Volume 3 general Technical Administration
Chapter 33 CABIN SAFETY AND FLIGHT ATTENDANT MANAGEMENT
Section 6 Operations—Cabin Safety
3-3546 SERVICE OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES. The boarding of a passenger who appears to be intoxicated is a violation of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR).
A. Passenger Noncompliance. Passenger noncompliance with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) safety regulations may result in interference with a crewmember. This is a violation
of 14 CFR part 14 CFR part
and may also be a criminal violation under Title 49 of the United States Code (49 U.S.C.) § 46318(a). Air carriers should have procedures in their manuals to ensure that crewmembers know what actions to take if a
passenger does not comply with the safety regulations and/or interferes with a crewmember.
requires air carriers to report passenger disturbances associated with alcohol within 5 working-days. Due to safety implications, 14 CFR part
air carriers should also report these disturbances to the FAA within 5 days. The appropriate air carrier manuals should contain the crewmember
procedures used to report these occurrences. The FAA suggests the following procedures:
1) The pilot in command (PIC) and/or the Flight Attendant (F/A) in charge of the cabin should fill out a report that, if feasible, both of them should sign.
2) The report should include:
· The name and address of the individual;
· A physical description of the individual;
· The individual’s seat number;
· The location of the individual’s boarding and destination;
· Names, addresses, and phone numbers of witnesses;
· Names, addresses, and domiciles of the other crewmembers; and
· A brief narrative of the incident, the airline, flight number, and date.
3) This report, which will be in the air carrier and crewmember manuals, should be sent to the designated personnel.
C. Air Carrier Procedures. Air carriers should have adequate procedures contained in crewmember manuals and training programs outlining the
specific duties of crewmembers and ground personnel regarding the use and service of alcohol. For example:
· Procedures to handle disturbances that may occur involving the service of alcoholic beverages;
· Procedures regarding the removal of a passenger who appears to be intoxicated; and
· Procedures to handle passengers who may have brought their own alcoholic beverages onboard.
3-3547 CARRY-ON BAGGAGE. As a result of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the U.S. Congress passed the Aviation and Transportation Security Act. Section 122 of the Act, Sense of the
Congress, clearly states its desire for the FAA to maintain its current restriction on carry-on baggage of one bag and one personal item. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Web site
has information about items that are permitted and prohibited in carry-on baggage, as well as provides examples of what constitutes a personal item.
A. Carry-On Baggage Stowing Requirement. Part
prohibits an air carrier from closing the passenger entry door in preparation for taxi/pushback, or takeoff, unless each article of carry-on baggage is stowed
in a suitable baggage or storage compartment or under a passenger seat.
B. Air Carrier Carry-On Baggage Restrictions. An air carrier may not allow the following:
1) The boarding of carry-on baggage unless each passenger’s baggage has been scanned to control the size and amount carried onboard in accordance
with an approved carry-on baggage program. Additionally, no passenger may board an airplane if his or her carry-on baggage exceeds the baggage allowance prescribed in the air carrier’s approved program.
2) All passenger entry doors of an airplane to be closed in preparation for taxi or pushback, unless at least one crewmember verifies that each article of carry-on baggage is
properly stowed. Baggage is neither properly stowed nor restrained unless the overhead bin door is closed and latched. The same requirements apply for stowing carry-on baggage before takeoff and landing.
3) Stowage of carry-on baggage or cargo that could hinder the use of any emergency equipment. Air carriers should provide suitable storage space
for all required emergency equipment.
C. Stowage of Cargo and Baggage in Passenger Seats. When air carriers allow the stowage of cargo and baggage in passenger seats, they should
include this information in their FAA-approved carry-on baggage program. The information about this practice should include:
· The types of cargo that may be restrained in the seat, and
· The location of the seat(s) where it may be stowed.
D. Stowage of Items in Seat Pockets. Seat pockets have been designed to restrain approximately 3 pounds of weight and not the weight of additional carry-on
items. Seat pockets are not listed in the regulation as an approved stowage location for carry-on baggage. If a seat pocket fails to restrain its contents,
the contents of the seat pocket may impede emergency evacuation or may strike and injure a passenger. If small, lightweight items, such as eyeglasses or a
cell phone, can be placed in the seat pocket without exceeding the total designed weight limitation of the seat pocket or so that the seat pocket does not block
anyone from evacuating the row of seats, it may be safe to do so.
E. Stowing Carry-On Baggage Against a Passenger Class Divider or Bulkhead. Carry-on baggage may be stowed against a passenger class divider or bulkhead
if both are stressed for inertia loads and the baggage is restrained from shifting by FAA-approved tiedown straps or cargo nets. A principal operations inspector
(POI) must approve the stowage of carry-on baggage against the bulkhead or divider. The POI will coordinate this approval with the Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG)
and other elements within the FAA as needed. Carry-on baggage may be stowed in coat closets or other compartments that the FAA approves.
F. Stowing Carry-On Baggage, Cargo, or Trash in Uncertified Receptacles. The operation of an airplane with carry-on baggage, cargo, or trash stowed
in uncertified receptacles, such as lavatories, is contrary to part
and the certification basis of the aircraft. If a receptacle in the cabin of the airplane, including the lavatory, is intended for the stowage of
carry-on baggage, cargo, or trash, it must be shown to meet the applicable requirements in the airplane certification basis. These requirements include:
· The structural requirements pertaining to the restraint of the receptacle’s contents for flight, ground, and emergency
landing load conditions, and
· Requirements pertaining to fire containment.
NOTE: The certification requirements are contained in 14 CFR part
stipulates that each air carrier must have an FAA-approved carry-on baggage program. Carry-on baggage programs must comply with existing regulations.
1) A description of carry-on baggage articles must be in the program. This description should provide information about the types of articles which
could be exempt from the carry-on baggage count. This could include such things as child restraints, canes, assistive devices for people who are physically
challenged, articles of personal clothing, etc. Some air carriers believe that exempt articles do not have to be restrained. Therefore, information that all
articles (including those exempt from the carry-on baggage count) must be properly restrained should also be stipulated in the carry-on baggage program.
2) Proper stowage of carry-on baggage is a major safety issue. The current edition of Advisory Circular (AC)
Carry-On Baggage, requests that airlines include a definition of “properly stowed” in their carry-on baggage programs. Ensuring that baggage
does not interfere with emergency equipment is an important part of the information about proper stowage. In addition, nothing can be stowed in the seat pockets
except magazines and passenger information cards. It is not a good safety practice to stow meals, either brought onto the airplane by passengers or served by the
air carrier, in seat back pockets. The FAA considers meals carried on by passengers to be carry-on baggage. Even though meals may be exempt by the air carrier from
the number of bags permitted, they still must be stowed in accordance with the regulations pertaining to carry-on baggage. Nothing may be stowed in the lavatories,
unless lavatories meet all the requirements for approved cargo stowage areas.
3) The program should specify the crewmember position responsible for ensuring that carry-on baggage is properly stowed. While each crewmember should
ensure that carry-on baggage procedures are followed, it is important that a specific crewmember be identified as responsible for ensuring that carry-on
baggage is properly stowed for each cabin or each cabin area. Specific and clear crew assignments are an important part of safety.
4) Air carriers should provide information to passengers about their
carry-on baggage programs. This information should include advice about the types of articles that should not be carry-on baggage. Many air carriers do
this as part of their telephone announcements when reservations are made. In addition, some air carriers provide this information through public address
(PA) announcements and signs at the airport. A variety of methods used by the air carrier are acceptable, but the public should be able to readily obtain the information.
5) Carry-on baggage programs should:
· Comply with existing regulations and applicable programs such
as the FAA-approved Weight and Balance (W&B) program;
· Provide information about preventing baggage that cannot be stowed
as carry-on baggage from reaching the aircraft as carry-on baggage;
· Ensure that carry-on baggage that is brought to the airplane,
but not carried in the cabin, is assigned the same weight as other baggage carried in the cargo compartment;
· Define “carry-on baggage,” including those items that might be
· Provide information about size and number accepted;
· Define “properly stowed” to include overhead bin stowage and underseat
stowage. For proper underseat stowage of carry-on baggage, there must be forward and side restraints to prevent bags from sliding into the aisle;
· Ensure that carry-on baggage does not interfere with emergency
equipment, and that nothing is placed in front of or directly on top of emergency equipment;
· Address stowage of unusual articles such as musical instruments;
· Prohibit the stowage of carry-on baggage and other items in the
lavatories and seat back pockets (the only items allowed in seat back pockets should be magazines and passenger information cards);
· Provide specific crewmember assignments for the verification that
carry-on baggage is properly stowed;
· Address procedures in appropriate manuals;
· Provide crewmember training on carry-on baggage; and
· Ensure that information is available to the public about the air
carrier’s carry-on baggage program.
6) Air carriers should use approved procedures to ensure compliance with their carry-on baggage program. These procedures should
include the following items:
· Preboarding scanning to ensure that size and amount of passenger
carry-on baggage is in accordance with the allowances prescribed in the approved carry-on baggage program;
· Closing and latching each overhead bin before all passenger doors
are closed in preparation for taxi or pushback and before takeoff and landing;
· Closing, latching, or installing each restraint device for each
cargo compartment located in the passenger cabin before all passenger doors are closed and before takeoff and landing;
· Stowing each piece of underseat carry-on baggage; and
· Removing all carry-on baggage that cannot be stowed properly in
the passenger cabin before closing all passenger entry doors in preparation for taxi or pushback, and reloading it as checked luggage in a cargo compartment.
7) Each air carrier may decide if they will allow passengers to travel
with their pets in the passenger cabin. If an airline does allow cabin pets, then the pet container is considered to be carry-on baggage and must conform to all carry‑on baggage regulations.
· The pet container must be small enough to fit underneath the seat
without blocking any person’s path to the main aisle of the airplane;
· In order for the airplane to leave the gate, the pet container
must be stowed properly before the last passenger entry door to the airplane is closed;
· The pet container must remain properly stowed the entire time
the airplane is moving on the airport surface, and for takeoff and landing; and
· Passengers must follow F/A instructions regarding the proper stowage of the pet container.
NOTE: Additional information on traveling with pets in the passenger cabin can be found on the FAA Cabin Safety Web site
3-3548 STOWAGE OF NON-COLLAPSIBLE FLEXIBLE TRAVEL CANES. The Department of Transportation (DOT) issued an order of dismissal to certain complainants
against a U.S. air carrier dismissing the complainant’s allegation that the air carrier violated 14 CFR part
which prohibits discrimination against qualified handicapped persons. The complainants, who are legally blind, alleged that the carrier’s failure to allow them to stow their long white flexible canes
at their seat constituted unlawful discrimination under DOT rules.
A. Current DOT Rules. The current rules require air carriers to allow stowage of flexible canes near passengers in a manner consistent with FAA safety regulations.
requires all carry-on items, other than articles of loose clothing, to be stowed in a suitable closet, baggage or cargo stowage compartment, including an overhead rack having doors or restraints, or under a
passenger seat that is fitted with a means to prevent stowed articles from sliding forward in the passenger compartment or sideward into the aisle. In addition, part
allows flexible travel canes to be stowed:
1) Laterally under two or more connected passenger seats in the same row, if the cane does not protrude into an aisle and is flat on the floor.
2) Longitudinally between a non-emergency exit window seat and the fuselage, if the cane is flat on the floor.
3) Longitudinally beneath any two non-emergency exit row window seats, if the cane is flat on the floor.
4) In accordance with any other method the Administrator approves.
C. Proper Restraint of Items in the Event of an Emergency. The gist of part
is to ensure that all carry‑on items are properly restrained in the event of an emergency. The FAA requires that passenger seats, under which baggage
is allowed to be stowed, must be equipped with underseat restraints sufficient to prevent articles of baggage, including flexible travel canes and other thin profile items of baggage, from sliding forward. Also,
aisle seats, under which the FAA allows baggage to be stowed, must be equipped with underseat restraints to prevent baggage from sliding forward. POIs and/or cabin safety inspectors
(CSI), as applicable, must contact their assigned air carriers to:
· Inform them of these thin profile baggage restraint problems, and
· Require them to take action to ensure that the FAA-approved carry-on baggage program of each air carrier operating under
has policies that ensure proper restraint of all carry-on baggage, including non-collapsible flexible travel canes.
3-3549 STOWAGE OF GALLEY SERVICE ITEMS. Section
prohibits an air carrier from moving on the surface, taking off, or landing an airplane when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by the
air carrier is located at any passenger seat. In an emergency situation requiring evacuation, litter from food service of any kind (including coffee and rolls)
can be hazardous due to poor footing. Accordingly, part
prohibits serving any food or beverage, regardless of the type of containers used, during movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. In addition, any
food item or container that the passenger carries onboard the aircraft is considered to be carry-on baggage and must be properly stowed in accordance with part
for movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing.
A. Items to Secure During Surface Movement, Takeoff, and Landing. Part
also states that, during movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing, the following items must be secured in their stored positions (i.e., correctly
positioned and fastened in their storage compartment and restraint means, if any):
· Passenger food and beverage trays,
· Serving carts, and
· Each movie screen that extends into an aisle.
NOTE: If there is a question regarding the stowage of a particular item, and it must be stowed for takeoff and landing, then that item must also be stowed
for movement on the surface.
B. Beverage and Food Service Procedures. Air carriers may arrange to provide limited beverage and food service to their passengers when the aircraft
is no longer moving on the surface (e.g., while the aircraft is stationary on a taxiway in a long queue awaiting takeoff). In such cases, the air carrier
should have specific procedures for flightcrew members and F/As to follow, including coordination and communication between the flight deck and the passenger cabin(s),
to ensure that these requirements are met before aircraft movement on the surface resumes.
C. Galley Supplies Stowed Outside the Galley. In addition, the FAA considers galley supplies stowed outside the galley to be cargo. These supplies
must be stowed in accordance with part
If galley supplies or other cargo weighing over 20 pounds are placed under a seat, the FAA must approve the container or restraint, usually through a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC).
3-3550 RETENTION OF ITEMS OF MASS. Part
refers to galley equipment, serving carts, and crew baggage. However, the FAA did not intend to list all “items of mass.” Crewmembers must restrain
any item that can become a hazard by shifting under the load factors of an emergency landing.
A. Flightcrew Flight-Kits. Particular attention should be given to compliance with part
regarding restraints for any baggage carried on the flight deck. Flightcrew flight-kits are not items of crew baggage. This policy also applies to aviation
safety inspectors (ASI) and additional flightcrew members. While it is logical that flight-kits be placed so that movement is restricted, the FAA does not
intend that they be restrained in a manner that would interfere with the needs and functions of the flightcrew.
NOTE: This is only applicable to flight-kits.
B. Restraint of Serving Carts and Unused Galley Equipment. It is recommended that air carriers include instructions to F/As that all serving
carts, in addition to being stowed for takeoff and landing and when it is not in use, be properly restrained when in use but not being moved from one location
to another. Air carriers should expand this policy to require restraint of all galley equipment (including supplies) that are not being used so that they will
not become hazards during periods of in-flight turbulence.
3-3551 POTENTIAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE.
A. Hot Liquids Service Procedures. Reports are received regarding passengers and F/As burned by the spillage of hot liquids. Air carriers should
have procedures discontinuing service of hot liquids when turbulent air is encountered that is not severe enough for the F/As to discontinue all service. In addition,
containers for hot liquids should have lids that can be securely closed. Additional service items and areas of concern that could cause injuries are:
· Carts with sharp corners or projections that may cause injury, and
· Brakes on the carts that are hard to operate, inadequate, or nonexistent.
B. Food and Beverage Container Hazards. When F/As carry food and beverage containers (bottles, glasses, trays, hot water and coffee containers, etc.)
loosely on the cart and in turbulence, they may become dislodged and strike or scald passengers and crewmembers. Air carriers should have procedures for removing or securing loose items on the top of carts during
C. Unattended Cart Regulations. F/As should not leave carts unattended. Air carriers should have procedures that ensure that F/As are no more than 10
feet (3 rows) away from the carts left in the aisles. F/As should not park carts out of their normal galley takeoff/landing positions unless they can be properly
restrained. Some aircraft are equipped with restraint devices such as “mushrooms,” which will properly hold carts in other areas. When this is the case, F/As may
leave them unattended. However, items should be cleared from the top of the carts. During a sudden directional change of the aircraft, items left unrestrained
on the top of the carts can become dislodged and cause injuries.
D. Deficiency Reporting Procedures. Air carriers should have procedures for reporting cart and cart restraint deficiencies.
3-3552 PROBLEMS WITH LOWER LOBE GALLEYS.
A. Eliminating Electrical Equipment Safety Hazards. The FAA requires air carriers to provide instruction to F/As on electrical equipment and related
circuit breakers located in the cabin area of aircraft, which includes all galleys, service centers, and lifts. A good understanding of the function of these circuit
breakers could eliminate a problem before it becomes a safety hazard. Air carriers should assure that this subject is adequately covered in F/A training for all aircraft so equipped.
B. Prohibition of Passengers in Lower Lobe Galleys. The FAA received information concerning passenger access to the lower lobe galleys. They either
let themselves down in the lifts or an F/A took them down. There is no justifiable reason for passengers to be in the galley, where they would interfere with the
F/A duties. In addition, there is no provision for oxygen masks and safety belts for extra persons. Air carriers should incorporate into their manuals and training
programs prohibition against passengers being allowed in the lower lobe. Hence, they should placard each lift.
C. Limit of Two F/As in Lower Lobe. Some air carriers have conducted training and/or instruction in the lower lobe during flight with five or six F/A trainees.
They have also allowed deadheading crewmembers to occupy or visit the lower lobe during flight. Due to the number of oxygen masks and seatbelts, only two
F/As should be allowed in the lower lobe at any time during flight. One additional person may be allowed for instruction, evaluation, or inspection duties. In
the event a third person is present in the lower lobe galley, oxygen must be available in the event of a decompression; this may require a portable oxygen bottle.
D. Communicating with Lower Lobe Galley Personnel. It is very difficult to hear the PA system announcements in the lower galley because of aerodynamic
noise and other noise emitting from nearby systems. The F/A working in the galley may not hear the captain’s warning of clear-air turbulence or a 10-minute warning
of descent. In addition, there have been reports of numerous failures of the intercom systems. Sometimes, F/As in the galleys rely on the other F/As to pass
the warning. Air carriers should incorporate F/A procedures to assure that all warnings are passed to and acknowledged by persons in lower galleys.
E. Lower Lobe Emergency Procedures. En route inspections have revealed a nonconformity throughout the aviation industry in training and procedures
for F/As who have to work in lower lobe galleys. Air carrier emergency procedures pertaining to the lower lobe should include procedures and training on the location
and use of emergency equipment. The emergency procedures should also include the removal of an injured F/A in the lower section.
F. Minimum Equipment List (MEL) Incompatibility Between Aircraft. MELs between different aircraft (e.g., DC-10, L-1011, and B-747) are not always
compatible. In one instance, if the personnel lift is inoperable, the F/As will not perform food servicing during flight. In another instance, if the personnel
lift is inoperable, the F/As may go down to the lower galley, but the service is limited to a number of carts that can be delivered and stowed in the passenger
cabin. In addition, F/As have sustained serious injuries caused by certain lift malfunctions that occurred during flight.
1) Air carriers should include procedures in their F/A manuals and training programs to assure that there are adequate instructions throughout their system
on dispatching aircraft with inoperable personnel or cart lifts.
2) Air carriers should have procedures in the event these lifts become inoperable during flight. Further, assurance should be sought to determine that
each air carrier is keeping F/As informed on conditions and procedures, which are set forth in the MELs that affect them.
G. Proper Stowage of Carts. Some airlines do not have a sufficient number of mushrooms in the cabin in order for crewmembers to “tie down” each
serving cart in the event of turbulence. These carts can weigh up to 250 pounds and should be anchored when not being transferred to or from the cart lifts.
Air carrier procedures and training should include instructions to F/As that all carts must be properly stowed for:
· Movement on the surface,
· Landing, and
· Whenever they are not being moved from one location to another.
H. Maintaining Mushroom-Type Restraints. The FAA has found some retractable “mushrooms” in lower galleys inoperable. They are either jammed
in the down position or, when lifted to the up position, will fall back down when the cart is placed over it. The automatic brakes are insufficient to keep
the carts from moving about during takeoff and landing. Air carriers should conduct inspections periodically in the lower lobe to see that the mushrooms
are operable and that crewmembers adhere to procedures requiring each cart to be tied down or stowed. Air carrier maintenance programs should ensure that
mushroom restraints and other types of floor tiedowns are not worn down. The thickness and circular diameter must be maintained in order for the mushroom-type restraints to properly secure the cart.
3-3553 PREDEPARTURE CABIN EQUIPMENT CHECKS BY F/As. Some air carriers assign F/A tasks for making a predeparture check of the normal and emergency equipment in the passenger
A. Predeparture Equipment Check Assignments. In reviewing this situation, the FAA found that in most cases, the F/As on wide-body aircraft
have predeparture equipment check assignments. On other aircraft, flightcrew members and F/As sometimes share the predeparture check of passenger cabin normal
and emergency equipment. In each case, the POI and/or CSI (as applicable) indicated that the F/As received training on the equipment and the operations manual contained appropriate procedures.
B. Specific Tasks Assigned to F/As. When an air carrier elects to have F/As accomplish a predeparture check of normal and emergency equipment in the cabin,
the POI and/or CSI (as applicable) should be fully aware of the specific tasks assigned to the F/As. These tasks should be reviewed to ensure that they are
not in the areas which require an airman certificate. Appropriate initial and recurrent training is required to ensure F/As are properly qualified. Air carriers
must also include adequate procedures and instructions in their manuals so that applicable personnel will be able to properly perform their assigned tasks.
C. Flightcrew Member Training. The assignment of F/As by an air carrier to conduct a predeparture check of the cabin does not relieve the air
carrier from training flightcrew members on normal and emergency equipment in the passenger cabin.
3-3554 PASSENGER BRIEFING ON FLOOR PROXIMITY LIGHTING. Briefing airline passengers regarding the presence of floor proximity lighting is a good safety
practice and should be encouraged. Part
requires the installation of floor proximity emergency escape path marking. The purpose of this lighting is to provide emergency evacuation guidance for
passengers when all sources of illumination, more than 4 feet above the cabin aisle floor, are totally obscured.
A. Informing Passengers of Proximity Lighting. Many airline passengers are not aware of this lighting. Therefore, many air carriers include a statement
about the lighting in the passenger briefing required by part
and depict it on the passenger information cards.
B. Lighting Information in Passenger Briefing. Information that should be included in the passenger briefing includes the actual location of
the lights, such as floor level or seat level. In addition, the briefing should include the change in pattern, such as color and/or design of the lights, that indicates the location of emergency exits.
3-3555 CABIN DOOR OPERATING MECHANISMS.
A. Passengers Moving Door Operating Mechanisms. At times, passengers have consciously or inadvertently moved door operating mechanisms, even when
the mechanisms were located under protective plastic covers. In at least one case, a passenger removed a plastic cover before the door operating handle was
moved. A handle that is moved during flight could accidentally cause an aircraft door to open during landing. In one situation, when a door opened, the slide
was deployed. This was unsafe and caused considerable expense to the air carrier.
B. POI/CSI Responsibilities. POIs and/or CSIs, as applicable, should ensure that their assigned air carriers:
1) Inform crewmembers of the potential problem of, and the need to be alert to the possibility of, passengers moving an exit mechanism.
2) Have procedures for crewmembers to check the position of the door handles periodically during flight.
3-3556 FOKKER 28-4000 PASSENGER SAFETY INFORMATION CARDS.
A. Door Operation Depiction on Passenger Information Cards. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) believes that there may be a problem
with the door operation depiction on some Fokker 28-4000 passenger information cards. The NTSB requested that the FAA review the Fokker 28-4000 passenger information cards to ensure that they:
· Accurately show the procedure for operation of the two forward doors,
· Show the procedure for the removal of the overwing emergency exit handle cover, and
· Contain a warning to passengers that the plastic cover should only be removed in emergency situations.
B. POI/CSI Review of Passenger Safety Information Cards. Even though the passenger information cards are supplementary to the oral briefings required by part
POIs and/or CSIs (as applicable) assigned to air carriers operating the Fokker 28-4000 should review pertinent passenger safety information cards
to ensure that they show the correct information. In the event that the cards are deficient, the proper information should be displayed when the cards are replaced.
3-3557 MISCELLANEOUS OPERATIONAL AMENDMENTS, AIR CARRIER CABIN SAFETY OPERATIONS PROVISIONS. In this rule, there are several amendments to parts
that affect the following areas of air carrier cabin safety operations:
· Safety belt security during movement on the surface;
· Stowage of service items during movement on the surface;
· Passenger information and passenger briefing provisions;
· Passenger compliance with signs, placards, and crewmember instruction; and
· Readiness of emergency evacuation assisting means.
A. Passenger Information.
require passenger information signs to be illuminated during any movement on the surface. In addition, these regulations require passengers to obey the
instructions of signs and placards and the instructions of crewmembers regarding these signs and placards.
2) Regulations require that:
· Passengers be briefed on prohibitions against smoking, and
· A statement be added to the pretakeoff announcement stating that Federal Aviation Regulations require passenger
compliance with lighted passenger information signs and crewmember instructions concerning the use of seat belts.
B. Arming Doors. Part
requires that any time there are passengers onboard, one door must be ready for evacuation. If the jetway or stairs are pulled back, then at least
one door must be armed (for example, for certain door slide/raft installations, the girt bar must be in place).
C. Movement on the Surface.
require that all service items (including food, beverage, tableware, beverage trays, serving carts, and movie screens) are in their stowed position
for movement on the surface. If there is a question regarding the stowage of a particular item, and it must be stowed for takeoff and landing, then it must
also be stowed for movement on the surface. It should be noted that air carriers may arrange to provide limited food and beverage service to its passengers when
the aircraft is no longer moving on the surface (e.g., when the aircraft is stationary on a taxiway in a long queue awaiting takeoff or in the airport penalty
box). In such cases, the air carrier should have specific procedures for flightcrew members and F/As to follow, including coordination and communication between
the flight deck and the passenger cabin. This will ensure that these new requirements are met before aircraft movement on the surface resumes.
now require all occupants of an aircraft to be seated with their safety belts fastened during movement on the surface.
3-3558 USE OF CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEMS (CRS) IN AIRCRAFT. This paragraph provides additional information on the use of CRSs in aircraft. The FAA and the National
Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) have agreed upon a single government performance standard that will satisfy both aviation and highway safety requirements
for CRSs (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213, in Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR) part 571 § 571.213). Information
regarding most CRS manufacturers is maintained at the NHTSA Web site
In addition, the FAA may approve an “aviation-only” CRS through a Technical Standard Order (TSO), a type certificate (TC), a STC, or approval under 14 CFR part
(Amdt. 21-50 9 Sept. 1980) or approval under §
A. Seat Occupancy Regulations. Part
requires that “during takeoff, landing, and movement on the surface of an airplane, each person on board shall occupy an approved seat or berth
with a separate safety belt properly secured about him or her. However, a person who has not reached his/her second birthday may be held by an adult who is occupying a seat or berth.”
B. Children Under the Age of 2. For taxi, takeoff and landing, an adult may hold a child under the age of 2 in their lap. A child weighing more then
40 pounds may occupy a passenger seat. However, because of the safety benefits, the FAA encourages the use of approved child/infant restraints aboard aircraft (for more information, see
C. Accommodation of CRSs in Empty Seats. Air carriers are encouraged to allow the use of empty seats to accommodate CRSs. However, air carriers are
under no obligation to allow unticketed children to occupy empty passenger seats, regardless of whether the parent or guardian is to place the child in a CRS.
D. CRS Criteria. Air carrier personnel, specifically F/As, should be aware of the following items pertaining to CRSs meeting the criteria of 49 CFR part 571, § 571.213. The CRS
· A solid back and seat;
· Internal restraint straps installed to securely hold the child to the CRS;
· A label stating that the FAA, a foreign government, or the United Nations has approved it for aviation use; and
· Instructions on the label that the user must follow (labels stating approval from a foreign government or the United
Nations (U.N.) are allowed and therefore may vary).
E. Booster Seats. FMVSS-213 defines booster seats as seats not having backs. Based on this definition, the use of such automotive booster
seats is not authorized in air carrier operation. Unfortunately, some manufacturers market and label their approved aviation child restraint seats as “booster seats,”
even though these seats have backs. Thus, passengers can use aviation “booster seats” with backs and labeled “approved for aviation use” for all phases of flight, provided they follow the label instructions.
NOTE: Usually, parents and guardians can properly restrain children who fit in an automotive booster seat in an airline passenger seat without a CRS.
F. CRS Performance in Passenger Seats. In 1994, the FAA issued a study entitled “The Performance of Child Restraint Devices in Transport Airplane Seats.” The research for the
study, conducted by the FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI), involved dynamic impact tests with a variety of CRSs installed in transport category aircraft passenger seats. The FAA used the results of
this study as the basis for prohibiting the use of the following devices during ground movement, takeoff, and landing. The CAMI study revealed the following observations:
1) Belly Belts. These devices attach the child to the accompanying adult. An abdominal belt attached to the
adult’s seatbelt restrains the child. During dynamic testing, the forward flailing of the adult and the child resulted in severe body impacts against the forward
seat. The child Anthropomorphic Test Dummy (ATD) moved forward to impact the forward row seat back, followed by the adult ATD torso striking the child ATD. Then, the adult ATD torso continued to move forward
after contact with the child ATD, crushing the child ATD against the seat back.
2) Harness Restraints. The devices that CAMI tested consisted of a torso harness for the child ATD placed in its
own seat with the airplane seatbelt routed through a loop of webbing attached to the back of the harness. During dynamic testing, the devices allowed excessive
forward body excursion, resulting in the test dummy sliding off the front of the seat with a high likelihood of the child’s entire body impacting the back of the seat directly in front of him or her. Then,
elasticity in the webbing of the harness and seatbelts pulled the ATD rearward and this rebound acceleration presented further risk of injury.
3) Booster Seats. A key concern for backless booster seats used in airplane seats is the combined effect of seat back breakover and impact of an adult seated behind the child.
Booster seats may expose the child occupant to potential abdominal injury due to the combined effects of these forces.
G. Design of CRSs Approved Through a TC, STC, Under §
(Amdt. 21-50 9 Sept. 1980) or Under §
Typically, a CRS that the FAA approves through the TSO process would be similar in design to a CRS that meets FMVSS-213 requirements. However, CRSs approved by the FAA through a TC, STC, under §
(Amdt. 21-50 9 Sept. 1980) or under §
may contain novel and unusual design features (e.g., a harness-type device currently approved under §
(Amdt. 21-50 9 Sept. 1980) that provides upper torso restraint for children). The regulations allow the use of CRSs that are booster-type or vest- and harness-type,
if the FAA has approved them through a TC, STC, TSO, under §
(Amdt. 21-50 9 Sept. 1980), or under §
The air carrier is responsible for ensuring that crewmembers have proper training and information regarding the use of CRSs approved for use on aircraft through a TC, STC, TSO, or under §
(Amdt. 21-50 9 Sept. 1980), or under §
NOTE: Except for CRSs approved by the FAA through a TC, STC, TSO, under §
(Amdt. 21-50 9 Sept. 1980), or under §
the following CRSs continue to be prohibited for use during ground movement, takeoff, and landing:
· Lap-held child restraint (commonly referred to as a belly belt);
· Vest- and harness-type devices
that attach the child to the parent, the parent’s restraint system, or to the aircraft seatbelt; and
· Booster-type child restraints
(even though they may bear appropriate labels showing that they meet applicable U.N. standards or are approved by a foreign Government).
H. CRS Installation. Parents and guardians must install CRSs in forward-facing aircraft seats and in accordance with instructions on the
label. This includes placing the child restraint in either a forward- or aft-facing direction in the passenger seat. A window seat is the preferred location; however,
other locations may be acceptable, provided the CRS does not block any passenger’s (including the parent or guardian of the child) access to the aisle used to
evacuate the aircraft. A responsible adult should occupy a seat next to the child.
I. CRS Installation with Inflatable Seat Belts. A seat belt extender must always be used with a CRS. The seat belt extender will deactivate the inflatable
seat belt. Not using belt extender with a child seat can result in death or serious injury.
J. CRS Acceptance Regulations. Parts
require air carriers to accept approved CRSs when the parent or guardian/attendant has purchased a ticket for their use.
1) These regulations require air carriers to ensure that the child is properly secured in the CRS, the CRS is properly secured in a forward-facing
seat, the child does not exceed the weight limits of the CRS, and the CRS is approved and has the proper labels.
2) These regulations do not permit the use of belly belts, vest- and harness-type devices that attach to the parent or to the parent’s restraint
system, or booster-type CRSs (even though some of these devices bear appropriate labels showing that they meet applicable U.N. standards or that a foreign government approved them).
3) If the parent or guardian supplies the approved CRS, they are primarily responsible for ensuring that the CRS is approved, that the child is the right
size and weight for the CRS, and that they properly install the CRS in a forward-facing passenger seat. In this case, F/A responsibility is limited to checking with
the child’s parent or guardian to ensure that the CRS and the child have met the above conditions, that the child appears to be properly restrained in the CRS, and that the CRS appears to be properly installed
in the passenger seat. Finally, it is the responsibility of the parent or guardian to ensure that the CRS is free of any obvious defects and functions properly.
4) In cases where the air carrier supplies the approved CRS, properly trained personnel should ensure that the CRS is free of any obvious defects
and functions properly. The trained personnel should also ensure that:
· The child does not exceed the weight limits of the CRS;
· The child is properly restrained in the CRS; and
· The CRS is properly installed in a forward-facing passenger seat.
5) No air carrier may prohibit a child from using an approved CRS when the parent or guardian purchases a seat for the child, a parent or guardian accompanies
the child, and the child is within the weight limits for the CRS. If an approved CRS, for which a parent or guardian has purchased a seat, does not fit in a particular seat on the aircraft, the air carrier has
the responsibility to accommodate the CRS in another seat in the same class of service. The following are examples of design variations where accommodation is required:
a) A crewmember can move a CRS with a base that is too wide to fit properly in a seat with rigid armrests to a seat with moveable armrests that can be raised to accommodate the CRS.
b) A crewmember can move an aft-facing CRS that they cannot install properly because of minimal pitch (distance between seats) between rows, to a bulkhead
seat or a seat in a row with additional pitch.
c) A crewmember can move a harness-type CRS (approved under §
(Amdt. 21-50 9 Sept. 1980)) with
an upper strap that is not able to encircle some sleeper seats or very large first class seats, to another seat that can accommodate the strap.
d) There are some aft-facing CRS that have a detachable base that may keep the CRS from fitting properly in the seat. The following visual cues will assist
the passenger and the aircraft operator to determine if the detachable base is necessary:
· If there is no belt path on the aft-facing CRS, then the passenger must use it with the detachable base on aircraft.
· If there is a belt path on the aft-facing CRS and the CRS is properly labeled, then the passenger does not need to use
it with the detachable base on aircraft.
· FMVSS-213 labeling standards do not require labeling on the detachable base.
NOTE: F/A training and procedures should emphasize that the regulations require an air carrier to accommodate approved CRSs for
which a parent or guardian has purchased a seat.
K. Effective Air Carrier Practices. The following are effective practices that an air carrier may consider in its training and procedures regarding CRSs:
· The air carrier’s training program should cover the use of CRSs;
· The parent or guardian should secure the CRS to a regular passenger
seat at all times or stow it as carry-on baggage, if not in use;
· During an emergency evacuation the CRS should remain attached
to the passenger seat, and only the child should be removed from the aircraft;
· No other passenger may occupy the same passenger seat with the CRS;
· The regulations do not allow a passenger to use a CRS in sideward-facing passenger seats; and
· The child should always be properly secured in the CRS whenever
other passengers are required to have their safety belts fastened.
L. CRS Placement for Passengers Traveling with Multiple Children. In the event that a parent or guardian is traveling with more than one child
in a CRS or is traveling with several small children, only one of whom is occupying a CRS, crewmembers should use good judgment regarding placement of the CRS. At a minimum:
· The CRS should be placed so that it does not block any passenger’s
(including the parent or guardian) access to the aisle used to evacuate the airplane; and
· The CRS should be placed so that the parent or guardian can reach
the child in the CRS to release and evacuate with the child, should an emergency evacuation be necessary.
NOTE: As long as the CRS meets the above conditions, this may result in the parent or guardian placing the CRS between a passenger (including him
or herself) and the aisle and/or placing the CRS in a seat other than a window seat.
M. CRSs for Larger Children. The majority of individuals who use CRSs on commercial aircraft are young children who typically weigh 40 pounds
or less. However, there are some individuals who, because of physical challenges, need the support and security that a restraint system provides in order to travel safely on aircraft. Parts
contain the scope of the CRS regulations, which apply to any child (i.e., under age 18)) who does not exceed the specified weight limit for a CRS and is properly secured in a CRS that bears the proper labels.
1) Air carriers should ensure that F/As are aware that larger children (who have not reached their 18th birthday) may use a properly approved CRS that
is appropriate for the child’s size and weight. In this case, the air carrier may not prohibit the use of the CRS.
2) There are several companies that manufacture CRSs approved for use on aircraft that are specifically designed for larger children who are physically
challenged. The NHTSA maintains a list of information regarding some of those manufacturers
NOTE: No air carrier may prohibit the use of a CRS by any child under the age of 18 as long as the CRS is properly labeled, the child does not exceed
the specified weight limit of the CRS, and the child is properly secured in the CRS.
N. CRS for Adults with Physical Challenges. In the case of an adult (i.e., 18 years old or older) who, because of physical challenges, needs
the support and security that a restraint system provides in order to travel safely on aircraft, the individual or the air carrier (on the individual’s behalf) may request an exemption to §
There are several companies that manufacture restraint systems for adult use.
2) Exemption information is available for your review on the FAA’s Automated Exemption System (AES) Web site. To review previously granted exemptions regarding this issue, go to
and enter “121.311” in the search field under “Regulation.”
O. TSO-C100c, Child Restraint Systems. On April 6, 2012, the FAA published TSO-C100c, which contains minimum performance standards that a
CRS must meet in order to obtain approval and to be identified with the applicable TSO marking. The FAA published the TSO for review and comment prior to its adoption.
Access this TSO at
P. Labeling/Marking Requirements. Current operating rules in parts
require that CRSs used on aircraft during ground movement, takeoff, and landing meet one of the following labeling or marking requirements:
1) The CRS must bear two labels, although the manufacturer typically merges the text for these two required labels
onto one label. The labeling must include the text, “This CRS conforms to all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards” and “This Restraint is Certified for Use in Motor Vehicles and Aircraft,”
in red lettering.
2) The CRS must bear either a label showing approval of a foreign Government or a label showing that the CRS was manufactured under the standards of the United Nations.
3) The CRS must bear a label or markings showing FAA approval through an STC.
4) The manufacturer must permanently and legibly mark CRSs approved under TSO-C100c, “TSO‑C100c.”
5) CRS showing FAA approval under §
must bear the label “FAA Approved in Accordance with 14 CFR
or “FAA Approved in Accordance with 14 CFR
(Amdt. 21-50 9 Sept. 1980)
3-3559 USE OF NON-APPROVED CHILD/INFANT RESTRAINT SYSTEMS IN AIRCRAFT. The regulations that are contained in §
prohibit the use of certain types of CRSs during ground movement, takeoff, and landing.
A. CRS Regulations During the Cruise Portion of Flight. During the cruise portion of the flight, however, there is no regulatory prohibition
regarding the use of any type of child restraint, including those that are prohibited from use during ground movement, takeoff, and landing.
B. Nonapproved CRS Use During the Cruise Portion of Flight. There is also no regulatory requirement that an air carrier permit the use of non-approved
CRSs during the cruise portion of flight. If an air carrier decides to implement an operational policy that is not inconsistent with the regulations, they have the operational flexibility to do so.
3-3560 DOOR/SLIDE ARMING. Crewmembers should be able to evacuate passengers from an aircraft whether it is moving on the surface or parked at the gate.
A. Arming an Exit After Retraction of Stairs or Jetway. In accordance with existing regulations, air carriers must have procedures to ensure that
immediately after the stairs or jetway are pulled back from the airplane, at least one floor level exit is armed. At least one air carrier has expressed
concern that this practice could result in an evacuation where the slide would inflate and perhaps hit someone on the ground. If this concern is of primary
importance to an air carrier, then the air carrier should have a policy that ensures that all ground vehicles are out of the possible “slide strike” area before the jetway or stairs are pulled back.
B. When to Arm Doors. In the past, the requirements stipulated that the crewmembers must arm doors before the pilot taxied the aircraft. However,
the present requirements mandate that crewmembers arm each floor level exit before movement on the surface. The ideal time to arm the doors is immediately
before the aircraft begins to move. Procedures to arm doors simultaneously with the start of pushback are also acceptable.
3-3561 PASSENGER SEATBELT DISCIPLINE. Passengers unfastening their seatbelts when the seatbelt sign is illuminated concerns the FAA. The regulations
require air carriers to illuminate the seatbelt sign:
· Before movement on the surface;
· During takeoff and landing; and
· At any other time when considered necessary by the PIC.
A. “Fasten Seatbelt” Sign Regulations. Regulations also require all passengers to occupy their seat, with their seatbelt fastened, when the
seatbelt sign is illuminated and to comply with crewmember instructions regarding the “Fasten Seatbelt” sign.
B. Seatbelt Sign Announcement Requirements. When the seatbelt sign is turned on, crewmembers should make an announcement. The announcement
should emphasize that when the seatbelt sign is illuminated, regulations require passengers to fasten their seatbelts. In addition, as long as the sign is illuminated,
crewmembers should periodically remind passengers that the seatbelt sign is lighted. Crewmembers should make additional and forceful announcements if passengers
stand and the seatbelt sign is illuminated, especially during turbulent air operations.
C. Seatbelt Sign Announcement Before Landing. Many passengers regard the illumination of the seatbelt sign prior to landing as a signal to
prepare for landing by going to the lavatory, standing, or stowing baggage. This is not a safe practice. Some crewmembers have adopted the desirable practice
of making an announcement before turning on the seatbelt sign for landing. They announce that:
· The flight will be landing shortly; now is the time to go to the lavatory or move about the cabin, and
· Once the seatbelt sign is illuminated, passengers should be in their seats with their belts fastened.
D. Safety Problems Due to Passengers Standing During Taxi. Historically, most airlines ensured that passengers were seated during movement on the surface.
However, during the 1980s, at least one airline allowed its aircraft to be taxied with passengers standing. The FAA Administrator defined this practice as a careless
and reckless operation. The FAA filed violations and the courts upheld them. Therefore, the FAA incorporated into 14 CFR the requirement that the seatbelt
sign must be turned on prior to movement on the surface. This does not mean that pilots must stop an aircraft when a passenger stands. Pilots must weigh
the safety alternatives before determining if it is appropriate to stop an airplane because a passenger stands up during taxi. Pilots may elect to stop the aircraft
when it is pulling up to a gate and several passengers stand. However, there may be other times when stopping the aircraft could cause a more serious safety problem.
E. Seating All Passengers Before the Loading Door is Closed. The regulations do not require all passengers to be seated before the passenger
loading door is closed. Requiring passengers to be seated before the passenger loading door is closed is one way air carriers have chosen to obtain passenger
compliance with the lighted seatbelt sign. This is a good practice, but not one that the FAA requires.
F. Announcement for Keeping Seatbelts Fastened While Seated. Crewmembers must make an announcement when the seatbelt sign is turned off in
flight that passengers should keep their seatbelts fastened when seated. The POI and/or CSI (as applicable) should emphasize the requirement for this announcement.
In addition, POIs and/or CSIs (as applicable) should encourage air carriers to establish additional procedures to emphasize the importance of passengers
wearing their seatbelts at all times when seated. These procedures could include:
· Additional announcements,
· Video presentations, and
· Articles in air carrier publications or pamphlets in seat pockets.
G. Announcement Techniques for Forewarning Passengers. POIs and/or CSIs (as applicable) should encourage air carriers to use announcement techniques
that serve to forewarn passengers of pending situations that will require them to comply with the seatbelt sign when it is illuminated. Examples of these situations
include expected turbulence and approaching destination. These techniques should be designed to preclude any passenger movement once the seatbelt sign is illuminated.
H. Standup Bar Regulations. Standup bars on wide-bodied air carrier aircraft have caused considerable concern for the safety of passengers when
turbulence is encountered. On occasion, both passengers and F/As have disregarded the seatbelt sign when it was turned on and continued to congregate near the
bar. This results in a potentially hazardous situation, not only for those passengers standing, but also for others seated in the area adjacent to the bar. From a
safety viewpoint, whenever the seatbelt sign is on, all passengers, including those in the vicinity of the standup bar, should be secured in their seats.
Air carriers having standup bars installed in their aircraft should issue suitable instructions for F/As regarding seatbelt discipline procedures.
3-3562 FLIGHT AND CABIN CREWMEMBER COORDINATION, COMMUNICATION, AND SAFETY DURING POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS OF FLIGHT. A review of aircraft
accidents/incidents and cabin en route inspection reports indicates that there is a need for better communication between flight and cabin crewmembers. Also,
there is a need for better seatbelt discipline from passengers and F/As.
A. Potential F/A Injury. Due to the nature of their cabin duties, F/As are susceptible to turbulence-related injuries. Close coordination between
flight and cabin crewmembers can facilitate the timely completion of cabin services and preclude the exposure of F/As to potential injury during known or anticipated encounters with turbulence.
B. PIC Responsibilities. During flight, the PIC is responsible for the safety of passengers and crewmembers. Therefore, the PIC should ensure that:
· The cabin crewmembers complete their safety duties as appropriate for each phase of flight;
· During takeoff and landing, the F/As are seated at their duty station with safety belts and shoulder harnesses
· During movement on the surface, unless performing safety-related duties, F/As must sit with safety belts and shoulder
C. Flightcrew Responsibilities During Emergency Conditions. During emergency conditions, the flightcrew is primarily responsible for maintaining
control of the airplane. However, as conditions permit, the flightcrew should brief the F/As on the nature of the emergency, the approximate amount of time
for cabin preparation, and the contemplated course of action. This will enable the F/As to more effectively carry out their duties.
D. Crewmember Training. Air carriers should be reminded that it is advisable to make a PA announcement to remind passengers that Federal
regulations require them to fasten their seatbelts when the seatbelt sign is turned on. Additionally, §§
specify that training programs must ensure that each crewmember remains adequately trained. The training program should include:
· Instruction on coordination among crewmembers in abnormal/emergency situations, and
· Review and discussion of previous aircraft accidents and incidents pertaining to actual emergency situations.
E. Coordination and Communication Between Flight and Cabin Crewmembers. Coordination and communication between flight and cabin crewmembers during
all phases of flight concerns the FAA. The FAA requests that POIs review their assigned air carrier’s training program and operational manuals to ensure that
the air carrier establishes a safe and effective means of coordination and communication between the flight and cabin crewmembers. POIs should address the following
operation, coordination, and communication procedures:
1) Guidance to flightcrew members on the importance of a predeparture briefing of the senior F/As, which includes forecast turbulence-related weather conditions,
scheduling of cabin services, cleanup, securing of galley and cabin, carry-on baggage, and passengers.
2) Use of the PA system to alert F/As and passengers of anticipated in-flight turbulence.
3) Guidance for notifying F/As when they are to cease in-flight services, secure the galley, sit with their restraints fastened, and/or resume duties.
4) Standardized notification from the cabin crew to the flightcrew when the cabin crew completes all pretakeoff and prelanding duties and the cabin has been secured.
5) Standardized pretakeoff and prelanding signals from the flightcrew, which the flightcrew uses to allow sufficient time for F/As to be seated.
3-3563 BRACE-FOR-IMPACT POSITIONS.
A. Brace-for-Impact Research and Tests. The Protection and Survival Laboratory of the Aeromedical Research Branch of the CAMI has conducted research
and tests with respect to establishing “brace-for-impact” positions for passengers and F/As.
B. Establishing the Best Brace-for-Impact Position. In order to establish a best brace-for-impact position for each person, it would be necessary
to know the size and physical limitations of the individual, the seating configuration, the type of emergency, and many other factors.
C. Reasons for Bracing for Impact. There are two primary reasons for bracing for impact:
1) To Reduce Flailing. Having the occupant flex, bend, or lean forward over their legs can reduce flailing.
2) To Reduce Secondary Impact. Repositioning the body (particularly the head) against the surface it would strike during impact can reduce secondary impact.
D. Seat Pitch Spacing. Today’s aircraft may have seating arrangements that result in very small seat pitches (the space between seats) or a combination
of small and large seat pitch spacing (i.e., an aircraft with a first class/coach seating arrangements). Also, amendments to part
have upgraded the airworthiness standards for F/A seats, including the requirement for shoulder harnesses. In view of this information, this provides the best possible information for most emergency situations.
E. Passenger Brace-for-Impact Positions. Passengers should take a brace position in one of several ways. In all cases, the seatbelt should be
worn, as tight and as low on the torso as possible.
1) In aircraft with low-density seating or seats spaced relatively far apart, passengers should rest their head and chests against their legs, as depicted in Illustration A or
B of Figure 3-125, Brace Position in Aircraft with Low-Density Seating or Seats Spaced Relatively Far Apart. Passengers can reduce flailing by grasping their ankles or legs, as depicted in Illustration A,
or if they are unable to do that, wrapping their arms under their legs, as depicted in Illustration B. Their heads should be face down in their laps, and not turned to one side.
Figure 3-125. Brace Position in Aircraft with Low-Density Seating or Seats Spaced Relatively Far Apart
2) In aircraft with high-density seating or in cases where passengers are physically limited and are unable to place their heads in their laps, they should position their heads
and arms against the seat (or bulkhead) in front of them, as depicted in Figure 3-126, Brace Position in Aircraft with High-Density Seating or Where Passengers Are Physically Limited.
Figure 3-126. Brace Position in Aircraft with High-Density Seating or Where Passengers Are Physically Limited
3) Passengers in aft-facing seats should rest their heads on the seat back (or bulkhead) behind them as depicted in Figure 3-127, Brace Position for Passengers in Aft-Facing Seats.
The passengers should not place their hands behind their heads, as has been recommended in the past. Rather, passengers should either place their hands in their laps or grasp the side of their seats.
Figure 3-127. Brace Position for Passengers in Aft-Facing Seats
4) Passengers should place their feet flat on the floor and slightly in front of the edge of the seat.
5) Passengers should not use pillows or blankets between their bodies and the object they are bracing against (either a seat back or their own body).
Pillows and blankets provide little, if any, energy absorption and increase the possibility of secondary impact injury. Also, pillows and blankets could
create additional clutter in the aisles which could be a detriment in an emergency evacuation.
6) Children that occupy approved child restraint devices should be braced in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Children in passenger seats
should utilize the same brace position as adults. Adults holding infants should provide uniform support to the infant’s head, neck, and body and lean over the infant to minimize the possibility of injury due to
7) Pregnant or handicapped passengers may or may not need the assistance of another person in taking a brace position, but should, in general, attempt
to take the same brace position as the other passengers. If aft-facing passenger seats are available, these passengers may benefit from being located at those seats.
F. F/A Brace-for-Impact Positions. The brace positions for F/As will depend on the direction their seats face and the type of restraint system those seats are equipped with.
1) In forward-facing seats equipped with an inertial reel shoulder harness, F/As should sit back in the seat, as depicted in Figure 3-127, and rest their
chin on their sternum, as depicted in Figure 3-128, Brace Position with Chin on Sternum. If the seats are equipped with noninertial reel-type shoulder harnesses,
F/As should fasten their shoulder harnesses as tight as possible, lean against them, and rest their chins on their sternums as depicted in Figure 3-128. F/As
should position their arms and hands in their laps or hold on to the side of their seats, but they should not hold onto their restraint systems.
Figure 3-128. Brace Position with Chin on Sternum
2) In rear-facing F/A seats, the F/As should sit back in their seats, rest their heads against their seat backs or headrests, and have the restraint
systems (inertial or noninertial type) as tight as possible, as depicted in Figure 3-127. They should not clasp their hands behind their heads, but position them as in a forward-facing seat.
G. Helicopter Brace-for-Impact Positions. Helicopter brace-for-impact positions are the same as those for airplanes. F/As, if present, should utilize
either the brace position for passengers or F/As depending on their seats and restraint systems.
H. Briefing Passengers on Brace-for-Impact Positions. In the case of an anticipated emergency landing, passengers should be briefed on the
above information. In the case of an unanticipated emergency, F/As may only have enough time to give a short command, such as “Lean over,” or “Grab your
ankles.” Experience has shown that in an attempt to take a brace position of some sort, passengers will end up in a position that could result in less injury than if they make no attempt at all.
I. Bracing Information in Crewmember Training. The air carrier’s crewmember emergency training program should contain bracing information appropriate
to the aircraft and seat spacing used by that air carrier.
3-3564 EMPHASIS ON TIME MANAGEMENT AND CREW COORDINATION IN PREPARATION OF CABIN FOR IMPENDING EMERGENCY LANDING.
A. Background. On July 19, 1989, a DC-10-10, N1819U, operated by United Airlines, Inc. (UAL) as Flight 232, experienced a catastrophic failure
of the number 2 tail-mounted engine during cruise flight. The separation, fragmentation, and forceful discharge of stage 1 fan rotor assembly parts from the number 2
engine led to the loss of the three hydraulic systems that powered the airplane’s flight controls. The flightcrew experienced severe difficulties controlling
the airplane, which subsequently crashed during an attempted landing at Sioux Gateway Airport, Iowa. There were 285 passengers and 11 crewmembers onboard. One F/A and 110 passengers were killed.
B. NTSB Recommendation A-90-173. The NTSB investigation resulted in recommendations to the FAA. They included recommendation A-90-173: Issue
an Air Carrier Operations Bulletin for all air carrier flightcrew training departments to review this accident scenario and reiterate the importance of time management
in the preparation of the cabin for an impending emergency landing.
C. POI and CSI Training Responsibilities. POIs and/or CSIs (if applicable) should ensure that their assigned air carrier’s training department
reviews the accident scenario of UAL Flight 232. Emphasis should be on time management and crew coordination and/or communication in emergency cabin preparation.
The lessons learned in this accident may be very useful for developing air carrier training curriculums. In any case, each emergency training program should provide
F/As, who may be required to act in rapidly changing emergency conditions, with knowledge of the air carrier’s policies and procedures. Crew Resource Management
(CRM) training, with practice and feedback sessions, is recommended for building communication, situational awareness (SA), problem-solving, and stress management skills.
3-3565 F/A RESTRAINT DURING A CRASH AND EMERGENCY EVACUATION 2nd CHOICE EXIT DETERMINATION.
A. Background. On February 1, 1991, a B-737-300 collided with a Fairchild Metroliner while the B-737 was landing. The Metroliner was positioned
on the same runway awaiting clearance for takeoff. As a result of the collision, both airplanes were destroyed. All 10 passengers and 2 crewmembers aboard the
Metroliner, and 20 passengers and 2 crewmembers aboard the B-737 were killed.
B. NTSB Recommendations A-91-117 and A-91-118. The NTSB investigation resulted in recommendations to the FAA. They included recommendation A-91-117:
Direct the emergency evacuation subcommittee of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee to examine flight attendant emergency procedures regarding the “2nd
choice” exit assignments to ensure that such assignments provide for use of the nearest appropriate exit point. They also included recommendation A-91-118:
Issue an Air Carrier Operations Bulletin directing principal operations inspectors to emphasize that during a crash sequence flight attendants must remain properly
restrained and seated in their crew seats until the airplane has come to a complete stop.
C. NTSB-Recommended POI and/or CSI Responsibilities. The NTSB believes that POIs and/or CSIs (as applicable) should ensure that air carriers emphasize the following:
1) During F/A training, the air carriers that have a 2nd choice exit assignment for F/As (e.g., overwing Type III exits) should emphasize the need
to evaluate personal risk in a decision to use a closer escape path rather than using the assigned 2nd choice exit. For example, another door or any opening in the fuselage may be more acceptable and more
2) During a crash sequence, F/As must remain properly restrained and seated in their crew seats until the airplane has come to a complete stop.
D. F/A Manual and Training Program Procedures. Procedures in F/A manuals and training programs that provide for 2nd choice exit assignments
for aircraft emergency evacuation should be reviewed. This review should ensure that such assignments also provide for the use of the nearest available exit or fuselage opening when appropriate.
E. Crewmember Determination of Aircraft’s Complete Stop. Air carrier training programs often emphasize the need for rapid evacuation following
takeoff and landing accidents. On the other hand, it is often difficult for F/As involved in such accidents to determine when an aircraft comes to a complete
stop. This lack of a combination of cues (motion, deceleration, etc.) can result in F/As releasing their seatbelts prematurely. If the aircraft experiences a
sudden deceleration while a crewmember is unsecured, the result may be incapacitation to that crewmember and an increase of passenger evacuation time. Therefore,
crewmember training should emphasize the importance of crewmembers remaining seated and properly restrained until the aircraft comes to a complete stop.
It should also identify techniques to aid crewmembers in making that determination.
F. F/A Evacuation Scenario Training. During training in a crash scenario, air carriers should emphasize the following to their F/As:
· The need for them to evaluate personal risk in a decision to use a 2nd choice exit, and
· The need for them to remain seated and properly secured until the aircraft comes to a complete stop.
3-3566 ACCIDENT NOTIFICATION AND MANIFEST ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES.
A. Background. On September 20, 1989, a B-737-400 was an “extra section” passenger flight to replace the regularly scheduled (but cancelled)
flight from New York City’s LaGuardia Airport. As the first officer began the takeoff on runway 31, he felt the airplane drift left. The captain also noticed
the left drift and used the nosewheel tiller to help steer. As the takeoff run progressed, the aircrew heard a “bang” and a continual rumbling noise. The captain
then took over and rejected the takeoff, but did not stop the airplane before running off the end of the runway into Bowery Bay. The accident occurred in
darkness. Both pilots and the four cabin crewmembers had minor injuries. Two of the 57 passengers were killed and 15 had minor or serious injuries.
B. NTSB Recommendation A-90-105. The NTSB investigation resulted in recommendations to the FAA. They included recommendation A-90-105: Require
airlines to provide airport crash/fire rescue personnel accurate and timely numbers of all persons aboard an accident/incident aircraft, and to provide
assistance in determining the disposition of persons who have been recovered from the scene of an accident.
C. NTSB-Recommended Air Carrier Responsibilities. The problems associated with the recovery efforts involving an air carrier accident, in which
a night takeoff was aborted and the airplane ended up running off the end of the runway and into a body of water, were compounded because rescue personnel
did not know exactly how many persons were onboard the airplane. This situation was detrimental to the rescue effort because it created an uncertainty as to
how many persons the rescuers had to account for during the rescue operation. The NTSB recommended that the FAA require air carriers to:
· Provide airport rescue personnel accurate and timely numbers of
all persons aboard an aircraft involved in an accident or incident, and
· Assist in determining the whereabouts of persons who have been recovered from the scene of an accident.
D. Providing Information About Number of Persons on Aircraft. The FAA agrees with the NTSB that air carriers should be able to provide accurate
and timely information to an appropriate and/or Government authority with respect to the total number of persons on an aircraft and that air carriers should assist
the appropriate authorities in determining the whereabouts of persons who have been recovered from the scene of an accident. The sum of the persons onboard an aircraft includes:
· Revenue passengers,
· Non-revenue passengers,
· Lap-held children, and
· Persons occupying cabin or flight deck jump seats.
E. Load Manifest Requirements. Part
requires that all air carriers prepare a load manifest that includes, at the time of takeoff, the names of passengers (unless the passenger names are maintained by some other means). Part
requires, for multiengine aircraft, a load manifest that includes, at the time of takeoff, the number of passengers. On December 30, 1988, the FAA issued Action Notice 8430.29, the primary purpose of which was to
provide guidance concerning a recent legal interpretation of part
regarding the manifest accounting for all non-crewmembers and the recording of passenger names.
requires that air carriers include as part of the load manifest, the names of passengers, unless such information is maintained by other means by
the air carrier. Other means could be ticket stubs or a computer source. The principal reason for this regulation is to facilitate the rapid and accurate
determination of how many passengers are onboard an aircraft and who they are in the event of an emergency situation, such as an accident or hijacking. Not
having an accurate record of all passengers could, for example, hamper the efforts of rescue workers during a post-accident rescue operation.
2) The word “passenger,” as used throughout the regulations, means any passenger regardless of age. That interpretation also states that the word passenger, as used in part
is not qualified and means “any passenger.” A crewmember, as defined in 14 CFR part
means “a person assigned to perform duty in an aircraft during flight time.”
3) Any person provided transportation on an air carrier aircraft, who is not a crewmember assigned by the air carrier to perform duties during flight
time, must be recorded as a passenger and listed.
a) Crewmembers include:
· The PIC;
· The second in command (SIC);
· Other required flightcrew members, such as Flight Engineers (F/E), navigators, relief pilots, required and non-required
F/As (who are assigned duties by the air carrier); and
· Any other persons (pursers, customer service agents, etc.) assigned duties during flight time.
b) All other persons are passengers. The following are examples:
· Non-revenue passengers;
· Children (regardless of their age and whether they occupy a seat);
· Deadheading crewmembers or other company employees not assigned duties during flight time;
· FAA or NTSB safety inspectors; and
· Law enforcement officials.
F. Ensuring Total Number of Persons Onboard is Available Upon Takeoff. In addition to the load manifest required by these regulations, the air
carrier should also have a procedure that ensures that the total number of persons onboard any aircraft, including the total number of crewmembers, is available at the time of takeoff. The procedures should,
as a part of the manual requirements of parts
(accident notification procedures) contain guidance, instructions, and procedures regarding the local authorities (e.g., airport police, management,
and/or fire department) who the air carrier’s personnel should contact in the event of an accident or incident. The procedures should also include what information
to give in the notification, including the total number of persons onboard the aircraft. The air carrier should also have a procedure that provides assistance
to those authorities in determining the whereabouts of persons that the air carrier knows have been recovered from the scene of an accident.
G. Airport Emergency Plans. If an airport is certificated in accordance with 14 CFR part
it must have an airport emergency plan. Air carriers and commercial air carriers should review the plans of those certificate airports
to which they operate to ensure that the procedures they develop, in accordance with the regulations, are consistent with the airport emergency plan that the airport air carriers developed. FAA ACs in the 150
series (e.g., AC
Airport Emergency Plan) contain additional information concerning airport emergency plans.
3-3567 POLICY FOR PASSENGER AND F/A USE OF SEATBELTS DURING TURBULENCE. This paragraph provides guidance about passenger and crewmember use of seatbelts
during turbulence. Additionally, air carriers should include procedures regarding communication and coordination in all crewmember manuals and training programs.
A. Regulations for Air Carriers. Regulations require the air carrier to ensure the following:
· Each passenger has an approved safety belt properly fastened around
him or her during movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing;
· Passengers have their seatbelt fastened any time the seatbelt sign is illuminated; and
· Signs are installed so they are visible (usually on the back of
passenger seats), advising each passenger to keep their seatbelts fastened when seated.
B. Background. In 1993, the FAA issued an air carrier operations bulletin emphasizing the importance of passenger seatbelt discipline and asking
air carriers to establish special emphasis programs to highlight the importance of this issue. Many airlines cooperated by making innovative changes to announcements
and placing articles in publications informing passengers of the dangers associated with sitting in a seat without their seatbelts fastened. In spite of all these
efforts, passengers and F/As continue to sustain injuries in flight during turbulence, evasive maneuvers, or other in-flight disturbances. Many of these injuries are
serious and result in broken bones (especially ankle bones) and head injuries.
C. Required Announcement for Keeping Seatbelts Fastened While Seated. Part
requires that a crewmember give an announcement after each takeoff (immediately before or immediately after turning the seatbelt sign off) that passengers should
keep their seatbelts fastened while seated, even when the seatbelt sign is off. POIs and/or CSIs (as applicable) should emphasize the requirement for this announcement.
POIs and/or CSIs (as applicable) should also remind air carriers that making a PA announcement to remind passengers that Federal regulations require them
to fasten their seatbelts when the seatbelt sign is turned on is advisable. POIs and/or CSIs (as applicable) should encourage their assigned air carriers
to establish additional procedures to emphasize the importance of passengers wearing their seatbelts at all times while seated. These procedures could include
additional announcements, video presentations, and articles in air carrier publications or pamphlets in seat pockets.
D. Procedures for Coordination and Communication Between Flightcrew Members. Coordination and communication between the flightcrew members and
the F/As during all phases of flight concerns the FAA. POIs should ensure that their assigned air carrier’s training programs and operational manuals contain
the safe and effective procedures for coordination and communication between all crewmembers. These procedures should address:
1) Guidance to flightcrew members on the importance of a predeparture briefing of the F/As, which includes:
· Forecast turbulence-related weather conditions;
· Securing the galley and cabin;
· Carry-on baggage;
· Passengers; and
· Scheduling of cabin service and pickup.
2) Use of the PA system or other signals to alert F/As and passengers of anticipated in-flight turbulence.
3) Guidance and specific signals to notify F/As when they are to cease in-flight services, secure galley, sit with their restraints fastened, and/or resume duties.
4) Guidance for F/As regarding F/A determination that turbulence is too severe for the continuation of service and that they are to take their seats,
fasten their restraints, and notify the flightcrew members regarding this action.
5) Standardized notification to the flightcrew from the F/As when they complete all pretakeoff or prelanding duties and have secured the cabin.
6) Standardized signals from the flight deck crew before takeoff and before landing, which they use to allow sufficient time for the F/As to be seated.
3-3568 GALLEY SECURITY. Reported incidents of galley carts not properly secured or galley service items not properly managed have caused concern that
there is a need to have additional guidance regarding galley carts and galley supplies. Notwithstanding the FAA Miscellaneous Operational Amendments final
rule (57 Federal Register (FR) 42666), effective on October 15, 1992, the compliance schedule for enforcing §
regarding the pickup of paper cups and plastic glasses prior to movement of the aircraft, has not been established at this time. Inspectors have reported finding that proper restraints were no longer available for
galley equipment and that galley components could not be restrained by the existing latches. Inspectors have also reported finding latching devices that did not
work properly for stowage compartments or drawers. The only latches available or the latches that were identified as the primary latches were not long enough
to keep the doors properly closed. Certificated air carriers should have procedures to address the following areas:
A. Responsibility for Galley Restraint. A specified crewmember should be responsible for each galley. However, all crewmembers are responsible
for ensuring galley security. Crewmembers have been known to enter a secured galley and open a compartment and inadvertently forget to resecure the galley. Therefore, crewmembers should:
1) Ensure that the galley and restraints are available and function properly.
2) Report malfunctioning galley equipment and restraints by following the specific procedures.
3) Check the proper stowage of items of mass, as referenced in §
4) Check the proper stowage of equipment in the galley.
B. Availability of Proper Restraint.
1) The primary restraint should be identified.
2) The primary restraint should be in good working order and available for use during each takeoff and landing.
3) Air carriers should have procedures to ensure that the primary restraint performs the function for which it was intended.
NOTE: Not all latches required to be in the locked position provide the primary restraint.
C. Malfunctions in Galley Equipment. The air carrier should have specific procedures for reporting galley equipment and restraints that have
malfunctions. These procedures should include a method identifying the person (or position) who will receive the report. The procedures should be a part of the required F/A manual.
D. Checking Galley Restraints. The responsible F/A should check the galley and galley components to ensure proper restraints, including:
· Actions such as pulling vigorously on carts, oven doors, drawers, and other components. This is a good method of
ensuring that they are secured;
· Ensuring the safe and correct parking of carts on mushrooms;
· Ensuring that brakes are operational on carts that use brakes;
· If keys are applicable to the container, then ensuring that the
key is in the locked position should be part of the actual checking procedures;
· Ensuring that galley curtains are secured open for takeoff and landing; and
· Visual checking of galley, galley components, and galley cart security when possible.
E. Phases of Flight. The procedures should include, at least, the following information for each phase of flight:
1) Prior to Movement on the Surface. Prior to movement on the surface, the responsible F/A should ensure that all primary galley restraints are available
and are in working order.
2) Movement on the Surface.
a) All galley items, with the exception of paper cups and plastic glasses, should be picked up and properly stowed prior to movement on the surface. Extension
of the compliance schedule for the pickup of paper cups and plastic glasses should not result in the safety problem of having galley components unrestrained.
When an air carrier wishes to serve food or beverages while the airplane is stationary, the air carrier should ensure that this service will not affect galley security.
b) The air carrier should either serve beverages in containers that can be thrown in a garbage receptacle or ensure that all items which are not disposable
are picked up prior to movement on the surface. Pickup of service items is considered safety-related and therefore all F/As assigned duties on that flight may pick up galley service items during movement on the
3) Prior to Takeoff. F/As should ensure that the galley and galley components are properly stowed and restrained.
4) Procedures for Galley Security In-Flight. Procedures for galley security in flight include the following:
a) Carts are not to be left unattended.
b) Air carriers should have procedures which ensure that F/As are no more than 10 feet away (approximately three rows) from carts left in the aisles.
c) F/As should not park carts out of their normal galley takeoff/landing positions unless they can be properly restrained. Some aircraft are equipped
with restraint devices such as mushrooms, which will properly hold carts in other areas. When this is the case, they may be left unattended; however, most
items should be cleared from the top of the carts. If left unrestrained, items on the top of the carts can become dislodged and cause injuries should there
be a sudden directional change of the aircraft. It is recommended that all cart restocking be done in the galley as this is a good safety practice.
d) During service, other than when a cart is being moved, the brake (if applicable) must be engaged. If a cart is parked out of the galley during the
flight, then it should be on the mushroom.
e) Galley carts and the galley itself should be maintained in an orderly fashion because of the possibility of turbulence or evasive actions. This means
that as many supplies as possible should be stowed or left in their containers. It is recommended that the top of the carts be kept as clear as possible. During
light turbulence, when service can continue, it is still advisable to discontinue the service of hot liquids and these liquids should be removed from the top of the cart.
5) Prelanding. F/As should ensure that all galleys are properly restrained and that galley components are properly stowed and secured.
6) Postlanding. F/As should ensure that all reports of malfunctioning galley restraints, galley components, and galley carts are properly recorded and/or reported.
3-3569 ENSURING THAT CHILDREN WHO HAVE REACHED THEIR SECOND BIRTHDAY ARE PROPERLY RESTRAINED.
A. Background. On June 8, 1995, a DC-9-32 was operated as a scheduled, domestic passenger flight under the provisions of part
The flight was cleared for takeoff on runway 27R. Five crewmembers and 57 passengers were onboard. As the airplane began its takeoff roll, the
airplane occupants and air traffic control (ATC) heard a “loud bang.” The right engine fire warning light illuminated, the flightcrew of the following airplane
reported to the crew that the right engine was on fire, and the takeoff was rejected. Shrapnel from the right engine penetrated the fuselage and the right
engine main fuel line, and a cabin fire erupted. The airplane was stopped on the runway, and the captain ordered the evacuation of the airplane. The F/A
seated in the aft F/A jump seat received puncture wounds from shrapnel and thermal injuries. Another F/A and five passengers received minor injuries. The pilots,
the third F/A, and 52 passengers were not injured. The airplane’s fuselage was destroyed.
B. NTSB Recommendation A-96-84. The NTSB investigation of this accident resulted in recommendations to the FAA. These recommendations included
A-96-84: Provide guidance on how to implement the requirement that occupants who are more than 24 months old are restrained during takeoffs, landings, and during turbulence.
C. Violations of Restraint Regulations for Lap-Held Children. During this NTSB investigation, it was determined that one child who had reached his or
her second birthday was listed as a lap-held child, despite regulations that require all passengers who have reached their second birthday to be restrained
during takeoffs and landings. The NTSB has long been concerned about the inadequacy and enforcement of this regulation, it has identified at least six accidents
and one enforcement action in which children who had reached their second birthday were unrestrained because they were held in someone’s lap. The ages of these children ranged from 26 months to 5 years.
D. Present Regulations for Lap-Held Children. Present regulations allow parents/guardians of children who have not reached their second birthday
the option of holding these children in their laps. Children who have reached their second birthday must be restrained in an approved restraint system. As
pointed out in the background to the NTSB recommendation, the problem appears to be that some parents/guardians want to hold children who have reached their second birthday. This is not an acceptable procedure.
E. Recommendation for Air Carriers to Ask the Ages of Lap-Held Children. In order to preclude this occurrence, many air carriers ask the age of the
lap-held child when the child is presented to be placed on the load manifest. In addition, many air carriers instruct crewmembers to ask parents the age of
lap-held children. These procedures complement each other and are recommended.
3-3570 F/A APPAREL WHILE PERFORMING DUTIES ASSOCIATED WITH FLIGHT.
A. Background. On June 8, 1995, a DC-9-32 was operated as a scheduled, domestic passenger flight under the provisions of part
The flight was cleared for takeoff on runway 27R. Five crewmembers and 57 passengers were onboard. As the airplane began its takeoff roll, the
airplane occupants and ATC heard a “loud bang.” The right engine fire warning light illuminated, the flightcrew of the following airplane reported to the
crew that the right engine was on fire, and the takeoff was rejected. Shrapnel from the right engine penetrated the fuselage and the right engine main fuel
line, and a cabin fire erupted. The airplane was stopped on the runway, and the captain ordered the evacuation of the airplane. The F/A seated in the aft
F/A jump seat received puncture wounds from shrapnel and thermal injuries. Another F/A and five passengers received minor injuries. The pilots, the third F/A,
and 52 passengers were not injured. The airplane’s fuselage was destroyed.
B. NTSB Recommendation A-96-88. The NTSB investigation of this accident resulted in recommendations to the FAA. These recommendations included
A-96-88: Issue an operations bulletin recommending that principal operations inspectors advise their air carriers to disseminate FAA safety guidance on airline passenger attire to their flight attendants.
C. Safety Considerations for Apparel to Decrease the Chance of Burns. The NTSB investigation of this accident disclosed that the F/A who received
the most serious injuries was wearing shorts and a short-sleeved shirt. Safety experts agree that in order to decrease the chance of sustaining burns, it is
better to wear long sleeves and pants than it is to wear short sleeves and short pants. In addition, fabrics such as wool and cotton are better than synthetic
fabrics. Also, it is better to have low-heeled shoes which are enclosed. Straps or laces are encouraged, while sandals are discouraged.
1) Air carriers should ensure that those charged with developing the criteria for the attire crewmembers wear while performing duties associated
with flight are aware of these safety considerations.
2) Air carriers should ensure that crewmembers are aware of the information regarding the safety considerations for the apparel they wear during flight.
3-3571 ADOPTION OF FLIGHTCREW MEMBER FLIGHT TIME LIMITATION RULES TO ESTABLISH F/A DUTY, FLIGHT TIME LIMITATIONS, AND REST RESTRICTIONS.
A. F/A Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements Final Rule. The F/A duty period limitations and rest requirements final rule allows
air carriers to adopt the flightcrew member rules for their F/As. This rule provides additional scheduling flexibility and eliminates the need for an air
carrier to have two sets of scheduling requirements for its flightcrew members and F/As. This provision will also permit F/As on such operations to be scheduled
with the same limitations as the flightcrew members. This option appears in §
of the final rule.
B. Administrator-Approved Written Procedures. In order to adopt its flightcrew member flight, duty, and rest requirements for its F/As, the
air carrier must establish written procedures that are approved by the Administrator and referenced in the air carrier’s operations specifications (OpSpecs). The
procedure as written must comply with the following guidelines and contain at least the following information:
1) Air carriers wishing to apply flightcrew member flight, duty, and rest requirements to F/As may obtain approval by submitting their procedures
for preliminary review and approval to the POIs assigned to them at the FAA Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) that is charged with the overall inspection
of their operations. The approval process is similar to those used for exit seating and passenger carry-on baggage and is required to ensure that flightcrew member rules are adequately applied to F/As.
2) The written procedures must apply to all F/As used in the air carrier’s operation.
3) The written procedures must be applied to the air carrier’s entire operation.
4) The written procedures must show that the flightcrew member rules are adequately applied to the F/As. They must clearly show that when the flightcrew
members are following the rules for an operation, for example, domestic, the F/As will also be following those rules. Another example would be if the flightcrew
members are using the flag rules, then the F/As must also be following the flag rules, and the written procedures would clearly show this is the case.
5) The written procedures for establishing duty period limitations and rest requirements for air carriers certificated under part
must include the limitations contained in part
subpart F, except for provisions for onboard rest facilities, as appropriate to the operation being conducted.
6) The written procedures must provide information about augmenting the F/A crew complement. Parts
air carriers are required to provide F/As on aircraft with certain passenger seating configurations in accordance with §
or the air carrier’s OpSpecs, as appropriate. The number of F/As required on an aircraft to meet the provisions of §
or the air carrier’s OpSpecs, whichever is greater, is referred to as the “minimum F/A crew complement.”
NOTE: Any air carrier that elects the options to apply flightcrew member flight, duty, and rest requirements to F/As and has established written procedures
for augmenting the minimum flightcrew member complement, must establish procedures for augmenting the minimum F/A complement. The augmenting procedures must be
based on the number of flightcrew members assigned to the flight that is in addition to the minimum flightcrew member complement as specified in the aircraft
Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS). The following are examples:
· If the minimum flightcrew member complement on a Boeing 747-200
is three, as specified in the aircraft TCDS, an air carrier that schedules four flightcrew members for an extended, long-range flight will be required to schedule
one F/A in addition to the minimum F/A crew complement that is required by §
or the air carrier’s OpSpecs.
· If the OpSpecs for a certain airplane require eight F/As, and
if the air carrier adds one flightcrew member, that air carrier would be required to add one additional F/A, for a total of nine F/As.
7) In addition, in the written procedures, each air carrier must show how they will ensure that the definition of “rest period” in the final rule
is applied to F/As. (See the detailed discussion on “Rest Period Requirements” and “Reserve Status, Stand-by Status, or Similar Assignments” in the final rule.)
8) Under the provisions for applying flightcrew member flight, duty, and rest requirements to F/As, if the Administrator finds that revisions to
the written procedures are necessary for the continued adequacy of the procedures for applying flightcrew member flight, duty, and rest requirements to F/As,
the Administrator will require the air carrier to make necessary changes within 30 days after being notified by the Administrator. In addition, an air carrier
may petition the Administrator to reconsider the notice to change the procedures.
NOTE: This procedure for requiring changes is consistent with the current regulatory language for a number of air carrier programs.
9) Any air carrier that establishes written procedures to apply the flightcrew member flight, duty, and rest requirements to F/As and that subsequently
wishes to revise this practice and schedule F/As according to the duty period limitations and rest requirements in §
must amend their OpSpecs in accordance with §
These sections require an air carrier to file an application for an amendment of OpSpecs at least 15 days before the effective date proposed by the applicant for the amendment,
unless a shorter filing period is approved by the FSDO charged with the overall inspection of the air carrier. See
Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 3
for information regarding the issuance of OpSpec A032.
3-3572 EXIT SEATING PROGRAM. The applicable air carriers must comply with the appropriate parts of 14 CFR pertaining to exit seating: §§
The following information provides guidance and clarification on the development of the exit seating program and defines the applicability.
1) Exit row regulations apply to the following air carriers:
certificated air carriers. This includes air carriers who carry passengers pursuant to
is not on the list of part
regulations from which those air carriers are exempt.
on-demand air carriers with aircraft having more than 19 passenger seats.
2) The exclusion of part
on-demand aircraft having 19 or fewer passenger seats and part
commuter aircraft having 9 or fewer seats was based on typical passenger seating configurations and exit availability of these aircraft.
B. Exit Seat. An exit seat is defined as each seat in a row of seats through which passengers would have to pass to gain access to an exit
from the first seat inboard of the exit to the first aisle inboard of the exit. A passenger seat having direct access means a seat from which a passenger can
proceed directly to the exit without having to enter an aisle or pass around an obstruction (such as a bulkhead, lavatory, closet, galley, etc.).
1) The air carrier’s manual procedures must contain a listing of designated exit seats for each type of passenger seating configuration in its fleet.
2) “Exit seat” is a more accurate term than “exit row.” In some configurations involving a row of two seats at an exit, only one seat is behind a partition.
For example, the forward most row on the left side of the Dash-8:
a) The window seat, obstructed by the partition, is not considered an exit seat because the passenger does not have direct access to the forward left exit.
b) However, the passenger seated next to that seat on the aisle has direct access because that passenger does not have to pass around the bulkhead to reach the exit.
NOTE: This is one of the rare exceptions whereby the entire row is not an exit row.
C. Selection Criteria.
1) As applicable to the exit seating rule, the required selection criteria for an occupant of an exit seat are listed in §§
The selection criteria are a listing of capabilities and conditions to be applied to determine the suitability of persons to occupy an exit seat.
2) The selection criteria should be contained in its entirety in the air carrier’s manuals, including the F/A manual, and the exit seating passenger information
card. The selection criteria must also be available for inspection by the public at all passenger ticket counters and loading gates. Air carriers should avoid
paraphrasing the selection criteria, as it may change the meaning of the neutral selection criteria and result in unwarranted discrimination. An example of such paraphrasing whereby the meaning of the criteria is
changed would be if an air carrier misrepresented §
a) “The person lacks sufficient visual capacity to perform one or more of the applicable functions.”
b) The omission of “without the assistance of visual aids beyond contact lenses or eyeglasses” (as stated in the regulation) significantly changes the
meaning of the criteria and could result in unwarranted removal of passengers with eyeglasses seated at exit seats. However, in some instances the regulatory
language could be changed for simplification purposes without changing the meaning of the criteria. For example, “to exit expeditiously” could be restated as “to exit quickly.”
3) The airline employee designated to determine who may be assigned to an exit seat must make this assessment in a nondiscriminatory manner by consistent application of the neutral
a) For example, if a passenger is being evaluated for assignment to an exit seat, age (with the exception of those younger than 15 years of age) or the
size of a person alone should not be the determining factors. The airline employee must evaluate the individual’s physical and mental capabilities and other conditions,
as clearly outlined in the selection criteria. If that individual meets all the selection criteria, then age or size alone should not be a disqualifying factor.
b) However, if that individual has difficulty walking and lifting his or her own carry-on luggage, then the application of the neutral criteria would
exclude this individual from being assigned an exit seat because it would appear by observation that the individual would not be able to move expeditiously and
perform the tasks involved in the emergency evacuation.
c) For example, if a passenger with a prosthesis is being evaluated for assignment to an exit seat, the presence of the prosthesis would not be the
determinant for being able to meet the criteria but rather the physical ability to perform the exit seat duties.
d) During the screening, if the CH determines that a passenger may not have full functionality of the prosthetic
limb (e.g., the passenger has removed the prosthesis for comfort or their prosthesis is in a sling or arm-brace), then they may not meet the “mobility” exit row criteria.
D. Functions. As applicable to the exit seating rule, §§
list the functions that a passenger seated at an exit seat must be willing and able to perform in the event of an emergency. The functions must
appear on the exit seating passenger information card, but can be in written form or graphically displayed. The functions must also be contained in the written
airport information available at the passenger ticket counters and loading gates and in the air carrier’s manual procedures.
E. Seat Selection/Assessment/Verification Process. Each air carrier, using the selection criteria, is required to determine the suitability of each
person who occupies an exit seat. Regulations require that persons responsible for making this determination be identified in the air carrier’s manual. The
air carrier is further responsible for developing procedures concerning this passenger selection process. The procedures should address:
· Who is responsible for making these determinations (prior to boarding
and the final verification onboard the aircraft);
· How they will make this determination;
· When the process will be performed;
· Where the process will be performed; and
· Identification of each designated exit seat (for each passenger seating configuration in its fleet).
1) Advanced Seating.
a) To the maximum extent feasible, exit seats should be assigned prior to boarding the aircraft. This would reduce the confusion or requests for reseating
and possible delays after the aircraft is boarded. This does not preclude an air carrier from having an open seating policy, advance seat selection, self
check-in kiosks, or other types of computer/internet technologies that allow advance seating selection and check-in at airports where passengers may be permitted
to select and be assigned an exit seat at check-in without screening by air carrier personnel. However, when these types of check-ins are in place, additional
procedures should be developed and implemented for screening, verifying, and reseating passengers onboard the aircraft to ensure compliance with exit seat assignment requirements.
b) For example, menu prompts that appear at the point of exit seat selection could assist in preliminary verification of passenger eligibility. When a passenger
has chosen an exit seat by means of a self-check-in kiosk, the ground agent at the ticket lift point could make determinations and assessments at the time of the required verification of positive ID to meet
TSA security requirements. In order to safeguard the screening process, other carriers may select a “see agent” prompt at the point of passenger selection of exit seating via self-check-in.
POIs and/or CSIs (if applicable) should ensure that when air carriers offer these methods of advanced seat selection, check-in, and open seating, approved
exit seating programs provide ample information detailing the methods of screening and procedural safeguards in place to ensure compliance with exit seat assignment requirements.
2) Persons Who Will Determine Exit Seat Suitability. The air carrier is responsible for identifying those persons who will make the determination
as to the suitability of the person assigned to an exit seat. The responsibility can be assigned to a customer service agent, a crewmember, or other person specified
by the air carrier in its company manual procedures.
3) Passenger Screening. Should air carriers choose to use electronic media that allows passengers to select exit seats and print out a boarding pass
without going through an employee of the company, they must have procedures in place for screening those passengers. The individuals and the procedures
used to accomplish this should be identified in the appropriate air carrier manuals.
4) Passenger Assessment Process for Exit Seating. While the regulation specifically defines the criteria for persons occupying an exit seat, the method
by which the airline employee assesses the person assigned to an exit seat should be defined by the air carrier in its company manual. This process generally
requires a physical observation of the person and should require additional processes, such as conversation with the person, to determine if he or she meets
the selection criteria (the person has the ability to hear, understand, and impart information, and is not distracted by other responsibilities such as
caring for small children or other traveling companions, etc.).
5) Verification of Exit Seat Occupants Before Taxi/Pushback. Sections
state that the air carrier may not taxi or pushback unless at least one required crewmember has verified that no exit seat is occupied by
a person that the crewmember determines is likely to be unable to perform the emergency functions. The required crewmember and the method used to make this determination must be specified in the company manual.
F. Individual Exit Seat Briefings.
1) The NTSB examined 46 passenger aircraft evacuations that occurred between September 1997 and June 1999. The NTSB Safety Study 00/01, Emergency Evacuation
of Commercial Airplanes, resulted in recommendations to the FAA. They include recommendation A-00-77: Require air carriers to provide all passengers seated
in exit rows in which a qualified crewmember is not seated a preflight personal briefing on what to do in the event the exit may be needed. To read the entire report, go to:
2) During the study, the NTSB examined passenger performance in exit rows for the six cases for which the Board received information on the overwing
exit operation. In several evacuations, the passengers had trouble using the exits correctly and the NTSB determined that one reason for these difficulties
was passenger inattention to the safety materials provided. The NTSB found that in one case, exit seats were occupied by two passengers older than age 70, one
of whom was unable to open the exit. In addition, three passengers seated in exit rows did not speak the language in which briefings and oral commands were given by the crew.
a) Of the six study cases, several of the air carriers had procedures in place to individually brief passengers on exit row tasks. Passengers who received
an individual briefing were more likely to read the safety card than those who did not receive an individual briefing.
b) The NTSB found that 44.5 percent of the passengers who were individually briefed reported examining their safety cards and 16 percent of the passengers
who did not receive an individual briefing reported examining their safety cards.
c) In addition, those who received individual briefings performed better during actual evacuations and were better prepared to operate the overwing exits.
3) Many air carriers have procedures that designate certain crewmembers to conduct additional structured personal conversations or briefings, beyond
the oral briefing required by §§
and (i) and
and (i), to ensure that the passengers in exit seats can hear, understand, and speak the language of the air carrier. (However, fluency in
the language of the air carrier is not required as long as the exit seat passengers can understand crew instructions, commands, and the graphic illustrations related
to exit seat functions, and are able to adequately impart information related to emergency functions.)
4) Individual briefings that are given to passengers who occupy exit seats have a positive effect on the outcome of an aircraft evacuation. Individual
briefings also assist F/As in assessing the suitability of passengers who occupy those seats. An individual briefing reminds passengers of their exit seat responsibilities,
gives them the encouragement to review their safety information card and also gives passengers the opportunity to ask the F/A any questions they may have
about exit operation or procedures. This briefing also presents an opportunity for the F/A to assess the passengers’ ability to understand oral crew commands.
5) POIs and/or CSIs (if applicable) should strongly encourage their assigned air carriers to consider the safety benefits that are accomplished
by individual exit seat briefings and to include such briefings in their predeparture procedures. In the absence of procedures that require individual briefings,
POIs and/or CSIs (if applicable) should ensure that each air carrier has a method in place to ensure compliance with §
which requires verification by a required crewmember that the passengers can perform all required functions, including the ability to follow oral directions.
G. Assessment/Verification Prior to Landing. Air carriers should also have procedures in place to ensure that exit seats are not occupied by
persons who do not meet the exit seat criteria. Crewmembers should continue to monitor exit seat occupancy during flight in the course of their normal duties
to ensure that persons who do not meet the criteria do not move into exit seats. In addition, crewmembers should recheck the exit seats before landing to make
certain that passengers who met the criteria and occupied exit seats prior to takeoff still meet the exit seat criteria for landing. (Some situations that
can cause passengers who met the criteria before takeoff to not meet the criteria for landing are intoxication during flight, panic attacks, and passenger illness or injury.)
H. Exit Seating Passenger Information Card. Sections
provide the requirement for the contents of the exit seating passenger information card. This exit seating passenger information card may
be in addition to the standard passenger information card, which is required by §§
or it can be incorporated into the standard passenger information card. The exit seating passenger information card is required to be located at each designated exit seat. The exit seating passenger information
card is to be presented in the primary language in which briefings and oral commands are given by the crew. It must contain the following information:
1) The selection criteria, as found in §§
a) The selection criteria are mobility, strength, and dexterity standards that do not specify where exits should be deposited. Exits should be deposited
in accordance with the airplane manufacturer’s instructions.
b) Air carriers must depict on their passenger information card the actual weight of the exit so that each potential exit seat passenger can make an assessment
as to whether or not they meet the selection criteria. Therefore, air carriers must include the selection criteria on their passenger information card.
2) The emergency function, as found in §§
a) The functions must be listed (as in the rule) and/or graphically displayed on the passenger information card. Either or both methods are acceptable.
b) If a function cannot be graphically depicted on the card (such as “Follow oral directions and hand signals given by a crewmember”), then it should be
written on the exit seating information card.
3) The following contents found in §§
a) A request that passengers identify themselves for reseating if they cannot meet the selection criteria; have indiscernible conditions that will prevent
them from performing the applicable functions listed on the card; may suffer bodily harm as a result of performing one or more of the functions; or do not wish to perform the functions.
b) A request that passengers identify themselves to allow reseating if they lack the ability to read, speak, or understand the specified language in which
crew commands will be given in an emergency. (This request is to be written in each language used by the air carrier for the passenger information card.
If the card, for example, contains some safety instructions in several languages, then this request should be in each of those languages.)
I. Oral Briefing. Sections
and (i) and
and (i) provide the specific requirements for the oral briefing. The content of the required oral briefing must be part of the air carrier’s manual procedures.
1) As per the rule, the oral briefing shall:
a) Reference the exit seating passenger information card, along with the criteria and the functions. (The required oral briefing only requires a reference,
not a reading of the contents of the criteria and functions.)
b) Have a statement that requests the passenger to identify himself or herself for reseating if he or she:
· Cannot meet the selection criteria;
· Has an indiscernible condition that will prevent him or her from performing the applicable (emergency) functions;
· May suffer bodily harm as the result of performing one or more of the functions; or
· Does not wish to perform the functions.
2) This briefing should be conducted after all the passengers have boarded. If the required briefing is conducted several minutes before the entry door
is closed and then several late passengers board after the briefing is completed, the briefing should be repeated in case one or more of the late passengers occupies an exit seat.
3) It is beneficial when the air carrier incorporates the exit seat locations for that aircraft configuration into the required oral briefing, so
the passengers seated at the exit seats clearly understand that the briefing requirements are directed toward them. Some air carriers further identify exit
seat locations to passengers and crew with placards in the cabin, or with an indication on the passenger boarding pass.
J. Reseating/Full Booking.
require that in the event that a passenger assigned to an exit seat would be unable to perform the evacuation functions, or requests a non-exit
seat, the air carrier shall expeditiously relocate the passenger to a non-exit seat. The air carrier’s manual procedures should clearly outline how the reseating would be accomplished.
NOTE: The air carrier, by regulation, shall not require the passenger to disclose his or her reason for needing reseating.
require that in the event a passenger assigned to an exit seat wishes to be relocated to a non-exit seat and all of the non-exit seats are
booked full, the air carrier must move a passenger who is willing and able to assume the evacuation functions from a non-exit seat to the exit seat. The air
carrier’s manual procedures should clearly outline how the reseating with a full load would be accomplished.
NOTE: If a passenger is assigned to an exit seat but later has second thoughts about being seated at an exit seat, the passenger should be relocated
prior to pushback. However, if taxiing has begun or takeoff is already underway, the rule does not require that the passenger be moved. This would create dangers
as great as or greater than allowing the person to remain in place until the aircraft is airborne. The cabin crew has been alerted to the location of a potential
problem in the event of an evacuation and can wait until airborne when it would be safe to relocate the passenger. This is not an excuse for a crewmember to be complacent in performing the required verification.
K. Denial of Transportation.
state that an air carrier may deny transportation to any passenger under this section only because:
· The passenger refused to comply with instructions given by a crewmember
or other authorized employee of the air carrier concerning the implementation of the approved exit seating procedures; or
· The only seat that will physically accommodate the person’s disability is an exit seat.
2) The air carrier’s manual procedures must describe the reasons for denial of transportation. It should also describe how the situation will be
handled and who is designated to handle it.
L. Disputes. Sections
require that the air carrier include procedures that address how to resolve disputes arising from the implementation of this rule, and identify
the employee on the airport to whom complaints would be addressed for resolution. This person is commonly referred to as the Complaint Resolution Official (CRO) as described in 14 CFR part
M. Airport Information. Sections
require that each air carrier shall make available for inspection by the public at all passenger loading gates and ticket counters at each airport
where it conducts business, written procedures established for making determinations in regard to exit seating. The method of presentation of the airport information
may vary, such as a flyer, a card, a ticket jacket, a computer printout, a posted sign, etc. The air carrier’s exit seating program should state the method in
which this information will be presented to anyone who requests this information. This written airport information should contain the:
· Selection criteria, as found in §§
· Emergency functions, as found in §§
· Requests for reseating, as found in §§
· Reasons for denial of transportation, as found in §§
N. Program Content for Submission. The air carrier should submit the following documents to the POI and/or CSI (if applicable):
1) Manual Excerpts. Manual excerpts should be submitted from the operations, F/A, and passenger/customer service portions of the air carrier’s manuals, with
procedures appropriate for the air carrier’s employees to adequately perform their exit seating duties and responsibilities. The procedures should contain:
· Selection criteria;
· Emergency functions;
· Location of designated exit seats;
· Requirements for exit seating passenger information cards;
· Crewmember verification of appropriate seating in exit seats;
· Passenger oral briefings;
· Seat assignments;
· Requirements for written airport information, reseating, full
bookings, assignment of exit seats, denial of transportation, and resolving disputes arising from exit seating; and
· Identification of the air carrier employee at the airport to whom complaints should be addressed for resolution.
2) Configuration Diagrams. These should be submitted (for evaluation) and should display each passenger seating configuration in the air carrier’s
fleet. The diagram should highlight all exit seats, all passenger exits, and any obstruction, such as bulkheads, lavatories, closets, galleys, etc.
3) Exit Seating Passenger Information Cards. Must be submitted for each type, make, model, and series (M/M/S) aircraft. These cards may be submitted
in draft form, pending final approval.
4) Airport Information. The air carrier should identify the manner in which the written airport information is presented and submit a draft copy pending final approval.
O. Approval Process. The intent of the exit seating review and approval process is to ensure consistent application of the regulation, particularly
when the rule was new and policy was being developed. (See Figure 3-129, Exit Seating Program Job Aid.) During the original approval process, the exit seating
programs were sent for review, first to the POI and then forwarded for a second review by the Exit Seating Coordinator at the Regional Office (RO) who approved
the programs on behalf of the Office of the Director (AFS-1). The POI no longer needs to forward exit seating programs to the Exit Seating Coordinator at the
RO for approval. The POI is now considered to be the representative of AFS-1 in terms of compliance with §§
1) Once the air carrier has completed their exit seating program package, a copy of the program should be forwarded in draft format to their POI and/or
CSI (if applicable). During the review process, the POI and/or CSI (if applicable) should use this guidance and complete the checklist in Figure 3-129. If the
POI and/or CSI (if applicable) is not satisfied with the package, the inspector will return it to the air carrier with an explanation of the changes/additions
needed for the program. If the POI and/or CSI (if applicable) finds the program to be complete and satisfactory, the POI will then give the final approval to the air carrier and issue OpSpec A022.
2) Any subsequent revisions to the approved exit seating program, such as a change in procedures, an addition of new aircraft, a change in the passenger
seating configurations, a change to the exit seating passenger information card, etc., must be sent to the POI and/or CSI (if applicable). The certificate holding
office should maintain a copy of an up-to-date version of their air carrier’s exit seating program.
P. Special Approvals. There may be situations whereby an air carrier may conduct some operations entirely in a foreign country. Such a situation
could occur during a wet lease operation. The entire airplane may be full of passengers who all speak one foreign language. The intent of the rule was not
to exclude foreign-speaking passengers from the exit seat, provided these passengers understand the commands given by the crewmembers in the event of an emergency,
all the information on the approved exit seating passenger information card, and the required oral briefings. This may be accomplished in a number of ways:
· The crewmembers may be bilingual and trained in two languages,
one of which is the language of the foreign passengers.
· The briefings may be conducted in two languages, the language of the foreign speaking passengers and the primary
language of the air carrier.
· The exit seating passenger information cards should also be in the two languages.
NOTE: An amendment to the existing exit seating program would be needed that details the manner in which the air carrier would address this type of operation.
1) If the situation is such that the operation is conducted domestically and a large group of foreign-speaking passengers board the aircraft speaking
one particular foreign language, and board in such numbers that the only seats remaining for them are the exit seats, then the air carrier would need to develop
special procedures for FAA review and approval that would address this type of operation in order to comply with the rule.
2) If the air carrier cannot find any passengers who speak the language used by the air carrier in domestic operations, then the air carrier should
attempt to find those passengers who have some understanding of the language. In this situation, it would appear that an interpreter who is fluent in both
the air carrier’s primary language and the language of the foreign-speaking passengers would have to be used. An exit seating passenger information card
would have to be developed in the foreign language and the interpreter would have to thoroughly brief the foreign-speaking passengers on the contents of
that specially approved exit seating passenger information card. The interpreter would also have to provide the required exit seating oral briefing in the foreign
language to ensure that the exit seating passengers are willing and able to perform the emergency functions. The interpreter would have to review the commands,
which would be given by the crewmember in an emergency evacuation, in both the primary language of the air carrier and in the foreign language.
3) A designated crewmember should oversee this special briefing and make the determination that those passengers understand their responsibilities,
meet the criteria, and are willing and able to perform the emergency functions, if called upon to do so. This procedure requires more time to implement prior to departure and the necessary time must be allotted
for this special briefing.
4) In these and other similar situations, the air carrier would need to develop (in advance of the operation) and submit for approval specific procedures,
special exit seating passenger information cards in the foreign language to be used, and crewmember training for that specific operation. The procedures
must detail how the exit seating requirements would be met and who would be responsible for implementing the procedures and making the final determination
as to the suitability of these passengers. The amended procedures must be sent to the POI and/or CSI (if applicable) for review. If the procedures satisfactorily
meet the requirements, the exit seating program amendment for foreign-speaking passengers can be approved by the POI.
3-3573 EMERGENCY EVACUATION WITH INFANTS. Researchers from the CAMI have completed two studies designed to determine the most favorable methods for the emergency
evacuation of infants from aircraft. All CAMI publications may be accessed at
The following information is intended for use in developing passenger information materials and/or briefing.
A. Infant Evacuation Via Inflatable Emergency Evacuation Slides. The purpose of the first study, published in 2001, was to determine the most
favorable methods for the evacuation of infants via an inflatable emergency evacuation slide. The results of this study strongly suggest that jumping onto
the slide should be the favored boarding manner, as opposed to sitting down and sliding, which slows the progress of the evacuation. The carrying position
that provides the most protection for the child would include cradling the child’s head and neck with the hand (for a vertical position) or in the arm (for horizontal
positions), and keeping the child’s arms, legs, and feet enfolded as much as possible by the adult’s arms. Both positions emphasize the importance of cradling the infant to protect its head, arms, and legs.
B. Infant Evacuation Via Type III Overwing Exits. The purpose of the second study was to determine the most favorable methods for evacuation
of infants through a Type III overwing exit. The results of this study suggest that carrying the infant vertically, while cradling the infant to protect its
head, arms, and legs, should be the favored evacuation maneuver through the Type III exit, as opposed to carrying the child horizontally or passing the
child to another passenger on the outside of the Type III exit.
3-3574 USE OF PORTABLE ELECTRONIC DEVICES (PED). POIs and principal avionics inspectors (PAI) should review the provisions contained in §§
Use of Portable Electronic Devices Aboard Aircraft (current edition), with their assigned operators. POIs and PAIs must ensure that their
operators have adequate procedures in place to determine whether or not PEDs are acceptable for passenger use onboard their aircraft. POIs must ensure that
their operators specify in their operations manuals those PEDs that may not be operated onboard their aircraft. Although §§
do not require that the following briefing information be given, POIs and CSIs should encourage their assigned operators to include information
regarding the operation of PEDs in the pre-takeoff passenger safety briefings. These briefings should include any specific restrictions that apply to passenger use of portable electronic devices.
NOTE: An example briefing might be the following: “Some portable electronic
devices may interfere with the aircraft’s communications and navigation systems. Please refrain from using any electronic device other than portable voice recorders,
hearing aids, and [the operator should add to this list of portable electronic devices, the generic identification of any device that it determines will not
cause interference.] For your safety and the safety of others, please stow all carry-on portable electronic devices during taxi, takeoff, and landing.”
3-3575 BRIEFINGS ON INDIVIDUAL FLOTATION DEVICES. Individual flotation devices, for use by passengers, are not always identical on some aircraft. The
differences in the equipment can be insignificant. For example, flotation cushions may have straps on the sides or straps across the bottom of the cushion. In
either case, the instructions for use would be the same, “Insert your arms through the straps and hold the cushion to your chest.” The straps are not in the same
place, but the same instructions would work regardless of the location of the straps. However, there are cases when the differences in the flotation cushions or the life preservers are significant.
A. Significant Differences in Life Preservers:
· Some are donned by placing one part over the head,
· Others are worn like a coat, and
· Some have inflation handles that work differently.
B. Operators Use Various Methods to Inform Passengers of Using Dissimilar Flotation Equipment, such as:
· Briefing passengers on the different types of flotation devices;
· Displaying the differences on passenger cards and alluding to them in the briefing;
· Using a combination of briefing and passenger cards; and
· Briefing passengers (in rare cases) on only one design.
C. Policy. When a passenger is informed about more than one type of flotation cushion or life preserver, it can be confusing. One method for
informing passengers is to give each passenger information about the piece of individual flotation equipment that is located at that individual passenger’s
seat. In some cases, this may mean different cards at different seats and individual briefings at certain seats. When two sections on the same aircraft are equipped
differently, each section would need a different passenger briefing. Another method for informing passengers is to advise them during the oral briefing that
there are different types of flotation cushions on the airplane, therefore, it is important that they study the card carefully and be aware of the differences
in the flotation equipment. The different methods of donning and/or operating the individual flotation device should be depicted on the card and given in
the oral briefing or demonstration (if extended over-water flight).
3-3576 LOCATION AND PLACEMENT OF SERVICE ANIMALS ON AIRCRAFT.
A. Background. As early as 1977, the FAA recognized the need for guidance regarding the placement and location of service animals on aircraft. AC
Air Transportation of Handicapped Persons (current edition), discusses the placement of guide dogs and states they should sit in the first
row of seats of a section next to the bulkhead where there is more room for the dog. In 1990, the DOT published part 382. On May 9, 2003, the DOT issued
revised guidance regarding the carriage of service animals affecting all transportation modes, including aviation.
B. FAA Review of NTSB Part
Accident Reports. The FAA has reviewed all available NTSB accident reports for part
commercial aircraft accidents with at least one fatality occurring between January 1, 1990, and November 28, 2007. The FAA found no information that the
presence of a service animal or its placement or location on an airplane negatively impacted an airplane evacuation or a particular individual’s emergency exit from an airplane.
C. FAA Review of NTSB Safety Reports. The FAA also reviewed NTSB Safety Report 01/01, Survivability of Accidents Involving Part
U.S. Air Carrier Operations, 1983 Through 2000, and NTSB Safety Study 00/01, Emergency Evacuation of Commercial Airplanes, and again found no information that either the presence
of a service animal or its placement or location on the airplane negatively impacted an airplane evacuation or a particular individual’s emergency exit from an airplane.
Requirements. The variety of service animals, as well as the services these animals perform, has become larger in scope since
the FAA’s policy was first published in 1977. However, a comprehensive review of available NTSB data does not identify a hazard that compels the FAA to change
its long-standing safety and enforcement policy regarding placement and location of service animals on aircraft. Therefore, consistent with part
1) Placement. A service animal may remain at the feet of a person with a disability at any bulkhead seat, or in any other seat, as long as when the
animal is seated/placed/curled up on the floor, no part of the animal extends into the main aisle(s) of the aircraft, the service animal is not at an emergency
exit seat, and the service animal does not extend into the foot space of another passenger seated nearby who does not wish to share foot space with the service animal.
2) Placement of Lap-Held Service Animals. The preamble to part
issued in 1990 (55 FR 8042), discusses lap-held service animals (such as a monkey used by a person with mobility impairments). They are service animals that need
to be in a person’s lap to perform a service for that person. This service animal may sit in that person’s lap for all phases of flight including ground movement,
takeoff, and landing, provided that the service animal is no larger than a lap-held child (a child who has not reached his or her second birthday).
3) Documentation. One type of service animal is an animal used for emotional support. The presence of such an animal is found to be medically necessary for
the passenger traveling with the animal. Under DOT rules, and outlined clearly in DOT’s Guidance Concerning Service Animals in Air Transportation, published
on May 9, 2003, an air carrier may require documentation regarding the medical need for the presence of an emotional support animal as a condition of permitting
the animal to accompany the passenger in the cabin as a service animal.
4) Unusual Service Animals. As stated in the DOT guidance issued on May 9, 2003, unusual service animals pose unavoidable safety and/or public health
concerns and airlines are not required to transport them. Snakes, other reptiles, ferrets, rodents, and spiders fall within this category of animals. The release
of such an animal in the aircraft cabin could result in a direct threat to the health or safety of passengers and crewmembers. For these reasons, airlines
are not required to transport these types of service animals in the cabin, and carriage in the cargo hold will generally be in accordance with company policies on the carriage of animals.
5) Other Unusual Animals. Air carriers should evaluate unusual animals, such as miniature horses, pigs, and monkeys, on a case-by-case basis. Factors
to consider are the animal’s size and weight, State and foreign country restrictions, and whether or not the animal would pose a direct threat to the health or safety
of others or cause a fundamental alteration (significant disruption) in the cabin service. If none of these factors apply, the animal may accompany the
passenger in the cabin. In most other situations, the air carrier should carry the animal in the cargo hold, in accordance with company policy.
6) Policy Coordination. The FAA has coordinated this safety and enforcement policy with the FAA Office of the Chief Counsel, Operations Law Branch (AGC-220).
E. Reference Materials. The following reference materials provide additional information (current editions):
Air Transportation of Handicapped Persons
5) NTSB/SR-01/01, Survivability of Accidents Involving Part
U.S. Air Carrier Operations, 1983 Through 2000
3-3577 USE OF ORTHOTIC POSITIONING DEVICES (OPD) BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES IN AIRCRAFT SEATS.
A. Assistive Devices. To a limited degree, AC
discusses issues surrounding the use of assistive devices such as crutches, splints, casts, and braces by passengers on aircraft. However,
the FAA issued this guidance well before the publication of part 382 in 1990. In addition, there have been many innovations in the scope and type of assistive
devices since 1977. OPDs are one of the more recent examples of innovation in assistive devices.
B. Seatbelt as Primary Method of Restraint. This guidance addresses one type of OPD used by people with disabilities to position and support themselves
in such a way that they can use the aircraft’s seatbelt as an effective and primary method of restraint. Each OPD is specifically designed to meet the support
needs of an individual and there are different manufacturers of OPDs.
C. Persons Supported by OPD. “Orthotic” means a support or brace for weak or ineffective joints or muscles.
An OPD is a device or supportive brace that is designed and used to help support and position a person who has:
· Significant postural asymmetries of the pelvis, trunk, and/or hips that lack flexibility;
· Significant hypertonia or hypotonia, spasticity, or mixed athetoid dysfunctions;
· Absent or impaired sensation in an area of contact with a seating surface; or
· A past history of, or current, pressure ulcer(s) on an area of contact with a seating surface.
D. OPD-Assisted Disabilities. People who have difficulty controlling the movement of their body or have muscle spasms that cause their body to extend
involuntarily may use an OPD. Some examples of this type of disability include, but are not limited to, cerebral palsy and spastic quadriplegia.
E. OPD Requirements. The type of OPD discussed in this guidance must be equipped with internal restraints to position a person in the device
to provide that person security and support. The person sits in the OPD while they and the OPD are occupying an aircraft seat. The person is therefore properly
positioned to use the existing aircraft seatbelt as his or her primary restraint device by securing it around them while using the OPD for support. The OPD must
not attach to the seat. The OPD only provides support; the aircraft seatbelt provides restraint.
F. The Purpose of OPDs. The use of this type of OPD is similar to the use of any other medically required assistive/positioning device, such
as a back brace or a neck brace. The purpose of an OPD is to ensure a person requiring this type of assistive device is positioned properly and safely in
order to effectively use the aircraft seatbelt as his or her primary means of restraint. This type of OPD is not intended to be identified, sold, or used
as a CRS. The use of this type of OPD is permitted on aircraft and is not prohibited by current regulations.
G. Where Persons May Use OPDs on Aircraft. A person may use an OPD in any seat on the aircraft, except an exit seat, provided the use of the
OPD does not block any passenger’s evacuation from the aircraft.
H. Crewmember Requirements. Crewmembers are not required to know how to operate the internal restraints of the OPD. This is the responsibility
of the person who is using the OPD or his or her caregiver. Crewmembers are only responsible for ensuring that the person using the OPD or his or her caregiver
properly uses the aircraft seatbelt (the primary method of restraint).
I. OPD Acceptance Criteria. Because each OPD is specifically designed to meet the support needs of an individual, the structure of the OPD
and the internal harness system may vary. To assist crewmembers in evaluating whether the use of this type of assistive device is acceptable, it is important to keep two key points in mind:
1) The person must have a medical need to use the OPD. In most situations, the need to use an OPD will be readily apparent. In any case, observation of
the person or obtaining credible verbal assurances from the person or his or her attendant will be considered sufficient to determine medical need.
2) When the person is using the OPD, the aircraft seatbelt secures around him or her and provides the primary method of restraint.
J. Guidance Limitations. This guidance is specific to one type of OPD used by a person with a disability to allow the aircraft seatbelt to
be the primary method of restraint. This guidance does not mean that any type of restraint used by people with disabilities is exempt from the regulations
regarding the use of restraint systems and it does not preclude the air carrier’s responsibility from making a safety judgment based on specific compliance with
applicable regulations. A petition for exemption is the appropriate course of action regarding a device that does not meet the criteria in this guidance or
the requirements established in the pertinent regulations regarding restraint on aircraft. Information regarding the submission of a petition for exemption
is available at:
NOTE: While the FAA does not endorse a particular manufacturer’s OPD, the following Web site contain information regarding the general type of OPD
described in this paragraph:
Figure 3-129. Exit Seating Program Job Aid
This preapplication phase job aid provides guidance for
determining air carrier compliance with §§
Certificate Holder Name:
Doing Business As (DBA):
Certificate Holder Certificate No.:
Office and Phone Number:
Signature and Date:
Date Program Approved:
Date AFS-500 Notified:
REQUIRED ATTACHMENTS: Detailed on attached pages—complete
the lines with Y (for Yes) or N (for No):
Exit Seating Procedures:
Passenger Seating Cards:
Aircraft Floor Plans:
EXIT SEATING PROCEDURES. Procedures should be submitted as manual sections/training program sections/bulletins, etc., as appropriate
to the individual carrier. Attach all applicable sections pertinent to exit seating only.
NOTE: The POI should check for applicability and manual format and ensure that all applicable publications are revised. The procedures must address
the following regulatory requirements, and must address when, how, and by whom the items will be addressed.
Figure 3-129. Exit Seating
Program Job Aid (Continued)
SELECTION CRITERIA: Reference §§
Do carrier procedures address when, how, and by whom the
screening and/or selection will be accomplished?
Do carrier procedures address the following selection criteria?
1. Does a person lack sufficient strength,
dexterity, or mobility in both arms and hands, and both legs to perform
the following functions?
a. Reach upward, sideways,
and downward to the location of emergency exit and exit slide operating
b. Grasp and push, pull,
turn, or otherwise manipulate those mechanisms.
c. Push, shove, pull,
or otherwise open emergency exits.
d. Lift out, hold, deposit
on nearby seats, or maneuver over the seat backs to the next row objects
the size and weight of overwing exit doors.
e. Remove obstructions
similar in size and weight of overwing exit doors.
f. Reach the
emergency exit expeditiously.
g. Maintain balance while
h. Exit expeditiously.
an escape slide after deployment.
others in getting off an escape slide.
2. Is the person less than 15 years of age
or does the person lack the capacity to perform one or more of the functions
listed in §§
without the assistance of an adult companion, parent, or other relative?
3. Does the person lack the ability to read and understand instructions related to emergency evacuation provided
by the certificate holder in printed or graphic form or the ability to understand oral crew commands in the language used by the carrier?
4. Does the person lack a sufficient visual
capacity to perform one or more of the functions listed in §§
without the assistance of visual aids beyond contact lens or eyeglasses?
5. Does the person lack a sufficient aural
capacity to hear and understand instructions shouted by crewmembers
without assistance beyond a hearing aid?
6. Does the person lack the ability to adequately
impart information orally to other passengers?
7. Does the person have either of the following?
a. A condition or responsibility, such as caring for small children, that would prevent the person from
performing one or more of the functions listed in §§
b. A condition that might
cause the person harm if he or she performs one or more of the listed
Figure 3-129. Exit Seating Program Job Aid (Continued)
SEATING ASSIGNMENTS/VERIFICATION PROCEDURES
Are exit seats identified for seat assignment purposes?
Refer to §§
Does the certificate holder have a procedure that taxi or pushback will not be allowed until at least one required crewmember
has verified that no exit seat is occupied by a person the crewmember determines is likely to be unable to perform the functions listed in §§
Are verifying crewmembers specifically identified?
Refer to §§
Does the certificate holder have procedures to honor a passenger’s request to be relocated and the procedures for relocation?
Does the procedure note that a person does not need to
disclose his or her reason for the request?
Refer to §§
Does the certificate holder have procedures to move a passenger to accommodate a relocated passenger in the event of full booking of non-exit seats?
DENIAL OF TRANSPORTATION/RESOLVING DISPUTES
Refer to §§
135.129(m). Does the certificate holder have procedures to deny
transportation because of either or both of the following?
1. The passenger refuses to comply with instructions.
2. The only seat that will physically accommodate
the person’s handicap is an exit seat.
Refer to §§
135.129(n). Does the certificate holder have procedures for resolving
disputes, including identification of the employee at the airport to whom complaints should be addressed for resolution?
ORAL BRIEFING PROCEDURES
Refer to §§
135.129(i). Does the oral briefing reference the following?
1. Passenger information cards.
2. The selection criteria in §§
3. The functions to be performed under §§
4. A request for reseating if any of the
following conditions are met:
a. Cannot meet the selection
b. Has an indiscernible
condition that would prevent him or her from performing the listed functions.
c. May suffer bodily harm
as a result of performing one or more of those functions.
d. Does not wish to perform
Figure 3-129. Exit Seating Program Job Aid (Continued)
Refer to §§
135.129(f). Does the certificate holder have written procedures
for making determinations regarding exit seating available for inspection
by the public at all passenger loading gates and ticket counters at
each airport where it conducts passenger operations?
Is a copy of the information attached?
Is the content complete and the method of inspection identified,
such as flyers, signs, and so forth?
PASSENGER INFORMATION CARDS
Are copies of applicable cards attached?
Are cards appropriate to carrier’s aircraft and configurations?
Do procedures address the use and location of cards?
Refer to §§
Do the briefing cards contain the following functions?
1. Locate the emergency exit.
2. Recognize the emergency exit opening
3. Comprehend the instructions for opening
the emergency exit.
4. Operate the emergency exit.
5. Assess whether opening the emergency
exit will increase the hazards to passengers being exposed.
6. Follow oral directions and hand signals
given by a crewmember.
7. Stow or secure the emergency exit door
so that it will not impede the use of the exit.
8. Assess the condition of the escape slide,
activate the slide, and stabilize the slide after deployment to assist
others in getting off the slide (where applicable to aircraft type).
9. Explain how to pass expeditiously through
the emergency exit.
10. Explain how to assess, select, and follow a safe
path away from the emergency exit.
Does the briefing card contain the selection criteria listed in §§
Does the briefing card contain a request that a passenger
identify himself or herself to allow reseating if he or she meets one
of the following criteria?
1. Cannot meet the selection criteria.
2. Has an indiscernible condition that would
prevent him or her from performing the listed functions.
3. May suffer bodily harm as a result of
performing one or more of those functions.
4. Does not wish to perform those functions.
5. Lacks the ability to read, speak, or
understand the language or the graphic form specified by the carrier,
or lacks the ability to understand oral crew commands (in every language
used by the certificate holder for the card).
Figure 3-129. Exit Seating Program Job Aid (Continued)
AIRCRAFT FLOOR PLANS
Are the aircraft passenger seating floor plans submitted
for each aircraft make, model, and series, and for each passenger seating
configuration used by the certificate holder?
Are exits and exit seats identified?
List aircraft operated:
Configurations (same or show each configuration):
RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-3578 through 3-3590.