VOLUME 3 GENERAL TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATION
CHAPTER 33 CABIN SAFETY AND FLIGHT ATTENDANT MANAGEMENT
Section 6 Safety Assurance System: OperationsCabin Safety
3-3546 SERVICE OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES. The boarding of a passenger
who appears to be intoxicated is a violation of Title 14 of the Code of Federal
Regulations (14 CFR). This section is related to Safety Assurance System (SAS)
Subsystems 5.1, Training and Qualifications, and 5.2, Cabin Operations.
A. Passenger Noncompliance. Passenger noncompliance with Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA) safety regulations may result in interference
with a crewmember. This is a violation of 14 CFR part
121 and may also be a criminal violation under Title 49 of the
United States Code (49 U.S.C.) § 46318(a). Air carriers should have procedures
in their manuals to ensure that crewmembers know what actions to take if a passenger
does not comply with the safety regulations and/or interferes with a crewmember.
121 Requirements. Part 121 requires air carriers to report passenger
disturbances associated with alcohol within 5 business days. Due to safety implications, 14 CFR part
135 air carriers should also report these disturbances to the
FAA within 5 days. The appropriate air carrier manuals should contain the crewmember procedures used to report these occurrences. The FAA suggests the following procedures:
1) The pilot in command (PIC) and/or the flight attendant (F/A) in charge of the cabin should fill out a report that, if feasible, both of them should sign.
2) The report should include:
· The name and address of the individual;
· A physical description of the individual;
· The individual’s seat number;
· The location of the individual’s boarding and destination;
· Names, addresses, and phone numbers of witnesses;
· Names, addresses, and domiciles of the other crewmembers; and
· A brief narrative of the incident, the airline, flight number, and date.
3) This report, which will be in the air carrier and crewmember manuals, should be sent to the designated personnel.
C. Air Carrier Procedures. Air carriers should have adequate
procedures contained in crewmember manuals and training programs outlining the
specific duties of crewmembers and ground personnel regarding the use and service
of alcohol. For example:
· Procedures to handle disturbances that may occur involving the
service of alcoholic beverages;
· Procedures regarding the removal of a passenger who appears to
be intoxicated; and
· Procedures to handle passengers who may have brought their own
alcoholic beverages onboard.
3-3547 CARRY-ON BAGGAGE. As a result of the 9/11 terrorist attacks,
the U.S. Congress passed the Aviation and Transportation Security Act. Section
122 of the Act, Sense of the Congress, clearly states its desire for the FAA
to maintain its current restriction on carry-on baggage of one bag and one personal
item. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Web site (www.tsa.gov)
has information about items that are permitted and prohibited in carry‑on baggage,
as well as provides examples of what constitutes a personal item.
A. Carry-On Baggage Stowing Requirement. Part
121 prohibits an air carrier from closing the passenger entry door in preparation
for taxi/pushback, or takeoff, unless each article of carry-on baggage is stowed
in a suitable baggage or storage compartment or under a passenger seat.
B. Air Carrier Carry-On Baggage Restrictions. An air carrier may not allow the following:
1) The boarding of carry-on baggage unless each passenger’s baggage
has been scanned to control the size and amount carried onboard in accordance
with an approved carry-on baggage program. Additionally, no passenger may board
an airplane if his or her carry-on baggage exceeds the baggage allowance prescribed
in the air carrier’s approved program.
2) All passenger entry doors of an airplane to be closed in preparation
for taxi or pushback, unless at least one crewmember verifies that each article
of carry-on baggage is properly stowed. Baggage is neither properly stowed nor
restrained unless the overhead bin door is closed and latched. The same requirements
apply for stowing carry-on baggage before takeoff and landing.
3) Stowage of carry-on baggage or cargo that could hinder the
use of any emergency equipment. Air carriers should provide suitable storage
space for all required emergency equipment.
C. Stowage of Cargo and Baggage in Passenger Seats. When air
carriers allow the stowage of cargo and baggage in passenger seats, they should
include this information in their FAA-approved carry-on baggage program. The
information about this practice should include:
· The types of cargo that may be restrained in the seat, and
· The location of the seat(s) where it may be stowed.
D. Stowage of Items in Seat Pockets. Seat pockets have been designed
to restrain approximately 3 pounds of weight and not the weight of additional
carry-on items. Seat pockets are not listed in the regulation as an approved
stowage location for carry-on baggage. If a seat pocket fails to restrain its
contents, the contents of the seat pocket may impede emergency evacuation or
may strike and injure a passenger. If small, lightweight items, such as eyeglasses
or a cell phone, can be placed in the seat pocket without exceeding the total
designed weight limitation of the seat pocket or so that the seat pocket does
not block anyone from evacuating the row of seats, it may be safe to do so.
E. Stowing Carry-On Baggage Against a Passenger Class Divider or
Bulkhead. Carry-on baggage may be stowed against a passenger class divider
or bulkhead if both are stressed for inertia loads and the baggage is restrained
from shifting by FAA-approved tiedown straps or cargo nets. A principal operations
inspector (POI) must approve the stowage of carry-on baggage against the bulkhead
or divider. The POI will coordinate this approval with the Aircraft Evaluation
Group (AEG) and other elements within the FAA as needed. Carry-on baggage may
be stowed in coat closets or other compartments that the FAA approves.
F. Stowing Carry-On Baggage, Cargo, or Trash in Uncertified Receptacles.
The operation of an airplane with carry-on baggage, cargo, or trash stowed in
uncertified receptacles, such as lavatories, is contrary to
part 121 and the certification basis of the aircraft. If a receptacle in the
cabin of the airplane, including the lavatory, is intended for the stowage of
carry-on baggage, cargo, or trash, it must be shown to meet the applicable requirements
in the airplane certification basis. These requirements include:
· The structural requirements pertaining to the restraint of the
receptacle’s contents for flight, ground, and emergency landing load conditions, and
· Requirements pertaining to fire containment.
NOTE: The certification requirements are contained in 14 CFR part
121.589 stipulates that each air carrier must have an FAA-approved carry‑on
baggage program. Carry-on baggage programs must comply with existing regulations.
1) A description of carry-on baggage articles must be in the
program. This description should provide information about the types of articles
which could be exempt from the carry-on baggage count. This could include such
things as child restraints, canes, assistive devices for people who are physically
challenged, articles of personal clothing, etc. Some air carriers believe that
exempt articles do not have to be restrained. Therefore, information that all
articles (including those exempt from the carry-on baggage count) must be properly
restrained should also be stipulated in the carry-on baggage program.
2) Proper stowage of carry-on baggage is a major safety issue.
The current edition of Advisory Circular (AC)
121-29, Carry-On Baggage, requests that airlines include a definition
of “properly stowed” in their carry-on baggage programs. Ensuring that baggage
does not interfere with emergency equipment is an important part of the information
about proper stowage. In addition, nothing can be stowed in the seat pockets
except magazines and passenger information cards. It is not a good safety practice
to stow meals, either brought onto the airplane by passengers or served by the
air carrier, in seat back pockets. The FAA considers meals carried on by passengers
to be carry-on baggage. Even though meals may be exempt by the air carrier from
the number of bags permitted, they still must be stowed in accordance with the
regulations pertaining to carry-on baggage. Nothing may be stowed in the lavatories,
unless lavatories meet all the requirements for approved cargo stowage areas.
3) The program should specify the crewmember position responsible
for ensuring that carry-on baggage is properly stowed. While each crewmember
should ensure that carry-on baggage procedures are followed, it is important
that a specific crewmember be identified as responsible for ensuring that carry-on
baggage is properly stowed for each cabin or each cabin area. Specific and clear
crew assignments are an important part of safety.
4) Air carriers should provide information to passengers about
their carry-on baggage programs. This information should include advice about
the types of articles that should not be carry-on baggage. Many air carriers
do this as part of their telephone announcements when reservations are made.
In addition, some air carriers provide this information through public address
(PA) announcements and signs at the airport. A variety of methods used by the
air carrier are acceptable, but the public should be able to readily obtain
5) Carry-on baggage programs should:
· Comply with existing regulations and applicable programs such
as the FAA-approved Weight and Balance (W&B) program;
· Provide information about preventing baggage that cannot be stowed
as carry-on baggage from reaching the aircraft as carry-on baggage;
· Ensure that carry-on baggage that is brought to the airplane,
but not carried in the cabin, is assigned the same weight as other baggage carried
in the cargo compartment;
· Define “carry-on baggage,” including those items that might be
· Provide information about size and number accepted;
· Define “properly stowed” to include overhead bin stowage and underseat
stowage. For proper underseat stowage of carry-on baggage, there must be forward
and side restraints to prevent bags from sliding into the aisle;
· Ensure that carry-on baggage does not interfere with emergency
equipment, and that nothing is placed in front of or directly on top of emergency
· Address stowage of unusual articles such as musical instruments;
· Prohibit the stowage of carry-on baggage and other items in the
lavatories and seat back pockets (the only items allowed in seat back pockets
should be magazines and passenger information cards);
· Provide specific crewmember assignments for the verification that
carry-on baggage is properly stowed;
· Address procedures in appropriate manuals;
· Provide crewmember training on carry-on baggage; and
· Ensure that information is available to the public about the air
carrier’s carry-on baggage program.
6) Air carriers should use approved procedures to ensure compliance
with their carry-on baggage program. These procedures should include the following
· Preboarding scanning to ensure that size and amount of passenger
carry-on baggage is in accordance with the allowances prescribed in the approved
carry-on baggage program;
· Closing and latching each overhead bin before all passenger doors
are closed in preparation for taxi or pushback and before takeoff and landing;
· Closing, latching, or installing each restraint device for each
cargo compartment located in the passenger cabin before all passenger doors
are closed and before takeoff and landing;
· Stowing each piece of underseat carry-on baggage; and
· Removing all carry-on baggage that cannot be stowed properly in
the passenger cabin before closing all passenger entry doors in preparation
for taxi or pushback, and reloading it as checked luggage in a cargo compartment.
7) Each air carrier may decide if they will allow passengers
to travel with their pets in the passenger cabin. If an airline does allow cabin
pets, then the pet container is considered to be carry-on baggage and must conform
to all carry-on baggage regulations.
· The pet container must be small enough to fit underneath the seat
without blocking any person’s path to the main aisle of the airplane;
· In order for the airplane to leave the gate, the pet container
must be stowed properly before the last passenger entry door to the airplane
· The pet container must remain properly stowed the entire time
the airplane is moving on the airport surface, and for takeoff and landing;
· Passengers must follow F/A instructions regarding the proper stowage
of the pet container.
NOTE: Additional information on traveling with pets in the passenger
cabin can be found on the FAA Cabin Safety Web site http://www.faa.gov/passengers/fly_pets/cabin_pets.
3-3548 STOWAGE OF NON-COLLAPSIBLE FLEXIBLE TRAVEL CANES. The Department
of Transportation (DOT) issued an order of dismissal to certain complainants
against a U.S. air carrier dismissing the complainant’s allegation that the
air carrier violated 14 CFR part 382, which prohibits discrimination against
qualified handicapped persons. The complainants, who are legally blind, alleged
that the carrier’s failure to allow them to stow their long white flexible canes
at their seat constituted unlawful discrimination under DOT rules.
A. Current DOT Rules. The current rules require air carriers
to allow stowage of flexible canes near passengers in a manner consistent with
FAA safety regulations.
121 Requirements. Part
121 requires all carry-on items, other than articles of loose clothing,
to be stowed in a suitable closet, baggage or cargo stowage compartment, including
an overhead rack having doors or restraints, or under a passenger seat that
is fitted with a means to prevent stowed articles from sliding forward in the
passenger compartment or sideward into the aisle. In addition, part
flexible travel canes to be stowed:
1) Laterally under two or more connected passenger seats in the
same row, if the cane does not protrude into an aisle and is flat on the floor.
2) Longitudinally between a non-emergency exit window seat and
the fuselage, if the cane is flat on the floor.
3) Longitudinally beneath any two non-emergency exit row window
seats, if the cane is flat on the floor.
4) In accordance with any other method the Administrator approves.
C. Proper Restraint of Items in the Event of an Emergency. The
gist of part
121 is to ensure that all carry-on items are properly restrained in the
event of an emergency. The FAA requires that passenger seats, under which baggage
is allowed to be stowed, must be equipped with underseat restraints sufficient
to prevent articles of baggage, including flexible travel canes and other thin
profile items of baggage, from sliding forward. Also, aisle seats, under which
the FAA allows baggage to be stowed, must be equipped with underseat restraints
to prevent baggage from sliding forward. POIs and/or cabin safety inspectors
(CSI), as applicable, must contact their assigned air carriers to:
· Inform them of these thin profile baggage restraint problems; and
· Require them to take action to ensure that the FAA-approved carry-on
baggage program of each air carrier operating under part
121 has policies that ensure proper restraint of all carry-on baggage, including
non-collapsible flexible travel canes.
3-3549 STOWAGE OF GALLEY SERVICE ITEMS. Section
121.577 prohibits an air carrier from moving on the surface, taking off,
or landing an airplane when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by the
air carrier is located at any passenger seat. In an emergency situation requiring
evacuation, litter from food service of any kind (including coffee and rolls)
can be hazardous due to poor footing. Accordingly, part
121 prohibits serving any food or beverage, regardless of the type of containers
used, during movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. In addition, any
food item or container that the passenger carries onboard the aircraft is considered
to be carry-on baggage and must be properly stowed in accordance with part
121 for movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing.
A. Items to Secure During Surface Movement, Takeoff, and Landing. Part
121 also states that, during movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing,
the following items must be secured in their stored positions (i.e., correctly positioned and fastened in their storage compartment and restraint means, if any):
· Passenger food and beverage trays,
· Serving carts, and
· Each movie screen that extends into an aisle.
NOTE: If there is a question regarding the stowage of a particular item,
and it must be stowed for takeoff and landing, then that item must also be stowed
for movement on the surface.
B. Beverage and Food Service Procedures. Air carriers may arrange
to provide limited beverage and food service to their passengers when the aircraft
is no longer moving on the surface (e.g., while the aircraft is stationary on
a taxiway in a long queue awaiting takeoff). In such cases, the air carrier
should have specific procedures for flightcrew members and F/As to follow, including
coordination and communication between the flight deck and the passenger cabin(s),
to ensure that these requirements are met before aircraft movement on the surface
C. Galley Supplies Stowed Outside the Galley. In addition, the
FAA considers galley supplies stowed outside the galley to be cargo. These supplies
must be stowed in accordance with part
121. If galley supplies or other cargo weighing over 20 pounds are placed
under a seat, the FAA must approve the container or restraint, usually through
a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC).
3-3550 RETENTION OF ITEMS OF MASS. Part
121 refers to galley equipment, serving carts, and crew baggage. However,
the FAA did not intend to list all “items of mass.” Crewmembers must restrain
any item that can become a hazard by shifting under the load factors of an emergency
A. Flightcrew Flight-Kits. Particular attention should be given
to compliance with part
121 regarding restraints for any baggage carried on the flight deck. Flightcrew
flight-kits are not items of crew baggage. This policy also applies to aviation
safety inspectors (ASI) and additional flightcrew members. While it is logical
that flight-kits be placed so that movement is restricted, the FAA does not
intend that they be restrained in a manner that would interfere with the needs
and functions of the flightcrew.
NOTE: This is only applicable to flight-kits.
B. Restraint of Serving Carts and Unused Galley Equipment. It
is recommended that air carriers include instructions to F/As that all serving
carts, in addition to being stowed for takeoff and landing and when it is not
in use, be properly restrained when in use but not being moved from one location
to another. Air carriers should expand this policy to require restraint of all
galley equipment (including supplies) that are not being used so that they will
not become hazards during periods of in-flight turbulence.
3-3551 POTENTIAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE.
A. Hot Liquids Service Procedures. Reports are received regarding
passengers and F/As burned by the spillage of hot liquids. Air carriers should
have procedures discontinuing service of hot liquids when turbulent air is encountered
that is not severe enough for the F/As to discontinue all service. In addition,
containers for hot liquids should have lids that can be securely closed. Additional
service items and areas of concern that could cause injuries are:
· Carts with sharp corners or projections that may cause injury, and
· Brakes on the carts that are hard to operate, inadequate, or nonexistent.
B. Food and Beverage Container Hazards. When F/As carry food
and beverage containers (bottles, glasses, trays, hot water and coffee containers,
etc.) loosely on the cart and in turbulence, they may become dislodged and strike
or scald passengers and crewmembers. Air carriers should have procedures for
removing or securing loose items on the top of carts during turbulence.
C. Unattended Cart Regulations. F/As should not leave carts unattended.
Air carriers should have procedures that ensure that F/As are no more than 10
feet (3 rows) away from the carts left in the aisles. F/As should not park carts
out of their normal galley takeoff/landing positions unless they can be properly
restrained. Some aircraft are equipped with restraint devices such as “mushrooms,”
which will properly hold carts in other areas. When this is the case, F/As may
leave them unattended. However, items should be cleared from the top of the
carts. During a sudden directional change of the aircraft, items left unrestrained
on the top of the carts can become dislodged and cause injuries.
D. Deficiency Reporting Procedures. Air carriers should have
procedures for reporting cart and cart restraint deficiencies.
3-3552 PROBLEMS WITH LOWER LOBE GALLEYS.
A. Eliminating Electrical Equipment Safety Hazards. The FAA requires
air carriers to provide instruction to F/As on electrical equipment and related
circuit breakers located in the cabin area of aircraft, which includes all galleys,
service centers, and lifts. A good understanding of the function of these circuit
breakers could eliminate a problem before it becomes a safety hazard. Air carriers
should assure that this subject is adequately covered in F/A training for all
aircraft so equipped.
B. Prohibition of Passengers in Lower Lobe Galleys. The FAA received
information concerning passenger access to the lower lobe galleys. They either
let themselves down in the lifts or an F/A took them down. There is no justifiable
reason for passengers to be in the galley, where they would interfere with the
F/A duties. In addition, there is no provision for oxygen masks and safety belts
for extra persons. Air carriers should incorporate into their manuals and training
programs prohibition against passengers being allowed in the lower lobe. Hence,
they should placard each lift.
C. Limit of Two F/As in Lower Lobe. Some air carriers have conducted
training and/or instruction in the lower lobe during flight with five or six
F/A trainees. They have also allowed deadheading crewmembers to occupy or visit
the lower lobe during flight. Due to the number of oxygen masks and seat belts,
only two F/As should be allowed in the lower lobe at any time during flight.
One additional person may be allowed for instruction, evaluation, or inspection
duties. In the event a third person is present in the lower lobe galley, oxygen must be available in the event of a decompression; this may require a portable oxygen bottle.
D. Communicating with Lower Lobe Galley Personnel. It is very
difficult to hear the PA system announcements in the lower galley because of
aerodynamic noise and other noise emitting from nearby systems. The F/A working
in the galley may not hear the captain’s warning of clear-air turbulence or
a 10-minute warning of descent. In addition, there have been reports of numerous
failures of the intercom systems. Sometimes, F/As in the galleys rely on the
other F/As to pass the warning. Air carriers should incorporate F/A procedures
to assure that all warnings are passed to and acknowledged by persons in lower
E. Lower Lobe Emergency Procedures. En route inspections have
revealed a nonconformity throughout the aviation industry in training and procedures
for F/As who have to work in lower lobe galleys. Air carrier emergency procedures
pertaining to the lower lobe should include procedures and training on the location
and use of emergency equipment. The emergency procedures should also include
the removal of an injured F/A in the lower section.
F. Minimum Equipment List (MEL) Incompatibility Between Aircraft.
MELs between different aircraft (e.g., DC-10, L-1011, and B-747) are not always
compatible. In one instance, if the personnel lift is inoperable, the F/As will
not perform food servicing during flight. In another instance, if the personnel
lift is inoperable, the F/As may go down to the lower galley, but the service
is limited to a number of carts that can be delivered and stowed in the passenger
cabin. In addition, F/As have sustained serious injuries caused by certain lift
malfunctions that occurred during flight.
1) Air carriers should include procedures in their F/A manuals
and training programs to assure that there are adequate instructions throughout
their system on dispatching aircraft with inoperable personnel or cart lifts.
2) Air carriers should have procedures in the event these lifts
become inoperable during flight. Further, assurance should be sought to determine
that each air carrier is keeping F/As informed on conditions and procedures,
which are set forth in the MELs that affect them.
G. Proper Stowage of Carts. Some airlines do not have a sufficient
number of mushrooms in the cabin in order for crewmembers to “tie down” each
serving cart in the event of turbulence. These carts can weigh up to 250 pounds
and should be anchored when not being transferred to or from the cart lifts.
Air carrier procedures and training should include instructions to F/As that
all carts must be properly stowed for:
· Movement on the surface,
· Landing, and
· Whenever they are not being moved from one location to another.
H. Maintaining Mushroom-Type Restraints. The FAA has found some
retractable “mushrooms” in lower galleys inoperable. They are either jammed
in the down position or, when lifted to the up position, will fall back down
when the cart is placed over it. The automatic brakes are insufficient to keep
the carts from moving about during takeoff and landing. Air carriers should
conduct inspections periodically in the lower lobe to see that the mushrooms
are operable and that crewmembers adhere to procedures requiring each cart to
be tied down or stowed. Air carrier maintenance programs should ensure that
mushroom restraints and other types of floor tiedowns are not worn down. The
thickness and circular diameter must be maintained in order for the mushroom‑type
restraints to properly secure the cart.
3-3553 PREDEPARTURE CABIN EQUIPMENT CHECKS BY F/As. Some air carriers
assign F/A tasks for making a predeparture check of the normal and emergency
equipment in the passenger cabin.
A. Predeparture Equipment Check Assignments. In reviewing this
situation, the FAA found that in most cases, the F/As on wide-body aircraft
have predeparture equipment check assignments. On other aircraft, flightcrew
members and F/As sometimes share the predeparture check of passenger cabin normal
and emergency equipment. In each case, the POI and/or CSI (as applicable) indicated
that the F/As received training on the equipment and the operations manual contained
B. Specific Tasks Assigned to F/As. When an air carrier elects
to have F/As accomplish a predeparture check of normal and emergency equipment
in the cabin, the POI and/or CSI (as applicable) should be fully aware of the
specific tasks assigned to the F/As. These tasks should be reviewed to ensure
that they are not in the areas which require an airman certificate. Appropriate
initial and recurrent training is required to ensure F/As are properly qualified.
Air carriers must also include adequate procedures and instructions in their
manuals so that applicable personnel will be able to properly perform their
C. Flightcrew Member Training. The assignment of F/As by an air
carrier to conduct a predeparture check of the cabin does not relieve the air
carrier from training flightcrew members on normal and emergency equipment in
the passenger cabin.
3-3554 PASSENGER BRIEFING ON FLOOR PROXIMITY LIGHTING. Briefing airline
passengers regarding the presence of floor proximity lighting is a good safety
practice and should be encouraged.
Part 121 requires the installation of floor proximity emergency escape path marking.
The purpose of this lighting is to provide emergency evacuation guidance for
passengers when all sources of illumination, more than 4 feet above the cabin
aisle floor, are totally obscured.
A. Informing Passengers of Proximity Lighting. Many airline passengers
are not aware of this lighting. Therefore, many air carriers include a statement
about the lighting in the passenger briefing required by part
121 and depict it on the passenger information cards.
B. Lighting Information in Passenger Briefing. Information that
should be included in the passenger briefing includes the actual location of
the lights, such as floor level or seat level. In addition, the briefing should
include the change in pattern, such as color and/or design of the lights, that
indicates the location of emergency exits.
3-3555 CABIN DOOR OPERATING MECHANISMS.
A. Passengers Moving Door Operating Mechanisms. At times, passengers
have consciously or inadvertently moved door operating mechanisms, even when
the mechanisms were located under protective plastic covers. In at least one
case, a passenger removed a plastic cover before the door operating handle was
moved. A handle that is moved during flight could accidentally cause an aircraft
door to open during landing. In one situation, when a door opened, the slide
was deployed. This was unsafe and caused considerable expense to the air carrier.
B. POI/CSI Responsibilities. POIs and/or CSIs, as applicable,
should ensure that their assigned air carriers:
1) Inform crewmembers of the potential problem of, and the need
to be alert to the possibility of, passengers moving an exit mechanism.
2) Have procedures for crewmembers to check the position of the
door handles periodically during flight.
3-3556 FOKKER 28-4000 PASSENGER SAFETY INFORMATION CARDS.
A. Door Operation Depiction on Passenger Information Cards. The
National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) believes that there may be a problem
with the door operation depiction on some Fokker 28‑4000 passenger information
cards. The NTSB requested that the FAA review the Fokker 28‑4000 passenger information
cards to ensure that they:
· Accurately show the procedure for operation of the two forward doors,
· Show the procedure for the removal of the overwing emergency exit handle cover, and
· Contain a warning to passengers that the plastic cover should only be removed in emergency situations.
B. POI/CSI Review of Passenger Safety Information Cards. Even though the passenger information cards are supplementary to the oral briefings required by part
121, POIs and/or CSIs (as applicable) assigned to air carriers operating
the Fokker 28‑4000 should review pertinent passenger safety information cards
to ensure that they show the correct information. In the event that the cards
are deficient, the proper information should be displayed when the cards are replaced.
3-3557 MISCELLANEOUS OPERATIONAL AMENDMENTS, AIR CARRIER CABIN SAFETY
OPERATIONS PROVISIONS. In this rule, there are several amendments to parts
135 that affect the following areas of air carrier cabin safety operations:
· Safety belt security during movement on the surface;
· Stowage of service items during movement on the surface;
· Passenger information and passenger briefing provisions;
· Passenger compliance with signs, placards, and crewmember instruction; and
· Readiness of emergency evacuation assisting means.
A. Passenger Information.
135 require passenger information signs to be illuminated during any movement
on the surface. In addition, these regulations require passengers to obey the
instructions of signs and placards and the instructions of crewmembers regarding
these signs and placards.
2) Regulations require that:
· Passengers be briefed on prohibitions against smoking, and
· A statement be added to the pretakeoff announcement stating that
Federal Aviation Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger
information signs and crewmember instructions concerning the use of seat belts.
B. Arming Doors. Part
121 requires that any time there are passengers onboard, one door must be
ready for evacuation. If the jetway or stairs are pulled back, then at least
one door must be armed (for example, for certain door slide/raft installations,
the girt bar must be in place).
C. Movement on the Surface.
135 require that all service items (including food, beverage, tableware,
beverage trays, serving carts, and movie screens) are in their stowed position
for movement on the surface. If there is a question regarding the stowage of
a particular item, and it must be stowed for takeoff and landing, then it must
also be stowed for movement on the surface. It should be noted that air carriers
may arrange to provide limited food and beverage service to its passengers when
the aircraft is no longer moving on the surface (e.g., when the aircraft is
stationary on a taxiway in a long queue awaiting takeoff or in the airport penalty
box). In such cases, the air carrier should have specific procedures for flightcrew
members and F/As to follow, including coordination and communication between
the flight deck and the passenger cabin. This will ensure that these new requirements
are met before aircraft movement on the surface resumes.
135 now require all occupants of an aircraft to be seated with their safety
belts fastened during movement on the surface.
3-3558 USE OF A CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEM (CRS) IN AIRCRAFT. This paragraph provides
additional information on the use of a CRS in aircraft. This section is related
to Safety Assurance System (SAS) Subsystems 5.1, Training and Qualifications,
and 5.2, Cabin Operations. The FAA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
(NHTSA) have agreed upon a single government performance standard that will
satisfy both aviation and highway safety requirements for CRSs (Federal Motor
Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213, and 49 CFR part 571, § 571.213). Information
regarding most CRS manufacturers is maintained at the NHTSA Web site, http://www.safercar.gov/parents/CarSeats/Car-Seat-Ratings-Ease-Of-Use.htm.
In addition, the FAA may approve an “aviation-only” CRS through a Technical
Standard Order (TSO), a type certificate (TC), an STC, or approval under 14 CFR part
21.305(d) (2010 ed.) or approval under
A. Seat Occupancy Regulations. Part
121 requires that “during takeoff, landing, and movement on the surface
of an airplane, each person on board shall occupy an approved seat or berth
with a separate safety belt properly secured about him or her. However, a person
who has not reached his/her second birthday may be held by an adult who is occupying
a seat or berth.”
B. Children Under the Age of 2. For taxi, takeoff and landing,
an adult may hold a child under the age of 2 in their lap. However, because
of the safety benefits, the FAA encourages the use of approved child/infant
restraints aboard aircraft (for more information, refer to
C. Accommodation of a CRS in an Empty Seat. Air carriers are encouraged
to allow the use of an empty seat to accommodate a CRS. However, air carriers
are under no obligation to allow a non-ticketed child to occupy an empty passenger
seat, even if the child uses a CRS.
D. CRS Criteria. Air carrier personnel, specifically F/As, should
be aware of the following items pertaining to CRSs meeting the criteria of 49
CFR part 571, § 571.213. The CRS should have:
· A solid back and seat;
· Internal restraint straps installed to securely hold the child to the CRS;
· A label stating that the FAA, a foreign government, or the United
Nations (U.N.) has approved it for aviation use; and
· Instructions on the label that the user must follow (labels stating
approval from a foreign government or the U.N. are allowed and therefore may vary).
E. Booster Seats. FMVSS No. 213 defines booster seats as seats
not having backs. Based on this definition, the use of such automotive
booster seats is not authorized in air carrier operation. Unfortunately, some
manufacturers market and label their approved aviation child restraint seats
as “booster seats,” even though these seats have backs. Thus, passengers can
use aviation “booster seats” with backs and labeled “approved for aviation use”
for all phases of flight, provided they follow the label instructions.
NOTE: Usually, parents and guardians can properly restrain children who fit in an automotive booster seat in an airline passenger seat without a CRS.
F. CRS Performance in Passenger Seats. In 1994, the FAA issued a study entitled “The Performance of Child Restraint Devices in Transport Airplane Seats.” The research for
the study, conducted by the FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI), involved
dynamic impact tests with a variety of CRSs installed in transport category
aircraft passenger seats. The FAA used the results of this study as the basis
for prohibiting the use of the following devices during ground movement, takeoff,
and landing. The CAMI study revealed the following observations:
1) Belly Belts. These devices attach the child to the accompanying
adult. An abdominal belt attached to the adult’s seat belt restrains the child.
During dynamic testing, the forward flailing of the adult and the child resulted
in severe body impacts against the forward seat. The child Anthropomorphic Test
Dummy (ATD) moved forward to impact the forward row seat back, followed by the
adult ATD torso striking the child ATD. Then, the adult ATD torso continued
to move forward after contact with the child ATD, crushing the child ATD against
the seat back.
2) Harness Restraints. The devices that CAMI tested consisted
of a torso harness for the child ATD placed in its own seat with the airplane
seat belt routed through a loop of webbing attached to the back of the harness.
During dynamic testing, the devices allowed excessive forward body excursion,
resulting in the test dummy sliding off the front of the seat with a high likelihood
of the child’s entire body impacting the back of the seat directly in front
of him or her. Then, elasticity in the webbing of the harness and seat belts
pulled the ATD rearward and this rebound acceleration presented further risk of injury.
3) Booster Seats. A key concern for backless booster seats used
in airplane seats is the combined effect of seat back breakover and impact of
an adult seated behind the child. Booster seats may expose the child occupant
to potential abdominal injury due to the combined effects of these forces.
G. Design of a CRS Approved Through a TC, STC, Under
§ 21.305(d) (2010 ed.) or Under § 21.8(d). Typically, a CRS that the FAA approves through the TSO process
would be similar in design to a CRS that meets FMVSS No. 213 requirements. However,
a CRS approved by the FAA through a TC, STC, under § 21.305(d) (2010 ed.), or under §
21.8(d) may contain novel and unusual design features (e.g., a harness‑type
device currently approved under §
21.305(d) (2010 ed.) that provides upper torso restraint for children).
The regulations allow the use of a CRS that is a booster-type or vest- and harness-type,
if the FAA has approved it through a TC, STC, TSO, under §
21.305(d) (2010 ed.), or under §
21.8(d). The air carrier is responsible for ensuring that crewmembers have
proper training and information regarding the use of a CRS approved for use
on aircraft through a TC, STC, TSO, or under §
21.305(d) (2010 ed.), or under §
NOTE: Except for a CRS approved by the FAA through a TC, STC, TSO, under §
21.305(d) (2010 ed.), or under §
21.8(d), the following types of CRSs continue to be prohibited for use during
ground movement, takeoff, and landing:
· Lap-held child restraint (commonly referred to as a belly belt);
· Vest- and harness-type device that attaches the child to the parent,
the parent’s restraint system, or to the aircraft seat belt; and
· Booster-type child restraint (even though it may bear appropriate
labels showing that it meets applicable U.N. standards or is approved by a foreign government).
H. CRS Installation. A parent or guardian must install a CRS in a forward-facing
aircraft seat and in accordance with instructions on the label. This includes
placing the child restraint in either a forward- or aft‑facing direction in
the passenger seat. A window seat is the preferred location; however, other
locations may be acceptable, provided the CRS does not block any passenger’s
(including the parent/guardian’s) access to the aisle used to evacuate the
aircraft. A responsible adult should occupy a seat next to the child.
I. CRS Installation with Inflatable Seat Belts. A seat belt extender must always be used with a CRS installed in a seat with an inflatable seat belt. The seat belt extender will
deactivate the inflatable seat belt. Not using a seat belt extender with a child
seat in a seat with an inflatable seat belt can result in death or serious injury.
J. CRS Acceptance Regulations. Parts
135 require air carriers to accept an approved CRS when the parent or guardian
has purchased a ticket for its use.
1) These regulations require air carriers to ensure that the
child is properly secured in the CRS, the CRS is properly secured in a forward-facing
seat, the child does not exceed the weight limits of the CRS, and the CRS is
approved and has the proper labels.
2) These regulations do not permit the use of belly belts, vest-
and harness-type devices that attach to the parent or to the parent’s restraint
system, or booster-type CRSs (even though some of these devices bear appropriate
labels showing that they meet applicable U.N. standards or that a foreign government
3) If the parent or guardian supplies the approved CRS, the parent or guardian
is primarily responsible for ensuring that the CRS is approved, that the child
is the right size and weight for the CRS, and that the CRS is properly installed
in a forward-facing passenger seat. In this case, F/A responsibility is limited
to checking with the child’s parent or guardian to ensure that the CRS and the
child have met the above conditions, that the child appears to be properly restrained
in the CRS, and that the CRS appears to be properly installed in the passenger
seat. Finally, it is the responsibility of the parent or guardian to ensure
that the CRS is free of any obvious defects and functions properly.
4) In cases where the air carrier supplies the approved CRS,
properly trained personnel should ensure that the CRS is free of any obvious
defects and functions properly. The trained personnel should also ensure that:
· The child does not exceed the weight limits of the CRS;
· The child is properly restrained in the CRS; and
· The CRS is properly installed in a forward-facing passenger seat.
5) No air carrier may prohibit a child from using an approved
CRS when the parent or guardian purchases a seat for the child, a parent or
guardian accompanies the child, and the child is within the weight limits for
the CRS. If an approved CRS, for which a parent or guardian has purchased a
seat, does not fit in a particular seat on the aircraft, the air carrier has
the responsibility to accommodate the CRS in another seat in the same class
of service. The following are examples of design variations where accommodation
a) A crewmember can move a CRS with a base that is too wide to fit properly in
a seat with rigid armrests to a seat with moveable armrests that can be raised
to accommodate the CRS in the same class of service.
b) A crewmember can move an aft-facing CRS that cannot be installed properly
because of minimal pitch (distance between seats) between rows to a bulkhead
seat or a seat in a row with additional pitch in the same class of service.
c) A crewmember can move a harness-type CRS (approved under §
21.305(d) (2010 ed. or § 21.8(d)) with an upper strap that is
not able to encircle some sleeper seats or very large first class seats, to
another seat that can accommodate the strap in the same class of service.
d) There are some aft-facing CRS that have a detachable base that may keep
the CRS from fitting properly in the seat. The following visual cues will assist
the passenger and the aircraft operator to determine if the detachable base
· If there is no belt path on the aft-facing CRS, then the passenger
must use it with the detachable base on aircraft.
· If there is a belt path on the aft-facing CRS and the CRS is properly
labeled, then the passenger does not need to use it with the detachable base
· FMVSS No. 213 labeling standards do not require labeling on the detachable base.
NOTE: F/A training and procedures should emphasize that the regulations
require an air carrier to accommodate an approved CRS for which a parent or
guardian has purchased a seat in the same class of service.
K. Effective Air Carrier Practices. The following are effective
practices that an air carrier may consider in its training and procedures regarding CRSs:
· The air carrier’s training program should cover the use of CRSs;
· The parent or guardian should secure the CRS to a regular passenger
seat at all times or stow it as carry-on baggage, if not in use;
· During an emergency evacuation, the CRS should remain attached
to the passenger seat, and only the child should be removed from the aircraft;
· No other passenger may occupy the same passenger seat with the CRS;
· The regulations do not allow a passenger to use a CRS in sideward-facing
passenger seats; and
· The child should always be properly secured in the CRS whenever
other passengers are required to have their safety belts fastened.
L. CRS Placement for Passengers Traveling with Multiple Children.
In the event that a parent or guardian is traveling with more than one child
in a CRS or is traveling with several small children, only one of whom is occupying
a CRS, crewmembers should use good judgment regarding placement of the CRS.
At a minimum:
· The CRS should be placed so that it does not block any passenger’s
(including the parent or guardian’s) access to the aisle used to evacuate
the airplane; and
· The CRS should be placed so that the parent or guardian can reach
the child in the CRS to release and evacuate with the child, should an emergency
evacuation be necessary.
NOTE: As long as the CRS meets the above conditions, this may result
in the parent or guardian placing the CRS between a passenger (including him
or herself) and the aisle and/or placing the CRS in a seat other than a window
M. CRS for Larger Children. The majority of individuals who use
CRSs on commercial aircraft are young children who typically weigh 40 pounds
or less. However, there are some individuals who, because of physical challenges,
need the support and security that a restraint system provides in order to travel
safely on aircraft. Parts
135 contain the scope of the CRS regulations, which apply to any child (i.e., under
age 18) who does not exceed the specified weight limit for a CRS and
is properly secured in a CRS that bears the proper labels.
1) Air carriers should ensure that F/As are aware that larger
children (who have not reached their 18th birthday) may use a properly approved
CRS that is appropriate for the child’s size and weight. In this case, the air
carrier may not prohibit the use of the CRS.
2) There are several companies that manufacture CRSs approved for use on aircraft
that are specifically designed for larger children who are physically challenged. The NHTSA maintains a list of information
regarding some of those manufacturers (http://www.safercar.gov/parents/CarSeats/Car‑Seat‑Ratings‑Ease‑Of‑Use.htm).
NOTE: No air carrier may prohibit the use of a CRS by any child under
the age of 18 as long as the CRS is properly labeled, the child does not exceed
the specified weight limit of the CRS, and the child is properly secured in the CRS.
N. CRS for Adults with Physical Challenges. In the case of an
adult (i.e., 18 years old or older) who, because of physical challenges, needs
the support and security that a restraint system provides in order to travel
safely on aircraft, the individual or the air carrier (on the individual’s behalf)
may request an exemption to
§ 121.311(b). There are several companies that manufacture restraint systems
for adult use.
2) Exemption information is available for your review on the
FAA’s Automated Exemption System (AES) Web site. To review previously granted
exemptions regarding this issue, go to
http://aes.faa.gov and enter “121.311” in the search field under “Regulation.”
O. TSO-C100c, Aviation Child Safety Device (ACSD). On April 6, 2012, the
FAA published TSO‑C100c, Aviation Child Safety Device (ACSD), which contains
minimum performance standards that a CRS must meet in order to obtain approval
and to be identified with the applicable TSO marking. The FAA published the
TSO for review and comment prior to its adoption. Access this TSO at
P. Labeling/Marking Requirements. Current operating rules in parts
135 require that CRSs used on aircraft during ground movement, takeoff,
and landing meet one of the following labeling or marking requirements:
1) The CRS must bear two labels, although the manufacturer typically
merges the text for these two required labels onto one label. The labeling must
include the text, “This CRS conforms to all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle
Safety Standards” and “This Restraint is Certified for Use in Motor Vehicles
and Aircraft” in red lettering.
2) The CRS must bear either a label showing approval of a foreign
government or a label showing that the CRS was manufactured under the standards of the U.N.
3) The CRS must bear a label or markings showing FAA approval through an STC.
4) The manufacturer must permanently and legibly mark CRSs approved under TSO-C100c, “TSO‑C100c.”
5) CRS showing FAA approval under §
21.305(d) must bear the label “FAA Approved in Accordance with 14 CFR
21.305(d)” or “FAA Approved in Accordance with 14 CFR
21.305(d) (Amdt. 21‑50 9 Sept. 1980).”
Q. Seat Dimensions Disclosure. Consistent with the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012,
§ 121.311(k) requires air carriers conducting part
121 domestic, flag, and supplemental operations to make available on their
Web sites the width of the narrowest and the widest passenger seats in each
class of service for each airplane used in passenger-carrying operations. This
rule facilitates the use of a CRS onboard an airplane and provides greater information
to assist a caregiver to determine whether a particular CRS will fit in an airplane seat.
1) “Class of service” is the most relevant break point for information
disclosure as it remains the prevailing terminology used to distinguish seat
products, including the seat size variations and amenities that are associated
with those products. The DOT defines “class of service” to mean seating in the
same cabin class such as First, Business, or Economy class, or in the same seating
zone if the carrier has more than one seating product in the same cabin (e.g.,
Economy and Premium Economy class or seats that are wider or have more legroom
that are available at a higher cost to passengers). Because no certificate holder
may prohibit a child from occupying a CRS if the child holds a ticket for an
approved seat, the agency has stated that the aircraft operator need only accommodate
the CRS in another seat in the same class of service.
2) Based on safe operating practices, an operator may have policies
that establish certain seat locations for passengers who use a CRS on specific
aircraft. Even if a certain seat can accommodate an approved CRS, an operator
does not have to permit the CRS in that location if the operator’s policies
disallow the CRS in that seat. However, prohibiting the use of a CRS (if a ticket
has been purchased) when there are seats on the aircraft where the CRS could
be used safely is not consistent with the requirements stated in part
121. As an operator determines how best to meet the requirement of §
121.311(k), it would be beneficial to the air carrier, and would help facilitate
the use of a CRS onboard an airplane, if the air carrier only provides seat
widths for seats that an air carrier allows for CRS use.
3) In addition to the seat width information required by §
121.311(k), the FAA encourages air carriers to include information on their
Web sites about their operational policies and limitations regarding the placement
of a CRS in a specific seat or location on their aircraft. For example, if an
air carrier prohibits a CRS in aisle seats, it would be beneficial to list this
on the air carrier’s Web site because it would provide greater information to
a caretaker when choosing assigned seats and determining whether a particular
CRS will fit in a particular airplane seat.
3-3559 USE OF NON-APPROVED CHILD/INFANT RESTRAINT SYSTEMS IN AIRCRAFT. The regulations that are contained in §
121.311 prohibit the use of certain types of CRSs during ground movement, takeoff, and landing.
A. CRS Regulations During the Cruise Portion of Flight. During
the cruise portion of the flight, however, there is no regulatory prohibition
regarding the use of any type of child restraint, including those that are prohibited
from use during ground movement, takeoff, and landing.
B. Nonapproved CRS Use During the Cruise Portion of Flight. There
is also no regulatory requirement that an air carrier permit the use of non-approved
CRSs during the cruise portion of flight. If an air carrier decides to implement
an operational policy that is not inconsistent with the regulations, they have
the operational flexibility to do so.
3-3560 DOOR/SLIDE ARMING. Crewmembers should be able to evacuate passengers from an aircraft whether it is moving on the surface or parked at the gate.
A. Arming an Exit After Retraction of Stairs or Jetway. In accordance
with existing regulations, air carriers must have procedures to ensure that
immediately after the stairs or jetway are pulled back from the airplane, at
least one floor level exit is armed. At least one air carrier has expressed
concern that this practice could result in an evacuation where the slide would
inflate and perhaps hit someone on the ground. If this concern is of primary
importance to an air carrier, then the air carrier should have a policy that
ensures that all ground vehicles are out of the possible “slide strike” area
before the jetway or stairs are pulled back.
B. When to Arm Doors. In the past, the requirements stipulated
that the crewmembers must arm doors before the pilot taxied the aircraft. However,
the present requirements mandate that crewmembers arm each floor level exit
before movement on the surface. The ideal time to arm the doors is immediately
before the aircraft begins to move. Procedures to arm doors simultaneously with
the start of pushback are also acceptable.
3-3561 PASSENGER SEAT BELT DISCIPLINE. Passengers unfastening their
seat belts when the seat belt sign is illuminated concerns the FAA. The regulations
require air carriers to illuminate the seat belt sign:
· Before movement on the surface;
· During takeoff and landing; and
· At any other time when considered necessary by the PIC.
A. “Fasten Seat Belt” Sign Regulations. Regulations also require
all passengers to occupy their seat, with their seat belt fastened, when the
seat belt sign is illuminated and to comply with crewmember instructions regarding
the “Fasten Seat Belt” sign.
B. Seat Belt Sign Announcement Requirements. When the seat belt
sign is turned on, crewmembers should make an announcement. The announcement
should emphasize that when the seat belt sign is illuminated, regulations require
passengers to fasten their seat belts. In addition, as long as the sign is illuminated,
crewmembers should periodically remind passengers that the seat belt sign is
lighted. Crewmembers should make additional and forceful announcements if passengers
stand and the seat belt sign is illuminated, especially during turbulent air operations.
C. Seat Belt Sign Announcement Before Landing. Many passengers
regard the illumination of the seat belt sign prior to landing as a signal to
prepare for landing by going to the lavatory, standing, or stowing baggage.
This is not a safe practice. Some crewmembers have adopted the desirable practice
of making an announcement before turning on the seat belt sign for landing. They announce that:
· The flight will be landing shortly; now is the time to go to the
lavatory or move about the cabin, and
· Once the seat belt sign is illuminated, passengers should be in
their seats with their belts fastened.
D. Safety Problems Due to Passengers Standing During Taxi. Historically,
most airlines ensured that passengers were seated during movement on the surface.
However, during the 1980s, at least one airline allowed its aircraft to be taxied
with passengers standing. The FAA Administrator defined this practice as a careless
and reckless operation. The FAA filed violations and the courts upheld them.
Therefore, the FAA incorporated into 14 CFR the requirement that the seat belt
sign must be turned on prior to movement on the surface. This does not mean
that pilots must stop an aircraft when a passenger stands. Pilots must weigh
the safety alternatives before determining if it is appropriate to stop an airplane
because a passenger stands up during taxi. Pilots may elect to stop the aircraft
when it is pulling up to a gate and several passengers stand. However, there
may be other times when stopping the aircraft could cause a more serious safety problem.
E. Seating All Passengers Before the Loading Door is Closed.
The regulations do not require all passengers to be seated before the passenger
loading door is closed. Requiring passengers to be seated before the passenger
loading door is closed is one way air carriers have chosen to obtain passenger
compliance with the lighted seat belt sign. This is a good practice, but not one that the FAA requires.
F. Announcement for Keeping Seat Belts Fastened While Seated.
Crewmembers must make an announcement when the seat belt sign is turned off
in flight that passengers should keep their seat belts fastened when seated.
The POI and/or CSI (as applicable) should emphasize the requirement for this
announcement. In addition, POIs and/or CSIs (as applicable) should encourage
air carriers to establish additional procedures to emphasize the importance
of passengers wearing their seat belts at all times when seated. These procedures could include:
· Additional announcements,
· Video presentations, and
· Articles in air carrier publications or pamphlets in seat pockets.
G. Announcement Techniques for Forewarning Passengers. POIs and/or
CSIs (as applicable) should encourage air carriers to use announcement techniques
that serve to forewarn passengers of pending situations that will require them
to comply with the seat belt sign when it is illuminated. Examples of these
situations include expected turbulence and approaching destination. These techniques
should be designed to preclude any passenger movement once the seat belt sign is illuminated.
H. Standup Bar Regulations. Standup bars on wide-bodied air carrier
aircraft have caused considerable concern for the safety of passengers when
turbulence is encountered. On occasion, both passengers and F/As have disregarded
the seat belt sign when it was turned on and continued to congregate near the
bar. This results in a potentially hazardous situation, not only for those passengers
standing, but also for others seated in the area adjacent to the bar. From a
safety viewpoint, whenever the seat belt sign is on, all passengers, including
those in the vicinity of the standup bar, should be secured in their seats.
Air carriers having standup bars installed in their aircraft should issue suitable
instructions for F/As regarding seat belt discipline procedures.
3-3562 FLIGHT AND CABIN CREWMEMBER COORDINATION, COMMUNICATION, AND SAFETY
DURING POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS OF FLIGHT. A review of aircraft
accidents/incidents and cabin en route inspection reports indicates that there
is a need for better communication between flight and cabin crewmembers. Also,
there is a need for better seat belt discipline from passengers and F/As.
A. Potential F/A Injury. Due to the nature of their cabin duties,
F/As are susceptible to turbulence‑related injuries. Close coordination between
flight and cabin crewmembers can facilitate the timely completion of cabin services
and preclude the exposure of F/As to potential injury during known or anticipated
encounters with turbulence.
B. PIC Responsibilities. During flight, the PIC is responsible
for the safety of passengers and crewmembers. Therefore, the PIC should ensure that:
· The cabin crewmembers complete their safety duties as appropriate for each phase of flight;
· During takeoff and landing, the F/As are seated at their duty
station with safety belts and shoulder harnesses fastened; and
· During movement on the surface, unless performing safety-related
duties, F/As must sit with safety belts and shoulder harnesses fastened.
C. Flightcrew Responsibilities During Emergency Conditions. During
emergency conditions, the flightcrew is primarily responsible for maintaining
control of the airplane. However, as conditions permit, the flightcrew should
brief the F/As on the nature of the emergency, the approximate amount of time
for cabin preparation, and the contemplated course of action. This will enable
the F/As to more effectively carry out their duties.
D. Crewmember Training. Air carriers should be reminded that
it is advisable to make a PA announcement to remind passengers that Federal
regulations require them to fasten their seat belts when the seat belt sign
is turned on. Additionally, §§
121.417 specify that training programs must ensure that each crewmember
remains adequately trained. The training program should include:
· Instruction on coordination among crewmembers in abnormal/emergency situations, and
· Review and discussion of previous aircraft accidents and incidents pertaining to actual emergency situations.
E. Coordination and Communication Between Flight and Cabin Crewmembers.
Coordination and communication between flight and cabin crewmembers during all
phases of flight concerns the FAA. The FAA requests that POIs review their assigned
air carrier’s training program and operational manuals to ensure that the air
carrier establishes a safe and effective means of coordination and communication
between the flight and cabin crewmembers. POIs should address the following
operation, coordination, and communication procedures:
1) Guidance to flightcrew members on the importance of a predeparture
briefing of the senior F/As, which includes forecast turbulence-related weather
conditions, scheduling of cabin services, cleanup, securing of galley and cabin,
carry-on baggage, and passengers.
2) Use of the PA system to alert F/As and passengers of anticipated in-flight turbulence.
3) Guidance for notifying F/As when they are to cease in-flight services, secure the galley, sit with their restraints fastened, and/or resume duties.
4) Standardized notification from the cabin crew to the flightcrew when the cabin crew completes all pretakeoff and prelanding duties and the cabin has been secured.
5) Standardized pretakeoff and prelanding signals from the flightcrew, which the flightcrew uses to allow sufficient time for F/As to be seated.
3-3563 BRACE-FOR-IMPACT POSITIONS.
A. Brace-for-Impact Research and Tests. The Protection and Survival
Laboratory of the Aeromedical Research Branch of the CAMI has conducted research and tests with respect to establishing “brace‑for‑impact” positions for passengers and F/As.
B. Establishing the Best Brace-for-Impact Position. In order
to establish a best brace‑for‑impact position for each person, it would be necessary
to know the size and physical limitations of the individual, the seating configuration,
the type of emergency, and many other factors.
C. Reasons for Bracing for Impact. There are two primary reasons
for bracing for impact:
1) To Reduce Flailing. Having the occupant flex, bend, or lean
forward over their legs can reduce flailing.
2) To Reduce Secondary Impact. Repositioning the body (particularly
the head) against the surface it would strike during impact can reduce secondary
D. Seat Pitch Spacing. Today’s aircraft may have seating arrangements
that result in very small seat pitches (the space between seats) or a combination
of small and large seat pitch spacing (i.e., an aircraft with a first class/coach
seating arrangements). Also, amendments to part
121 have upgraded the airworthiness standards for F/A seats, including the
requirement for shoulder harnesses. In view of this information, this provides
the best possible information for most emergency situations.
E. Passenger Brace-for-Impact Positions. Passengers should take
a brace position in one of several ways. In all cases, the seat belt should
be worn, as tight and as low on the torso as possible.
1) In aircraft with low-density seating or seats spaced relatively
far apart, passengers should rest their head and chests against their legs,
as depicted in Illustration A or B of Figure 3-125, Brace Position in Aircraft
with Low-Density Seating or Seats Spaced Relatively Far Apart. Passengers can
reduce flailing by grasping their ankles or legs, as depicted in Illustration
A, or if they are unable to do that, wrapping their arms under their legs, as
depicted in Illustration B. Their heads should be face down in their laps, and
not turned to one side.
Figure 3-125. Brace Position in Aircraft with Low-Density Seating or Seats Spaced Relatively Far Apart
2) In aircraft with high-density seating or in cases where passengers
are physically limited and are unable to place their heads in their laps, they
should position their heads and arms against the seat (or bulkhead) in front
of them, as depicted in Figure 3-126, Brace Position in Aircraft with High-Density
Seating or Where Passengers Are Physically Limited.
Figure 3-126. Brace Position in Aircraft with High-Density Seating or Where Passengers Are Physically Limited
3) Passengers in aft-facing seats should rest their heads on
the seat back (or bulkhead) behind them as depicted in Figure 3-127, Brace Position
for Passengers in Aft-Facing Seats. The passengers should not place their hands
behind their heads, as has been recommended in the past. Rather, passengers
should either place their hands in their laps or grasp the side of their seats.
Figure 3-127. Brace Position for Passengers in Aft-Facing Seats
4) Passengers should place their feet flat on the floor and slightly in front of the edge of the seat.
5) Passengers should not use pillows or blankets between their
bodies and the object they are bracing against (either a seat back or their
own body). Pillows and blankets provide little, if any, energy absorption and
increase the possibility of secondary impact injury. Also, pillows and blankets
could create additional clutter in the aisles which could be a detriment in
an emergency evacuation.
6) Children that occupy approved child restraint devices should
be braced in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Children in passenger
seats should utilize the same brace position as adults. Adults holding infants
should provide uniform support to the infant’s head, neck, and body and lean
over the infant to minimize the possibility of injury due to flailing.
7) Pregnant or handicapped passengers may or may not need the
assistance of another person in taking a brace position, but should, in general,
attempt to take the same brace position as the other passengers. If aft‑facing
passenger seats are available, these passengers may benefit from being located
at those seats.
F. F/A Brace-for-Impact Positions. The brace positions for F/As
will depend on the direction their seats face and the type of restraint system
those seats are equipped with.
1) In forward-facing seats equipped with an inertial reel shoulder
harness, F/As should sit back in the seat, as depicted in Figure 3-127, and
rest their chin on their sternum, as depicted in Figure 3-128, Brace Position
with Chin on Sternum. If the seats are equipped with noninertial reel-type shoulder
harnesses, F/As should fasten their shoulder harnesses as tight as possible,
lean against them, and rest their chins on their sternums as depicted in Figure
3‑128. F/As should position their arms and hands in their laps or hold on to
the side of their seats, but they should not hold onto their restraint systems.
Figure 3-128. Brace Position with Chin on Sternum
2) In rear-facing F/A seats, the F/As should sit back in their
seats, rest their heads against their seat backs or headrests, and have the
restraint systems (inertial or noninertial type) as tight as possible, as depicted
in Figure 3-127. They should not clasp their hands behind their heads, but position
them as in a forward‑facing seat.
G. Helicopter Brace-for-Impact Positions. Helicopter brace-for-impact
positions are the same as those for airplanes. F/As, if present, should utilize
either the brace position for passengers or F/As depending on their seats and
H. Briefing Passengers on Brace-for-Impact Positions. In the
case of an anticipated emergency landing, passengers should be briefed on the
above information. In the case of an unanticipated emergency, F/As may only
have enough time to give a short command, such as “Lean over,” or “Grab your
ankles.” Experience has shown that in an attempt to take a brace position of
some sort, passengers will end up in a position that could result in less injury
than if they make no attempt at all.
I. Bracing Information in Crewmember Training. The air carrier’s
crewmember emergency training program should contain bracing information appropriate
to the aircraft and seat spacing used by that air carrier.
3-3564 EMPHASIS ON TIME MANAGEMENT AND CREW COORDINATION IN PREPARATION OF CABIN FOR IMPENDING EMERGENCY LANDING.
A. Background. On July 19, 1989, a DC-10-10, N1819U, operated
by United Airlines, Inc. (UAL) as Flight 232, experienced a catastrophic failure
of the number 2 tail-mounted engine during cruise flight. The separation, fragmentation,
and forceful discharge of stage 1 fan rotor assembly parts from the number 2
engine led to the loss of the three hydraulic systems that powered the airplane’s
flight controls. The flightcrew experienced severe difficulties controlling
the airplane, which subsequently crashed during an attempted landing at Sioux
Gateway Airport, Iowa. There were 285 passengers and 11 crewmembers onboard.
One F/A and 110 passengers were killed.
B. NTSB Recommendation A-90-173. The NTSB investigation resulted
in recommendations to the FAA. They included recommendation A-90-173: Issue
an Air Carrier Operations Bulletin for all air carrier flightcrew training departments
to review this accident scenario and reiterate the importance of time management
in the preparation of the cabin for an impending emergency landing.
C. POI and CSI Training Responsibilities. POIs and/or CSIs (if
applicable) should ensure that their assigned air carrier’s training department
reviews the accident scenario of UAL Flight 232. Emphasis should be on time
management and crew coordination and/or communication in emergency cabin preparation.
The lessons learned in this accident may be very useful for developing air carrier
training curriculums. In any case, each emergency training program should provide
F/As, who may be required to act in rapidly changing emergency conditions, with
knowledge of the air carrier’s policies and procedures. Crew Resource Management
(CRM) training, with practice and feedback sessions, is recommended for building
communication, situational awareness (SA), problem-solving, and stress management
3-3565 F/A RESTRAINT DURING A CRASH AND EMERGENCY EVACUATION 2nd CHOICE EXIT DETERMINATION.
A. Background. On February 1, 1991, a B-737-300 collided with
a Fairchild Metroliner while the B‑737 was landing. The Metroliner was positioned
on the same runway awaiting clearance for takeoff. As a result of the collision,
both airplanes were destroyed. All 10 passengers and 2 crewmembers aboard the
Metroliner, and 20 passengers and 2 crewmembers aboard the B‑737 were killed.
B. NTSB Recommendations A-91-117 and A-91-118. The NTSB investigation
resulted in recommendations to the FAA. They included recommendation A-91-117:
Direct the emergency evacuation subcommittee of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory
Committee to examine flight attendant emergency procedures regarding the “2nd
choice” exit assignments to ensure that such assignments provide for use of
the nearest appropriate exit point. They also included recommendation A-91-118:
Issue an Air Carrier Operations Bulletin directing principal operations inspectors
to emphasize that during a crash sequence flight attendants must remain properly
restrained and seated in their crew seats until the airplane has come to a complete
C. NTSB-Recommended POI and/or CSI Responsibilities. The NTSB
believes that POIs and/or CSIs (as applicable) should ensure that air carriers
emphasize the following:
1) During F/A training, the air carriers that have a 2nd choice
exit assignment for F/As (e.g., overwing Type III exits) should emphasize the
need to evaluate personal risk in a decision to use a closer escape path rather
than using the assigned 2nd choice exit. For example, another door or any opening
in the fuselage may be more acceptable and more appropriate.
2) During a crash sequence, F/As must remain properly restrained
and seated in their crew seats until the airplane has come to a complete stop.
D. F/A Manual and Training Program Procedures. Procedures in
F/A manuals and training programs that provide for 2nd choice exit assignments
for aircraft emergency evacuation should be reviewed. This review should ensure
that such assignments also provide for the use of the nearest available exit
or fuselage opening when appropriate.
E. Crewmember Determination of Aircraft’s Complete Stop. Air
carrier training programs often emphasize the need for rapid evacuation following
takeoff and landing accidents. On the other hand, it is often difficult for
F/As involved in such accidents to determine when an aircraft comes to a complete
stop. This lack of a combination of cues (motion, deceleration, etc.) can result
in F/As releasing their seat belts prematurely. If the aircraft experiences
a sudden deceleration while a crewmember is unsecured, the result may be incapacitation
to that crewmember and an increase of passenger evacuation time. Therefore,
crewmember training should emphasize the importance of crewmembers remaining
seated and properly restrained until the aircraft comes to a complete stop.
It should also identify techniques to aid crewmembers in making that determination.
F. F/A Evacuation Scenario Training. During training in a crash
scenario, air carriers should emphasize the following to their F/As:
· The need for them to evaluate personal risk in a decision to use
a 2nd choice exit, and
· The need for them to remain seated and properly secured until
the aircraft comes to a complete stop.
3-3566 ACCIDENT NOTIFICATION AND MANIFEST ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES.
A. Background. On September 20, 1989, a B-737-400 was an “extra
section” passenger flight to replace the regularly scheduled (but cancelled)
flight from New York City’s LaGuardia Airport. As the first officer began the
takeoff on runway 31, he felt the airplane drift left. The captain also noticed
the left drift and used the nosewheel tiller to help steer. As the takeoff run
progressed, the aircrew heard a “bang” and a continual rumbling noise. The captain
then took over and rejected the takeoff, but did not stop the airplane before
running off the end of the runway into Bowery Bay. The accident occurred in
darkness. Both pilots and the four cabin crewmembers had minor injuries. Two
of the 57 passengers were killed and 15 had minor or serious injuries.
B. NTSB Recommendation A-90-105. The NTSB investigation resulted
in recommendations to the FAA. They included recommendation A-90-105: Require
airlines to provide airport crash/fire rescue personnel accurate and timely
numbers of all persons aboard an accident/incident aircraft, and to provide
assistance in determining the disposition of persons who have been recovered
from the scene of an accident.
C. NTSB-Recommended Air Carrier Responsibilities. The problems
associated with the recovery efforts involving an air carrier accident, in which
a night takeoff was aborted and the airplane ended up running off the end of
the runway and into a body of water, were compounded because rescue personnel
did not know exactly how many persons were onboard the airplane. This situation
was detrimental to the rescue effort because it created an uncertainty as to
how many persons the rescuers had to account for during the rescue operation.
The NTSB recommended that the FAA require air carriers to:
· Provide airport rescue personnel accurate and timely numbers of
all persons aboard an aircraft involved in an accident or incident, and
· Assist in determining the whereabouts of persons who have been
recovered from the scene of an accident.
D. Providing Information About Number of Persons on Aircraft.
The FAA agrees with the NTSB that air carriers should be able to provide accurate
and timely information to an appropriate and/or Government authority with respect
to the total number of persons on an aircraft and that air carriers should assist
the appropriate authorities in determining the whereabouts of persons who have
been recovered from the scene of an accident. The sum of the persons onboard
an aircraft includes:
· Revenue passengers,
· Non-revenue passengers,
· Lap-held children, and
· Persons occupying cabin or flight deck jump seats.
E. Load Manifest Requirements. Part
121 requires that all air carriers prepare a load manifest that includes,
at the time of takeoff, the names of passengers (unless the passenger names
are maintained by some other means). Part
135 requires, for multiengine aircraft, a load manifest that includes, at
the time of takeoff, the number of passengers. On December 30, 1988, the FAA
issued Action Notice 8430.29, the primary purpose of which was to provide guidance
concerning a recent legal interpretation of part
121 regarding the manifest accounting for all non‑crewmembers and the recording
of passenger names.
121 requires that air carriers include as part of the load manifest, the
names of passengers, unless such information is maintained by other means by
the air carrier. Other means could be ticket stubs or a computer source. The
principal reason for this regulation is to facilitate the rapid and accurate
determination of how many passengers are onboard an aircraft and who they are
in the event of an emergency situation, such as an accident or hijacking. Not
having an accurate record of all passengers could, for example, hamper the efforts
of rescue workers during a post-accident rescue operation.
2) The word “passenger,” as used throughout the regulations,
means any passenger regardless of age. That interpretation also states that
the word passenger, as used in part
121, is not qualified and means “any passenger.” A crewmember, as defined
in 14 CFR part
1.1, means “a person assigned to perform duty in an aircraft during flight time.”
3) Any person provided transportation on an air carrier aircraft,
who is not a crewmember assigned by the air carrier to perform duties during
flight time, must be recorded as a passenger and listed.
a) Crewmembers include:
· The PIC;
· The second in command (SIC);
· Other required flightcrew members, such as Flight Engineers (F/E),
navigators, relief pilots, required and non-required F/As (who are assigned
duties by the air carrier); and
· Any other persons (pursers, customer service agents, etc.) assigned
duties during flight time.
b) All other persons are passengers. The following are examples:
· Non-revenue passengers;
· Children (regardless of their age and whether they occupy a seat);
· Deadheading crewmembers or other company employees not assigned
duties during flight time;
· FAA or NTSB safety inspectors; and
· Law enforcement officials.
F. Ensuring Total Number of Persons Onboard is Available Upon Takeoff.
In addition to the load manifest required by these regulations, the air carrier
should also have a procedure that ensures that the total number of persons onboard
any aircraft, including the total number of crewmembers, is available at the
time of takeoff. The procedures should, as a part of the manual requirements
135 (accident notification procedures) contain guidance, instructions, and
procedures regarding the local authorities (e.g., airport police, management,
and/or fire department) who the air carrier’s personnel should contact in the
event of an accident or incident. The procedures should also include what information
to give in the notification, including the total number of persons onboard the
aircraft. The air carrier should also have a procedure that provides assistance
to those authorities in determining the whereabouts of persons that the air
carrier knows have been recovered from the scene of an accident.
G. Airport Emergency Plans. If an airport is certificated in
accordance with 14 CFR part
139, it must have an airport emergency plan. Air carriers and
commercial air carriers should review the plans of those certificate airports
to which they operate to ensure that the procedures they develop, in accordance
with the regulations, are consistent with the airport emergency plan that the
airport air carriers developed. FAA ACs in the 150 series (e.g., AC
150/5200-31, Airport Emergency Plan) contain additional information
concerning airport emergency plans.
3-3567 POLICY FOR PASSENGER AND F/A USE OF SEAT BELTS DURING TURBULENCE.
This paragraph provides guidance about passenger and crewmember use of seat
belts during turbulence. Additionally, air carriers should include procedures
regarding communication and coordination in all crewmember manuals and training programs.
A. Regulations for Air Carriers. Regulations require the air
carrier to ensure the following:
· Each passenger has an approved safety belt properly fastened around
him or her during movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing;
· Passengers have their seat belt fastened any time the seat belt
sign is illuminated; and
· Signs are installed so they are visible (usually on the back of
passenger seats), advising each passenger to keep their seat belts fastened when seated.
B. Background. In 1993, the FAA issued an air carrier operations
bulletin emphasizing the importance of passenger seat belt discipline and asking
air carriers to establish special emphasis programs to highlight the importance
of this issue. Many airlines cooperated by making innovative changes to announcements
and placing articles in publications informing passengers of the dangers associated
with sitting in a seat without their seat belts fastened. In spite of all these
efforts, passengers and F/As continue to sustain injuries in flight during turbulence,
evasive maneuvers, or other in-flight disturbances. Many of these injuries are
serious and result in broken bones (especially ankle bones) and head injuries.
C. Required Announcement for Keeping Seat Belts Fastened While Seated. Part
121 requires that a crewmember give an announcement after each takeoff (immediately
before or immediately after turning the seat belt sign off) that passengers
should keep their seat belts fastened while seated, even when the seat belt
sign is off. POIs and/or CSIs (as applicable) should emphasize the requirement
for this announcement. POIs and/or CSIs (as applicable) should also remind air
carriers that making a PA announcement to remind passengers that Federal regulations
require them to fasten their seat belts when the seat belt sign is turned on
is advisable. POIs and/or CSIs (as applicable) should encourage their assigned
air carriers to establish additional procedures to emphasize the importance
of passengers wearing their seat belts at all times while seated. These procedures
could include additional announcements, video presentations, and articles in
air carrier publications or pamphlets in seat pockets.
D. Procedures for Coordination and Communication Between Flightcrew
Members. Coordination and communication between the flightcrew members and
the F/As during all phases of flight concerns the FAA. POIs should ensure that
their assigned air carrier’s training programs and operational manuals contain
the safe and effective procedures for coordination and communication between
all crewmembers. These procedures should address:
1) Guidance to flightcrew members on the importance of a predeparture
briefing of the F/As, which includes:
· Forecast turbulence-related weather conditions;
· Securing the galley and cabin;
· Carry-on baggage;
· Passengers; and
· Scheduling of cabin service and pickup.
2) Use of the PA system or other signals to alert F/As and passengers
of anticipated in-flight turbulence.
3) Guidance and specific signals to notify F/As when they are
to cease in-flight services, secure galley, sit with their restraints fastened,
and/or resume duties.
4) Guidance for F/As regarding F/A determination that turbulence
is too severe for the continuation of service and that they are to take their
seats, fasten their restraints, and notify the flightcrew members regarding
5) Standardized notification to the flightcrew from the F/As
when they complete all pretakeoff or prelanding duties and have secured the
6) Standardized signals from the flight deck crew before takeoff
and before landing, which they use to allow sufficient time for the F/As to
3-3568 GALLEY SECURITY. Reported incidents of galley carts not properly
secured or galley service items not properly managed have caused concern that
there is a need to have additional guidance regarding galley carts and galley
supplies. Notwithstanding the FAA Miscellaneous Operational Amendments final
rule (57 Federal Register (FR) 42666), effective on October 15, 1992, the compliance
schedule for enforcing
§ 121.577, regarding the pickup of paper cups and plastic glasses prior to
movement of the aircraft, has not been established at this time. Inspectors
have reported finding that proper restraints were no longer available for galley
equipment and that galley components could not be restrained by the existing
latches. Inspectors have also reported finding latching devices that did not
work properly for stowage compartments or drawers. The only latches available
or the latches that were identified as the primary latches were not long enough
to keep the doors properly closed. Certificated air carriers should have procedures
to address the following areas:
A. Responsibility for Galley Restraint. A specified crewmember
should be responsible for each galley. However, all crewmembers are responsible
for ensuring galley security. Crewmembers have been known to enter a secured
galley and open a compartment and inadvertently forget to resecure the galley.
Therefore, crewmembers should:
1) Ensure that the galley and restraints are available and function properly.
2) Report malfunctioning galley equipment and restraints by following
the specific procedures.
3) Check the proper stowage of items of mass, as referenced in §
4) Check the proper stowage of equipment in the galley.
B. Availability of Proper Restraint.
1) The primary restraint should be identified.
2) The primary restraint should be in good working order and
available for use during each takeoff and landing.
3) Air carriers should have procedures to ensure that the primary
restraint performs the function for which it was intended.
NOTE: Not all latches required to be in the locked position provide
the primary restraint.
C. Malfunctions in Galley Equipment. The air carrier should have
specific procedures for reporting galley equipment and restraints that have
malfunctions. These procedures should include a method identifying the person
(or position) who will receive the report. The procedures should be a part of
the required F/A manual.
D. Checking Galley Restraints. The responsible F/A should check
the galley and galley components to ensure proper restraints, including:
· Actions such as pulling vigorously on carts, oven doors, drawers,
and other components. This is a good method of ensuring that they are secured;
· Ensuring the safe and correct parking of carts on mushrooms;
· Ensuring that brakes are operational on carts that use brakes;
· If keys are applicable to the container, then ensuring that the
key is in the locked position should be part of the actual checking procedures;
· Ensuring that galley curtains are secured open for takeoff and
· Visual checking of galley, galley components, and galley cart
security when possible.
E. Phases of Flight. The procedures should include, at least,
the following information for each phase of flight:
1) Prior to Movement on the Surface. Prior to movement on the
surface, the responsible F/A should ensure that all primary galley restraints
are available and are in working order.
2) Movement on the Surface.
a) All galley items, with the exception of paper cups and plastic glasses,
should be picked up and properly stowed prior to movement on the surface. Extension
of the compliance schedule for the pickup of paper cups and plastic glasses
should not result in the safety problem of having galley components unrestrained.
When an air carrier wishes to serve food or beverages while the airplane is
stationary, the air carrier should ensure that this service will not affect
b) The air carrier should either serve beverages in containers that can
be thrown in a garbage receptacle or ensure that all items which are not disposable
are picked up prior to movement on the surface. Pickup of service items is considered
safety-related and therefore all F/As assigned duties on that flight may pick
up galley service items during movement on the surface.
3) Prior to Takeoff. F/As should ensure that the galley and galley
components are properly stowed and restrained.
4) Procedures for Galley Security In-Flight. Procedures for galley
security in flight include the following:
a) Carts are not to be left unattended.
b) Air carriers should have procedures which ensure that F/As are no more
than 10 feet away (approximately three rows) from carts left in the aisles.
c) F/As should not park carts out of their normal galley takeoff/landing
positions unless they can be properly restrained. Some aircraft are equipped
with restraint devices such as mushrooms, which will properly hold carts in
other areas. When this is the case, they may be left unattended; however, most
items should be cleared from the top of the carts. If left unrestrained, items
on the top of the carts can become dislodged and cause injuries should there
be a sudden directional change of the aircraft. It is recommended that all cart
restocking be done in the galley as this is a good safety practice.
d) During service, other than when a cart is being moved, the brake (if
applicable) must be engaged. If a cart is parked out of the galley during the
flight, then it should be on the mushroom.
e) Galley carts and the galley itself should be maintained in an orderly
fashion because of the possibility of turbulence or evasive actions. This means
that as many supplies as possible should be stowed or left in their containers.
It is recommended that the top of the carts be kept as clear as possible. During
light turbulence, when service can continue, it is still advisable to discontinue
the service of hot liquids and these liquids should be removed from the top
of the cart.
5) Prelanding. F/As should ensure that all galleys are properly
restrained and that galley components are properly stowed and secured.
6) Postlanding. F/As should ensure that all reports of malfunctioning
galley restraints, galley components, and galley carts are properly recorded
3-3569 ENSURING THAT CHILDREN WHO HAVE REACHED THEIR SECOND BIRTHDAY
ARE PROPERLY RESTRAINED.
A. Background. On June 8, 1995, a DC-9-32 was operated as a scheduled,
domestic passenger flight under the provisions of part
121. The flight was cleared for takeoff on runway 27R. Five crewmembers
and 57 passengers were onboard. As the airplane began its takeoff roll, the
airplane occupants and air traffic control (ATC) heard a “loud bang.” The right
engine fire warning light illuminated, the flightcrew of the following airplane
reported to the crew that the right engine was on fire, and the takeoff was
rejected. Shrapnel from the right engine penetrated the fuselage and the right
engine main fuel line, and a cabin fire erupted. The airplane was stopped on
the runway, and the captain ordered the evacuation of the airplane. The F/A
seated in the aft F/A jump seat received puncture wounds from shrapnel and thermal
injuries. Another F/A and five passengers received minor injuries. The pilots,
the third F/A, and 52 passengers were not injured. The airplane’s fuselage was destroyed.
B. NTSB Recommendation A-96-84. The NTSB investigation of this
accident resulted in recommendations to the FAA. These recommendations included
A‑96‑84: Provide guidance on how to implement the requirement that occupants
who are more than 24 months old are restrained during takeoffs, landings, and
C. Violations of Restraint Regulations for Lap-Held Children.
During this NTSB investigation, it was determined that one child who had reached
his or her second birthday was listed as a lap-held child, despite regulations
that require all passengers who have reached their second birthday to be restrained
during takeoffs and landings. The NTSB has long been concerned about the inadequacy
and enforcement of this regulation, it has identified at least six accidents
and one enforcement action in which children who had reached their second birthday
were unrestrained because they were held in someone’s lap. The ages of these
children ranged from 26 months to 5 years.
D. Present Regulations for Lap-Held Children. Present regulations
allow parents/guardians of children who have not reached their second birthday
the option of holding these children in their laps. Children who have reached
their second birthday must be restrained in an approved restraint system. As
pointed out in the background to the NTSB recommendation, the problem appears
to be that some parents/guardians want to hold children who have reached their
second birthday. This is not an acceptable procedure.
E. Recommendation for Air Carriers to Ask the Ages of Lap-Held Children.
In order to preclude this occurrence, many air carriers ask the age of the lap-held
child when the child is presented to be placed on the load manifest. In addition,
many air carriers instruct crewmembers to ask parents the age of lap‑held children.
These procedures complement each other and are recommended.
3-3570 F/A APPAREL WHILE PERFORMING DUTIES ASSOCIATED WITH FLIGHT.
A. Background. On June 8, 1995, a DC-9-32 was operated as a scheduled,
domestic passenger flight under the provisions of part
121. The flight was cleared for takeoff on runway 27R. Five crewmembers
and 57 passengers were onboard. As the airplane began its takeoff roll, the
airplane occupants and ATC heard a “loud bang.” The right engine fire warning
light illuminated, the flightcrew of the following airplane reported to the
crew that the right engine was on fire, and the takeoff was rejected. Shrapnel
from the right engine penetrated the fuselage and the right engine main fuel
line, and a cabin fire erupted. The airplane was stopped on the runway, and
the captain ordered the evacuation of the airplane. The F/A seated in the aft
F/A jump seat received puncture wounds from shrapnel and thermal injuries. Another
F/A and five passengers received minor injuries. The pilots, the third F/A,
and 52 passengers were not injured. The airplane’s fuselage was destroyed.
B. NTSB Recommendation A-96-88. The NTSB investigation of this
accident resulted in recommendations to the FAA. These recommendations included
A-96-88: Issue an operations bulletin recommending that principal operations
inspectors advise their air carriers to disseminate FAA safety guidance on airline
passenger attire to their flight attendants.
C. Safety Considerations for Apparel to Decrease the Chance of Burns.
The NTSB investigation of this accident disclosed that the F/A who received
the most serious injuries was wearing shorts and a short‑sleeved shirt. Safety
experts agree that in order to decrease the chance of sustaining burns, it is
better to wear long sleeves and pants than it is to wear short sleeves and short
pants. In addition, fabrics such as wool and cotton are better than synthetic
fabrics. Also, it is better to have low‑heeled shoes which are enclosed. Straps
or laces are encouraged, while sandals are discouraged.
1) Air carriers should ensure that those charged with developing
the criteria for the attire crewmembers wear while performing duties associated
with flight are aware of these safety considerations.
2) Air carriers should ensure that crewmembers are aware of the
information regarding the safety considerations for the apparel they wear during
3-3571 ADOPTION OF FLIGHTCREW MEMBER FLIGHT TIME LIMITATION RULES TO
ESTABLISH F/A DUTY, FLIGHT TIME LIMITATIONS, AND REST RESTRICTIONS.
A. F/A Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements Final Rule.
The F/A duty period limitations and rest requirements final rule allows air
carriers to adopt the flightcrew member rules for their F/As. This rule provides
additional scheduling flexibility and eliminates the need for an air carrier
to have two sets of scheduling requirements for its flightcrew members and F/As.
This provision will also permit F/As on such operations to be scheduled with
the same limitations as the flightcrew members. This option appears in § 121.467(c) and part
135.273(c) of the final rule.
B. Administrator-Approved Written Procedures. In order to adopt
its flightcrew member flight, duty, and rest requirements for its F/As, the
air carrier must establish written procedures that are approved by the Administrator
and referenced in the air carrier’s operations specifications (OpSpecs). The
procedure as written must comply with the following guidelines and contain at
least the following information:
1) Air carriers wishing to apply flightcrew member flight, duty,
and rest requirements to F/As may obtain approval by submitting their procedures
for preliminary review and approval to the POIs assigned to them at the FAA
Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) that is charged with the overall inspection
of their operations. The approval process is similar to those used for exit
seating and passenger carry-on baggage and is required to ensure that flightcrew
member rules are adequately applied to F/As.
2) The written procedures must apply to all F/As used in the
air carrier’s operation.
3) The written procedures must be applied to the air carrier’s
4) The written procedures must show that the flightcrew member
rules are adequately applied to the F/As. They must clearly show that when the
flightcrew members are following the rules for an operation, for example, domestic,
the F/As will also be following those rules. Another example would be if the
flightcrew members are using the flag rules, then the F/As must also be following
the flag rules, and the written procedures would clearly show this is the case.
5) The written procedures for establishing duty period limitations
and rest requirements for air carriers certificated under part
135 must include the limitations contained in part
135 subpart F, except for provisions for onboard rest facilities, as appropriate
to the operation being conducted.
6) The written procedures must provide information about augmenting
the F/A crew complement. Parts
135 air carriers are required to provide F/As on aircraft with certain passenger
seating configurations in accordance with §
135.107, or the air carrier’s OpSpecs, as appropriate. The number of F/As
required on an aircraft to meet the provisions of §
135.107, or the air carrier’s OpSpecs, whichever is greater, is referred
to as the “minimum F/A crew complement.”
NOTE: Any air carrier that elects the options to apply flightcrew member
flight, duty, and rest requirements to F/As and has established written procedures
for augmenting the minimum flightcrew member complement, must establish procedures
for augmenting the minimum F/A complement. The augmenting procedures must be
based on the number of flightcrew members assigned to the flight that is in
addition to the minimum flightcrew member complement as specified in the aircraft
Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS). The following are examples:
· If the minimum flightcrew member complement on a Boeing 747-200
is three, as specified in the aircraft TCDS, an air carrier that schedules four
flightcrew members for an extended, long‑range flight will be required to schedule
one F/A in addition to the minimum F/A crew complement that is required by §
135.107, or the air carrier’s OpSpecs.
· If the OpSpecs for a certain airplane require eight F/As, and
if the air carrier adds one flightcrew member, that air carrier would be required
to add one additional F/A, for a total of nine F/As.
7) In addition, in the written procedures, each air carrier must
show how they will ensure that the definition of “rest period” in the final
rule is applied to F/As. (Refer to the detailed discussion on “Rest Period Requirements”
and “Reserve Status, Stand-by Status, or Similar Assignments” in the final rule.)
8) Under the provisions for applying flightcrew member flight,
duty, and rest requirements to F/As, if the Administrator finds that revisions
to the written procedures are necessary for the continued adequacy of the procedures
for applying flightcrew member flight, duty, and rest requirements to F/As,
the Administrator will require the air carrier to make necessary changes within
30 days after being notified by the Administrator. In addition, an air carrier
may petition the Administrator to reconsider the notice to change the procedures.
NOTE: This procedure for requiring changes is consistent with the current
regulatory language for a number of air carrier programs.
9) Any air carrier that establishes written procedures to apply
the flightcrew member flight, duty, and rest requirements to F/As and that subsequently
wishes to revise this practice and schedule F/As according to the duty period
limitations and rest requirements in §
121.467 or §
135.273, must amend their OpSpecs in accordance with §
119.51. These sections require an air carrier to file an application for
an amendment of OpSpecs at least 15 days before the effective date proposed
by the applicant for the amendment, unless a shorter filing period is approved
by the FSDO charged with the overall inspection of the air carrier. See
Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 3 for information regarding the issuance of OpSpec A032.
3-3572 EXIT SEATING PROGRAM. The applicable air carriers must comply
with the appropriate parts of 14 CFR pertaining to exit seating: §§
135.129. The following information provides guidance and clarification on
the development of the exit seating program and defines the applicability.
1) Exit row regulations apply to the following air carriers:
121 certificated air carriers. This includes air carriers who carry passengers
§ 121.583, because §
121.585 is not on the list of part
121 regulations from which those air carriers are exempt.
135 on-demand air carriers with aircraft having more than 19 passenger seats.
2) The exclusion of part
135 on-demand aircraft having 19 or fewer passenger seats and part
135 commuter aircraft having 9 or fewer seats was based on typical passenger
seating configurations and exit availability of these aircraft.
B. Exit Seat. An exit seat is defined as each seat in a row of
seats through which passengers would have to pass to gain access to an exit
from the first seat inboard of the exit to the first aisle inboard of the exit.
A passenger seat having direct access means a seat from which a passenger can
proceed directly to the exit without having to enter an aisle or pass around
an obstruction (such as a bulkhead, lavatory, closet, galley, etc.).
1) The air carrier’s manual procedures must contain a listing
of designated exit seats for each type of passenger seating configuration in
2) “Exit seat” is a more accurate term than “exit row.” In some
configurations involving a row of two seats at an exit, only one seat is behind
a partition. For example, the forward most row on the left side of the Dash‑8:
a) The window seat, obstructed by the partition, is not considered an exit
seat because the passenger does not have direct access to the forward left exit.
b) However, the passenger seated next to that seat on the aisle has direct
access because that passenger does not have to pass around the bulkhead to reach
NOTE: This is one of the rare exceptions whereby the entire row is not
an exit row.
C. Selection Criteria.
1) As applicable to the exit seating rule, the required selection
criteria for an occupant of an exit seat are listed in §§
135.129(b). The selection criteria are a listing of capabilities and conditions
to be applied to determine the suitability of persons to occupy an exit seat.
2) The selection criteria should be contained in its entirety
in the air carrier’s manuals, including the F/A manual, and the exit seating
passenger information card. The selection criteria must also be available for
inspection by the public at all passenger ticket counters and loading gates.
Air carriers should avoid paraphrasing the selection criteria, as it may change
the meaning of the neutral selection criteria and result in unwarranted discrimination.
An example of such paraphrasing whereby the meaning of the criteria is changed
would be if an air carrier misrepresented §
121.585(b)(4) as follows:
a) “The person lacks sufficient visual capacity to perform one or more of
the applicable functions.”
b) The omission of “without the assistance of visual aids beyond contact
lenses or eyeglasses” (as stated in the regulation) significantly changes the
meaning of the criteria and could result in unwarranted removal of passengers
with eyeglasses seated at exit seats. However, in some instances the regulatory
language could be changed for simplification purposes without changing the meaning
of the criteria. For example, “to exit expeditiously” could be restated as “to
3) The airline employee designated to determine who may be assigned
to an exit seat must make this assessment in a nondiscriminatory manner by consistent
application of the neutral criteria.
a) For example, if a passenger is being evaluated for assignment to an exit
seat, age (with the exception of those younger than 15 years of age) or the
size of a person alone should not be the determining factors. The airline employee
must evaluate the individual’s physical and mental capabilities and other conditions,
as clearly outlined in the selection criteria. If that individual meets all
the selection criteria, then age or size alone should not be a disqualifying
b) However, if that individual has difficulty walking and lifting his or
her own carry-on luggage, then the application of the neutral criteria would
exclude this individual from being assigned an exit seat because it would appear
by observation that the individual would not be able to move expeditiously and
perform the tasks involved in the emergency evacuation.
c) For example, if a passenger with a prosthesis is being evaluated for
assignment to an exit seat, the presence of the prosthesis would not be the
determinant for being able to meet the criteria but rather the physical ability
to perform the exit seat duties.
d) During the screening, if the CH determines that a passenger may not have
full functionality of the prosthetic limb (e.g., the passenger has removed the
prosthesis for comfort or their prosthesis is in a sling or arm-brace), then
they may not meet the “mobility” exit row criteria.
D. Functions. As applicable to the exit seating rule, §§
135.129(d) list the functions that a passenger seated at an exit seat must
be willing and able to perform in the event of an emergency. The functions must
appear on the exit seating passenger information card, but can be in written
form or graphically displayed. The functions must also be contained in the written
airport information available at the passenger ticket counters and loading gates
and in the air carrier’s manual procedures.
E. Seat Selection/Assessment/Verification Process. Each air carrier,
using the selection criteria, is required to determine the suitability of each
person who occupies an exit seat. Regulations require that persons responsible
for making this determination be identified in the air carrier’s manual. The
air carrier is further responsible for developing procedures concerning this
passenger selection process. The procedures should address:
· Who is responsible for making these determinations (prior to boarding
and the final verification onboard the aircraft);
· How they will make this determination;
· When the process will be performed;
· Where the process will be performed; and
· Identification of each designated exit seat (for each passenger
seating configuration in its fleet).
1) Advanced Seating.
a) To the maximum extent feasible, exit seats should be assigned prior to
boarding the aircraft. This would reduce the confusion or requests for reseating
and possible delays after the aircraft is boarded. This does not preclude an
air carrier from having an open seating policy, advance seat selection, self check‑in kiosks, or other types of computer/internet technologies that allow
advance seating selection and check‑in at airports where passengers may be permitted
to select and be assigned an exit seat at check‑in without screening by air
carrier personnel. However, when these types of check‑ins are in place, additional
procedures should be developed and implemented for screening, verifying, and
reseating passengers onboard the aircraft to ensure compliance with exit seat
b) For example, menu prompts that appear at the point of exit seat selection
could assist in preliminary verification of passenger eligibility. When a passenger
has chosen an exit seat by means of a self‑check‑in kiosk, the ground agent
at the ticket lift point could make determinations and assessments at the time
of the required verification of positive ID to meet TSA security requirements.
In order to safeguard the screening process, other carriers may select a “see agent” prompt at the point of passenger selection of exit seating via self‑check‑in.
POIs and/or CSIs (if applicable) should ensure that when air carriers offer
these methods of advanced seat selection, check-in, and open seating, approved
exit seating programs provide ample information detailing the methods of screening
and procedural safeguards in place to ensure compliance with exit seat assignment
2) Persons Who Will Determine Exit Seat Suitability. The air
carrier is responsible for identifying those persons who will make the determination
as to the suitability of the person assigned to an exit seat. The responsibility
can be assigned to a customer service agent, a crewmember, or other person specified
by the air carrier in its company manual procedures.
3) Passenger Screening. Should air carriers choose to use electronic
media that allows passengers to select exit seats and print out a boarding pass
without going through an employee of the company, they must have procedures
in place for screening those passengers. The individuals and the procedures
used to accomplish this should be identified in the appropriate air carrier
4) Passenger Assessment Process for Exit Seating. While the regulation
specifically defines the criteria for persons occupying an exit seat, the method
by which the airline employee assesses the person assigned to an exit seat should
be defined by the air carrier in its company manual. This process generally
requires a physical observation of the person and should require additional
processes, such as conversation with the person, to determine if he or she meets
the selection criteria (the person has the ability to hear, understand, and
impart information, and is not distracted by other responsibilities such as
caring for small children or other traveling companions, etc.).
5) Verification of Exit Seat Occupants Before Taxi/Pushback.
121.585(g) and 135.129(g) state that the air carrier may not taxi or pushback unless at
least one required crewmember has verified that no exit seat is occupied by
a person that the crewmember determines is likely to be unable to perform the
emergency functions. The required crewmember and the method used to make this
determination must be specified in the company manual.
F. Individual Exit Seat Briefings.
1) The NTSB examined 46 passenger aircraft evacuations that occurred
between September 1997 and June 1999. The NTSB Safety Study 00/01, Emergency
Evacuation of Commercial Airplanes, resulted in recommendations to the FAA.
They include recommendation A-00-77: Require air carriers to provide all passengers
seated in exit rows in which a qualified crewmember is not seated a preflight
personal briefing on what to do in the event the exit may be needed. To read
the entire report, go to
2) During the study, the NTSB examined passenger performance
in exit rows for the six cases for which the Board received information on the
overwing exit operation. In several evacuations, the passengers had trouble
using the exits correctly and the NTSB determined that one reason for these
difficulties was passenger inattention to the safety materials provided. The
NTSB found that in one case, exit seats were occupied by two passengers older
than age 70, one of whom was unable to open the exit. In addition, three passengers
seated in exit rows did not speak the language in which briefings and oral commands
were given by the crew.
a) Of the six study cases, several of the air carriers had procedures in
place to individually brief passengers on exit row tasks. Passengers who received
an individual briefing were more likely to read the safety card than those who
did not receive an individual briefing.
b) The NTSB found that 44.5 percent of the passengers who were individually
briefed reported examining their safety cards and 16 percent of the passengers
who did not receive an individual briefing reported examining their safety cards.
c) In addition, those who received individual briefings performed better
during actual evacuations and were better prepared to operate the overwing exits.
3) Many air carriers have procedures that designate certain crewmembers
to conduct additional structured personal conversations or briefings, beyond
the oral briefing required by §§
121.585(h) and (i) and
135.129(h) and (i), to ensure that the passengers in exit seats can hear,
understand, and speak the language of the air carrier. (However, fluency in
the language of the air carrier is not required as long as the exit seat passengers
can understand crew instructions, commands, and the graphic illustrations related
to exit seat functions, and are able to adequately impart information related
to emergency functions.)
4) Individual briefings that are given to passengers who occupy
exit seats have a positive effect on the outcome of an aircraft evacuation.
Individual briefings also assist F/As in assessing the suitability of passengers
who occupy those seats. An individual briefing reminds passengers of their exit
seat responsibilities, gives them the encouragement to review their safety information
card and also gives passengers the opportunity to ask the F/A any questions
they may have about exit operation or procedures. This briefing also presents
an opportunity for the F/A to assess the passengers’ ability to understand oral
5) POIs and/or CSIs (if applicable) should strongly encourage
their assigned air carriers to consider the safety benefits that are accomplished
by individual exit seat briefings and to include such briefings in their predeparture
procedures. In the absence of procedures that require individual briefings,
POIs and/or CSIs (if applicable) should ensure that each air carrier has a method
in place to ensure compliance with
§ 121.585(g), which requires verification by a required crewmember that the
passengers can perform all required functions, including the ability to follow
G. Assessment/Verification Prior to Landing. Air carriers should
also have procedures in place to ensure that exit seats are not occupied by
persons who do not meet the exit seat criteria. Crewmembers should continue
to monitor exit seat occupancy during flight in the course of their normal duties
to ensure that persons who do not meet the criteria do not move into exit seats.
In addition, crewmembers should recheck the exit seats before landing to make
certain that passengers who met the criteria and occupied exit seats prior to
takeoff still meet the exit seat criteria for landing. (Some situations that
can cause passengers who met the criteria before takeoff to not meet the criteria
for landing are intoxication during flight, panic attacks, and passenger illness
H. Exit Seating Passenger Information Card. Sections
135.129(d) provide the requirement for the contents of the exit seating
passenger information card. This exit seating passenger information card may be in addition to the standard passenger information card, which is required by
§§ 121.571(b) and
135.117(e), or it can be incorporated into the standard passenger information
card. The exit seating passenger information card is required to be located
at each designated exit seat. The exit seating passenger information card is
to be presented in the primary language in which briefings and oral commands
are given by the crew. It must contain the following information:
1) The selection criteria, as found in §§
a) The selection criteria are mobility, strength, and dexterity standards
that do not specify where exits should be deposited. Exits should be deposited
in accordance with the airplane manufacturer’s instructions.
b) Air carriers must depict on their passenger information card the actual
weight of the exit so that each potential exit seat passenger can make an assessment
as to whether or not they meet the selection criteria. Therefore, air carriers
must include the selection criteria on their passenger information card.
2) The emergency function, as found in §§
a) The functions must be listed (as in the rule) and/or graphically displayed
on the passenger information card. Either or both methods are acceptable.
b) If a function cannot be graphically depicted on the card (such as “Follow
oral directions and hand signals given by a crewmember”), then it should be
written on the exit seating information card.
3) The following contents found in §§
a) A request that passengers identify themselves for reseating if they cannot
meet the selection criteria; have indiscernible conditions that will prevent
them from performing the applicable functions listed on the card; may suffer
bodily harm as a result of performing one or more of the functions; or do not
wish to perform the functions.
b) A request that passengers identify themselves to allow reseating if they
lack the ability to read, speak, or understand the specified language in which
crew commands will be given in an emergency. (This request is to be written
in each language used by the air carrier for the passenger information card.
If the card, for example, contains some safety instructions in several languages,
then this request should be in each of those languages.)
I. Oral Briefing. Sections
121.585(h) and (i) and
135.129(h) and (i) provide the specific requirements for the oral briefing.
The content of the required oral briefing must be part of the air carrier’s manual procedures.
1) As per the rule, the oral briefing shall:
a) Reference the exit seating passenger information card, along with the
criteria and the functions. (The required oral briefing only requires a reference,
not a reading of the contents of the criteria and functions.)
b) Have a statement that requests the passenger to identify himself or herself for reseating if he or she:
· Cannot meet the selection criteria;
· Has an indiscernible condition that will prevent him or her from performing the applicable (emergency) functions;
· May suffer bodily harm as the result of performing one or more of the functions; or
· Does not wish to perform the functions.
2) This briefing should be conducted after all the passengers
have boarded. If the required briefing is conducted several minutes before the
entry door is closed and then several late passengers board after the briefing
is completed, the briefing should be repeated in case one or more of the late
passengers occupies an exit seat.
3) It is beneficial when the air carrier incorporates the exit
seat locations for that aircraft configuration into the required oral briefing,
so the passengers seated at the exit seats clearly understand that the briefing
requirements are directed toward them. Some air carriers further identify exit
seat locations to passengers and crew with placards in the cabin, or with an
indication on the passenger boarding pass.
J. Reseating/Full Booking.
135.129(k) require that in the event that a passenger assigned to an exit
seat would be unable to perform the evacuation functions, or requests a non-exit
seat, the air carrier shall expeditiously relocate the passenger to a non-exit
seat. The air carrier’s manual procedures should clearly outline how the reseating
would be accomplished.
NOTE: The air carrier, by regulation, shall not require the passenger to disclose his or her reason for needing reseating.
135.129(l) require that in the event a passenger assigned to an exit seat
wishes to be relocated to a non-exit seat and all of the non-exit seats are
booked full, the air carrier must move a passenger who is willing and able to
assume the evacuation functions from a non-exit seat to the exit seat. The air
carrier’s manual procedures should clearly outline how the reseating with a
full load would be accomplished.
NOTE: If a passenger is assigned to an exit seat but later has second
thoughts about being seated at an exit seat, the passenger should be relocated
prior to pushback. However, if taxiing has begun or takeoff is already underway,
the rule does not require that the passenger be moved. This would create dangers
as great as or greater than allowing the person to remain in place until the
aircraft is airborne. The cabin crew has been alerted to the location of a potential
problem in the event of an evacuation and can wait until airborne when it would
be safe to relocate the passenger. This is not an excuse for a crewmember to
be complacent in performing the required verification.
K. Denial of Transportation.
135.129(m) state that an air carrier may deny transportation to any passenger
under this section only because:
· The passenger refused to comply with instructions given by a crewmember
or other authorized employee of the air carrier concerning the implementation of the approved exit seating procedures; or
· The only seat that will physically accommodate the person’s disability is an exit seat.
2) The air carrier’s manual procedures must describe the reasons for denial of transportation. It should also describe how the situation will
be handled and who is designated to handle it.
L. Disputes. Sections
135.129(n)(iv) require that the air carrier include procedures that address
how to resolve disputes arising from the implementation of this rule, and identify
the employee on the airport to whom complaints would be addressed for resolution.
This person is commonly referred to as the Complaint Resolution Official (CRO)
as described in 14 CFR part 382, § 382.151.
M. Airport Information. Sections
135.129(f) require that each air carrier shall make available for inspection
by the public at all passenger loading gates and ticket counters at each airport
where it conducts business, written procedures established for making determinations
in regard to exit seating. The method of presentation of the airport information
may vary, such as a flyer, a card, a ticket jacket, a computer printout, a posted
sign, etc. The air carrier’s exit seating program should state the method in
which this information will be presented to anyone who requests this information.
This written airport information should contain the:
· Selection criteria, as found in §§
· Emergency functions, as found in §§
· Requests for reseating, as found in §§
· Reasons for denial of transportation, as found in §§
N. Program Content for Submission. The air carrier should submit
the following documents to the POI and/or CSI (if applicable):
1) Manual Excerpts. Manual excerpts should be submitted from
the operations, F/A, and passenger/customer service portions of the air carrier’s
manuals, with procedures appropriate for the air carrier’s employees to adequately
perform their exit seating duties and responsibilities. The procedures should contain:
· Selection criteria;
· Emergency functions;
· Location of designated exit seats;
· Requirements for exit seating passenger information cards;
· Crewmember verification of appropriate seating in exit seats;
· Passenger oral briefings;
· Seat assignments;
· Requirements for written airport information, reseating, full
bookings, assignment of exit seats, denial of transportation, and resolving disputes arising from exit seating; and
· Identification of the air carrier employee at the airport to whom
complaints should be addressed for resolution.
2) Configuration Diagrams. These should be submitted (for evaluation)
and should display each passenger seating configuration in the air carrier’s
fleet. The diagram should highlight all exit seats, all passenger exits, and
any obstruction, such as bulkheads, lavatories, closets, galleys, etc.
3) Exit Seating Passenger Information Cards. Must be submitted
for each type, make, model, and series (M/M/S) aircraft. These cards may be
submitted in draft form, pending final approval.
4) Airport Information. The air carrier should identify the manner
in which the written airport information is presented and submit a draft copy
pending final approval.
O. Approval Process. The intent of the exit seating review and
approval process is to ensure consistent application of the regulation, particularly
when the rule was new and policy was being developed. (See Figure 3‑129, Exit
Seating Program Job Aid.) During the original approval process, the exit seating
programs were sent for review, first to the POI and then forwarded for a second
review by the Exit Seating Coordinator at the Regional Office (RO) who approved
the programs on behalf of the Office of the Director (AFS-1). The POI no longer
needs to forward exit seating programs to the Exit Seating Coordinator at the
RO for approval. The POI is now considered to be the representative of AFS-1
in terms of compliance with §§
1) Once the air carrier has completed their exit seating program
package, a copy of the program should be forwarded in draft format to their
POI and/or CSI (if applicable). During the review process, the POI and/or CSI
(if applicable) should use this guidance and complete the checklist in Figure
3-129. If the POI and/or CSI (if applicable) is not satisfied with the package,
the inspector will return it to the air carrier with an explanation of the changes/additions
needed for the program. If the POI and/or CSI (if applicable) finds the program
to be complete and satisfactory, the POI will then give the final approval to
the air carrier and issue OpSpec A022.
2) Any subsequent revisions to the approved exit seating program,
such as a change in procedures, an addition of new aircraft, a change in the
passenger seating configurations, a change to the exit seating passenger information
card, etc., must be sent to the POI and/or CSI (if applicable). The certificate
holding office should maintain a copy of an up-to-date version of their air
carrier’s exit seating program.
P. Special Approvals. There may be situations whereby an air
carrier may conduct some operations entirely in a foreign country. Such a situation
could occur during a wet lease operation. The entire airplane may be full of
passengers who all speak one foreign language. The intent of the rule was not
to exclude foreign‑speaking passengers from the exit seat, provided these passengers
understand the commands given by the crewmembers in the event of an emergency,
all the information on the approved exit seating passenger information card,
and the required oral briefings. This may be accomplished in a number of ways:
· The crewmembers may be bilingual and trained in two languages,
one of which is the language of the foreign passengers.
· The briefings may be conducted in two languages, the language
of the foreign speaking passengers and the primary language of the air carrier.
· The exit seating passenger information cards should also be in
the two languages.
NOTE: An amendment to the existing exit seating program would be needed that details the manner in which the air carrier would address this type of operation.
1) If the situation is such that the operation is conducted domestically
and a large group of foreign‑speaking passengers board the aircraft speaking
one particular foreign language, and board in such numbers that the only seats
remaining for them are the exit seats, then the air carrier would need to develop
special procedures for FAA review and approval that would address this type
of operation in order to comply with the rule.
2) If the air carrier cannot find any passengers who speak the
language used by the air carrier in domestic operations, then the air carrier
should attempt to find those passengers who have some understanding of the language.
In this situation, it would appear that an interpreter who is fluent in both
the air carrier’s primary language and the language of the foreign-speaking
passengers would have to be used. An exit seating passenger information card
would have to be developed in the foreign language and the interpreter would
have to thoroughly brief the foreign-speaking passengers on the contents of
that specially approved exit seating passenger information card. The interpreter
would also have to provide the required exit seating oral briefing in the foreign
language to ensure that the exit seating passengers are willing and able to
perform the emergency functions. The interpreter would have to review the commands,
which would be given by the crewmember in an emergency evacuation, in both the
primary language of the air carrier and in the foreign language.
3) A designated crewmember should oversee this special briefing
and make the determination that those passengers understand their responsibilities,
meet the criteria, and are willing and able to perform the emergency functions,
if called upon to do so. This procedure requires more time to implement prior
to departure and the necessary time must be allotted for this special briefing.
4) In these and other similar situations, the air carrier would
need to develop (in advance of the operation) and submit for approval specific
procedures, special exit seating passenger information cards in the foreign
language to be used, and crewmember training for that specific operation. The
procedures must detail how the exit seating requirements would be met and who
would be responsible for implementing the procedures and making the final determination
as to the suitability of these passengers. The amended procedures must be sent
to the POI and/or CSI (if applicable) for review. If the procedures satisfactorily
meet the requirements, the exit seating program amendment for foreign-speaking
passengers can be approved by the POI.
3-3573 EMERGENCY EVACUATION WITH INFANTS. Researchers from the CAMI
have completed two studies designed to determine the most favorable methods
for the emergency evacuation of infants from aircraft. All CAMI publications
may be accessed at
http://www.faa.gov/data_research/research/med_humanfacs/oamtechreports. The following information
is intended for use in developing passenger information materials and/or briefing.
A. Infant Evacuation Via Inflatable Emergency Evacuation Slides.
The purpose of the first study, published in 2001, was to determine the most
favorable methods for the evacuation of infants via an inflatable emergency
evacuation slide. The results of this study strongly suggest that jumping onto
the slide should be the favored boarding manner, as opposed to sitting down
and sliding, which slows the progress of the evacuation. The carrying position
that provides the most protection for the child would include cradling the child’s
head and neck with the hand (for a vertical position) or in the arm (for horizontal
positions), and keeping the child’s arms, legs, and feet enfolded as much as
possible by the adult’s arms. Both positions emphasize the importance of cradling
the infant to protect its head, arms, and legs.
B. Infant Evacuation Via Type III Overwing Exits. The purpose
of the second study was to determine the most favorable methods for evacuation
of infants through a Type III overwing exit. The results of this study suggest
that carrying the infant vertically, while cradling the infant to protect its
head, arms, and legs, should be the favored evacuation maneuver through the
Type III exit, as opposed to carrying the child horizontally or passing the
child to another passenger on the outside of the Type III exit.
3-3574 USE OF PORTABLE ELECTRONIC DEVICES (PED). POIs and principal
avionics inspectors (PAI) should review the provisions contained in §§
121.380, and AC
91.21-1, Use of Portable Electronic Devices Aboard Aircraft (current
edition), with their assigned operators. POIs and PAIs must ensure that their
operators have adequate procedures in place to determine whether or not PEDs
are acceptable for passenger use onboard their aircraft. POIs must ensure that
their operators specify in their operations manuals those PEDs that may not
be operated onboard their aircraft. Although §§
135.117 do not require that the following briefing information be given,
POIs and CSIs should encourage their assigned operators to include information
regarding the operation of PEDs in the pre-takeoff passenger safety briefings.
These briefings should include any specific restrictions that apply to passenger
use of portable electronic devices.
NOTE: An example briefing might be the following: “Some portable electronic
devices may interfere with the aircraft’s communications and navigation systems.
Please refrain from using any electronic device other than portable voice recorders,
hearing aids, and [the operator should add to this list of portable electronic
devices, the generic identification of any device that it determines will not
cause interference.] For your safety and the safety of others, please stow all
carry-on portable electronic devices during taxi, takeoff, and landing.”
3-3575 BRIEFINGS ON INDIVIDUAL FLOTATION DEVICES. Individual flotation
devices, for use by passengers, are not always identical on some aircraft. The
differences in the equipment can be insignificant. For example, flotation cushions
may have straps on the sides or straps across the bottom of the cushion. In
either case, the instructions for use would be the same: “Insert your arms through
the straps and hold the cushion to your chest.” The straps are not in the same
place, but the same instructions would work regardless of the location of the
straps. However, there are cases when the differences in the flotation cushions
or the life preservers are significant.
A. Significant Differences in Life Preservers:
· Some are donned by placing one part over the head,
· Others are worn like a coat, and
· Some have inflation handles that work differently.
B. Operators Use Various Methods to Inform Passengers of Using Dissimilar
Flotation Equipment, such as:
· Briefing passengers on the different types of flotation devices;
· Displaying the differences on passenger cards and alluding to
them in the briefing;
· Using a combination of briefing and passenger cards; and
· Briefing passengers (in rare cases) on only one design.
C. Policy. When a passenger is informed about more than one type
of flotation cushion or life preserver, it can be confusing. One method for
informing passengers is to give each passenger information about the piece of
individual flotation equipment that is located at that individual passenger’s
seat. In some cases, this may mean different cards at different seats and individual
briefings at certain seats. When two sections on the same aircraft are equipped
differently, each section would need a different passenger briefing. Another
method for informing passengers is to advise them during the oral briefing that
there are different types of flotation cushions on the airplane, therefore,
it is important that they study the card carefully and be aware of the differences
in the flotation equipment. The different methods of donning and/or operating
the individual flotation device should be depicted on the card and given in
the oral briefing or demonstration (if extended over‑water flight).
3-3576 LOCATION AND PLACEMENT OF SERVICE ANIMALS ON AIRCRAFT.
A. Background. As early as 1977, the FAA recognized the need
for guidance regarding the placement and location of service animals on aircraft. AC
120-32, Air Transportation of Handicapped Persons (current edition),
discusses the placement of guide dogs and states they should sit in the first
row of seats of a section next to the bulkhead where there is more room for
the dog. In 1990, the DOT published part 382. On May 9, 2003, the DOT issued
revised guidance regarding the carriage of service animals affecting all transportation
modes, including aviation.
B. FAA Review of NTSB Part
121 Accident Reports. The FAA has reviewed all available NTSB accident
reports for part
121 commercial aircraft accidents with at least one fatality occurring between
January 1, 1990, and November 28, 2007. The FAA found no information that the
presence of a service animal or its placement or location on an airplane negatively
impacted an airplane evacuation or a particular individual’s emergency exit
from an airplane.
C. FAA Review of NTSB Safety Reports. The FAA also reviewed NTSB
Safety Report 01/01, Survivability of Accidents Involving Part
121 U.S. Air Carrier Operations, 1983 Through 2000, and NTSB Safety Study 00/01, Emergency Evacuation of
Commercial Airplanes, and again found no information that either the presence
of a service animal or its placement or location on the airplane negatively
impacted an airplane evacuation or a particular individual’s emergency exit
from an airplane.
D. Part 382 Requirements. The variety of service animals, as
well as the services these animals perform, has become larger in scope since
the FAA’s policy was first published in 1977. However, a comprehensive review
of available NTSB data does not identify a hazard that compels the FAA to change
its long-standing safety and enforcement policy regarding placement and location
of service animals on aircraft. Therefore, consistent with part 382 requirements:
1) Placement. A service animal may remain at the feet of a person
with a disability at any bulkhead seat, or in any other seat, as long as when
the animal is seated/placed/curled up on the floor, no part of the animal extends
into the main aisle(s) of the aircraft, the service animal is not at an emergency
exit seat, and the service animal does not extend into the foot space of another
passenger seated nearby who does not wish to share foot space with the service animal.
2) Placement of Lap-Held Service Animals. The preamble to part 382, issued in 1990 (55 FR 8042), discusses lap-held service animals (such as
a monkey used by a person with mobility impairments). They are service animals
that need to be in a person’s lap to perform a service for that person. This
service animal may sit in that person’s lap for all phases of flight including
ground movement, takeoff, and landing, provided that the service animal is no
larger than a lap-held child (a child who has not reached his or her second
3) Documentation. One type of service animal is an animal used
for emotional support. The presence of such an animal is found to be medically
necessary for the passenger traveling with the animal. Under DOT rules, and
outlined clearly in DOT’s Guidance Concerning Service Animals in Air Transportation,
published on May 9, 2003, an air carrier may require documentation regarding
the medical need for the presence of an emotional support animal as a condition
of permitting the animal to accompany the passenger in the cabin as a service
4) Unusual Service Animals. As stated in the DOT guidance issued
on May 9, 2003, unusual service animals pose unavoidable safety and/or public
health concerns and airlines are not required to transport them. Snakes, other
reptiles, ferrets, rodents, and spiders fall within this category of animals.
The release of such an animal in the aircraft cabin could result in a direct
threat to the health or safety of passengers and crewmembers. For these reasons,
airlines are not required to transport these types of service animals in the
cabin, and carriage in the cargo hold will generally be in accordance with company
policies on the carriage of animals.
5) Other Unusual Animals. Air carriers should evaluate unusual
animals, such as miniature horses, pigs, and monkeys, on a case-by-case basis.
Factors to consider are the animal’s size and weight, State and foreign country
restrictions, and whether or not the animal would pose a direct threat to the
health or safety of others or cause a fundamental alteration (significant disruption)
in the cabin service. If none of these factors apply, the animal may accompany
the passenger in the cabin. In most other situations, the air carrier should
carry the animal in the cargo hold, in accordance with company policy.
6) Policy Coordination. The FAA has coordinated this safety and
enforcement policy with the FAA Office of the Chief Counsel, Operations Law
E. Reference Materials. The following reference materials provide
additional information (current editions):
3-3577 USE OF ORTHOTIC POSITIONING DEVICES (OPD) BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES IN AIRCRAFT SEATS.
A. Assistive Devices. To a limited degree, AC
120-32 discusses issues surrounding the use of assistive devices such
as crutches, splints, casts, and braces by passengers on aircraft. However,
the FAA issued this guidance well before the publication of part 382 in 1990.
In addition, there have been many innovations in the scope and type of assistive
devices since 1977. OPDs are one of the more recent examples of innovation in
B. Seat Belt as Primary Method of Restraint. This guidance addresses
one type of OPD used by people with disabilities to position and support themselves
in such a way that they can use the aircraft’s seat belt as an effective and
primary method of restraint. Each OPD is specifically designed to meet the support
needs of an individual and there are different manufacturers of OPDs.
C. Persons Supported by OPD. “Orthotic” means a support or brace
for weak or ineffective joints or muscles. An OPD is a device or supportive
brace that is designed and used to help support and position a person who has:
· Significant postural asymmetries of the pelvis, trunk, and/or
hips that lack flexibility;
· Significant hypertonia or hypotonia, spasticity, or mixed athetoid
· Absent or impaired sensation in an area of contact with a seating
· A past history of, or current, pressure ulcer(s) on an area of
contact with a seating surface.
D. OPD-Assisted Disabilities. People who have difficulty controlling
the movement of their body or have muscle spasms that cause their body to extend
involuntarily may use an OPD. Some examples of this type of disability include,
but are not limited to, cerebral palsy and spastic quadriplegia.
E. OPD Requirements. The type of OPD discussed in this guidance
must be equipped with internal restraints to position a person in the device
to provide that person security and support. The person sits in the OPD while
they and the OPD are occupying an aircraft seat. The person is therefore properly
positioned to use the existing aircraft seat belt as his or her primary restraint
device by securing it around them while using the OPD for support. The OPD must
not attach to the seat. The OPD only provides support; the aircraft seat belt
F. The Purpose of OPDs. The use of this type of OPD is similar
to the use of any other medically required assistive/positioning device, such
as a back brace or a neck brace. The purpose of an OPD is to ensure a person
requiring this type of assistive device is positioned properly and safely in
order to effectively use the aircraft seat belt as his or her primary means
of restraint. This type of OPD is not intended to be identified, sold, or used
as a CRS. The use of this type of OPD is permitted on aircraft and is not prohibited
by current regulations.
G. Where Persons May Use OPDs on Aircraft. A person may use an
OPD in any seat on the aircraft, except an exit seat, provided the use of the
OPD does not block any passenger’s evacuation from the aircraft.
H. Crewmember Requirements. Crewmembers are not required to know
how to operate the internal restraints of the OPD. This is the responsibility
of the person who is using the OPD or his or her caregiver. Crewmembers are
only responsible for ensuring that the person using the OPD or his or her caregiver
properly uses the aircraft seat belt (the primary method of restraint).
I. OPD Acceptance Criteria. Because each OPD is specifically
designed to meet the support needs of an individual, the structure of the OPD
and the internal harness system may vary. To assist crewmembers in evaluating
whether the use of this type of assistive device is acceptable, it is important
to keep two key points in mind:
1) The person must have a medical need to use the OPD. In most
situations, the need to use an OPD will be readily apparent. In any case, observation
of the person or obtaining credible verbal assurances from the person or his
or her attendant will be considered sufficient to determine medical need.
2) When the person is using the OPD, the aircraft seat belt secures
around him or her and provides the primary method of restraint.
J. Guidance Limitations. This guidance is specific to one type
of OPD used by a person with a disability to allow the aircraft seat belt to
be the primary method of restraint. This guidance does not mean that any type
of restraint used by people with disabilities is exempt from the regulations
regarding the use of restraint systems and it does not preclude the air carrier’s
responsibility from making a safety judgment based on specific compliance with
applicable regulations. A petition for exemption is the appropriate course of
action regarding a device that does not meet the criteria in this guidance or
the requirements established in the pertinent regulations regarding restraint
on aircraft. Information regarding the submission of a petition for exemption
is available at http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/rulemaking/petition.
NOTE: While the FAA does not endorse a particular manufacturer’s OPD,
the following Web sites contain information regarding the general type of OPD
described in this paragraph:
Figure 3-129. Exit Seating Program Job Aid
Certificate Holder Name:
Doing Business As (DBA):
Certificate Holder Certificate No.:
Office and Phone Number:
Signature and Date:
Date Program Approved:
Date AFS-500 Notified:
REQUIRED ATTACHMENTS: Detailed on attached pagescomplete
the lines with Y (for Yes) or N (for No):
Exit Seating Procedures:
Passenger Seating Cards:
Aircraft Floor Plans:
EXIT SEATING PROCEDURES. Procedures should be submitted as manual sections/training
program sections/bulletins, etc., as appropriate to the individual carrier.
Attach all applicable sections pertinent to exit seating only.
NOTE: The POI should check for applicability and manual format and ensure
that all applicable publications are revised. The procedures must address
the following regulatory requirements, and must address when, how, and by whom
the items will be addressed.
Figure 3-129. Exit Seating Program Job Aid (Continued)
Do carrier procedures address when, how, and by
whom the screening and/or selection will be accomplished?
Do carrier procedures address the following selection
1. Does a person
lack sufficient strength, dexterity, or mobility in both arms and hands,
and both legs to perform the following functions?
a. Reach upward, sideways, and downward to the location of emergency
exit and exit slide operating mechanisms.
b. Grasp and push, pull, turn, or otherwise manipulate those
c. Push, shove, pull, or otherwise open emergency exits.
d. Lift out, hold, deposit on nearby seats, or maneuver over
the seat backs to the next row objects the size and weight of overwing
e. Remove obstructions similar in size and weight of overwing
f. Reach the emergency exit expeditiously.
g. Maintain balance while removing obstructions.
h. Exit expeditiously.
i. Stabilize an escape slide after deployment.
j. Assist others in getting off an escape slide.
2. Is the person
less than 15 years of age or does the person lack the capacity to perform
one or more of the functions listed in §§
135.129(d) without the assistance of an adult companion, parent,
or other relative?
3. Does the
person lack the ability to read and understand instructions related
to emergency evacuation provided by the certificate holder in printed
or graphic form or the ability to understand oral crew commands in the
language used by the carrier?
4. Does the
person lack a sufficient visual capacity to perform one or more of the
functions listed in §§
135.129(d) without the assistance of visual aids beyond contact
lens or eyeglasses?
5. Does the
person lack a sufficient aural capacity to hear and understand instructions
shouted by crewmembers without assistance beyond a hearing aid?
6. Does the
person lack the ability to adequately impart information orally to other
7. Does the
person have either of the following?
a. A condition or responsibility, such as caring for small children,
that would prevent the person from performing one or more of the functions
listed in §§
b. A condition that might cause the person harm if he or she
performs one or more of the listed functions.
Figure 3-129. Exit Seating Program Job Aid (Continued)
Are exit seats identified for seat assignment purposes?
Refer to §§
135.129(g). Does the certificate holder have a procedure that taxi
or pushback will not be allowed until at least one required crewmember
has verified that no exit seat is occupied by a person the crewmember
determines is likely to be unable to perform the functions listed in §§
Are verifying crewmembers specifically identified?
Refer to §§
135.129(j)(k). Does the certificate holder have procedures to honor
a passenger’s request to be relocated and the procedures for relocation?
Does the procedure note that a person does not need to disclose his
or her reason for the request?
Refer to §§
135.129(l). Does the certificate holder have procedures to move
a passenger to accommodate a relocated passenger in the event of full booking of non-exit seats?
DENIAL OF TRANSPORTATION/RESOLVING DISPUTES
Refer to §§
135.129(m). Does the certificate holder have procedures to deny
transportation because of either or both of the following?
1. The passenger refuses to comply with instructions.
2. The only seat that will physically accommodate the person’s
handicap is an exit seat.
Refer to §§
135.129(n). Does the certificate holder have procedures for resolving
disputes, including identification of the employee at the airport to whom complaints should be addressed for resolution?
ORAL BRIEFING PROCEDURES
Refer to §§
135.129(i). Does the oral briefing reference the following?
1. Passenger information cards.
2. The selection criteria in §§
3. The functions to be performed under §§
4. A request for reseating if any of the following conditions
a. Cannot meet the selection criteria.
b. Has an indiscernible condition that would prevent him or her
from performing the listed functions.
c. May suffer bodily harm as a result of performing one or more
of those functions.
d. Does not wish to perform those functions.
Figure 3-129. Exit Seating Program Job Aid (Continued)
Refer to §§
135.129(f). Does the certificate holder have written procedures
for making determinations regarding exit seating available for inspection
by the public at all passenger loading gates and ticket counters at
each airport where it conducts passenger operations?
Is a copy of the information attached?
Is the content complete and the method of inspection identified, such
as flyers, signs, and so forth?
PASSENGER INFORMATION CARDS
Are copies of applicable cards attached?
Are cards appropriate to carrier’s aircraft and configurations?
Do procedures address the use and location of cards?
Refer to §§
135.129(d). Do the briefing cards contain the following functions?
1. Locate the emergency exit.
2. Recognize the emergency exit opening mechanism.
3. Comprehend the instructions for opening the emergency exit.
4. Operate the emergency exit.
5. Assess whether opening the emergency exit will increase the
hazards to passengers being exposed.
6. Follow oral directions and hand signals given by a crewmember.
7. Stow or secure the emergency exit door so that it will not
impede the use of the exit.
8. Assess the condition of the escape slide, activate the slide,
and stabilize the slide after deployment to assist others in getting
off the slide (where applicable to aircraft type).
9. Explain how to pass expeditiously through the emergency exit.
10. Explain how to assess, select, and follow a safe path away from
the emergency exit.
Does the briefing card contain the selection criteria listed in §§
Does the briefing card contain a request that a passenger identify himself
or herself to allow reseating if he or she meets one of the following
1. Cannot meet the selection criteria.
2. Has an indiscernible condition that would prevent him or her
from performing the listed functions.
3. May suffer bodily harm as a result of performing one or more
of those functions.
4. Does not wish to perform those functions.
5. Lacks the ability to read, speak, or understand the language
or the graphic form specified by the carrier, or lacks the ability to
understand oral crew commands (in every language used by the certificate
holder for the card).
Figure 3-129. Exit Seating Program Job Aid (Continued)
AIRCRAFT FLOOR PLANS
Are the aircraft passenger seating floor plans submitted for each aircraft
make, model, and series, and for each passenger seating configuration
used by the certificate holder?
Are exits and exit seats identified?
List aircraft operated:
Configurations (same or show each configuration):
RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-3578 through 3-3590.