means acceptable to the Administrator for that airport.

D.    Operator Assessment of Airport Factors. The operator assesses the nature and complexity of certain factors associated with the airport (e.g., high altitude, foreign airport, specific terrain features, unique weather patterns may be present singly or in combination). This assessment determines whether the airport should be included in the air carrier’s airport listing in OpSpec paragraph C067, Special Airports or the provisions of OpSpec C050, Special PIC Qualification Airports apply. For instance, an airport with an approved IFR and or visual flight rules (VFR) approach/departure procedure and an unusual characteristic such as a nearby politically sensitive international boundary, or high terrain may require designation as a special PIC qualification airport. In this case, the airport would need to be listed in OpSpec C067 and the provisions of OpSpec C050 also apply. Refer to Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5, paragraph 4‑602, and OpSpec C067 in this section.

E.    Addition and Removal From the Special Airport Qualification List. The air carriers, in conjunction with the Air Transportation Division, AFS‑200, will determine any airport additions or deletions from the Special Airport Qualification list. These changes will be made on a quarterly basis.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C051, TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES. C051 is issued to all airplane operators who conduct any flight operations under instrument flight rules. FAA Order 8260.31B, Foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures, provides direction and guidance on acceptance of foreign terminal instrument procedures. Additional information concerning terminal instrument procedures is in Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 3, Factors Affecting All Weather Terminal Area (AWTA) Operations. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec H101.

OPSPEC/MSPEC/LOA C052—BASIC INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE AUTHORIZATIONS—ALL AIRPORTS.

A.    Applicability. OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 applies to operators conducting operations under 14 CFR parts 91K, 121, 125 (including those operators conducting operations under a part 125 Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA)), and 135. OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 specifies the types of instrument approaches the operator is authorized to conduct under instrument flight rules (IFR) and prohibits the use of other types of instrument approaches.

1)    Before authorizing a type of instrument approach procedure (IAP), the principal operations inspector (POI) must ensure the operator has established the aircraft system eligibility and the flightcrew training and checking requirements, and has revised the training and operations manuals, as applicable, for the types of approaches to be authorized.
2)    Refer to Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 1, Introduction to and Evolution of All Weather Terminal Area Operations, for information on required training for various types of approaches.
3)    All the approaches approved by OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 must be published in accordance with 14 CFR part 97 or the foreign state authority.
4)    For 14 CFR part 135 operations, if the visibility and ceiling are below minimums, the reported Runway Visual Range (RVR) may be used if that RVR is at or above the minimums for the instrument procedure being used and authorized for that certificate holder.

B.    Authorization. Three types of IAPs may be authorized in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. (If the certificate holder/program manager/operator is authorized to conduct global positioning system (GPS) and/or GPS wide area augmentation system (WAAS) instrument approach operations using the approved GPS and/or GPS WAAS equipment with “…. or GPS”, GPS, or Area Navigation (RNAV) (GPS) or RNAV Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) listed in table 1 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052, the aircraft and equipment must be listed in table 1 of paragraph/LOA B034.)

1)    Column one of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 provides for the authorization of nonprecision IAPs without vertical guidance. Nonprecision approaches must be trained and conducted in accordance with an approved procedure that ensures descent will not go below minimum descent altitude (MDA), unless the required visual references for continuing the approach, as specified in 14 CFR part 91, § 91.175, are present.
2)    Column two of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 provides for the authorization of approach procedures with vertical guidance (APV). These approaches provide vertical guidance, but do not meet the same standards as precision approach systems (e.g., instrument landing systems (ILS) and microwave landing systems (MLS)) as defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). These APVs are trained using an approved method that allows descent to a published decision altitude. The column heading agrees with the ICAO acronym, APV.
3)    Column three of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 provides for the authorization of precision APVs from an electronic glideslope.
4)    “*RNAV ILS” is a selectable for column 3 in table 1 of the C052 template. For example, the United Arab Emirates publishes approach plates for Dubai titled, “RNAV ILS” or “ILS RNAV.” The RNAV portion of the approach constitutes an RNAV standard terminal arrival route (STAR) which must be authorized through the issuance of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063, in accordance with guidance for RNAV departure procedures and RNAV STARs.

C.    Global Positioning System and GPS Wide Area Augmentation System Authorization. Volume 4, Chapter 1, Section 2, Air Navigation Approval Requirements, paragraphs 4‑31 and 4‑32, provide more extensive guidance on GPS and GPS WAAS equipment. The applicant must show that it has the ability to safely conduct GPS operations. The demonstration of GPS (using equipment certified under Technical Standard Order (TSO) C129a) and/or GPS WAAS (using equipment certified under TSO C145a/C146a) instrument approaches may be credited for other equivalent types of required approaches (e.g., nonprecision approaches). Foreign approach procedures may be labeled as “RNAV (GNSS)” (instead of “RNAV (GPS)”) which is provided as a selectable in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052.

1)    For the certificate holder/program manager/operator using aircraft other than those equipped with a multisensor flight management system (FMS), the flightcrew must have successfully completed the certificate holder’s/program manager’s/operator’s (approved-See subparagraph C5)h) below) training program curriculum segments for GPS and/or GPS WAAS operations, as applicable, and the pilot in command (PIC) and the second in command (SIC) must be checked for competency by an authorized check airman or FAA inspector for instrument approach operations using the GPS in each aircraft type and GPS combination. (Single-pilot operators conducting operations under part 135 and issued OpSpec A040 that do not have an approved training program must be checked for competency by an FAA inspector for instrument approach operations using GPS/GPS WAAS, as applicable, in each aircraft type and GPS combination.)
2)    For operators whose aircraft are equipped with multisensor FMS RNAV systems that include a GPS/GPS WAAS sensor, the requirement to demonstrate a GPS approach during initial qualification checks as described below does not apply (although an inspector or check airman always has the authority to see one demonstrated).
3)    Operators with various types of stand-alone IFR GPS navigation equipment and databases (other than aircraft equipped with a multisensor FMS) are required to demonstrate a GPS approach during initial qualification checks and should continue to be checked to ensure continued proficiency and understanding of the applicable GPS navigation equipment and database performance, limitations and procedures.
a)    During the initial 6 months of operation with a particular aircraft type and GPS combination, the certificate holder/program manager/operator must not use IFR approach and landing minimums lower than 200 feet and 1/2 statute mile above the lowest authorized MDA and visibility/RVR minimums using GPS or GPS WAAS, as applicable.
b)    The demonstration of any other nonprecision approaches may not be credited toward the authorization requirement to demonstrate at least one nonprecision approach utilizing GPS and/or GPS WAAS equipment during the competency check required by part 135, § 135.297 and the proficiency check required by part 121, § 121.441(a)(1), and part 125, § 125.291.
4)    Pilots may plan to use any instrument approach authorized for use with WAAS avionics at a required alternate if the aircraft is equipped with GPS WAAS equipment certified in accordance with TSO C145a/C146a. When using WAAS at an alternate airport, flight planning must be based on flying the RNAV (GPS) lateral navigation (LNAV) minimums line, or minimums on a GPS approach procedure, or conventional approach procedure with “or GPS” in the title. Upon arrival at an alternate, when the WAAS navigation system indicates that LNAV/vertical navigation (VNAV) or localizer performance with vertical guidance service is available, vertical guidance may be used to complete the approach using the displayed level of service. The FAA has begun removing the NA (alternate minimums not authorized) symbol from select RNAV (GPS) and GPS approach procedures so they may be used by approach approved WAAS receivers at alternate airports. Some approach procedures will still require the NA for other reasons (e.g., no weather reporting); therefore, it cannot be removed from all procedures. Because every procedure must be individually evaluated, removal of NA from RNAV (GPS) and GPS procedures will take some time.
5)    Regarding application for approval to conduct GPS and/or GPS WAAS IFR operations:
a)    The operator must apply in accordance with Volume 3, Chapter 29, Proving and Validation Tests; revise its manuals, procedures, and checklists; and alter the flight training curriculums to include segments on GPS operations.
b)    The discussion in the following paragraphs provides specific direction and guidance related to GPS/GPS WAAS and is to be used in conjunction with existing area/long range navigation guidance and instrument approach guidance contained in Volume 4, Chapter 1, Air Navigation, Communications, and Surveillance. The operator’s authorizations must specify these conditions.
c)    The application must also provide documentation which validates approval of the installed GPS airborne receiver in accordance with current editions of Advisory Circular (AC) 20‑138, Airworthiness Approval of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Equipment; and AC 20‑130, Airworthiness Approval of Navigation or Flight Management Systems Integrating Multiple Navigation Sensors.
6)    When it has been established that the airborne system has been certified for the appropriate GPS IFR operations, the following criteria should be used to determine the operational suitability of airborne systems for GPS/GPS WAAS IFR operations in flight operations:
a)    The operator must ensure that the equipment is properly installed and maintained. No special requirements, other than the standard practices currently applicable to navigation or landing systems, have been identified as unique to GPS/GPS WAAS (Airworthiness Directives, Service Bulletins, etc.).
b)    The operator’s manuals, policies, and procedures as described in Volume 3, Chapter 32, Manuals, Procedures, and Checklists for 14 CFR Parts 91K, 121, 125, and 135, must incorporate the manufacturer’s instructions for continuing airworthiness of the applicable GPS system.
c)    Operators should revise their minimum equipment list and operations and maintenance procedures to incorporate the installed GPS/GPS WAAS equipment.
d)    Operators that conduct operations under parts 121 and 135 must ensure that service difficulties are reported in accordance with approved procedures under parts 121 and 135. Operators conducting operations under part 125 must include GPS service difficulty reporting procedures in the manual required by part 125, § 125.73(f).
e)    The applicant must document the proposed pilot training and qualification program. This program must at least address the following training and qualification requirements:

1.    Crew training and qualification for GPS instrument approach operations should be consistent with the qualifications required for the use of ILS, VHF omnidirectional range station/distance measuring equipment (VOR/DME), RNAV, and multisensor RNAV FMS in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Training Programs and Airman Qualifications; AC 120‑53, Crew Qualification and Pilot Type Rating Requirements for Transport Category Aircraft Operated under FAR Part 121; 14 CFR parts 61, 91, 121, 125, 129, and 135; and Advanced Qualification Program requirements, if applicable. Although these standards do not specifically address GPS/GPS WAAS systems, the principles are equivalent and these criteria can be used to evaluate crew knowledge, procedures, checking, and recency of experience until other criteria are available. No special crew qualification requirements, other than those necessary for RNAV and ILS instrument approach qualification are currently specified for GPS/GPS WAAS operations.

2.    Ground training must assure that each flight crewmember has the knowledge required for the GPS/GPS WAAS procedures to be flown. Operators must successfully complete the approved (for parts 91K, 121, and 135 operators) training curriculum segment for GPS/GPS WAAS operations, as applicable. The ground training should include at least the following subjects:

·    The principals of GPS and/or GPS WAAS, as applicable, navigation;

·    Hardware operation and integration with other navigation equipment;

·    Software use including updating;

·    Human factors issues (e.g., displays, charts, and approach plates);

·    The limitations of the GPS/GPS WAAS, as applicable, equipment; and

·    The specific operating techniques and procedures to be used with the applicable GPS/GPS WAAS equipment, including maintenance and dispatch procedures, and the contents of the operator’s authorizations.

f)    Initial qualification, recurrent qualification, and requalification flight training must ensure that each flight crewmember has the skills and abilities necessary to safely conduct the proposed operations. Flight crewmembers must successfully complete that operator’s approved (for parts 121, 135, and 91K operators) flight training program for GPS/GPS WAAS. Operators conducting operations under part 125 (including those conducting operations under a LODA) must show they have completed the required training for the applicable equipment.
g)    The operator must provide written procedures which are specific for its GPS and/or GPS WAAS operations, as applicable. The procedures must be consistent with manufacturer’s recommended procedures for the use of the installed GPS/GPS WAAS equipment.
h)    The operator must provide a validation program that ensures the GPS/GPS WAAS airborne system is operationally accurate and reliable.
i)    The operator must incorporate into its maintenance program the GPS/GPS WAAS manufacturer’s requirements for maintenance and Instructions for Continued Airworthiness.

D.    Barometric Vertical Navigation (baro‑VNAV). Approach systems utilizing baro‑VNAV may be used to fly APVs to the LNAV/VNAV line of minimums. The use of baro‑VNAV to fly APVs may be authorized for all applicable certificate holders and operators in accordance with Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 5, All-Weather Terminal Area Approach and Landing Operations, paragraphs 4‑291F and 4‑293C.

1)    Air Carrier Aircraft/Commercial Operator Approval. Once an operator that conducts operations under parts 121, 125, 135, or 91K, has established the aircraft system eligibility, the flightcrew training and checking requirements, and has revised the training, maintenance, and operations manuals, as applicable; the POI may give approval using this RNAV equipment to fly to the LNAV/VNAV DA as shown on the published IAPs.
2)    To authorize approach procedures with vertical guidance, select “RNAV (GPS)” (for part 97 approaches) or “RNAV (GNSS)” (for foreign approaches) for insertion into column two of the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 template.

E.    Precision Runway Monitoring (PRM). The FAA began the Multiple Parallel Approach Program to research whether ILS approaches to parallel runways would improve capacity. The objective was to achieve improvements in airport arrival rates through the conduct of simultaneous, closely spaced parallel approaches. That objective is being met using PRM.

1)    ILS/PRM and Localizer-Type Directional Aid (LDA)/PRM Approaches. Where parallel runway centerlines are 4,300 feet apart or less, but no less than 3,000 feet, simultaneous ILS approaches may be conducted. Similarly, where parallel runway centerlines are 3,000 feet apart or less, but no less than 750 feet, simultaneous offset instrument approaches (SOIA) may be conducted with ILS approaches. Those approaches are labeled “ILS/PRM” and “LDA/PRM,” respectively, on instrument approach charts. Air traffic control (ATC) provides an air traffic controller using special PRM radar during these approaches. That controller is known as the final monitor controller.
2)    The Breakout Maneuver. Working with industry, the FAA conducted extensive analysis of simulation data and determined that the implementation of PRM and SOIA approach operations to closely spaced parallel runways requires additional crew training. The primary focus of this training is to raise each pilot’s situational awareness in ILS/PRM and LDA/PRM operations. The breakout maneuver must be flown manually.
a)    Traffic Alert. One important element of the additional training is the pilot’s understanding of the difference between a normal missed approach initiated by a pilot, and a breakout initiated by a PRM final monitor controller. It must be clear to flightcrews that the words “Traffic Alert,” when used by the final monitor controller, signal critical instructions that the pilot must act on promptly to preserve adequate separation from an airplane straying into the adjoining approach path.
b)    ATC Breakout Maneuver Command to Turn and/or Descend, Climb, or Maintain Altitude. The flightcrew must immediately follow the final monitor controller’s vertical (climb/descend/maintain altitude) and horizontal (turn) commands. If the flightcrew is operating the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) in the traffic advisory (TA)/resolution advisory (RA) mode and receives a TCAS RA at any time while following the final monitor controller’s command, the flightcrew will simultaneously continue to turn to the controller’s assigned heading and follow the vertical guidance provided by the TCAS RA.
c)    Time‑to‑Turn Standard. Regardless of airplane type, tests and data analysis revealed that pilots normally passed through an angle of bank of at least 3 degrees while rolling into a breakout turn, within 10 seconds of receiving a breakout command. (Bank angles of between 20 and 30 degrees were normally achieved during the breakout.) The operator must show that its pilots can readily meets this time-to-initiate-turn standard prior to the POI authorizing ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM approaches in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. Flightcrews are required to manually fly the breakout maneuver unless otherwise approved by AFS‑200 (AFS‑200 must have concurrence from Flight Technologies and Procedures Division, AFS‑400 to approve breakout in auto modes). The air carrier should demonstrate its ability to meet this standard by having representative pilots perform the breakout maneuver while the POI or the POI’s designated representative observes. The demonstration should conform to procedures contained in the air carrier’s approved operating manual for its flightcrews. The commercial operator should submit procedures to its POI for this authorization.

NOTE:  In a breakout, ATC will never command a descent below the applicable minimum vector altitude, thus assuring that no flight will be commanded to descend below 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle during a breakout.

3)    ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM, and the Use of TCAS. TCAS may be operated in TA/RA mode while executing ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM approaches. However, when conducting these operations, pilots must understand that the final monitor controller’s instruction to turn is the primary means for ensuring safe separation from another airplane. Pilots must bear in mind that TCAS does not provide separation in the horizontal plane; TCAS accomplishes separation by commands solely in the vertical plane. Therefore, during final approach only the final monitor controller has the capability to command a turn for lateral separation. Flightcrews are expected to follow any ATC instruction to turn.
a)    ATC Command to Turn with TCAS RA. In the unlikely event that a flightcrew should simultaneously receive a final monitor controller’s command to turn and a TCAS RA, the flightcrew must follow both the final monitor controller’s turn command and the TCAS RA’s climb or descent command.
b)    TCAS RA Alone. In the extremely unlikely event that an RA occurs without a concurrent breakout instruction from the final monitor controller, the pilot should follow the RA and advise the controller of the action taken as soon as possible. In this instance, it is likely that a breakout command would follow.
c)    TCAS Not Required. An operative TCAS is not required to conduct ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM approaches.
4)    Pilot Training. Refer to Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 5, paragraph 4‑293C for information on pilot training required prior to authorizing PRM approaches.
5)    ILS/PRM and LDA/PRM Authorizations. Operators will be authorized ILS/PRM and/or LDA/PRM approaches in the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 templates. Definitions of ILS/PRM and LDA/PRM have been added to the A002 template.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C053, STRAIGHT-IN CATEGORY I APPROACH PROCEDURES OTHER THAN ILS, MLS, OR GPS AND IFR LANDING MINIMUMS—ALL AIRPORTS. C053 specifies the lowest minimums that can be used for Category (CAT) I nonprecision approach procedures other than instrument landing system (ILS), microwave landing system (MLS), or global positioning system (GPS) and instrument flight rules (IFR) landing minimums at all airports it also provides special limitations and provisions for these instrument approach procedures at foreign airports. “Category I Approach Procedures and IFR Landing Minimums All Airports,” (original title) was revised as follows:

A.    Straight-In CAT I Precision Approach Procedures. C074 authorizes straight‑in CAT I precision approach procedures and IFR landing minimums at all airports; C075, authorizes circling maneuvers; and C076, authorizes contact approaches. See Volume 4, Chapter 2, All‑Weather Terminal Area Operations for information on required training for circling maneuvers and contact approaches.

B.    CAT I Nonprecision Approaches. The previous nonprecision approach table now refers to CAT I nonprecision approaches as “approaches other than ILS, MLS, or GPS Landing System (GLS).”

C.    Helicopter Authorization. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec/MSpec H103.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C054, SPECIAL LIMITATIONS AND PROVISIONS FOR INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES AND IFR LANDING MINIMUMS.

A.    General. C054 is issued to all operators conducting operations under 14 CFR part 121. It is also issued to operators who conduct turbine powered airplane operations under parts 91K and 135. It is not issued to part 135 operators who do not operate turbine‑powered airplanes unless that operator also conducts operations under part 121. C054 specifies the Runway Visual Range (RVR) landing minimum equivalent to the published RVR landing minimum which must be used by high minimum pilots (less than 100  hours in aircraft type). It also specifies that before a PIC of a turbojet can conduct an instrument approach with visibility conditions reported to be below 3/4 mile or RVR 4,000 (basic turbojet landing minimums), the pilot must be specifically qualified and authorized to use standard landing minimums. See Volume 4, Chapter 2, All-Weather Terminal Area Operations for information on the qualification and authorization requirements to use the standard landing minimums.

B.    RVR 3,000 and RVR 5,000 for High‑Minimum Pilots. RVR 3,000 and its correlation of RVR 5,000 for high‑minimum pilots was added to the RVR landing minimum table to recognize the medium intensity approach lighting system with runway alignment indicator lights/simplified short approach lighting system visibility credit given in C053.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C055, ALTERNATE AIRPORT IFR WEATHER MINIMUMS. C055 is issued to all 14 CFR parts 121 and 135 operators, and part 91K program managers who conduct instrument flight rules (IFR) operations with airplanes. This paragraph provides a two‑part table from which the operator, during the initial dispatch or flight release planning segment of a flight, derives alternate airport IFR weather minimums in those cases where it has been determined that an alternate airport is required.

A.    Airports With At Least One Operational Navigation Facility. The first part of the table is for airports with at least one operational navigation facility providing a straight‑in nonprecision approach procedure, or a straight‑in precision approach procedure, or, when applicable, a circling maneuver from an instrument approach procedure (IAP). The required ceiling and visibility is obtained by adding 400 feet to the category (CAT) I height above touchdown (HAT) or, when applicable, the authorized height above airport (HAA) and by adding 1 statute mile to the authorized CAT I landing minimum.

B.    Airports With At Least Two Operational Navigation Facility. The second part of the table is for airports with at least two operational navigation facilities, each providing a straight in nonprecision approach procedure or a straight in precision approach procedure to different suitable runways. The required ceiling and visibility is obtained by adding 200 feet to the higher CAT I HAT of the two approaches used and by adding 1/2 statute mile visibility to the higher authorized CAT I landing minimum of the two approaches used.

C.    Higher Alternate Minimums When Using Two Operational Navigation Facilities. In some cases, it is possible to have higher alternate minimums when using two operational navigation facilities than when using one. For example, an airport with one straight‑in nonprecision approach procedure with a HAT of 400 feet and 1 statute mile visibility would have alternate minimums of 800 feet and 2 statute mile visibility (400 feet + 400 feet and 1 statute mile + 1 statute mile). On the other hand, an airport with two straight‑in approaches, one a straight‑in precision approach with a HAT of 200 feet and 1/2 statute mile visibility and the other a straight‑in nonprecision approach with a HAT of 700 feet and 1 statute mile visibility, would have alternate minimums of 900 feet and 1 1/2 statute mile visibility (200 feet + 700 feet and 1/2 statute mile + 1 statute mile). Since the operations specifications require that the higher ceiling and visibility be used, the minimums for the airport with two straight‑in approaches are higher than for the airport with only one straight‑in approach. When this situation exists, the operator may elect to consider the airport as having only one straight‑in approach procedure and may add the higher buffer requirement (400 feet and 1 statute mile) to whichever straight‑in approach procedure provides for the lowest possible ceiling and visibility minimums.

D.    Using Two Separate Physical Runways. Except for Extended Range Operations (ER OPS), two suitable runways may be the different ends of the same physical runway surface (such as, runway 4 and runway 22 are two different runways). When using an airport as an alternate in ER OPS operations in accordance with OpSpec B042, two separate physical surfaces must be used. The word suitable is defined in the latest version of Advisory Circular (AC) 120‑42, Extended Range Operation with Two Engine Airplanes (ETOPS).

E.    Credit for Alternate Minimums. OpSpec/MSpec C055 (see revision history in the OPSS guidance subsystem) now allows credit for alternate minimums based on CAT II or CAT III capability. This change is located in the Alternate Airport Table in row 3. Flightcrews having that capability may take credit for CAT II/III qualified aircraft and adjust minimums accordingly. The alternate minimums are based on CAT III engine inoperative requirements. The following are some but not all of those requirements. See criteria in AC 120‑28, current edition, for further engine inoperative requirements.

1)    Aircraft is capable of engine inoperative CAT III.
2)    Appropriate procedures are established.
3)    Performance and obstruction clearance information is provided to the flightcrew.
4)    Appropriate aircraft configuration, wind limits, and other appropriate information is provided to the flightcrew.

F.    Definition of “Two Operational Facilities”. Question: “Does the FAA consider an ILS facility that contains a single transmitter frequency for an ILS, but with two different ILS identifications (depending on which runway is being used) as one or two navigational facilities?”

1)    The words “two operational facilities” have always meant that in the event there is a single failure of one facility, the other would be operational. In the situation where both instrument landing system (ILS) facilities share a single transmitter, it would be considered “one operational navigational facility,” because both ILSs would become inoperative in the event of a single transmitter failure.
2)    The two ILS identifiers would have to be different even though the ILS transmitter frequency is the same for both. The charts should tell pilots whether there is one frequency or two. Thus, one or two navigational facilities.

G.    Helicopter Authorizations. For helicopter authorizations, see OpSpec/MSpec H105.

OPSPEC C056, IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS, part 121 OPERATIONS—ALL AIRPORTS. C056 is issued to all operators who conduct operations under 14 CFR part 121.

A.    General. C056 did not change in policy but was split into two paragraphs for programming purposes in the new OPSS: C056, IFR Standard Takeoff Minimums, 14 CFR Part 121 (125) Airplane Operations All Airports and C078, IFR Lower Than Standard Takeoff Minimums, 14 CFR Part 121 (125) Airplane Operations All Airports.

B.    Using Lower Than Standard Takeoff Minimums. If an operator is not authorized to use lower than standard takeoff minimums, C078 will not be issued. See Volume 4, Chapter 2, All‑Weather Terminal Area Operations for information concerning requirements an operator must meet before being authorized to use lower than standard takeoff minimums. If an operator conducts operations under both parts 121 and 135, C056 and C057 may need to be issued. For more information, see the following:

·    part 121, § 121.649.

·    part 121, § 121.651(a)(1).

·    part 91, § 91.175(f).

·    Volume 4, Chapter 2, All‑Weather Terminal Area Operations.

·    Flight Standardization Board (FSB) Report for specific aircraft.

C.    Availability to part 91K Program Managers. This is not available or applicable to part 91K program managers. See part 91, § 91.1039(e).

OPSPEC C057, IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS, part 135 OPERATIONS—ALL AIRPORTS. C057 is issued to all 14 CFR part 135 operators who conduct instrument flight rules (IFR) airplane operations to authorize an operator to use takeoff minimums equal to the lowest straight‑in landing minimums (part 135, § 135.225(h)).

A.    Issuance for Conducting IFR Standard Takeoff Minimums. C057 is issued for conducting IFR standard takeoff minimums, which are defined as 1 statute mile visibility or Runway Visual Range (RVR) 5,000 for airplanes having two engines or fewer, and 1/2 statute mile visibility or RVR 2,400 for airplanes having more than two engines. RVR reports, when available for a particular runway, must be used for all takeoff operations on that runway. All takeoff operations, based on RVR, must use RVR reports from the locations along the runway specified in this paragraph.

B.    Single Engine IFR Authorization. The principal operations inspector (POI), principal maintenance inspector (PMI), and principal avionics inspector (PAI) must coordinate the issuance of OpSpec A046, Single Engine IFR (SEIFR), C057, and D071, Additional Maintenance Requirements, once the operator has met the requirements for SEIFR operations. All three OpSpec paragraphs must be issued for SEIFR authorization.

1)    OpSpec A046, Single Engine IFR (SEIFR) Passenger Carrying Operations under 14 CFR Part 135, contains specific maintenance and operational limitations and provisions necessary for authority to operate under IFR while carrying passengers in a single engine airplane.
2)    The standard OpSpec paragraph C079, 14 CFR Part 135 Operations Lower Than Standard Takeoff Minimums, is not authorized for SEIFR operations. SEIFR part 135 passenger‑carrying operations are not authorized lower than standard takeoff minimums at any airport without concurrence and authorization from FAA headquarters. Thus, for SEIFR operations there is no automatic relief from the requirements of § 135.225(e).
3)    OpSpec D071, Additional Maintenance Requirements, contains requirements for airplanes operated in SEIFR operations.

C.    Subparagraph Selectable for Issuance of C057. The following subparagraph is selectable for issuance in C057, if applicable:

 “c. When takeoff minimums are equal to or less than the applicable standard takeoff minimum, the certificate holder is authorized to use a takeoff minimum equal to the lowest authorized straight in CAT I IFR landing minimum applicable to the certificate holder for that particular airport. The Touchdown Zone RVR report, if available, is controlling.”

D.    Subparagraph Selectable for Issuance of C057 for Turbine-Powered Single-Engine Airplanes. The following subparagraph is selectable for issuance in C057 for turbine‑powered, single‑engine airplanes only:

“d. Notwithstanding the requirements of the “NOTE” in subparagraph b above, the certificate holder is authorized lower than standard takeoff minimums for its part 135 single‑engine passenger carrying operations in its turbine‑powered single‑engine airplanes only per the limitations and provisions of C057 including subparagraph c.”

E.    Authorizing Part 135 Operators to Use Takeoff Minimums Lower Than 1/2 Mile or RVR 1,800. OpSpec C079 is applicable for authorizing the part 135 operator to use takeoff minimums lower than 1/2 mile or RVR 1,800. See AC 120‑29, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minimums for Approach (current edition), for information concerning requirements an operator must meet before being authorized to use lower than standard takeoff minimums.

F.    Other Applicability and Authorizations. C057 is not applicable nor available for part 91K program managers. See § 91.1039(e). For helicopter authorizations, see OpSpecs  H106 and H116.

OPSPEC C058, SPECIAL RESTRICTIONS FOR FOREIGN TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES.

A.    General. C058 is issued only when the principal operations inspector (POI) (or region responsible for the geographic area where a foreign airport is located) finds it necessary to place special restrictions on a foreign terminal instrument procedure.

B.    Purpose and Applicability of Restrictions. These special restrictions to foreign terminal instrument procedures are applicable to U.S. air carriers (14 CFR parts 121 and 135) and program managers (14 CFR part 91K). The purpose of these special restrictions is to establish an equivalency between the foreign terminal instrument procedure and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Procedures for Air Navigation Services Aircraft Operations (PANS OPS) or Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) criteria.

C.    Other Guidance. FAA Order 8260.31, Foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures, current edition, provides direction and guidance on how to place restrictions on foreign instrument procedures. This Order also contains a list of foreign terminal instrument procedures that are currently restricted. If an operator conducts flights to any airport listed in the appendices of this order, the POI must issue C058 with the name of the airport, airport identification, procedure identification, and special restrictions listed.

D.    Considerations and Procedures for Chek Lap Kok Airport. On July 6, 1998, Hong Kong’s new airport (Chek Lap Kok) opened; at the same time, Hong Kong’s old airport (Kai Tak) closed. Since there has been no revision to the appendices of Order 8260.31, we recommend removing the reference to Kai Tak airport from C058 reference the Chek Lap Kok airport. Consideration and procedures will be established for the following at the new Chek Lap Kok airport:

1)    Loss of navigation capability;
2)    Severe reduction of aircraft climb performance due to engine or aircraft system failures; and
3)    Escape paths for the above situations.

E.    Helicopter Authorization. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec/MSpec H107.

OPSPEC/MSPEC/LOA C059—CATEGORY II INSTRUMENT APPROACH AND LANDING OPERATIONS (OPTIONAL): 14 CFR PARTS 91, 121, 125, 125M, 135, AND 91K OPERATORS.

A.    General. Category (CAT) II operations are approved by issuance of OpSpec C059 to certificate holders for parts 121, 125, and 135; MSpec C059 to program managers for part 91K fractional ownership operations; and LOA C059 to operators for part 91 and 125M operations. Guidance for authorizing helicopter CAT II/III operations can be found in Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 4, Approve/Authorize Category I/Category II/Category III Operations for a 14 CFR Part 91/125 Operator.

B.    Authorization for CAT II Airplane Operations. All initial CAT II authorizations for each operator/program manager and each airplane type used by that operator/program manager require regional Flight Standards division (RFSD) review and concurrence before issuing OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059. RFSD concurrence is also required before amending OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 to include an airplane make/model/series (M/M/S) new to the operator/program manager. CAT II operations are evaluated for authorization with reference to the following:

1)    AC 120‑29, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minima for Approach, current edition.
2)    Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 4, Approve/Authorize Category I/Category II/Category III Operations for a 14 CFR Part 91/125 Operator, and Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 6, Category II Operations.
3)    Applicable lower landing minimums (LLM) maintenance program approved by the assigned avionics inspector in accordance with Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 11, Maintenance/Inspection Programs for Low Approach Landing Minimums, in coordination with the principal avionics and maintenance inspectors.

C.    Approved Airplanes. Each airplane type (M/M/S) used in CAT II operations must be listed in Table 1 of C059 and have an acceptable LLM maintenance program. The lowest decision height (DH) and lowest Runway Visual Range (RVR) authorized for each airplane type must also be specified. The example in Table 3‑17 illustrates the method for authorizing each airplane in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059.

Table 3-17, Example CAT II Approach and Landing Minimums

CAT II APPROACH AND LANDING MINIMUMS

Airplane (Make/Model/Series)

DH Not less Than

Lowest Authorized RVR

DC-9-31

100 ft.

1,600

B 727-217

100 ft.

1,600

A-300-B46505R

100 ft.

1,200

B-757-223

100 ft.

1,200

A-320-12

100 ft.

1,200

DHC-8-402

100 ft.

1,000

B-737-200

100 ft.

1,000

B-777-200ER

100 ft.

1,000

NOTE:  Refer to Table 1 in OpSpec C059.

D.    Required CAT II Airborne Equipment. The equipment required to conduct either manually or automatically flown CAT II operations is specified in Table 2 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 (see Table 3‑18 below for example) for each airplane M/M/S. The equipment required is established in accordance with the applicable regulations, the approved Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) (if applicable), and AC 120‑29. There are two acceptable methods of demonstrating that an airplane meets the technical qualifications and is eligible for CAT II operations. These acceptable methods are by approval under the type certificate (TC) or Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) holder, or an operation demonstration conducted by an operator/program manager. Type‑design approval is discussed in AC 120‑29, paragraphs 5.19 through 5.19.3, and paragraph 10.5.

1)    TC or STC Approval. The approved AFM (or Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS)) identified in the airplane type design typically contains a statement that the airborne systems and equipment meet performance requirements, a statement regarding reliability and/or redundancy, and affirmation that such systems and equipment have been demonstrated to be eligible for CAT II operations. The AFM or AFMS also may specify that certain equipment is required for airworthiness approval of the various kinds of CAT II operations. Some AFMs or AFMSs also may indicate that acceptable CAT II performance was demonstrated, both with and without certain equipment (e.g., “autothrottles w/wo”). AC 120‑29 also specifies that certain types of equipment are required for operation approval of the various kinds of CAT II operations (manual/autopilot (AP)). Therefore, the approved AFM or AFMS and AC 120‑29 must be considered in determining if the additional equipment requirement meets the criteria. The equipment must be listed (specified) in Table 2 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059. Refer to Table 3‑18.
a)    Equipment that is explicitly required by the airplane certification regulations (14 CFR parts 23 and 25), the operating regulations (parts 91K, 121, 125, and 135) and/or the approved AFM or AFMS should not be listed in Table 2 of the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA. The standard text of C059 requires that this equipment be installed and operational. The additional equipment or operational requirement that must be listed (specified) in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 is determined by crosschecking the equipment required by regulations and the approved AFM or AFMS against the equipment required by AC 120‑29 for the kinds of proposed CAT II operations.
b)    Enter into Table 3‑18 all additional equipment for the M/M/S and kind(s) of CAT II operations authorized. Include additional equipment required by any of the following:

·    AC 120‑29,

·    TC or STC,

·    AFM or AFMS, and

·    Order 8400.13, Procedures for Category I Approach Operations at 1800 RVR and Approval of Special Authorization for Category II Approach Operations on Type I ILS, current edition.

c)    If the AFM or AFMS describes acceptable performance both with and without certain items of equipment (that are not explicitly required by AC 120‑29), it must be determined how the operator/program manager intends to conduct CAT II operations and train flightcrews with those items of equipment. If the operator/program manager proposes to conduct operations both with and without certain equipment (such as autothrottle, AP), flightcrews must be trained for both situations and the equipment does not need to be listed in Table 2 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059.
2)    Operational Demonstration of Equipment Eligibility. This method is used when equipment eligibility is not stated in the AFM, the AFMS, or the Flight Standardization Board report. The operational demonstration method is only appropriate for airplanes and equipment that do not have CAT II reflected in the TC or STC. If the operational demonstration method is used:
a)    Conduct the operational demonstration as described in AC 120‑29. A part 121, 125, 129, 135 operator, or a part 91K program manager should request that its Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) provide assistance in the eligibility assessment.
b)    The operator or program manager should provide the FSDO with the aircraft make, model, and serial number; any evidence of instrument flight rules approach approval; and pertinent information from flightcrew operating procedures.
c)    If the FSDO cannot determine equipment eligibility from the provided documentation (e.g., TC, STC, or AFM), it should forward the request and supporting data through its RFSD to the appropriate Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG). The AEG will verify that the aircraft, its landing system, and equipment meet the criteria for CAT II operations, and that the system can safely fly the CAT II approach procedures. The AEG will provide written documentation (e.g., amended FSB Report or other official documentation) to verify the eligibility of that equipment.
d)    The equipment determined by an operational demonstration to be eligible and required to conduct either manually or automatically flown CAT II operations should be listed in Table 2.

E.    Specify the Kind of CAT II Operation in Table 2 of OpSpec/MSpec C059. The kind of CAT II operation (manual control using a (head-up display (HUD)) or AP) must be specified for each equipment item listed in Table 2 of OpSpec/MSpec C059. Follow the guidelines below for filling out Table 2:

·    The required airborne equipment table combines the manual (HUD) and AP columns into one column for programming purposes. The principal operations inspector (POI) will select the appropriate phrase: manual (HUD), or AP.

·    If an item of equipment is applicable to a specific airplane’s M/M/S for both manual (HUD) and AP CAT II operations, both “Manual (HUD)” and “Autopilot” can be highlighted and selected for insertion into the column.

·    List the equipment required for 1,000 RVR CAT II authorization in the “Additional Equipment and Special Provisions” column.

·    See Table 3-18 below for examples of how the items of equipment should be specified for the kind of CAT II operation.

Table 3-18, Example of CAT II Items of Equipment

KIND OF CATEGORY II OPERATION

Airplane (Make/ Model/Series)

Additional Equipment

& Special Provisions

Manual (HUD)/

Auto Pilot

B-767-219

Autoland required for 1,000 RVR

Auto Pilot

B-757-232

1. An independent FD and display for each pilot (L and R or C and R)

Auto Pilot

B-737-200

None-AFM guidance

Manual (HUD) or

Auto Pilot

ERJ-170-100LR

AFM Supplement dated 3/26/2003, 1,000 RVR not authorized

Auto Pilot

NOTE:  Refer to Table 2 in OpSpec C059

F.    Airplane Maintenance. For CAT II authorization the operator or program manager must have an approved LLM maintenance program, as described in paragraph B3) above. The maintenance program should detail a specific maintenance interval, periodic tests, and inspections required on systems and equipment used for LLM. The maintenance program should identify or contain system and equipment reliability tracking methods derived from 14 CFR part 119 requirements.

G.    Flightcrew Qualifications. A pilot in command (PIC) who has not met the requirements of §§ 91.1039(c), 121.652, 125.379, or 135.225(e) as appropriate, must use the high minimum pilot RVR landing minimum equivalents, as determined from the table in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C054. For the PIC to conduct the part 121 CAT II operations at the lower authorized minimums, he or she must have currently accumulated the hours required by § 121.652, in the aircraft type that he or she will fly for that carrier. The provision of Air Transportation Association of America (ATA) exemption 5549 for part 121 air carriers may also apply.

H.    Authorized CAT II Approach and Landing Minimums. To determine the applicable minimums for an approach, the pilot must first compare the DH shown on the 14 CFR part 97 approach chart with the operator’s lowest authorized DH for the airplane being flown. The higher minimum is applicable. Therefore, considering RVR sensor reports available, the RVR to be used for the approach is the highest RVR value in the approach chart, Table 1, or subparagraph g of the OpSpec .

I.    Authorized CAT II Approaches, Airports and Runways.

1)    If the airport and runways are approved for CAT II operations in part 97, they should not be routinely listed in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 unless the POI determines there is a need to specify a special limitation for an operator at a particular airport.
a)    Standard CAT II approaches are published as CAT II procedures in the National Aeronautical Charting Office (NACO) instrument approach procedure flight information publication. They are identified by the procedure name “ILS RWY 16C (CAT II)” and by the note in the minimums section stating “CATEGORY II ILS—SPECIAL AIRCREW & AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION REQUIRED”.
b)    Reduced-lighting CAT II approaches are published by NACO with the same identifiers as standard CAT II approaches, but they also have a note in the Procedure Notes section stating “Reduced Lighting: Requires specific OPSPEC, MSPEC, or LOA approval and use of Autoland or HUD to touchdown.”
2)    Standard CAT II. The operator may be authorized up to three different minimums for use with published part 97 approaches: 1,600 RVR, 1,200 RVR and 1,000 RVR. Allowable minimums depend on availability of RVR sensors and availability and use of required airplane equipment.
a)    Minimums of 1,600 RVR touchdown zone (TDZ) RVR only) and 1,200 RVR (TDZ and one other RVR) require the flightcrew to use an approach coupler (AP) or fly at least to DH under manual control using a HUD for flight guidance. A manually flown landing is assumed and need not be specified.
b)    Minimums of 1,000 RVR (TDZ RVR and one other RVR) require the flightcrew to use autoland or to fly under manual control using a HUD to touchdown.

1.    For operations to touchdown, the airplane and its automatic flight control guidance system, autoland system, or manually flown guidance system (HUD), are approved for approach and landing operations as specified by AC 120‑29.

2.    For manual control using a HUD to touchdown, the HUD must be flown in the A III Approach mode.

3.    The flightcrew has been trained at the lower visibilities before they can be authorized. If the flightcrew is currently authorized CAT III operations, no further training is required for this authorization in C059.

c)    CAT II operations, with a DH of 100 feet and 1,000 RVR (300 m) may be authorized at certain foreign airports. The following example of Table 3‑19 illustrates an example for listing authorized airports and runways:

Table 3-19, Example List of Authorized Foreign Airports and Runways for CAT II Instrument Approach and Landing Operations

AIRPORT NAME/

IDENTIFIER

RUNWAYS

LIMITATIONS AND PROVISIONS

Mirabel, Canada CYMX

06

NA

Taipei—

Chiang Kai Shek, Taiwan RCTP

10, 28

NA

Tokyo Narita, Japan RJAA

16

NA

Athens, Greece

Eleftherios Venizelos LGAV

03L

03R

21L

21R

RVR 350 m

NOTE:  Refers to Table 3 in OpSpec C059

d)    Operators authorized reduced lighting CAT II, as described in subparagraph I3) below, may also be authorized to conduct approaches to standard CAT II facilities when the TDZ and/or centerline (CL) lights are inoperative. They must comply with all requirements in paragraph I2), using minimums appropriate to the RVR available and using autoland or manual (HUD) to touchdown.
3)    Reduced Lighting CAT II. In addition to the standard CAT II operations authorized by OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059, reduced lighting CAT II operations can be authorized to qualifying runways that do not meet the performance or ground equipment requirements normally associated with a compliant CAT II operation (e.g., TDZ lighting, CL lighting, or Approach Lighting System With Sequenced Flashing Lights (ALSF) 1 and 2).
a)    Approval criteria for reduced lighting CAT II approaches are given in FAA Order 8400.13, where they are described as Category II Approach Operations on Type I instrument landing system (ILS) facilities. These Type I facilities are CAT I ILS installations that meet the glideslope and localizer signal quality requirements of CAT II facilities. The required increase in aircraft capabilities mitigates the reduced lighting requirements (i.e., HUD and/or autoland).
b)    RVR requirements and available minimums are the same as standard CAT II 1,600 RVR (TDZ RVR only) and 1,200 RVR (TDZ and one other RVR), but these minimums require the flightcrew to use autoland or to fly under manual control using a HUD to touchdown.
c)    Aircraft operation approval, HUD usage, and flightcrew training requirements are the same as for standard CAT II to 1,000 RVR.
4)    The lists “Foreign Facilities Approved for Category 2-3 Operations, Restricted U.S. Facilities Approved for Category 2‑3 Operations,” and “U.S. Runways Approved for CAT II on Type I Operations” are located on the Flight Operations Branch (AFS‑410) Web site at http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs410/status_lists/.

J.    Missed-Approach Requirements. The missed-approach decision point has been changed from 1,000 feet above touchdown to the final approach fix (FAF). After passing the FAF, if the required visual landing references are not acquired and any failure of required equipment occurs, or if the primary guidance system in use (AP/autoland or HUD) is disengaged or disabled for any reason, the flightcrew must execute the missed approach. The exception to this requirement is that if both guidance systems are properly briefed and engaged before reaching the FAF and one system is disengaged or fails inside the FAF, the remaining guidance system is considered the primary and the approach may be continued.

K.    CAT II Runway Restrictions. The requirement to conduct automatic landings in reduced lighting and 1,000 RVR operations implies that autoland restrictions imposed by prethreshold terrain must be considered. Approaches that have prethreshold terrain characteristics that may cause abnormal performance in flight control systems will have a note on the approach chart requiring a special autoland evaluation. Approved runways will be on the AFS‑410 Restricted Facilities list in subparagraph I4) above, and must be listed in Table 4 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C060, CATEGORY III INSTRUMENT APPROACH AND LANDING OPERATIONS.

A.    General. Category (CAT) III is an optional authorization. OpSpec/MSpec C060 issuance is required for authorizing 14 CFR parts 121, 125, 135 and part 91K CAT III operations.

1)    CAT III operations are evaluated in accordance with the latest version of AC 120‑28, Criteria for Approval of Category III Weather Minimums for Takeoff, Landing, and Rollout, current edition.
2)    Initial CAT III authorization must be coordinated through the regional Flight Standards division (RFSD) All-Weather Operations (AWO) Program Manager (AWOPM) (see Volume 4, Chapter 2, All‑Weather Terminal Area Operations).
3)    RFSD (AWO) concurrence is also required before amending OpSpec/MSpec C060 to include an airplane make/model/series (M/M/S) for an operator.
4)    All reductions in CAT III operating minimums for each operator and aircraft also require RFSD (AWO) concurrence.
5)    Initial authorizations may require higher minimums for a period of time or number of operations. The principal operations inspector (POI) should issue the authorization using the higher minimums and re-issue the OpSpec/MSpec at the appropriate time to authorize the higher minimums.

B.    Applicability. The authorization is applicable to operations conducted by:

·    part 91K program managers,

·    part 121 certificate holders,

·    part 125 operators,

·    part 129 foreign air carriers, and

·    part 135 certificate holders.

C.    Airplanes Approved for CAT III operations. Airplanes with an approved Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) entry authorizing CAT III may be approved for CAT III. In accordance with the AFM, CAT III operations may be conducted with either fail operational (FO) or fail passive (FP) systems. Tables 3‑20 and 3‑21 of OpSpec/MSpec C060 classifies all CAT III landing systems as either FP or FO and is specified in Table 3‑22 for each airplane M/M/S.

1)    Each airplane type M/M/S and the equipment authorized to conduct CAT III operations must be listed in Table 3‑22 of OpSpec/MSpec C060. Aircraft, including wide body aircraft such as the DC‑10, L‑1011, and B‑747, which are authorized for FO CAT III but have not been demonstrated to meet the FP provisions of appendix 3 of AC 120‑28 may be approved with landing minimums of RVR 1,000.
2)    The equipment required to conduct CAT III operations is established in accordance with the applicable parts of 14 CFR, the approved AFM, and AC 120‑28.
a)    The only acceptable method of demonstrating that an airplane is airworthy for CAT III operations is through type design approval obtained by a manufacturer.
b)    The approved AFM (or flight manual supplement) for airplanes that have CAT III type design approval contains a statement to the effect that the airborne systems have demonstrated the reliability and redundancy necessary for CAT III operations in accordance with AC 120‑28.
c)    These AFMs also specify that certain equipment is required for airworthiness approval of the various kinds of CAT III operations.
d)    Some of the AFMs also indicate that acceptable CAT III performance was demonstrated both with and without (w/wo) certain equipment (for example “autothrottles w/wo”). AC 120‑28 also specifies that certain types of equipment are required for operational approval of the various kinds of CAT III operations. Therefore, both the approved AFM and AC 120‑28 must be considered in determining the additional equipment which must be listed (specified) in Table 3‑22.
3)    Equipment that is explicitly required by the airplane certification regulations (14 CFR parts 23 and 25), the operating regulations (14 CFR parts 91, 121, 125, and 135), and/or the approved AFM should not be listed in Table 3‑22.
a)    The standard text of OpSpec/MSpec C060 requires this equipment to be functional.
b)    Therefore, only the additional equipment that must be listed (specified) in Table 3‑22 of OpSpec/MSpec C060 is determined by cross checking the types of equipment required by AC 120‑28, current edition, for the kind(s) of CAT III operation proposed against the equipment required by the regulations and the approved AFM.
c)    The equipment to be listed in Table 3‑22 as additional equipment is only that equipment which is not explicitly required by the regulations and/or the AFM, but is required by AC 120‑28 and/or the guidance and direction in the AWOPM concurrence letter for the kind(s) of CAT III operations to be authorized.
4)    When the AFM indicates acceptable performance both w/wo certain items of equipment (which are not explicitly required by AC 120‑28 or the AWOPM AFS‑400 concurrence letter), it must be determined how the operator intends to conduct CAT III operations and train flightcrews with those items of equipment.
a)    If the operator proposes to conduct operations both with and without certain equipment (such as autothrottle), the operator must train flightcrews for both situations and the item of equipment does not need to be listed in OpSpec/MSpec C060.
b)    If the operator proposes to conduct operations only when those items of equipment (w/wo) are functional, then those items of equipment must be listed in OpSpec/MSpec C060.
5)    The authorizations for a decision height/alert height (AH), the lowest RVR (see also subparagraph I below), the field length factor (see subparagraph D below), and the FP/FO landing systems must be specific for each airplane type. In general, the following summary applies:

Table 3-20, Fail Operational Landing Systems

Fail Operational Landing Systems-General

1. Utilize an AH (typically 50 ft.)

2. Must go-around if any system failure occurs above AH.

3. Could land safely if a failure occurs after AH.

Fail Operational without a rollout system:

Fail Operational with any FAA‑approved rollout system:

Fail Operational with a fail passive rollout system

Fail Operational with a fail operational rollout system

1. Lowest allowable RVR 600/600/600

2. Suitable visual prior to touchdown

1. No visual necessary

2. Any FAA‑approved rollout system

3. Lowest allowable RVR 600/400/400

1. No visual necessary

2. Lowest allowable RVR 400/400/400

1. No visual necessary

2. Lowest allowable RVR 300/300/300

Table 3-21, Fail Passive Landing Systems

Fail Operational Landing Systems-General

1. Utilize an AH (typically 50 ft.)

2. Must go-around if any system failure occurs above AH.

3. Could land safely if a failure occurs after AH.

Fail Operational without a rollout system:

Fail Operational with any FAA‑approved rollout system:

Fail Operational with a fail passive rollout system

Fail Operational with a fail operational rollout system

1. Lowest allowable RVR 600/600/600

2. Suitable visual prior to touchdown

1. No visual necessary

2. Any FAA‑approved rollout system

3. Lowest allowable RVR 600/400/400

1. No visual necessary

2. Lowest allowable RVR 400/400/400

1. No visual necessary

2. Lowest allowable RVR 300/300/300

D.    Runway Field Length Requirements. The runway field length required for the various kinds of CAT III operations must be specified in Table 3‑22 of OpSpec/MSpec C060 for each airplane M/M/S.

1)    For operations with a controlling RVR at or above RVR 600, the required field length is 1.15 times the field length required by:

·    Part 121, § 121.195(b),

·    Part 135, § 135.385(b),

·    The AFM for part 125, or

·    Part 91, § 91.1037 and AFM.

2)    For a precision instrument approach and landing with a controlling RVR below 600 feet, the required field length is either 1.15 or 1.3 times the field length required by the previously cited regulations depending on the operational procedures and/or additional equipment used by the operator.
3)    The “Special Operational Equipment and Limitations” column in Table 3‑22 is provided for equipment that is in addition to that required by 14 CFR and not included in the AFM.
4)    For example, additional equipment may be required if a field length factor of 1.15 is used in operations below RVR 600 where a procedural means alone is not acceptable (see AC 120‑28).

E.    Operators Authorized for RVR 700 Can Be Approved for RVR 600. Operators currently authorized RVR 700 may be approved for RVR 600 operations as follows:

1)    When the operator has incorporated changes reflecting RVR 600 into the approved training program (when applicable), bulletins, aircraft placards, etc., as appropriate.
2)    When a check airman or an FAA inspector has certified the flightcrews to fly to these reduced minimums.

F.    Approval for RVR 600. An operator currently using RVR 600 or lower in its approved training for FP operations may be approved for RVR 600 without further checking when the operator has updated the approved training program (when applicable) and flightcrew bulletins to reflect RVR 600 authorization.

G.    CAT III Approach and Landing Minimums. The following is an example of Table 3‑22 with data inserted. If an operator is not authorized to conduct those kinds of CAT III operations with a particular airplane, or if the operator does not need special operational equipment, put N/A under the appropriate column (do not delete or leave any cells blank).

NOTE:  Include only that equipment which is not explicitly required by the regulations and/or the AFM. For new CAT III operators, inspectors must coordinate the operational equipment requirements with the AWOPM during normal review processing.

Table 3‑22, CAT III Approach and Landing Minimums

Airplane M/M/S

Type of HGS/ Autoland System*

Type of Rollout System*

DH/AH

Lowest RVR

Field Length Factor

Special Operational Equipment and Limitations—

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B-737-232B-737-247B-

FP

N/A

50 DH

600

1.15

N/A

B-737-35B

B-737-3

B7B-737-3L9

FP

N/A

50 DH

600

1.15

Either Autoland or HGS must be operable

B-737-832

FP

N/A

50 DH

600

1.15

Either Autoland or HGS must be operable

A-320-214

FO

FO

100 AH

300

1.15

1.30 required if thrust reverser or antiskid inoperative below RVR 600

B-747-47UF

FO

FO

100 AH

300 feet

(75 meters)

1.15

Anti-skid and thrust reverser system must be fully operative for operations below RVR 600

B-737-301

FP

N/A

50 DH

600

1.15

N/A

B-757-225

FO

FO

50AH

300

1.15

1.30 required if thrust reverser or anti-skid inoperative below RVR 600

B-727-277, B727-2D4

FP

N/A

DH 50

600

1.15

 

B-757-212B-757-232B-767-432

FO

FO

50 AH

300

1.15

N/A

B-767-222

FO

FO

100 AH

300

1.15

Use 1.3 if autobrake is inoperative

A319-112

FO

FO

100 AH

300

1.15

1.30 required if thrust reverser or antiskid inoperative below RVR 600

B-777-236

FO

FO

50AH

700

1.15

N/A

B-777-236

FO

FO

50AH

300

1.3

N/A

DC-10-10F

FO

FO

100 AH

300

1.15

Ground speed indicating system

MD-11F, MD-10-30F

FO

FO

100 AH

300

1.15

Ground speed indicating system

NOTE:  Enter: *N/A = Not Applicable; FP = Fail passive Landing or Rollout Control System; FO = Fail operational Landing or Rollout Control System; (i.e., FP/FO systems include autoland and HGSs);

H.    Additional information.

1)    Some European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) member states apply a DH (as opposed to an AH) to operations at or below RVR 600 because of ILS facility integrity concerns.
2)    As part of FAA/EASA harmonization, it was agreed that U.S. operators could continue to use AH when using an FO system in accordance with its OpSpec authorization.

I.    Required RVR Reporting Equipment. The RVR reporting equipment authorizations were expanded to enable the use of new and more robust EASA approval and AC 120‑28 certification criteria for autoflight or guidance landing system(s) with FP rollout control or flight guidance landing systems.

1)    OpSpec/MSpec C060 allows touchdown RVR 600, mid RVR 400, rollout RVR 400 (600/400/400) for appropriate FP landing/rollout systems and 400/400/400 for FO landing systems with FP rollout control or flight guidance landing systems.
2)    Note that to use the touchdown RVR 600 with mid/rollout RVR 400, published runway landing minimums of RVR 400 or lower is required.
3)    Mid and rollout RVR 400 cannot be used at runways where RVR 600 is the lowest published RVR minimum.
4)    RVR 300/300/300 is allowed for FO landing systems with FO rollout control or flight guidance landing systems.
5)    The operator or program manager is not authorized to conduct operations using an RVR lower than the published minimums at any runway (domestic or foreign) even if the operator or program manager is authorized to conduct CAT III operations at a lower RVR than is published for that approach.

J.    Crosswind Limitations. The crosswind component allowed is either less than the AFM’s crosswind limitations, or 15 knots or less, whichever is more restrictive. This should be reflected in the approved training program and flightcrew bulletins.

K.    Authorized CAT III Airports and Runways. With the issuance of OpSpec/MSpec C060, the operator/program manager is authorized to conduct CAT III operations at airports and runways using an approved 14 CFR part 97 CAT III instrument approach procedure (IAP) unless a restrictive Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) is issued for that approach. Domestic airports and runways (that have no restrictions) do not have to be individually listed in OpSpec/MSpec C060; only foreign airports and runways approved for CAT III operations need to be specifically identified and listed in OpSpec/MSpec C060.

1)    Foreign Airports and Runways. CAT III operations may be authorized at the foreign airports and runways listed in Table 3‑22 from the selection list provided for Table 3‑22.
2)    U.S. Facilities with Restrictions or Conditions. The U.S. ILS facilities provided in Table 3‑22 of C060 are approved only for the specific aircraft to conduct CAT III operations. The characteristics of the pre threshold terrain at these facilities may cause abnormal performance in flight control systems. Additional analysis or flight demonstrations are required for each aircraft type before approval of CAT III minimums. Publication of a part 97 standard instrument approach procedure (SIAP) or additional operators and their aircraft may be approved by the regional all weather operations staff as provided in AC 120‑28, appendix 8. Approved aircraft are equipped with either autoland or HGS equipment The restrictions at U.S. facilities for the certificate holder are provided as selectables for listing in Table 3‑22. If applicable, Providence, RI, (KPVD) should be selected and listed with the following condition: “CAT III authorized with TDZ and RO RVR sensors, both are controlling. Mid RVR used from adjacent runway.”

L.    Inoperative Lights. OpSpec/MSpec C359 authorizes specific minimums for part 97 CAT II and III approaches when the TDZ and centerline lights are inoperative.

M.    Lower Landing Minimums Maintenance Program. The operator/program manager must maintain the aircraft and equipment listed in Table 3-20 of OpSpec/MSpec C060 in accordance with its approved LLM maintenance program or inspection program, as applicable.

N.    Non Standard Requests. All requests for operational non standard OpSpec/MSpec authorizations must be submitted to the Air Transportation Division, AFS‑200, using the nonstandard request policy outlined in Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 2, paragraph 3-713, Procedures for Requesting Nonstandard Authorizations.

O.    Foreign Air Carriers and Foreign Operators of U.S.-Registered Aircraft. For part 129 Operations, Foreign Air Carriers and Foreign Operators of U.S. Registered Aircraft Engaged in Common Carriage, see Volume 12, Chapter 2, Foreign Air Carriers Operating to the U.S. and Foreign Operators of U.S.‑Registered Aircraft Engaged in Common Carriage Outside the U.S.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C061, FLIGHT CONTROL GUIDANCE SYSTEMS FOR AUTOMATIC LANDING OPERATIONS OTHER THAN CATEGORIES II AND III.

A.    General. C061 authorizes an operator to use a flight control guidance system with automatic landing capabilities to touchdown. Title 14 CFR part 121, §§ 121.579(c) and part 135, § 135.93(d) specify this type of operation must be authorized by OpSpecs . A part 91K program manager is issued MSpec C061, if applicable. Before issuing C061, the principal operations inspector must determine the following:

1)    The Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) permits use of the flight control guidance system (autoland system) to touchdown;
2)    Training on the use of the flight control guidance system and autoland procedures to touchdown is provided to flight crewmembers; and
3)    The operator continually maintains flight control guidance and autoland systems in accordance with an approved maintenance program for autoland operations.

B.    Listing Flight Control Guidance Systems. The airplanes (make/model) and the flight control guidance systems (manufacturer/model) authorized for this type of operation must be listed in C061a.

C.    Additional Information. AC 120‑67, Criteria for Operational Approval of Auto Flight Guidance Systems, current edition, provides additional information.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C062, MANUALLY FLOWN FLIGHT CONTROL GUIDANCE SYSTEM CERTIFIED FOR LANDING OPERATIONS OTHER THAN CATEGORY II AND III.

A.    General. OpSpec/MSpec C062 is optional for 14 CFR part 121, 135, and part 91K operations to authorize operators to use manually flown flight control guidance systems to conduct approach and landing operations to fly a Category (CAT) I instrument landing system (ILS) using a head‑up guidance system (HGS). C062 is issued to use an HGS just as C061 is issued to use an autoland system for other than CAT II or CAT III operations.

1)    This authorization is independent of CAT II/III authorizations. Typically this authorization is issued prior to CAT II/III authorizations and is kept after the issuance of CAT II/III authorizations.
2)    FAA Order 8400.13, Procedures for Category I Approach Operations at 1800 RVR and Approval of Special Authorization for Category II Approach Operations on Type I ILS, current edition, also provides credit for lower than standard CAT I minimums using HGS or an autoland system to touchdown.
3)    It is required to list series of aircraft in addition to make/model due to the distinct differences in series of models (especially in the newer aircraft). The aircraft listed must have a manual flight control guidance system installed and certified for manually flown landings (HGS).

B.    Exceptions to Issuance of C062. C062 is not required to be issued to fly a CAT I ILS when the HGS CAT III guidance is not used to touchdown. Neither C061 or C062 is required when the autoland or HGS are disconnected before, or not used to touchdown.

C.    Requirements for Operators Conducting Operations in MD-11 Aircraft. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) safety recommendation A‑99‑40 recommends the FAA “issue a flight standards information bulletin that directs principal operations inspectors to ensure that MD‑11 training programs provide simulator instruction in the proper procedure for autopilot (AP) disengagement and the subsequent manual control of the airplane.” As a result, Flight Standards recommends that principal operations inspectors POIs ensure that each operator conducting operations in an MD‑11:

1)    Has included in its company flight manual information regarding the potential for pitch attitude upsets caused by improper operation of the AP and disseminate that information to each flight crewmember of the MD‑11 and;
2)    Has included simulator instruction in the proper operating procedure for AP disengagement and subsequent manual control of the airplane in its MD‑11 initial, upgrade, recurrent, transition, and re qualification training programs.

D.    Helicopter Authorization. See OpSpec/MSpec H111 for the helicopter equivalent of this authorization.

OPSPEC/MSPEC/LOA C063—U.S. IFR RNAV DEPARTURE PROCEDURES, RNAV ROUTES, AND RNAV STANDARD TERMINAL ARRIVALS.

A.    General. The authorization provided by OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 is applicable to operators conducting operations under parts 91K, 121, 125 (including the part 125(M) operators issued a LODA), 129, and 135.

1)    OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 authorizes operators to conduct operations using 14 CFR part 97 U.S. instrument flight rules (IFR) terminal Area Navigation (RNAV) departure procedures (DP) and RNAV Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR) in the National Airspace System (NAS).
2)    The term RNAV DP includes Standard Instrument Departures (SID) and Obstacle Departure Procedures (ODP).
3)    If an operator’s aircraft are not eligible (properly equipped) and/or its flightcrews are not appropriately trained to conduct RNAV 1 DPs and STARs, then the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 authorization should not be issued.

B.    RNAV DP and STARs. The current edition of AC 90‑100, U.S. Terminal and En Route Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations, provides detailed guidance for operators regarding operations on RNAV DPs and RNAV STARs. The AC provides a link to the AFS Flight Operations Policy and Guidance Web page, where a compliance table is available as a checklist to determine aircraft eligibility. http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs410/policy_guidance/.

1)    Based on the information supplied by the operator, the principal operations inspector must coordinate with the principal avionics inspector to determine equipment eligibility for RNAV DPs and STARs compliance table referenced in AC 90‑100.
2)    An aircraft equipment compliance matrix is also available in the OPSS guidance in association with OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 by clicking on “Other Useful Links.”

C.    Outlining Procedures Using This Approval. Procedures used under this approval should be outlined in the appropriate operations manual or within the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 template for operators conducting operations under part 135 who have no operations manual.

D.    Designation of RNAV 1. Part 97 U.S. RNAV DPs and STARs throughout the National Airspace System are designated as RNAV 1 and published in accordance with part 97. Current and new terminal RNAV DPs and STARs are charted as RNAV 1 to reflect the requirements specified in AC 90‑100. The previous version of AC 90‑100 made reference to Type B procedures; that guidance should no longer be used.

E.    Definitions Related to This Authorization. Some important definitions as they relate to this authorization:

1)    Climb Via: An air traffic control (ATC) instruction in development that will be issued to pilots flying RNAV DPs. The instruction is issued to enable pilots to vertically navigate (i.e., climb in accordance with published speed and/or altitude constraints) on a DP as published.
2)    Descend Via: An ATC instruction issued to pilots flying RNAV STARs or Flight Management System Procedures (FMSP). The instruction is issued to enable pilots to vertically navigate (i.e., descend in accordance with published speed and/or altitude constraints) on an arrival procedure as published.
3)    Flight Management System Procedure. An RNAV arrival, departure, or approach procedure developed for use by aircraft equipped with a flight management system.

NOTE:  The number of FMSPs in the NAS is limited and FMSP criteria are no longer preferred for the design of RNAV procedures.

4)    Instrument Departure Procedure. Instrument DPs are published IFR procedures that provide obstruction clearance from the terminal area to the en route structure. There are two types of DPs, SID and ODP.
a)    Standard Instrument Departures. A SID is a published IFR ATC DP that provides obstacle clearance and a transition from the terminal area to the en route structure. SIDs are primarily designed for air traffic system enhancement to expedite traffic flow and to reduce pilot/controller workload.
b)    Obstacle Departure Procedure. An ODP is a published IFR DP that provides obstruction clearance via the least onerous route from the terminal area to the appropriate en route structure. ODPs are recommended for obstruction clearance unless an alternate DP (such as a SID or radar vector) has been specifically assigned by ATC. The RNAV ODP must be retrievable from the FMS database and included in the filed flight plan.
5)    Standard Terminal Arrival Route. An RNAV STAR is a published IFR ATC arrival procedure that provides a transition from the en route structure to the terminal area.
6)    RNAV 1 DPs and STARs. RNAV terminal procedures requiring, as a minimum, a distance measuring equipment (DME)/DME/Inertial Reference Unit (IRU)-based and/or GPS-based RNAV system satisfying the criteria of AC 90‑100. RNAV 1 procedures require the aircraft’s trackkeeping accuracy remain bounded by + 1 nautical mile for 95 percent of the total flight time.

F.    Training. An operator’s FAA‑approved training program should include subject areas and frequency in accordance with the following:

NOTE:  Operators not required to have approved training programs must include an RNAV SID, an RNAV ODP, and an RNAV DP and STAR on each part 61 qualification check.

1)    Training and qualification should be conducted in the specific equipment being used and type of procedure(s) approved under OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063. Training and qualification should include the following subject areas:
a)    Operating procedures in AC 90‑100;
b)    Pilot knowledge requirements and training described in AC 90‑100;
c)    Importance of reducing flight technical error on RNAV procedures via use of equipment such as flight director and/or autopilot;
d)    Recognition that some manually selectable aircraft bank-limiting functions might reduce the ability to satisfy ATC path expectations, especially during turns of 70 degrees or greater;
e)    Procedures for verification that the correct procedure and runway are entered into the navigation system database prior to departure; and
f)    Recognition of altitude restrictions on RNAV DPs and related aircraft capabilities.
2)    Recurrent training and continuing qualification should be based upon the following:
a)    These RNAV procedures should be trained to proficiency during the crewmembers first training sequence in the specific airplane type with equipment being used by the operator.
b)    Pilot proficiency should be validated during each recurrent training or continuing qualification cycle (i.e., every 12 months) in the use of RNAV DPs and STARs that the operator is approved to use, in accordance with the operator’s FAA‑approved training program. This may be accomplished during a Line‑Oriented Flight Training, Line-Operational Simulation, or other course of training, as appropriate.
c)    For parts 91K and 135 operators, pilot proficiency must be tested during each recurring qualification cycle (i.e., every 6 months) in the use of the RNAV system approved for conducting these RNAV DPs and STARs.
3)    Typical pilot errors should be included in the operator’s training program. The following are examples of RNAV FMS entry errors:
a)    Proper Interpretation of Predeparture Clearance (PDC) and Printed Clearance Routes. Pilots of operators using PDC and printed routes must be able to properly interpret their assigned clearance. Specifically, pilots must be able to recognize direct routings, assigned altitudes, revised clearances, SIDs, and en route transitions. As an example, some pilots incorrectly inferred that the absence of a period (“.”) in their PDC or printed clearance meant a direct routing. By making this assumption, their navigation system missed waypoints on the assigned en route transition segment. In the case of the NOBLY2 SID at Dallas–Fort Worth, a PDC with the routing of “NOBLY2 LIT” did not mean direct from NOBLY to LIT. In summary, pilots must understand their operator’s PDC notation and must request clarification from ATC if any doubt exists with regard to their clearance.
b)    Correct Entry of Runway and En Route Transitions into RNAV System/FMS Prior to Takeoff. Prior to commencing takeoff, pilots must verify their aircraft navigation system is operating correctly and that the correct airport, runway, and DP (including any applicable en route transition) have been entered and are properly depicted by their navigation system. Pilots who are assigned an RNAV DP and subsequently receive a change of runway, procedure, or transition must verify that the appropriate changes are entered and available for navigation. A final check of proper runway entry and correct route depiction, shortly before takeoff, is recommended.
c)    Verification of Assigned Route and Correct Entry of Transitions into RNAV System/FMS.

1.    DPs. Before flight, pilots must verify their aircraft navigation system is operating correctly and the correct runway and DP (including any applicable en route transition) are entered and properly depicted. Pilots who are assigned an RNAV DP and subsequently receive a change of runway, procedure or transition must verify the appropriate changes are entered and available for navigation. A final check of proper runway entry and correct route depiction, shortly before takeoff, is recommended.

2.    STARs. Pilots must verify their aircraft navigation system is operating correctly and the correct arrival procedure and runway (including any applicable transition) are entered and properly depicted.

d)    Use of Navigation Map Displays. Before takeoff, pilots of aircraft with a navigation map display should verify that the relationship of the aircraft position symbol to their assigned runway and route on their display matches external visual cues, as well as charts. Specifically, once on or near their assigned runway, pilots should ensure their navigation display reflects the same relative position to the runway, and the route depiction reflects that of the respective chart. During flight, these displays should be used in concert with textual displays for route verification.
e)    Manually Selectable Bank‑Limiting Functions. Pilots should recognize that manually selectable aircraft bank‑limiting functions might reduce their ability to satisfy ATC path expectations, especially when executing turns of 70 degrees or greater. Do not construe this request for awareness as a requirement to deviate from AFM procedures; rather, pilots should be encouraged to limit the selection of such functions within accepted procedures.

G.    Aircraft Eligibility. Operators and pilots should use the guidance in AC 90‑100, to determine their eligibility for domestic U.S. RNAV terminal procedures. For the purpose of this authorization, “compliance” means meeting operational and functional performance criteria.

NOTE:  Aircraft compliant with the current edition of AC 90-45, Approval of Area Navigation Systems for Use in the U.S. National Airspace System, may not be compliant with the criteria in AC 90‑100.

NOTE:  Per AC 90‑100, data suppliers and avionics data suppliers must have an LOA in accordance with the current edition of AC 20‑153, Acceptance of Data Processes and Associated Navigation Databases, operators must ensure that data supplier(s) are compliant.

1)    RNAV 1 procedures require DME/DME/IRU sensors and/or GPS inputs. Due to gaps in the DME infrastructure of the NAS, “RNAV 1” procedures require IRU sensor inputs to augment DME/DME, which is often referred to as DME/DME/IRU.
2)    The operator is responsible for providing equipment eligibility documented by the AFM or other FAA recognized means. If the operator is unable to determine that the aircraft is eligible, it must provide the following required documentation for RNAV 1 terminal procedures to the certificate‑holding district office:

·    RNAV system make, model, and part number(s);

·    Evidence of compliance with AC 90‑100 criteria;

·    Crew operations procedures;

·    Crew training program; and

·    Any other pertinent information.

NOTE:  AC 90‑100 includes terminology harmonized with ICAO procedures. Formerly classified as either “Type A” and “Type B” procedures, they are now referred to as RNAV 1 procedures.

3)    Based on the information supplied by the operator, the principal operations inspector (POI) must coordinate with the principal avionics inspector (PAI) to determine equipment eligibility in accordance with the RNAV DPs and STARs compliance table. An aircraft equipment compliance table is also available in the OPSS guidance in association with all OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 templates and via the AFS‑410 Web site at: http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs410/policy_guidance/.
a)    As described in the AC 90‑100, the term “compliance” means meeting the operational and functional performance criteria. For the intended purpose of this policy, “compatible” means equipment and systems that perform their intended function and meet performance requirements for RNAV 1 (and RNAV 2) operations, as determined to be in “compliance” for approval.
b)    The PAI determines the proper nomenclature of the equipment manufacturer’s make, model, and software (version and that the area navigation equipment and system is installed in accordance with approved data and meets the criteria of the most recent version of AC 90‑100. To ensure the proper configuration control of the approved RNAV operating system, it is required to list both the hardware and the software part numbers or version/revision numbers in Table 1 of OpSpec C063.
c)    If the certificate holding district office is unable to determine equipment eligibility for RNAV DPs and STARs via the AFS‑410 Web site, contact AFS‑410 for guidance.
4)    Some RNAV equipment and systems may not be able to perform multiple STAR runway transitions, sometimes known as “route Type 3,” because of database limitations. Operators of such RNAV systems must procure a “tailored” database and charts to allow the use of multiple runway transitions in Order to qualify for RNAV 1 approval.
5)    After the POI and PAI agree that the operator’s navigation equipment, procedures, and flightcrew training are eligible for RNAV 1 DPs and STARs operations, the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 template may be issued indicating the appropriate authorizations.

H.    Certificate Holders and Program Managers Authorized European Precision RNAV (P‑RNAV) Operations. The criteria in AC 90‑100, required for U.S. RNAV procedures, are generally consistent (but there are exceptions) with the criteria for P‑RNAV operations in Europe.

1)    P‑RNAV terminal and en route operations require a trackkeeping accuracy of ± 1 nautical mile for 95 percent of the flight time.
2)    If an operator has met the requirements for and is authorized P‑RNAV (OpSpec/MSpec/LOA B034), that operator may also be eligible for RNAV 1 after consideration of the following issues regarding equipment. POIs should still evaluate their operator’s procedures and training to ensure compliance with AC 90‑100.
a)    If approval for the P‑RNAV included the use of VOR/DME, then RNAV system performance must be based on the GNSS, DME/DME, or DME/DME/IRU for RNAV 1. However, VOR/DME inputs do not have to be inhibited or deselected.
b)    If approval for the P‑RNAV included the use of DME/DME: Operator can ask manufacturer or check the FAA Web site for a list of compliant systems. However, DME/DME only systems are not authorized to conduct RNAV 1 operations.
c)    Operators must be able to follow RNAV guidance no later than 500 ft above field elevation (AFE).
3)    Appropriate P‑RNAV references are:
a)    Current edition of AC 90‑96, Approval of U.S. Operators and Aircraft to Operate Under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) in European Airspace Designated for Basic Area Navigation (B‑RNAV) and Precision Area Navigation (P‑RNAV).
b)    Joint Aviation Authority Temporary Guidance Leaflet Number 10, Airworthiness and Operational Approval for Precision RNAV Operations in Designated European Airspace.
c)    Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 4, OpSpec/MSpec/LOA B034, IFR Class I Terminal and En Route Navigation Using Area Navigation Systems.

I.    References.

·    14 CFR part 91, §§ 91.123, 91.205, and 91.503 (data currency);

·    14 CFR part 95;

·    14 CFR part 121, § 121.349;

·    14 CFR part 125, § 125.203;

·    14 CFR part 129, § 129.17;

·    14 CFR part 135, § 135.165; and

·    FAA Order 7110.65, Air Traffic Control, current edition.

OPSPEC C064, TERMINAL AREA IFR OPERATIONS IN CLASS G AIRSPACE AND AT AIRPORTS WITHOUT AN OPERATING CONTROL TOWER—NONSCHEDULED PASSENGER AND ALL CARGO OPERATIONS. C064 authorizes an operator to conduct nonscheduled passenger and all cargo (scheduled and nonscheduled) terminal area IFR operations in Class G airspace or into airports without an operating control tower, with the following limitations and provisions:

A.    Operation Information. Before authorizing C064, the POI must determine that the operator has a method or procedure for obtaining and disseminating necessary operation information. This operation information must include the following:

1)    The airport is served by an authorized IAP (and departure procedure when applicable);
2)    Applicable charts for crewmember use;
3)    Operational weather data from an approved source for control of flight movements and crewmember use;
4)    Status of airport services and facilities at the time of the operation; and
5)    Suitable means for pilots to obtain traffic advisories.
6)    Sources of Traffic and Airport Advisories.

B.    Radio Sources of Air Traffic Advisory Information. Certificate holders may be authorized to use any two-way radio source of air traffic advisory information listed in the AIM (for operations in U.S. airspace) or equivalent Aeronautical Information Publications (AIP) (for foreign operations).

1)    These sources include common traffic advisory frequencies, UNICOM, MULTICOM, and flight service stations.
2)    In those cases where two sources are listed at the same airport, inspectors must ensure the operator’s manuals have procedures which require pilots to continuously monitor and use the traffic advisory frequency when operating within 10 NM of the airport. The procedures should require communication concerning airport services and facilities to be completed while more than 10 miles from the airport.
3)    At some airports no public use frequencies may be available. In those cases, a certificate holder must arrange for radio communication of essential information including surveillance of local or transient aircraft operations by ground personnel. Ground personnel who operate a company radio for airport status and traffic advisory must be able to view airspace around the airport.

C.    Issuance of C064 for C081 Authorization. OpSpecs  C064 and/or C080 may need to be issued to the certificate holder in order for the OpSpec C081, Special Non‑14 CFR Part 97 Instrument Approach or Departure Procedures, to be issued. C081 authorizes the use of special (non‑part 97) instrument approach or departure procedures.

D.    Other Authorizations. C064 is applicable to parts 121, 125, 121/135, and 135 certificate holders. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec H121. Part 91K program managers should use MSpec A014 for Class G operations.

OPSPEC C065, POWERBACK OPERATIONS WITH AIRPLANES.

A.    General. C065 authorizes the use of powerplant reversing systems for rearward taxi operations. Before issuing C065, the principal operations inspector (POI) must determine whether the operator meets requirements discussed in AC 120‑29, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minima for Approach, current edition. Airplane types make/model/series (M/M/S) authorized for powerback operations must be listed in C065. Airports where powerback operations are authorized must also be listed. If the POI and/or operator determine that restrictions to powerback operations are required at certain gates or ramp areas, the restrictions must be described (adjacent to the airport name) in the “Restrictions and Limitations” column. OpSpecs  worksheets provide a template for listing authorized airplanes, airports, and restrictions.

B.    Policies and Procedures for Ground Personnel During Ground Operations. Part 121, §§ 121.133, 121.135, part 135, § 135.21, and part 134, § 134.23 require certificate holders to prepare manuals setting forth procedures and policies that must be used by ground and maintenance personnel in conducting their ground operations. Sufficient procedures must be established to maintain an adequate level of passenger and company ground personnel safety during ramp operations. Procedures should emphasize safety during boarding and deplaning of passengers or cargo, specifically during times when an engine(s) may be running or a propeller(s) is turning during ground operations. Procedures should include, as a minimum, a means for defining no access areas around the propeller(s) as well as the landing gear and tugs during push and ground marshaling operations. Policies should provide that an adequate number of ground personnel are assigned to ensure safety of company personnel and passengers.

C.    Pushback and Ground Marshaling. Procedures for pushback and ground marshaling activities should be clearly defined and should include safety precautions and signals, and should ensure adequate visibility of assigned personnel during the time of aircraft movement.

D.    Increased Awareness. FAA air carrier surveillance programs should emphasize increased awareness by inspectors and the strict need to follow safety procedures around turning propellers, in marshalling and pushback procedures, and/or other ground activities.

E.    Other References. Additional references can be found in National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Recommendations 91‑297, 91‑298, and 93‑146, and ACOB 8‑94‑2, Safety in Ground Operations.

OPSPEC C067, SPECIAL AIRPLANE AUTHORIZATIONS, PROVISIONS, AND LIMITATIONS FOR CERTAIN AIRPORTS.

A.    General. OpSpec C067 authorizes certificate holders to operate airplanes into certain airports. The authorizations include the following:

1)    Title 14 CFR part 121 air carriers to conduct passenger carrying operations into uncertificated airports (see C below),
2)    Part 121 air carriers to conduct operations at airports that require curfew limitations for flights into or out of specific airports (see D below),
3)    Part 121 or 135 air carriers to conduct operations into airports that have operational considerations such as special aircraft performance charts and equipment, special lighting (flare pots, etc.), or unpaved runways. (See D below.)
4)    Part 121 or 135 air carriers to conduct operations using the Reginald Bennett International Runway Reflectorization System in Alaska (see D below), and
5)    Title 14 part 135 transport category airplane deviations from § 135.376(a)(3) or § 135.379(d). (See D below and Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5, Selected Practices)

B.    Authorizations Where Other OpSpecs  Are Applicable.

1)    OpSpec C050 for “special PIC qualification airports” is applicable to the authorization described in part 121, § 121.445. Do not list special pilot in command (PIC) qualification airports in OpSpec C067 unless one of the items in subparagraph A above also applies.
2)    OpSpec C081 should be used for listing the airports/runways where AFS‑400 has approved specific “Special” instrument procedures for a certificate holder.
3)    OpSpec C058 is used for authorizing specific foreign terminal instrument procedures.
4)    OpSpec C064 and C080 are used for authorizing a certificate holder to conduct airplane operations in airport terminal areas in Class G and E airspace.
5)    OpSpec C070 is used for authorizing airports where certificate holders conduct scheduled operations.

C.    Uncertificated Airports.

1)    In accordance with part 121, § 121.590(c) and (e), a certificate holder may be authorized to conduct passenger carrying airplane operations into an airport (nonmilitary) operated by the U.S. Government that is not certificated under 14 CFR part 139 if those airports meet:
a)    The equivalent safety standards for airports certificated under part 139, and
b)    The equivalent airport classification requirements under part 139 to serve the type airplanes to be operated and the type of operations to be conducted.
2)    Authorization to use such airports may be granted by entering the location/identifier of each airport, and the make and model (if applicable) of the airplanes to be operated in Table 3‑23:
a)    Operators should obtain permission from the airport manager of nonmilitary airports to operate at these airports before starting operations.
b)    This permission is not needed for operations at joint use civil and military airports.
3)    The FAA may authorize a certificate holder to conduct passenger carrying airplane operations into a domestic military airport that is not certificated under part 139 (by selecting this text in the OpSpec) if the certificate holder ensures the following in advance of starting operations into that airport.
a)    Certificate holders should obtain permission from the base commander of military airports that are not certificated under part 139 in advance of commencement of operations.
b)    In accordance with the requirements of part 121, § 121.590, certificate holders must ensure that the airport:

1.    Meets the equivalent safety standards for airports certificated under part 139 and

2.    Meets the equivalent airport classification requirements under part 139 to serve the type airplanes to be operated and the type of operations to be conducted.

D.    Other Special Authorizations.

1)    Other special authorizations include those that may require special operational considerations and special flight crewmember training. (See guidance in Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5, paragraph 4‑601.) These authorizations may include but are not limited to:
a)    Operations into airports with special runway markings, such as flare pots or trees;
b)    High altitude airports with special airplane performance requirements;
c)    Airports in or near precipitous terrain (part 135, § 135.363(h)); and
d)    Airports with unpaved runways or runways constructed on frozen lakes and rivers.
2)    Special authorization for conducting operations at airports in Alaska. For authorization to conduct airplane operations using the Reginald Bennett International (RBI) Runway Reflectorization System in Alaska:
a)    The air carrier must provide a station agent at the airport trained to give wind information to the flightcrew and
b)    The air carrier must train its flightcrews on this specific system in accordance with an approved training program. The training program must be approved in accordance with the following criteria:

1.    Each pilot must receive initial and follow on recurrent training in accordance with the company approved training program.

2.    Ground and flight personnel must complete initial training before participation with this authorization.

3.    Recurrent training must be completed every 12 calendar‑months following completion of initial training.

4.    Whenever a person who is required to take this recurrent training completes the training in the calendar month before or the calendar month after the month in which this recurrent training is required, that person is considered to have completed it in the calendar month in which it was required.

c)    The sample Table 3‑24, below, shows how to provide authorization for conducting operations after curfew hours at specific airports or use of the RBI Runway Reflectorization system at specific airports in Table 3‑24 of OpSpec C067.
3)    Unpaved runways for turbojet operations. To use an airport with unpaved runways, an operator is required to have special operational procedures and flight crewmember training. For approval of operations at an airport with unpaved runways the principal operations inspector (POI) must identify the airport and reference the appropriate section of the operator’s manuals in Table 3‑24 of OpSpec C067. See Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5.
4)    You may list in OpSpec C067 flag or supplemental destination airports that do not have an available alternate airport (in accordance with part 121, § 121.621(a)(2) or part 121, § 121.623(b)), for use by airplanes that are dispatched in accordance with the required fuel reserves set forth in part 121, § 121.641(b) or part 121, § 121.645(c).
5)    Although the FAA does not encourage operators to list aircraft limitations at certain airports during curfew hours in their OpSpecs , if an airport authority requires operators to list these limitations in their OpSpecs, then operators may list them in Table 3‑24 of OpSpec C067. A sample of Table 3‑24, below, shows an example of limitations for air carrier operations into specific airports during curfew hours.

Table 3‑24, Sample of Airports and Special Provisions

Airport Location/Identifier

Aircraft M/M

(enter N/A if not applicable)

Special Provisions and Limitations and Special Flight Crewmember Training

PKEK, Ekwok, Alaska

N/A

A station agent is required to give wind information to the flightcrews and the flightcrew must have completed the required approved training on the RBI Runway Reflectorization System

DCA, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport

Boeing 737-800

Limitations during the curfew hours

Boeing 737‑800

Max Takeoff-159,000 pounds

Max Landing 137, 600 pounds

Tahiti Island, Society IS; PPT/NTAA

N/A

Approved as destination airport without an available alternate

6)    Deviation from the Requirement to Obtain Obstacle Clearance Data for Takeoff. This OpSpec provides for the authorization of certain transport category airplanes a deviation from part 135, § 135.367(a)(3) or § 135.379(d). Guidance for this deviation authorization is contained in Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5, paragraph 4‑599. To authorize this deviation, it must be listed in OpSpec A005 and the following statement must be selected in OpSpec C067:

NOTE:  “The certificate holder is authorized to conduct takeoff operations using transport‑category airplanes weighing no more than 19,000 pounds and having a seating configuration of no more than 19 passenger seats without showing compliance with part 135, §§ 135.367(a)(3) and 135.379(d). This authorization is limited to only the following operations conducted:

·    At airports of 4,000 feet mean sea level or less field elevation;

·    On runways on which the available length of runway is equal to or greater than 150 percent of the runway required by part 135, § 135.367(a)(1) and (2) or part 135, § 135.379(c), as applicable; and

·    In weather conditions equal to or greater than straight‑in Category I landing minimums for the runway being used.”

OPSPEC C068, NOISE ABATEMENT DEPARTURE PROFILES (NADP) ITEM 7K.

A.    General. C068 authorizes an operator to conduct NADPs using aircraft with a maximum certificated gross takeoff weight of more than 75,000 pounds. Operators may use either or both of two standard NADPs as described in Advisory Circular (AC) 91‑53, Noise Abatement Departure Profiles, current edition.

B.    Compliance of Vertical Departure Profiles. Before authorizing this paragraph, the principal operations inspector (POI) must ensure that all airplane vertical departure profiles described in the certificate holder operations and/or training manuals comply with the minimums criteria established in AC 91‑53 for NADPs (close‑in and distant) before approving paragraph C068 for the certificate holder’s OpSpecs . The certificate holder must not use any other departure profile (except as stated in 14 CFR part 91) that is not defined within the AC.

NOTE:  Use of part 91 procedures does not require OpSpecs  authorization. If the operator does not meet the criteria established in AC 91‑53, then OpSpec C068 will not be issued.

C.    Proposed Exceptions to This OpSpec . Proposed exceptions to the criteria as stated in this OpSpec, which would be less limiting (less than 800 feet above field elevation (AFE)), must be addressed by the certificate holder to the certificate holder’s POI for concurrence by AFS‑400 of the Flight Standards Service.

D.    Criteria for Close-In and Distant NADPs. AC 91‑53, effective July 22, 1993, established minimum acceptable criteria for speed, thrust settings, airplane configurations and the criteria for both the close-in and distant NADPs. These NADPs can be combined with preferential runway selection and flight path techniques to minimize noise impact. For helicopter information, see AC 91‑66, Noise Abatement for Helicopters.

NOTE:  The distant departure profiles requires an initiation of flaps/slats retraction prior to thrust cutback initiation with the thrust cutback initiation at an altitude of no less than 800 feet AFE. Configuration changes necessary to meet regulatory performance or operations requirements will not be affected by this procedure. For those airplanes that have a performance requirement to reduce takeoff flaps to an intermediate takeoff flap setting at 400 feet AFE or above, the next flap/slats retraction should be initiated at an altitude of no less than 800 feet AFE.

OPSPEC C070, AIRPORTS AUTHORIZED FOR SCHEDULED OPERATIONS.

A.    General. Under 14 CFR part 119, § 119.49, the OpSpecs must prescribe the authorizations and limitations for each type of operation. All regular airports shall be listed in the OpSpecs of all operators conducting scheduled operations. This includes domestic operations, flag operations, and commuter operations. Provisional and refueling airports will be listed for 14 CFR part 121 domestic and flag operations:

·    Airport name,

·    Three letter identifier of the airport,

·    Airplanes authorized to use the airport, and

·    A notation as to whether the airport is regular (R), refueling (F), or provisional (P) for each type of airplane authorized (refueling and provisional airports are not applicable to part 135 operators).

NOTE:  If an airport is designated as provisional, the regular airport or airports for which it serves as a provisional airport must be annotated. (Except in unique situations, an airport should not be designated as a provisional airport if it is located more than 100 statute miles outside of the metropolitan area served by the regular airport.)

B.    Requirements for List of Airports. If the operator provides a list of airports to be incorporated into C070, this list must provide the same type of information discussed in subparagraph A. This list must be annotated with the effective date of the listing.

C.    List of Alternate Airports. C070 specifies that the operator must maintain a list of alternate airports that can be used. This list of alternates may be integrated into the list provided by the operator, if desired. The principal operations inspector (POI) should occasionally inspect the list of alternates to determine airport and airplane compatibility.

OPSPEC C071, AUTOPILOT ENGAGEMENT AFTER TAKEOFF AND DURING INITIAL CLIMB FOR AUTO FLIGHT GUIDANCE SYSTEM (AFGS).

A.    General. OpSpec C071 is an optional authorization applicable to certificate holders operating in accordance with 14 CFR parts 121, 125, and 135; there is no MSpec C071 for 14 CFR part 91K operators. The authorization to engage the AFGS at an altitude lower than 500 feet after takeoff and the initial climb segment requires authorization through OpSpec C071 in accordance with the following criteria:

1)    For certain aircraft, the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) may specify a minimum altitude that has been satisfactorily demonstrated for AFGS engagement after takeoff and the initial climb phase of flight that is lower than 500 feet:
a)    If the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report sets a higher altitude than the AFM, the higher FSB altitude would be the authorized altitude; or
b)    If an FSB report is not available, or does not address autopilot (AP) engagement heights, the lowest authorized altitude shall be the altitude specified in the AFM.
c)    If the FSB report sets a lower altitude than the AFM, the AFM value will be used.
d)    Operator training material and pilot training program(s) have been reviewed, incorporating appropriate changes, as necessary. The flightcrew must have successfully completed the certificate holder’s approved training program curriculum segment(s) for AFGS operations at the minimum engagement altitude(s).
e)    The established maintenance and reliability program must be checked. This program should be designed to ensure that the equipment functions to the prescribed levels as delivered by the manufacturer, and include maintenance and preventative maintenance. Appropriate manuals should be referenced for compliance with manufacturers’ recommendations.
2)    If the AFM does not specify an altitude for engaging the AFGS for the initial climb, the lowest minimum altitude authorized is 500 feet, in accordance with part 121, § 121.579(a), part 125, § 125.329(a), or part 135, § 135.93(a), as applicable.
a)    The FSB report for the aircraft may also contain further conditions or limitations regarding AFGS engagement after takeoff and initial climb.
b)    If there is uncertainty about applying AFM performance information, Airplane Operations Manual (AOM), General Operations Manuals (GOM), or Flightcrew Operating Manual (FCOM) procedures, or if there is a conflict between AFM and AOM, GOM, or the FCOM, the Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG) should be consulted.
c)    Principal inspectors approving, or who have approved, performance-related takeoff procedures and training for systems not specifically designed with a takeoff mode should coordinate with the cognizant AEG.
d)    The AEG, in coordination with the cognizant Aircraft Certification Office (ACO), will concur or nonconcur with the procedure, or propose conditions and limitations, if any, as appropriate.

B.    Aircraft Flight Manual. The AFM is the document that contains “FAA‑approved” “performance” and “limitations.” Any use of the AP and/or flight director (FD) modes should be consistent with both the AFM and the applicable operating rules (e.g., part 121, § 121.189, Airplanes: Turbine engine‑powered: Takeoff limitations).

1)    The AFM establishes the basis to be used when developing the AOM or the FCOM.
2)    While AOMs, GOMs, and FCOMs are accepted by the FAA, they typically are not used as the means to specify performance information, and they do not supersede the limitations sections of the AFM.
3)    FSB Report further addresses such issues for some, but not all, aircraft types.

C.    Manuals With Takeoff Procedures. Some AOMs, GOMs, or FCOMs contain takeoff procedures such as using 1/2 bank mode, go‑around mode, or capturing indicated airspeed (IAS) for systems not specifically designed with a takeoff mode. Those manuals should not, by procedures themselves, be used as the basis for approving procedures and training programs that relate to achieving necessary takeoff performance.

D.    Additional Information. Advisory Circular AC 120‑67, Criteria for Operational Approval of Auto Flight Guidance Systems, current edition, gives additional criteria applicable to operators using commercial turbojet and/or turboprop aircraft operating under parts 121, 125, and 135.

OPSPEC C072, ENGINE-OUT DEPARTURE PROCEDURES WITH APPROVED 10 MINUTE TAKEOFF THRUST TIME LIMITS.

A.    General. OpSpec C072 is optional and authorizes the certificate holder to use engine‑out departure procedures under the provisions of parts 125, 121, and/or 135, as appropriate, using airplanes that are equipped with powerplants that are approved 10‑minute takeoff thrust time limits in accordance with the provisions of this guidance and the OpSpec C070.

B.    Takeoff Obstacle Climb Data in AFM. The manufacturer’s AFM must include takeoff obstacle climb data for use with a 10‑minute, engine‑out takeoff thrust time limit. This Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) data must be applied to the certificate holder’s airplane engine‑out takeoff obstacle analysis to provide critical obstacle clearance in the event of an engine failure during takeoff.

1)    The FAA Transport Airplane Directorate and the Engine and Propeller Directorate have developed a procedure to certify and revise airplane manufacturer’s AFMs to include takeoff obstacle climb data for use with a 10‑minute, engine‑out takeoff thrust time limit.
2)    Previously, airplane operators’ AFM takeoff data only provided data for a 5‑minute takeoff thrust time limit. Airplane operators may obtain revised AFMs from airplane manufacturers for specific airplane/engine combinations. This AFM data may then be applied to the airplane operator’s engine‑out takeoff obstacle analysis to provide critical obstacle clearance in the event of an engine failure during takeoff.

C.    Airplane Thrust Limit Restrictions. Because it is assumed that not all airplanes operated by an air carrier will have their AFMs revised for 10‑minute takeoff thrust data, some operator’s airplane takeoff thrust limits may be restricted to 5 minutes, while other airplanes in the same fleet may have the 10‑minute restriction. Certain criteria must be addressed to inform the pilot to which limit is applicable in the event of an engine failure during takeoff.

D.    Engine-Out Departure Procedures. The certificate holder’s approved operations manual and training program must include the engine‑out departure procedures specifically designed to use the 10‑minute takeoff thrust time limits. These departure procedures require that airplane operator’s training programs, manuals, and procedures address the following areas:

1)    Air carrier performance engineers evaluation of engine‑out departure procedures specifically designed to use the 10‑minute takeoff thrust time limit.
2)    An FAA AFM revision outlining operational procedures with specific airplane/engine lists that involve the 10‑minute takeoff thrust time limit.
3)    An FAA‑approved dispatch, or similar acceptable system that provides specific 10‑minute, engine‑out takeoff thrust departure procedure information to the pilot for the impending flight concerning the airport, aircraft weight, and departure path.
4)    Information readily available to the pilot that indicates airplanes authorized for 10‑minute takeoff thrust operations in the event of an engine failure on takeoff.
5)    Pilot knowledge of the designed engine out departure procedure which uses the 10‑minute takeoff thrust time limit.
6)    Pilot training of the 10‑minute takeoff thrust time limit departure flight procedure.

OPSPEC C073, IFR APPROACH PROCEDURES USING VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNAV). TBD.

OPSPEC C074, STRAIGHT-IN CATEGORY I PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURES AND IFR LANDING MINIMUMS—ALL AIRPORTS (SPLIT FROM C053): 14 CFR PARTS 121, 125, 125M, 135, AND 91 SUBPART K OPERATORS.

A.    General. OpSpec C074 is applicable to all operators conducting airplane operations under 14 CFR parts 121, 125 (including the Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) 125 operators), 129, 135, and 91K. Paragraph C074 authorizes the lowest straight‑in Category (CAT) I precision approach procedures and instrument flight rules (IFR) landing minimums. Paragraph C074 is applicable to operators conducting IFR CAT I precision approach procedures as follows:

1)    C074 is required to be issued to operators conducting operations under part 121; OpSpec C074 is required to be issued to operators using turbojets in operations under part 135; and OpSpec C074 is optional for operators conducting operations under part 135 with all other aircraft.
2)    OpSpec C074 and letter of authorization (LOA) C074 is optional for certificated operators that operate under part 125 and LOA C074 is optional for operators conducting operations under part 125 that are issued a deviation from the certificate and OpSpec requirements of part 125 (125M).
3)    MSpec C074 is required to be issued to those program managers conducting operations under part 91K.
4)    OpSpec C074 is optional for part 129 foreign air carriers.

B.    Lowest Minimums Applicable to CAT I Precision Approaches. Paragraph C074 specifies the lowest minimums applicable to CAT I precision approaches based on runway lighting and approach lighting systems, as well as the controlling RVR. Table 1 in C074 reflects CAT I 1,800 RVR landing minimums, including both the lighting systems and aircraft equipment requirements.

C.    Requirements for Reduced CAT I Landing Minimums. Paragraph C074 specifies the equipment usage requirements and part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) depiction required for reduced CAT I landing minimums. Credit is given for flight director (FD), autopilot (AP), and head-up display (HUD) usage. The principal operations inspector (POI) should allow the use of 1,800 RVR minimums to runways without CL lighting, or touchdown zone (TDZ) lighting, provided the SIAP contains a straight‑in ILS minimum with the chart note, “RVR 1800 Authorized with use of FD or AP or HUD to DA.” Additionally, the operator issued C074 is allowed to continue to use 1,800 RVR line of minimums on SIAPs without the above procedural note when the TDZ and/or CL lights are inoperative, if the approach is conducted in accordance with the equipment requirements outlined in paragraph C074.

1)    FAA Approval. Operators may continue to use the standard CAT I minimums based solely on ground lighting systems without alteration of current authorizations or procedures. Operators can use reduced CAT I landing minimums provided the SIAP contains a straight‑in ILS minimum with the chart note, “RVR 1800 Authorized with use of FD or AP or HUD to DA.” A part 129 foreign air carrier must present documentation from its Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) authorizing lower than standard CAT I operations to receive authorization for equivalent operations in this paragraph.
2)    Conditions of Approval. Before issuing the C074 authorization to use CAT I minimums based on aircraft equipment and operation, inspectors must ensure that each operator meets the following conditions:
a)    Aircraft and Associated Aircraft Systems. The authorized aircraft must be equipped with a FD, or AP with an approved approach coupler, or HUD that provides guidance to DA. Inspectors must establish that the FD, AP, or HUD are certified for use down to an altitude of 200 feet above ground level (AGL) or lower.
b)    Flightcrew procedures. The flightcrew must use the FD, or AP with an approved approach coupler, or HUD to Decision Altitude (DA) or to the initiation of a missed approach, unless visual references with the runway environment are established, thus allowing safe continuation to a landing.

1.    If the FD, AP, or HUD malfunctions or becomes disconnected, the flightcrew must execute a missed approach unless the runway environment is in sight.

2.    Single pilot operators are prohibited from using the FD to reduced landing minimums without accompanying use of an AP or HUD.

3.    RVR 1,800 operations without TDZ and/or CL lighting are prohibited if the crosswind is stronger than 15 knots.

c)    Flightcrew Qualification. Each member of the flightcrew must have demonstrated proficiency using the FD, AP, or HUD, (as appropriate) on the most recent instrument proficiency check required in Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 4, paragraph 4‑259C; and 14 CFR part 121, § 121.441; part 135, § 135.297; part 125, § 125.291; part 91, § 91.1069; part 61, §§ 61.57(e)(2), 61.58 (as applicable); or in an approved Advanced Qualification Program (AQP).

D.    Continued Use of CAT I Precision Approach Minimums. Paragraph C074 allows the operator to continue to use reduced CAT I precision approach minimums if the operator was approved for these minimums in the earlier revision. This is to ensure that operators can continue to use these prior approvals, with the new equipment and training requirements, until a new RVR 1,800 minimum is added to the published SIAP for the airports and runways that had been previously approved. Airports and/or runways should not be added to Table 2, because it only specifies the previously approved approaches that have been “grandfathered” into the current C074 from a previous revision. All additional runways become available when a SIAP is published with a RVR 1,800 minimum. The AFS‑410 public Web site contains a list of all runways approved for reduced CAT I precision approach minimums.

E.    CAT I Precision and Nonprecision Approaches At Foreign Airports. Paragraph C074 references the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAR‑OPS‑1), and specifies the requirements for both CAT I precision and nonprecision approaches at foreign airports. Sequenced flashing lights are not required when determining if the approach lighting system is equivalent to U.S. standards. The HAT used for precision approaches shall not be below those specified in paragraph C074. This section also specifies the requirements for determining DA/MDA when an Obstacle Clearance Limit (OCL) or Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OCA) is specified.

F.    Part 129 Foreign Air Carriers. Subparagraph d, Limitations and Provisions for Instrument Approach Procedures at Foreign Airports, is not applicable to 14 CFR part 129 foreign air carriers.

OPSPEC C075, CAT I IFR LANDING MINIMUMS—CIRCLING APPROACHES. (SPLIT FROM C053).

A.    General. OpSpec C075 is issued to operators who conduct parts 14 CFR part 121, 135, and 125 operations with fixed‑wing airplanes. OpSpec C075 specifies the lowest minimums which can be used for CAT I circling approach maneuvers. It also provides special limitations and provisions for instrument approach procedures (IAP) at foreign airports. See Volume 4, Chapter 2 for more information on required training for circling maneuvers.

B.    Circle‑to‑Land Maneuver. For the purpose of this OpSpec authorization, any operator issued this paragraph is authorized to conduct circle‑to‑land maneuvers. In any weather condition, a certificate holder that permits its pilots to accept a “circle to land” or a “circle to runway (runway number)” clearance from air traffic control (ATC) conducts circle‑to‑land maneuvers. The term “circle‑to‑land maneuver” includes the maneuver that is referenced in various regulations, publications, and documents as “circle to land maneuver,” “circling,” “circling maneuver,” “circle,” “circling approach,” and “circling approach maneuver.” With regard to pilots, “conducting” a circle‑to‑land maneuver means to act as the pilot flying when a circle to land maneuver is being conducted.

C.    Operations Under IFR During Circle-to-Land. Aircraft operating under instrument flight rules (IFR) during all circle‑to‑land maneuvers are required to remain clear of clouds. If visual reference to the airport is lost while conducting a circle‑to‑land maneuver, the missed approach procedure specified for the applicable instrument approach must be followed, unless an alternate missed approach procedure is specified by ATC.

D.    Documenting Maneuver Descriptions and Procedures. Each certificate holder who is issued OpSpec C075, and who is also required to have maneuver descriptions/procedures, must publish in its training manual, or must incorporate in its training manual by reference to another approved manual, a detailed description of the procedures used to conduct a circle to land maneuver. Pilots must conduct circle‑to‑land maneuvers using those procedures.

E.    Provisions for part 121 Certificate Holders to Perform Circle‑to‑Land Maneuvers. Part 121 certificate holders may conduct circle‑to‑land maneuvers under two separate provisions within OpSpec C075.

1)    Part 121 Operations With Flight Training and Flight Checking. Part 121 certificate holders whose pilots have been trained and checked for the circling maneuver in accordance with part 121, appendix E and appendix F, or in accordance with an Advanced Qualification Program (AQP), may conduct a circle‑to‑land maneuver:

·    At the published circling landing minimums for the instrument approach to be used; or

·    At the minimums specified in the chart contained within the OpSpec paragraph, whichever is higher.

a)    Appendix E does not require a part 121 certificate holder to train a second in command (SIC) in the circling maneuver if the certificate holder prohibits the SIC from performing/conducting (acting as pilot flying) a circling maneuver. However, an SIC must be trained and can be checked in those functions specific to the circle‑to‑land maneuver that the SIC is required to perform while acting as pilot not flying.
b)    Any pilot who possesses a pilot certificate restricting circling approaches to visual meteorological conditions (VMC) is not eligible to conduct circle‑to‑land maneuvers, except as provided in paragraph E.
2)    Part 121 Operations Without Flight Training and Flight Checking. Certificate holders conducting circle‑to‑land maneuvers without training and checking must use a Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) of 1,000 feet height above airport (HAA) or the MDA of the published circling landing minimums for the instrument approach to be used, whichever is higher. Certificate holders that conduct a circle‑to‑land maneuver under this provision remain under an IFR clearance and must comply with those procedures otherwise required for circle‑to‑land maneuvers. Certificate holders must ensure pilots are familiar with those procedures. Part 121 pilots who have not been trained and checked for the circling maneuver in accordance with part 121, appendices E and F, or in accordance with an AQP, may conduct a circle‑to‑land maneuver when:

·    The reported ceiling is at least 1,000 feet and the visibility is at least 3 statute miles (see part 121, appendices E and F).

OR

·    The reported weather is at least equal to the published circling landing minimums for the instrument approach to be used, whichever is higher.

F.    Circle-to-Land Maneuvers Regarding part 125. part 125 certificate holders are not permitted to conduct circle‑to‑land maneuvers in airplanes without their pilots having been checked in that maneuver.

1)    Part 125, § 125.291 Pilot in Command: Instrument proficiency check requirements. Subsection (b) states: “The IAP or procedures must include at least one straight in approach, one circling approach, and one missed approach. Each type of approach procedure demonstrated must be conducted to published minimums for that procedure.”
2)    Required part 125 SIC. The SIC must complete the annual competency check required by part 125, § 125.287. The circle‑to‑land maneuver is not part of the § 125.287 competency check. However, each SIC is evaluated for flightcrew coordination.
3)    Pilot Not Flying Duties. Each crewmember can be checked in those functions specific to the circle‑to‑land maneuver that the pilot is required to perform while acting as pilot not flying.

G.    Circle-to-Land Maneuvers Regarding part 135. Part 135 certificate holders are not permitted to conduct circle‑to‑land maneuvers in aircraft without their pilots having been checked in that maneuver. (Helicopter IFR circle to land maneuvers are authorized in OpSpec H118.)

1)    Part 135, § 135.297 Pilot in Command: Instrument proficiency check requirements.
a)    Section 135.297(a) does not allow “any person to serve, as pilot in command of an aircraft under IFR unless, since the beginning of the 6th calendar month before that service, that pilot has passed an instrument proficiency check under this section…”
b)    Section 135.297(b) requires, “The IAP or procedures must include at least one straight in approach, one circling approach, and one missed approach. Each type of approach procedure demonstrated must be conducted to published minimums for that procedure.” The requirement to demonstrate a circle‑to‑land maneuver applies to both airplanes and helicopters.
c)    Part 135 single-pilot and single PIC operators are not required to have training programs. However, the circle‑to‑land maneuver must be successfully demonstrated in every § 135.297 instrument proficiency check.
2)    In accordance with § 135.293, a part 135 IFR operator must ensure that each IFR SIC has an annual competency check. In accordance with Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 7, paragraph 3‑1279, a SIC need not be evaluated in “circling approaches” when an operator’s procedures restrict a SIC from conducting (acting as pilot flying) this event in revenue service. However, each required IFR SIC is evaluated for flightcrew coordination.
3)    Pilot-Not-Flying Duties. Each pilot must be trained and can be checked in those functions specific to the circle‑to‑land maneuver that the pilot is required to perform while acting as pilot-not-flying.
4)    The standard of competence for part 135 instrument proficiency checks is specified in § 135.293(d). This standard is also specified in the Airline Transport Pilot Practical Test Standard (FAA S‑8081‑5) and the Instrument Rating Practical Test Standard (FAA S‑8081‑4).

H.    Helicopter Authorization. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec H118.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C076, CAT I IFR LANDING MINIMUMS—CONTACT APPROACHES. (SPLIT FROM C053). The certificate holder must not use any instrument flight rules (IFR) Category (CAT) I landing minimum lower than that prescribed by the applicable published instrument approach procedures (IAP). The IFR landing minimums prescribed in paragraphs C053 for nonprecision “other than ILS, MLS, or GLS” approaches and C074 for precision “ILS, MLS, or GLS” approaches of these OpSpecs  are the lowest CAT I minimums authorized for use at any airport. Those paragraphs must also be issued, as applicable. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec H119.

OPSPEC C077, TERMINAL FLIGHT RULES LIMITATIONS AND PROVISIONS. (FORMERLY OPSPEC B033).

A.    OpSpec C077. OpSpec C077 is an optional authorization that is applicable to all operators conducting operations under the provisions for14 CFR part 135 on‑demand turbojet , all 14 CFR part 121, and 14 CFR part 129 foreign operators (except for rotorcraft operations). OpSpec B051 “part 121 En Route Visual Flight Rules, Limitations, and Provisions,” is applicable for parts 121 and 129 visual flight rules (VFR) en route operations for propeller‑driven aircraft and may be issued in conjunction with C077.

B.    Charted Visual Flight Procedure. OpSpec C077 provides for operations under a Charted Visual Flight Procedure (CVFP) unless operating under the provisions of 14 CFR part 93, SFAR 50‑2, if the minimums in the CVFP are lower than those listed in part 121, § 121.649, part 121, § 121.649 prevails for all part 121 operations. Conversely, for part 135 operations in Class G airspace, § 135.205 prevails. There are no provisions in § 121.649 or part 135, § 135.205 for a deviation. An exemption is required if the operator wants to use a CVFP with lower than standard minimums. For part 129 operators, the applicable provisions and limitations of part 91 prevails.

C.    VFR Weather Condition Minimums. The VFR weather conditions specified in part 91, § 91.155 may be used. However, where § 91.155(c) and (d) refers to part 91, § 91.157, “Special VFR Minimums,” the minimums set forth in § 121.649 or § 135.205, as applicable, take precedence for operations conducted under part 121 or 135.

D.    Subparagraph c(2)(b). Uncontrolled airports can be in either controlled or uncontrolled airspace. As long as the provisions listed in this subparagraph are met, the operator may operate VFR in uncontrolled airspace in the terminal area in accordance with this OpSpec . For the purpose of direct communication at uncontrolled airports, a Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) may be utilized as long as it is associated with an air/ground communication facility. The CTAF may be a UNICOM, MULTICOM, FSS, or a tower frequency. Acceptable air/ground communication is a demonstrated reliable means to directly relay traffic advisories and information that is pertinent to conditions on and around the landing surface during the terminal phase of flight. For example, if the operator adequately demonstrates to the principal operations inspector (POI) its reliability to relay essential information, via radio or another type of communication, through an agent located near the landing surface, it is considered to be a “demonstrated reliable means” of communication.

E.    Subparagraph c(3). In lieu of a published CVFP, an authorized visual guidance procedure such as the use of Visual Approach RNAV Reference Points (VARRP), or Special RNAV Visual Flight Procedures (RVFP) is highly recommended for all terminal VFR departures/arrivals that fall under this OpSpec. The POI may approve that procedure. The proximity of obstacles to the departure flight path, the seeing conditions, the accuracy of the guidance and control systems, the pilot’s proficiency, and the operator’s training, should determine the size of the area in which obstacle clearance or avoidance must be considered. The POI should take into account the airplane performance data in Volume 4, Chapter 3, Airplane Performance and Airport Data.

F.    Operating on an IFR Flight Plan When Authorized VFR En Route. Where there is an operating ATC facility and it is possible to obtain an IFR clearance, the flight must depart on an IFR flight plan, even if authorized en route VFR under B051.

1)    It is recognized that the IFR infrastructure at certain locations may not always support an expeditious departure environment. If the certificate holder is able to show that it is just as safe to depart on a VFR flight plan at certain IFR airports, the certificate holder may apply for a nonstandard OpSpec prescribing VFR departure procedures for that airport.
2)    Subparagraph d(3). The requirement to obtain an IFR clearance no farther than 50 nautical miles still is valid. However, it is recognized that this procedure may not be practical in all situations. If a greater distance is necessary, the certificate holder may apply for a nonstandard paragraph.
3)    OpSpec B051 is for parts 121 and 129 VFR en route operations for propeller driven aircraft. Paragraph B052 is for certain VFR operations in remote areas. If operating under those paragraphs, certain en route VFR provisions in part 93, SFAR 50‑2, or SFAR 71, the flightcrew may depart VFR under the provision of C077d, except the requirement to obtain an IFR clearance en route does not apply.

G.    Terminal Departure IFR Requirements in Subparagraph e. It is acceptable if air traffic control (ATC) clears the flight to execute a VMC takeoff and climb to a specified point in the clearance as part of an IFR clearance. However, the operator must ensure that the obstacle performance requirements are met. Further, the flight must not depart on a VFR flight plan if the capability to go on an IFR flight plan is evident.

H.    Special Limitations and Provisions for All VFR Operations. Subparagraph f provides special limitations and provisions for all VFR operations. This subparagraph is applicable to all the provisions and limitations of C077.

1)    Subparagraph f(1). In Order for the certificate holder or operator to conduct VFR operations under C077, they must have in place either a procedure or program which can identify obstacles and the airport obstacle data. Further, they must ensure use of that information by the flightcrew.
2)    Subparagraph f(2). Although each subparagraph has specific details and minimums regarding VFR, the requirements for sufficient seeing conditions to identify and avoid obstacles is required for all VFR operations.

I.    For Alaska Operations. A nonstandard subparagraph (C077g) for certain intrastate Alaskan operations was added. The operator may operate under that nonstandard paragraph provided they qualify under the following requirements. If the operator does not qualify, they will not be issued subparagraph g.

1)    In view of Public Law 104‑264, section 1205, and in accordance with § 121.657(a), a deviation was granted from the minimums set forth in § 121.657(b).
2)    That deviation applied only to part 119 certificate holders that “transitioned” from operations under part 135 to part 121 by March 20, 1997, and only for those operations conducted Solely within the state of Alaska (intrastate). OpSpec C077, subparagraph g, describes the provisions for that deviation, and is controlling.
3)    If a “transitioned” certificate holder applied the above deviation to its operations, paragraph A005 “Exemptions and Deviations” of its OpSpec must reference that deviation for authorization.

OPSPEC C078/C079, IFR LOWER THAN STANDARD TAKEOFF MINIMA, 14 CFR PART 121 AIRPLANE OPERATIONS—ALL AIRPORTS.

A.    General. C078 and C079 are optional for authorizing lower than standard takeoff minimums. The authority for lower than standard takeoff minimums is contained in part 91K, § 91.1039(e); part 121, § 121.651(a)(1); part 135, § 135.225(g) and (h); and part 125, § 125.381(a)(1). When appropriate, principal operations inspectors (POI) will issue OpSpec C078 to part 121 or part 125 operators, LOA paragraph C078 to part 125M operators, OpSpec C079 to part 135 operators, and MSpec C079 to part 91K operators. These authorizations contain specific criteria regarding pilots, training and qualifications, aircraft, and airports when lower than standard takeoff minimums are used.

NOTE:  C078 and C079 are applicable to all airports utilized by the operator.

NOTE:  There may be additional limitations and guidance for specific airplanes in FSB reports, which are binding upon all part 135 and 121 operators.

NOTE:  For the purpose of this OpSpec/MSpec /LOA, the word “sensor” is used to indicate all approved Runway Visual Range (RVR) systems.

B.    Lower Than Standard Takeoff Minimums for Part 121 or 125. C078 allows for lower than standard takeoff minimums for operators conducting operations under parts 121 or 125 (including holders of a letter of deviation authority (LODA) operating under part 125)) with the following limitations and provisions:

1)    Takeoff operations without runway centerline lighting are not allowed at less than RVR 1,000 (300 m),
2)    Takeoff operations using only visual references are not allowed at less than RVR 500 (150 m),
3)    Takeoff operations with visibility down to, but not lower than, RVR 300 (75 m) using approved head‑up display (HUD) takeoff guidance systems,
4)    Authorization for pilot assessment of touchdown zone (TDZ) RVR for takeoff when the installed RVR sensor is inoperative (see subparagraph H below), and
5)    Lower than standard takeoff minimums include paragraphs addressing takeoffs down to RVR 1,600 (500 m), RVR 1,200 (350 m), RVR 1000 (300 m), RVR 600 (175 m), and RVR 500 (150 m).

C.    Lower Than Standard Takeoff Minimums for Part 135 or 91K. C079 allows for lower than standard takeoff minimums for operators conducting operations under 14 CFR parts 135 and 91K with the following limitations and provisions:

1)    Lower than standard takeoff minimums down to RVR 1,600 (500 m), RVR 1,200 (350 m), RVR 1,000 (300 m), or RVR 500 (150 m) for part 135 domestic operations. part 135, § 135.225(f) restricts part 135 domestic operators to one mile visibility for takeoffs at foreign or military airports.
2)    Lower than standard takeoff minimums down to RVR 1,600 (500 m), RVR 1,200 (350 m), RVR 1,000 (300 m), or RVR 600 (175 m) for part 91K operations at all airports.
3)    Each aircraft must be operated with a flightcrew consisting of at least two pilots. Use of an autopilot in lieu of a required second in command (SIC) is prohibited.
4)    There are some circumstances in which an operations inspector for a part 121 or 135 carrier may consider issuing this OpSpec for airplanes certificated under CAR 3 or 14 CFR part 23. Those airplanes have to meet the 14 CFR part 25 avionics equipment requirements necessary to hold C079 authorization. The following statement becomes binding on such aircraft, and must be added using the remarks paragraph selection for C079 to be issued:
a)    Each pilot station must have operational equipment that displays a reliable indication of the following:

1.    Aircraft pitch and bank information (attitude) (from a gyroscopic or attitude heading reference system source);

2.    Aircraft heading (from a gyroscopic or magnetic direction indicating source);

3.    Vertical speed;

4.    Airspeed; and

5.    Altitude.

b)    Each pilot station must have an independent source of power for the equipment required by subparagraph C4)a)1., aircraft pitch and bank (attitude), and C4)a)2., aircraft heading (above).
5)    Each pilot in command (PIC) must have at least 100 hours’ flight time as PIC in the specific make and model airplane used under this authorization. Each PIC must have satisfactorily completed the operator’s approved training program (as applicable) and qualification check for the minimums approved by this authorization. This includes the methods to be used to ensure compliance with the aircraft performance limitations during takeoffs with RVR less than RVR 1,000 (300 m), when applicable.
6)    Any part 135 or part 91K SIC authorized to manipulate the flight controls during lower than standard takeoff minimums must have at least 100 hours flight time as a pilot in the specific make and model airplane, and must have satisfactorily completed the operator’s approved training program and qualifications check for those minimums, when applicable.
7)    For takeoffs when the RVR is less than RVR 1,000 (300 m), each airplane used must be operated at a takeoff weight that permits the airplane to achieve the performance equivalent to the takeoff performance specified in part 135, § 135.367 (for reciprocating powered airplanes), part 135, § 135.379 (for turbine‑powered airplanes), or part 135, § 135.398 (for commuter category airplanes).

D.    Lower Than Standard Takeoff Minimums Using HUD Systems. C078 or C079 provide for the authorization of lower than standard takeoff minimums using HUD systems with certain limitations and provisions. Although RVR 500 (150 m) is the lowest authorized minimum when the takeoff is based upon outside visual references (with the exception of operations conducted under part 91K and operations to foreign or military airports conducted under part 135), RVR 300 (75 m) is the lowest authorized minimum when using a HUD system on a runway that has been determined to be served by a Localizer (LOC) providing Category (CAT) III rollout guidance as indicated by a III/E/4 facility classification. As the HUD systems uses the LOC signal for steering commands, the LOC needs to be III/E/4 certified (III = CAT III, E = accurate to at least 2,000 feet from the departure end of the runway, and 4 = 4,000 hours mean time between failures for the LOC signal). A listing of runways with III/E/4 LOC classifications is available on the AFS‑410 Web site at: http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs410/.

E.    Lower Than Standard Takeoff Minimums for TDZ RVR. C078 or C079 authorizes lower than standard takeoff minimums of TDZ RVR 1,600 (500 m). If TDZ RVR is inoperative, mid‑point RVR may substitute for TDZ RVR. Below RVR 1,600, two operating RVR sensors are required and controlling. If more than two RVR sensors are installed, all operating RVR sensors are controlling, with the exception of a fourth, far‑end RVR sensor that may be installed on extremely long runways. A far‑end RVR sensor is advisory only. C078 or C079 allow the selection of the following lower than standard takeoff minimums based on flightcrew training, checking, and allowed authorizations:

1)    TDZ RVR 1,200 (350 m), mid‑point (if installed) RVR 1,200 (350 m), and rollout RVR 1,000 (300 m); or
2)    TDZ, mid‑point (if installed), and rollout RVR 1,000 (300 m); or
3)    TDZ, mid‑point (if installed), and rollout RVR 600 (175 m) (part 91K); or
4)    TDZ, mid‑point (if installed), and rollout RVR 500 (150 m) (parts 121, 125 or 135). Part 91K program managers are limited by regulation to RVR 600 (175 m) takeoff authorization without an exemption. The RVR 500 (150 m) and RVR 300 (75 m) authorization will not be available in the part 91K MSpec C079. Tables 3‑25 and 3‑26 below provide examples of tables that may be included in flightcrew manuals such as the Flight Operations Manual (FOM).

Table 3-25A, Runway Equipment Requirements for Lower Than Standard Takeoff Minimums

Serviceable

Runway Visual Aid Required

Lowest Allowable Takeoff Minimum Authorization

If an RVR sensor is not available:

 

Adequate visual reference, OR any ONE of the following:

HIRL/CLL/RCLM

1/4 statute miles (400 m)

If an RVR sensor is available:

NOTE: Below RVR 1,600, two operating RVR sensors are required. All operating RVR sensors are controlling (except per the note below for Far End sensors).

Adequate visual reference, OR any ONE of the following:

HIRL/CLL/RCLM

RVR 1,600 ft. (500 m)/NR/NR

Mid-point can substitute for an unavailable touchdown

Day: CLL or RCLM or HIRL

Night: CLL or HIRL

RVR 1,200 ft. (350 m)/1200 ft. (350 m)/1,000 ft. (300 m)

RCLM and HIRL, or CLL

RVR 1,000 ft./1,000 ft./1,000 ft. (300m)

HIRL and CLL

RVR 600 ft./600 ft./600 ft. (175 m) or RVR 500 ft./500 ft./500 ft. (150 m)

With an approved HUD takeoff guidance system, HIRL, and CLL

RVR 300 ft./300 ft./300 ft. (75 m)

NOTE:  Extremely long runways (e.g., DEN 16R) utilize four RVR sensors (i.e., TDZ, mid, rollout, and far‑end). When a fourth far‑end RVR value is reported, it is not controlling and is not to be used as one of the two required operative RVR sensors.

Table 3-26A, Runway Equipment Requirements for Lower Than Standard Takeoff Minimums

Runways with 1 RVR Sensor

 

RCLM or CLL or HIRL or Adequate Visual Reference

Standard

 

TDZ RVR 16

or 1/4

3&4 Eng

1&2 Eng

 

RVR 24 or 1/2

RVR 50 or 1

 

 

Runways with 2 RVR Sensors

Both RVR sensors are required and controlling.

RCLM or CLL or HIRL or Adequate Visual Reference

Standard

HUD & CLL & HIRL

CLL & HIRL

CLL, or RCLM & HIRL

RCLM (day only) or CLL or HIRL

TDZ RVR 3

Rollout RVR 3

TDZ RVR 5

Rollout RVR 5

TDZ RVR 10

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 12

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 16

or 1/4

3&4 Eng

1&2 Eng

RVR 24 or 1/2

RVR 50 or 1

 

Runways with 3 RVR Sensors

Two operating RVR sensors are required. All operating RVR sensors are controlling.

RCLM or CLL or HIRL or Adequate Visual Reference

Standard

HUD & CLL & HIRL

CLL & HIRL

CLL, or RCLM & HIRL

RCLM (day only) or CLL or HIRL

TDZ RVR 3

Mid RVR 3

Rollout RVR 3

TDZ RVR 5

Mid RVR 5

Rollout RVR 5

TDZ RVR 10

Mid RVR 10

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 12

Mid RVR 12

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 16

(if TDZ inop)

Mid RVR 16

or 1/4

3&4 Eng

1&2 Eng

RVR 24 or 1/2

RVR 50 or 1

 

Runways with 4 RVR Sensors

Two RVR sensors below must be operational. All operating RVR sensors are controlling except Far‑End which is advisory only.

RCLM or CLL or HIRL or Adequate Visual Reference

Standard

HUD & CLL & HIRL

CLL & HIRL

CLL, or RCLM & HIRL

RCLM (day only) or CLL or HIRL

TDZ RVR 3

Mid RVR 3

Rollout RVR 3

TDZ RVR 5

Mid RVR 5

Rollout RVR 5

TDZ RVR 10

Mid RVR 10

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 12

Mid RVR 12

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 16

(if TDZ inop)

Mid RVR 16

or 1/4

3&4 Eng

1&2 Eng

RVR 24 or 1/2

RVR 50 or 1

F.    RVR Applicability to Lower Than Standard Takeoff Minimums.

1)    Other than the authorization for RVR 1,600 (500 m), which permits use of Runway Visibility Values (RVV) under the appropriate authorization for an operator issued C078 or C079, all the authorizations in C078 and C079 are based on RVR reports that are generated by RVR sensors.
a)    “Controlling” RVR means that RVR reports are used to determine operating minimums whenever operating minimums are specified in terms of RVR, and RVR reports are available for the runway being used.
b)    All CAT I operating minimums below 1/2 statute mile (RVR 2,400), and all CAT II and III operating minimums are based on RVR. The use of visibility is prohibited because the reported visibility may not represent the “seeing‑conditions” on the runway.” (See Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 3, Factors Affecting All-Weather Terminal Area Operations, paragraphs 4‑208 and 4‑213.)
c)    All takeoff minimums below 1/4 statue mile visibility require RVR values, and the use of RVV for takeoff clearances is prohibited. In these situations RVR is said to be “controlling;” that is, RVR must be operating and reporting (by requirement High Intensity Runway Lights (HIRL) also must be working), and at a value equal to or greater than the lowest authorized RVR for the particular clearance. Takeoffs or approaches and landings in these conditions require actual RVR values to be authorized by the controlling agency.

NOTE:  The diagram above is intended as a memory aid intended to help in remembering the various RVR breakdowns, and associated requirements within each grouping. For example, two RVR sensors are required for all takeoffs at RVR values less than 1,600 (500 m) (shown above the runway).

2)    The following requirements and restrictions apply to the use of RVR values below 1,600 feet (500 m). (In the C078 and C079 templates simplified wording is used):
a)    Where only two RVR sensors are installed, the TDZ and rollout RVR sensors are both required and controlling.
b)    Where three RVR sensors are installed on the runway to be used:

1.    The TDZ, mid and rollout RVR reports are controlling for all operations.

2.    The failure of any one RVR will not affect operations provided the remaining two RVR sensors are reporting values at or above the appropriate minimums in this subparagraph.

NOTE:  Extremely long runways (e.g., DEN 16R) utilize four RVR sensors (e.g., TDZ, mid, rollout, and far‑end). When a fourth far‑end RVR value is reported, it is not controlling and is not to be used as one of the two required operative RVR systems.

G.    Flightcrew Training and Qualification Requirements. If an operator requests authorization to conduct lower than standard takeoffs, the flightcrew must be trained and qualified in their respective crew positions for the applicable takeoff minimums requested. The PIC is ultimately responsible for ensuring that the flightcrew members are appropriately qualified before conducting an authorized lower than standard takeoff.

1)    Individual pilots must be trained in their respective crew positions (parts 91K, 121, and 135) and checked (parts 91K, 121, 125, and 135) in takeoffs using the appropriate requested minimums, before being approved for conducting such takeoffs.
2)    Pilot qualification must consist of an initial check that includes one takeoff at the lowest requested takeoff minimums. It is also required during each pilot’s recurrent qualification cycle. This qualification must be completed in a flight simulator capable of replicating the applicable takeoff visibility, and the simulator must be set at the applicable takeoff visibility, or lower, during such takeoffs.
3)    Additional crew qualification for a check airman or a qualified FAA inspector, beyond that shown herein for regular flightcrews, is not required.
4)    POIs must ensure that operators requesting lower than standard takeoff minimums provide appropriate training for flightcrews, including the procedures listed below, as appropriate:

·    Confirming the takeoff runway alignment (Safety Alert for Operators (SAFO) 07003 includes guidance and/or advisory information about acceptable techniques);

·    Rejected takeoffs in a low visibility environment;

·    Low visibility instrument takeoff cross check priorities;

·    Engine failure during critical phases of takeoff in low visibility;

·    Acceleration and climb disorientation factors and illusions;

·    Use of HUD takeoff guidance systems (when installed in aircraft for RVR 300 authorization only);

·    Taxiing in a low visibility environment with emphasis on preventing runway incursion and SMGCS training AC 120-57, Surface Movement Guidance and Control System, current edition, includes guidance and/or advisory information about acceptable techniques);

·    Taxiway critical areas;

·    Crew coordination and planning;

·    Required ground-based visual aids (such as stop bars and taxi holding position lights);

·    Required ground-based electronic aids (such as instrument landing system (ILS)/microwave landing system (MLS) and transmissometers); and

·    Determination of takeoff alternate airports.

H.    Pilot Assessment of IFR Lower than Standard Takeoff Minimums. C078 and C079 allows pilots to make an assessment of the touchdown RVR when the TDZ RVR sensor is inoperative, is not reported, or the pilot determines that reported TDZ RVR report is in error. This assessment, when equal to or greater than the TDZ RVR requirement for takeoffs made with only outside visual references, or for takeoffs using HUD systems, can be used for takeoff when mid and rollout RVR sensors are available, and are equal to or greater than the required minimums. To be authorized for this pilot assessment, each operator must meet the following requirements:

1)    For each specific runway for which the assessment is allowed, have an FAA‑approved procedure for assessing RVR values that includes:
a)    Identification of actual distances between runway lights (from 160 feet to 200 feet) on the particular runway for the takeoff in question.
b)    Identification of an appropriate number and type of runway lights that matches the particular RVR minimums or required visual distance for the takeoff being made.
c)    Identification of runway markings of known spacing with corresponding distances that must be visible to the pilot from the flight deck when the aircraft is in the takeoff position.
2)    This procedure must include the effects of variability of runway light intensity settings and changing ambient lighting (day or night). Flightcrew training and checking must assess knowledge of this specific subject area by requiring crews to relate runway markings and number of lights visible to specific known distances.
3)    For each type of runway where an assessment is allowed, have an FAA‑approved procedure for describing the actions to be taken when local visibility conditions, as determined by the pilot, indicate that a significantly different visibility exists from that reported for the TDZ recorded by RVR sensor. The procedure will address types of runway markings, runway lights and distances between lights, and any other runway environmental cues that permit precise distance evaluations by flightcrews.
4)    For each runway where an assessment is allowed, have an FAA‑approved procedure for coordinating release with air traffic control ATC and dispatch for part 121 operations.
5)    For part 135 air carriers, the operator must have an FAA‑approved procedure for conducting pilot assessment of Takeoff Visibility contained in their manual as defined by part 135, § 135.21. That procedure will cover the following requirements:
a)    How to determine actual visibility measured in number and type of runway lights that are seen, or markings of known spacing that are visible to the pilot when viewed from the cockpit in the takeoff position.
b)    How all flight crewmembers will be trained and checked in the procedures used to determine visibilities, as described above.
6)    Have FAA‑approved procedures for RVR assessment, for determining that TDZ RVR sensor reports are in error, and for takeoff and flight release coordination in operating manuals and in such materials that are readily available to the flightcrew in the cockpit.
7)    Have an FAA‑approved training and validation program of the FAA‑approved procedures for all flightcrews authorized to participate. Validation of the procedures will be accomplished in an FAA-qualified and approved flight simulator. No flightcrew member may participate in these operations until this portion of the approved training program is accomplished satisfactorily.

OPSPEC C080, TERMINAL AREA IFR OPERATIONS IN CLASS G AIRSPACE AND AT AIRPORTS WITHOUT AN OPERATING CONTROL TOWER FOR SCHEDULED PASSENGER OPERATIONS. C080 is used to authorize terminal‑area instrument flight rules (IFR) operations for scheduled passenger operations in Class G airspace or at airports without an operating control tower.

A.    Authorizing Scheduled Terminal-Area IFR Operations in Class G Airspace. Before authorizing scheduled terminal‑area IFR operations in Class G airspace, or at airports without an operating control tower, the principal operations inspector POI must obtain and list the following information in C080.

1)    Names of airports.
2)    Sources of weather information to be used by flightcrews (see Volume 3, Chapter 26, Section 3, part 121/135 Weather Information Systems; and Volume 3, Chapter 2, Exemptions, Deviations, Waivers, and Authorizations).
3)    Source of traffic and airport advisories.

B.    Sources of Traffic and Airport Advisories. Certificate holders may be authorized to use any two way radio source of air traffic advisory information listed in the Aeronautical Information Manual (for operations in U.S. airspace) or equivalent Aeronautical Information Publication (for foreign operations).

1)    These sources include common traffic advisory frequencies, UNICOM, MULTICOM, and flight service stations.
2)    If an air traffic advisory source is also suitable for determining the status of airport services and facilities, it is the only source which needs to be listed in C080.
3)    When airport services and facilities information is on a different frequency, both sources should be listed in C080.
4)    In cases where two sources are listed at the same airport, inspectors must ensure the operator’s manuals have procedures which require pilots to continuously monitor and use the traffic advisory frequency when operating within 10 nautical miles (NM) of the airport. The procedures should require communication concerning airport services and facilities to be completed while more than 10 NM from the airport.
5)    At some airports, no public use frequencies may be available. In those cases, a certificate holder must arrange for radio communication of essential information including surveillance of local or transient aircraft operations by ground personnel. Ground personnel, who operate a company radio for airport status and traffic advisory, must be able to view airspace around the airport.
6)    OpSpec C080 may need to be issued to the certificate holder authorized scheduled passenger operations in Order for the C081, Special Non 14 CFR Part 97 Instrument Approach or Departure Procedures, to be issued.

C.    Part 125 Operators. C080 is not applicable for 14 CFR part 125 operators.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C081, SPECIAL NON 14 CFR PART 97 INSTRUMENT APPROACH OR DEPARTURE PROCEDURES. C081 authorizes special non 14 CFR part 97 instrument approach or departure procedures and is applicable to 14 CFR parts 121, 125/135, 125, and 135 certificate holders. C081 may require the authorization of OpSpec C064 and/or C080, as applicable.

A.    Special Terminal Instrument Approach or Departure Procedures. (See Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 10, Authorization and Use of Special Instrument Procedures, or contact your regional flight procedures branch for more information.)

B.    Helicopter Authorization. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec H122.

OPSPEC/MSPEC/LOA C358, SPECIAL RESTRICTIONS FOR FOREIGN RNAV TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES WITH RNP LINES OF MINIMUMS.

NOTE:  To obtain the nonstandard authorization C358, the operator must use the nonstandard request process. See Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 2, paragraphs 3‑712 to 3‑713, for the nonstandard request process. For operators conducting operations under 14 CFR parts 121 or 135, the formal request must be requested through the Air Transportation Division, AFS‑200. For operators conducting operations under part 125, including part 125 Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) holders, or under 14 CFR part 91K, the same nonstandard request process must be used and submitted through the General Aviation Division, AFS‑800. The airplane qualification package should be sent simultaneously to the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division, AFS‑400, for evaluation. AFS‑400 will coordinate with the appropriate policy division for final approval of this nonstandard authorization for all operator requests.

A.    Nonstandard Authorization. The nonstandard template C358 authorizes a qualified operator to conduct certain “RNP‑like” foreign Area Navigation (RNAV) terminal instrument procedures with required navigation procedures (RNP) lines of minimums. These “RNP‑like” foreign RNAV approaches are not designed to the same criteria as U.S. 14 CFR part 97 RNAV RNP special aircraft and aircrew required (SAAAR) procedures. Only the selectable procedures in Table 1 of the C358 template may be authorized. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) uses the term Authorization Required (AR) rather than SAAAR. AR may appear on “RNP‑like” foreign RNAV procedures with RNP lines of minimums regardless of the design criteria.

NOTE:  “RNP‑like” foreign RNAV procedures with RNP minimums that meet part 97 RNAV RNP SAAAR procedure design criteria are not available for selection in the C358 template, Table 1, and require authorization via the authorization of template C384.

1)    C358 authorization is granted through the nonstandard authorization request process (see Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 2, Operations Specifications: Automated Operations Safety System (OPSS)).
2)    C358 authorization is applicable to operators conducting operations under 14 CFR parts 91, 91K, 121, 125 (including those with a LODA 125M), and 135.
3)    Procedures With RNP Lines of Minimums. These “RNP‑like” foreign RNAV procedures have RNP lines of minimums of 0.3 or less, and/or a radius to a fix (RF) leg required, and/or the missed approach requiring an RNP less than 1.0. RNP less than 0.3 specified in the line of minimums (RNP line of minimums refers to the minimum altitude for the approach and has an RNP requirement associated with it, e.g., there may be minimums of 250 ft for RNP 0.11 and a separate line of minimum of 350 ft. for RNP 0.20).
4)    U.S. RNAV RNP SAAAR procedures are authorized (nonstandard template C384) using the guidance in AC 90‑101, Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures With SAAAR, current edition. The foreign “RNP‑like” RNAV procedures in Table 1 are authorized using the portions of AC 90‑101 that apply to the particular RNP procedure design criteria for each approach.

Figure 3-66A, Sample Table 1—Special Restrictions for “RNP‑like” Foreign RNAV Terminal Instrument Procedures with RNP Lines of Minimums

(Only those procedures allowed for authorization will be available as selectables in the C358 template.)

Airport

Procedure Identification

Procedure Requirements

QUITO, Ecuador (SEQU-UIO) / RNAV (RNP) Rwy 17 / VNAV path required, RF leg required, RNP 0.15, Missed approach RNP < 1.0

QUITO, Ecuador (SEQU-UIO) / RNAV (RNP) Rwy 35 / VNAV path required, RF leg required, RNP 0.15, Missed approach RNP < 1.0

B.    Airplane Qualification. The airplane qualification must meet the guidelines established in AC 90‑101, appendix 2, with the following exceptions:

1)    Principal operations inspectors (POI) should send the formal nonstandard request to the appropriate headquarters division stating that the airplane qualification and operating procedures have been sent to AFS‑400 for evaluation. POIs should simultaneously submit the airplane qualification and operating procedures package to AFS‑400, as described in the AC 90‑101, appendix 7 checklist.
2)    The vertical accuracy requirement as written in AC 90‑101, appendix 2, paragraph 2c is not required for this authorization. Vertical guidance in these foreign “RNP‑like” procedure(s) is based on baro‑Vertical Navigation (VNAV). Eligible aircraft are those with an Aircraft Flight Manual or Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement that explicitly states that the VNAV system is approved for approach operations in accordance with AC 20-129, Airworthiness Approval of Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Systems for use in the U.S. National Airspace System and Alaska, or those with written documentation (e.g., Flight Standardization Board report or other official documentation) verifying eligibility.
3)    Airspace Containment (AC 90‑101, appendix 2, paragraph 2d). The airspace containment requirement as written in AC 90‑101 is not required for this authorization. Airplanes that are qualified to conduct RNAV operations in accordance with applicable directives and have the proper RNAV capability (e.g., global positioning system (GPS), RF leg capability) for the procedure(s) listed may be authorized.

C.    Operating Considerations. The operator must establish operating procedures that meet the applicable guidelines of AC 90‑101, appendix 4. Operating procedures must incorporate all operational mitigations based on equipment authorization. For example, if RF leg is authorized, an operational mitigation is required if the equipment engages in “track hold” mode when a go-around is selected. (Track hold would not follow the Lateral Navigation (LNAV) path when a go‑around is initiated in or shortly after an RF leg.) Submit the operating procedures package to AFS‑400 as described in the AC 90‑101 checklist in appendix 7. The operating procedures must meet the guidelines established in AC 90‑101, appendix 4, with the following exceptions.

1)    Vertical Track Deviation Monitoring Limit of 75 feet (AC 90‑101, appendix 4, paragraph 3g.). The track deviation monitoring limit of 75 feet vertically, as written in AC 90‑101, is not required for this authorization. Eligible airplanes, in accordance with baro‑VNAV requirements, must be equipped with and operationally using either a flight director or autopilot capable of following the vertical path.
2)    Verification of the most current airport altimeter is set prior to the final approach fix (FAF) but no earlier than the initial approach fix (IAF) (AC 90‑101, appendix 4, paragraph 3k). The altimeter setting requirement as written in AC 90‑101 is not required for this authorization. Although the listed procedure(s) require(s) the current altimeter setting for the airport of intended landing, the flightcrew is not required to verify the setting between the IAF and the FAF. Normal flight deck procedures must meet this requirement.

D.    Training. The flightcrew must complete the operator’s approved RNP instrument approach procedure training program for these procedures and qualify for RNP instrument approach operations by one of the operator’s check airmen/check pilot, as applicable, or by an FAA inspector. The guidance of AC 90‑101, appendix 5, must be addressed in the training program.

1)    For operators authorized RNP SAAAR instrument approaches for the aircraft equipment listed in Table 2 of the C358 authorization, only the specific differences from RNP SAAAR procedures that apply to the “RNP‑like” foreign RNAV instrument procedures listed in Table 1 of the C358 authorization, must be trained.
2)    Flightcrew members of operators that are not authorized for RNP SAAAR for the aircraft equipment listed in Table 2 of the C358 authorization, the applicable subjects of AC 90‑101, appendix 5 must be trained:
a)    Guidance of AC 90‑101, appendix 5, must be followed except where a task analysis has shown that the crew knowledge and skills for RNP SAAAR do not apply to the “RNP‑like” foreign RNAV instrument procedure(s) authorized in Table 1.
b)    Unique RNP approach criteria that apply to the “RNP‑like” foreign RNAV instrument procedure(s) authorized in Table 1.

E.    Listing Airplanes and Navigation Systems Approved for “RNP‑Like” Foreign RNAV Terminal Instrument Procedures. The airplane(s) and navigation systems approved for “RNP‑like” foreign RNAV terminal instrument procedures with RNP lines of minimums must be listed in Table 2 of the C358 authorization as follows:

1)    The approved navigation systems and the specific software version must be listed.
2)    The table must identify the authorized use of a coupled autopilot or a flight director which is provided as a selectable in the OPSS in processing the authorization.
3)    The lowest RNP authorized must be listed.

Figure 3-66B, Sample Table 2—Airplanes and Navigation Systems Eligible for “RNP‑like” Foreign RNAV Terminal Instrument Procedures with RNP Lines of Minimums

Airplane

M/M/S

Navigation System M/M/

Software Version

Limitations and Restrictions

Autopilot Coupled or Flight Director Required

Lowest RNP

B-737-490

Smiths FMCS/FMC 2907A4 or 2907C1 with U10.5A

Not authorized to exceed temperature limits of the approach

Not authorized RNP parallel approach operations (RPA)

Not authorized RNP parallel approach runway transitions (RPAT)

Either FD or AP

Autopilot only

RNP-0.15

RNP-0.11

F.    Execution of An “RNP‑Like” Foreign RNAV Instrument Procedure. Execution of an “RNP‑like” foreign RNAV instrument procedure requires the current, local altimeter setting for the airport of intended landing. Remote altimeter settings are not allowed.

G.    VNAV Path Requirements. An airplane(s) with an airworthiness approval for baro‑VNAV approach operations in accordance with AC 20-129, Airworthiness Approval of Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Systems for Use in the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) and Alaska, current edition, must be equipped with and operationally use either a flight director or autopilot capable of following the vertical path.

H.    Approval Requirements. Unlike RNP SAAAR C384 authorization, there is no interim approval required for this nonstandard authorization in C358. The operator must submit the following information on a continuous basis every 30 days to the POI for his/her evaluation of the continuing use of the authorization (AC 90‑101, appendix 6, paragraph 1):

1)    Total number of the “RNP‑like” foreign RNAV approach procedures conducted;
2)    Number of satisfactory approaches by aircraft/system (satisfactory if completed as planned without any navigation or guidance system anomalies); and
3)    Unsatisfactory approaches must be included in the report and must include, but are not limited to, the following:
a)    UNABLE REQ NAV PERF, NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD, or other RNP messages during any approach;
b)    Excessive lateral or vertical deviation;
c)    Terrain Awareness and Warning System warning;
d)    Autopilot system disconnect;
e)    Navigation data errors; and
f)    Pilot report of any anomaly.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C359, SPECIAL AUTHORIZATION FOR CERTAIN CATEGORY II OPERATIONS AT SPECIFICALLY APPROVED FACILITIES. OpSpec/MSpec C359 is a special authorization for Category (CAT) II operations to approved instrument landing system (ILS) runways that do not have touchdown zone (TDZ) and centerline (CL) or CAT II approach lighting systems with sequenced flashing lights (Approach Lighting System with Sequenced Flashing Lights (ALSF) 1 & 2). (For special authorization for lower than standard CAT I operations to Runway Visual Range (RVR) 1,800, see OpSpec/MSpec C074.)

A.    Decision Height Limits. These special authorization CAT II operations at specifically approved facilities with a single RVR reporting system are limited to a decision height (DH) of 100 feet and no lower than RVR 1,600. An approved runway facility with two RVR reporting systems will be limited to DH of 100 feet and no lower than RVR 1,200.

B.    Authorization of “Special Aircrew and Aircraft Certification Required” CAT II Approaches. These special authorization CAT II approaches labeled as “Special Aircrew and Aircraft Certification Required” cannot be authorized except in accordance with the limitations and provisions of this OpSpec/MSpec and the following:

1)    Conducted only when using an autoland system or a head‑up guidance system (HGS) to touchdown.
2)    Only aircraft certified for autoland or HGS to touchdown capability are eligible for these operations. Those aircraft and equipment must be listed in Table 3‑18 of OpSpec/MSpec C059.
3)    Should the autoland system or HGS malfunction or be disengaged during the approach, the PIC must execute a missed approach not later than arrival at DH.
4)    Pilots must be trained in the use of the autoland system or HGS, as applicable, and demonstrate proficiency in ILS approaches to minimums using this equipment on checks conducted to satisfy 14 CFR part 91, § 91.1069; 14 CFR part 121, § 121.441, or 14 CFR part 135, § 135.297, as applicable.
5)    The certificate holder/program manager must be authorized for CAT II operations and issued OpSpec/MSpec C059.

C.    Authorized Airports and Runways.

1)    The approved airports and runways required to be listed in OpSpec/MSpec C359 are those specific facilities that have been approved for these special authorization CAT II operations in accordance with the procedures and requirements in Order 8400.13, Procedures for Category I Approach Operations at 1,800 RVR and Approval of Special Authorization for Category II Approach Operations on Type I ILS, current edition. Once a facility has been approved and charted in accordance with 14 CFR part 97, it can be listed on OpSpec/MSpec C359.
2)    These special authorization CAT II operations can also be conducted at runways approved for CAT II and CAT III operations under either OpSpec/MSpec C059 or C060 and need not be listed in OpSpec/MSpec C359.
3)    When lighting components, e.g., TDZ and runway centerline lights, that are normally required for CAT II or CAT III operations become inoperative, the operations authorized under OpSpec/MSpec C359 may be conducted without having listed those airports and runways in OpSpec/MSpec C359, provided all the requirements of OpSpec/MSpec C359 are met.

RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-872 through 3-920.