Volume 3 General Technical Administration
CHAPTER 54 PART
142 TRAINING CENTERS
Section 5 Part
Centers: Outsource TrainingóAir Operators and/or Fractional Ownership Program Managers Contracting With Training Providers
3-4409 GENERAL. This section provides policy guidance for principal operations inspectors (POI) that have operators or receive requests from their
operators to outsource a portion of their required crewmember training. The information in this section may also be useful for Training Center Program Managers
(TCPM), operators, and training center managers (TCM).
A. References. In addition to adopting Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) also revised applicable sections of 14 CFR parts
91 subpart K
provide a means for crediting the training, testing, and checking accomplished in flight simulators and flight training devices (FTD) toward the
flight training requirements of those parts. The adoption of part
operators to pursue training alternatives not previously available under the regulations. Part
made the use of training centers by operators more widely accepted as an alternative means of providing training to its employees.
NOTE: ďAlternative meansĒ as used in part
in some cases been misunderstood and has been interpreted to mean that compliance with a training centerís approved courses will meet the training
requirements required by the appropriate operating rules for an operator. This is not the case. ďAlternative meansĒ permits an operator to outsource or arrange
to have its approved training conducted by a third party. It does not mean that an operator has an ďalternative meansĒ to meet the training approval requirements
governing its particular operation. Programs approved in accordance with part
not be used as an alternative means of satisfying the requirements of the appropriate operating rules as approved by the operatorís POI.
B. TCPMs and POIs. As the use of training centers continues to increase, the interrelationship between a centerís TCPM and an operatorís POI
have become increasingly important. When an operator wishes to use the services of a part
center, the most common operational issues that POIs must resolveóand this section will addressóare outlined below:
1) Exactly what portion of the operatorís required crewmember training; checking, and/or testing will the center be authorized to conduct?
2) What qualification requirements are necessary to enable training center flight instructors to conduct the requested training? (Refer to part
121.414; and part
3) How does the operator propose to qualify Training Center Evaluators (TCE) or other personnel to become contract check airmen? (Refer to ßß
4) What documentation is required to ensure the training conducted by the center complies with the operatorís approved curriculums, and how does
the operator propose to document this training?
3-4411 BASIC STRUCTURE.
A. Operating Rules. The operating rules of parts
135, and part
operators to use the services of another operator certificated under the same part or a certificated part
center to conduct some or all of their required crewmember training. If approved by the operatorís POI, an operator may use the training
providerís facilities, equipment, and personnel to varying degrees to accomplish the training, checking, and testing required by their approved training program.
B. Training Curriculum. Regardless of who actually developed an operatorís training curriculum, the operator is responsible for its approval,
oversight, content, and currency. Regulations are very clear regarding an operatorís requirement to have appropriate crewmember training programs that support their
particular operation. The regulations are also clear concerning the requirement to have these programs approved by the Administrator. In the case of the operator,
this approval is delegated to the operatorís POI. In similar fashion, training centers certificated under part
also required to have their curriculums approved by the Administrator. For training centers, the approval authority is delegated to the centerís TCPM.
C. Arrangements. The following cases are the two most common arrangements that are formed between air carriers and training centers.
1) Case OneóDry Lease.
a) The least complicated way in which an operator may use the facilities and equipment of a training center is through a ďdry leaseĒ agreement. In this
case, the operator has developed and maintains its own approved training curriculum, associated courseware, materials, checklists, procedures, and personnel to conduct
training and checking, but elects to dry lease flight training equipment and facilities from a training center. Associated airman certification functions
and proficiency requirements are completed by check airman employed by the carrier (not the training center), the operatorís aircrew program designee (APD) or
the FAA. The operator accomplishes recordkeeping, although required training records may be maintained at the training facility if approved by their POI.
POIs will make all enhanced Vital Information Database (eVID) entries concerning the operatorís check airman activities. The operatorís POI approves the use
of the centerís flight training equipment; however, the operator is responsible for ensuring that the centerís equipment and facilities continue to meet the
standards required to accomplish required training. The training center simply acts as a host for the operator and center personnel are not involved in the
training or checking of the operatorís crewmembers.
b) POIs are responsible for providing required surveillance to determine if contracted facilities and training equipment meet the requirements for continued
approval. Due to the centerís physical location in relation to the POIís office, the POI may request the centerís TCPM to provide information concerning the
training center facility and equipment as well as assistance in performing required surveillance.
c) Operators who conduct training in this manner (dry lease) are not outsourcing their training from another training provider and therefore do not require approval
for outsourced training in their operations specification (OpSpec)/management specification (MSpec) A031.
2) Case TwoóThe Training Center Provides Facilities, Instructors, and/or Evaluators Under Contract to the Operator.
a) The second most common way operators use the services of part
centers is to enter into an agreement with the center to provide instructors and/or evaluators to act on behalf of the operator in the conduct
of the operatorís training curriculum. In this situation the operator may have developed his/her own training curriculum, hired a consultant to develop his/her
curriculum, or adopted the training centerís curriculum. Regardless of the source, each curriculum must be approved by the operatorís POI for their use. However,
it is not uncommon for operators to adopt one of the centerís core or specialty curriculums and submit it without revision, to their POI for approval. Prior
to submitting a center developed curriculum to their POI for approval, the operator must conduct a detailed review and comparison and analysis of the centerís curriculum,
courseware, procedures, equipment, and personnel to determine if the training centerís curriculum will meet their operational needs. If the operator determines
that the centerís curriculum will meet their needs, they may submit it to their POI for approval. If the POI accepts the submitted curriculum and grants approval,
the curriculum becomes part of the operatorís approved program, and in effect becomes the operatorís curriculum. This trend is particularly evident among part
135 and new entrant part
for whom the development of a complete in-house pilot qualification program using modern flight simulation devices often entails prohibitive costs and logistics.
b) Training center personnel (flight instructors) conducting flight training activities for an operator must be trained and qualified in accordance with
the air carrierís approved program to become eligible to conduct training under the air carrierís approved curriculum (ßß
135.340; or ßß
and 91.1095, as
appropriate). If an air carrier wishes to have the center provide flight checking or testing services, the air carrier must ensure nominated individuals
are trained and qualified as a check airman in accordance with their approved training program (ßß
121.413; or ßß
135.339; or ßß
91.1093, as appropriate).
c) The center may maintain the operatorís training records if approved by the POI. However, the responsibility for the adequacy of the records remains
with the operator, not the training center.
d) If the operator elects to nominate one or more of the centerís personnel to act as a contract check airman, and the operatorís POI authorizes such check
airmen, the POI must maintain all check airman entries in the eVID. In other words, whether an operator uses his/her own personnel as check airmen (as outlined
in case one) or elects to use center employees as contract check airmen, all required eVID entries relating to check airmen will be made by the POI. This
will help ensure that both the POI and the operator maintain proper operational control over persons performing check airmen/contract check airmen functions.
e) The POI must be assured that the centerís facilities and equipment are adequate to conduct the training the operator is proposing. The centerís TCPM
is one of the POIís best sources of information to enable him/her to make the determination that the centerís facilities and training equipment are adequate
for the proposed operation and to assist with required surveillance activities.
f) Operators who wish to engage a training center to accomplish the aircraft-specific training modules of their curriculum create special surveillance requirements.
The division of an operatorís required training between the operator and a training center creates a unique recordkeeping situation as well as specialized training
for the center instructors. POIs must be extremely vigilant in determining who is accomplishing each element of the operatorís program and that the complete
program is accomplished. POIs should communicate regularly with the training centerís TCPM and are encouraged to request assistance with surveillance of
the operatorís activities at the training center. The TCPMís assistance will typically afford the POI greater flexibility and a higher level of surveillance
than would normally be possible without the TCPMís assistance. An operator should develop and keep up to date a ďTraining Source DocumentĒ or similar statement
detailing what training will be provided in-house and what will be conducted by the training center. See the FAAís Air Transportation Division (AFS-200), Air Carrier Training and
Center Branch (AFS-210) Web site for a sample of such a document.
CURRICULUMS. A short review of the various types of training center curriculums and their approval process will assist with our understanding
of the appropriateness of these curriculums for use by an operator. It is important to emphasize that a centerís approved curriculum may not be used by an operator
without first being evaluated for appropriateness and secondly, being approved for use by the operatorís POI.
A. Core Curriculum.
1) A core curriculum is a training center-developed course that
is approved by the Administrator (through the TCPM) for the purpose of meeting the training and certification requirements of airman under parts
63. (Refer to ß
2) In order for a training course to be approved as a core curriculum it must:
a) Meet the applicable requirements of part
142 subpart B and part
b) Contain all the events and maneuvers required by the appropriate
practical test standards for
the issuance of the particular airman certificate for which the curriculum was designed;
c) Meet the requirements of the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report for that specific aircraft;
d) Consist of training segments that identify training and testing requirements for the issuance of a particular certificate;
f) Include maneuver descriptions, standard operating procedures, checklists, and other supporting courseware.
training curriculums are designed to meet the certification requirements of part
therefore do not include many of the operator-specific elements required by the operating rules associated with an air carrier/operator. For example, a part
curriculum does not require a training center to specify the training that is normally found in an operatorís OpSpecs, such as authorized takeoff
or landing minimums, types of authorized approaches, and captain high minimum requirements. Additionally, ground training in areas such as hazardous materials
(hazmat) handling, security, aircraft maintenance, logbook procedures and flight following is also not required to be part of a part
centerís core curriculum. Although a training centerís part
core curriculum may meet the aircraft specific requirements for an operator, these curriculums do not qualify operatorís pilots for line
operations and may not be used by an operator without the specific approval of the operatorís POI.
B. Specialty Curriculums. This term refers to courses that are
designed to satisfy a particular requirement of 14 CFR chapter I (parts 1-199), other than airman certification under parts
Administrator (through the TCPM) is authorized to approve specialty curriculums for use by a training center and, if appropriate, associated satellite and/or remote sites (Refer to ß
centers often develop specialty curriculums to meet the specific needs of a particular customer. Some examples of specialty curriculums
include (but are not limited to) Category II/III authorization, equipment differences training, night vision goggles (NVG) and so forth. Specialty curriculums can
vary widely in focus and subject matter and may be developed for personnel other than flightcrew members (Refer to
ß 142.81). The
approval of specialty curriculums or courses by a training centerís TCPM, however, does not enable those curriculums or course to be used
by an operator without the specific approval of the operatorís POI.
3-4413 ROLES, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND COORDINATION. The safety, efficiency, and quality of training provided by training centers, through the use of structured
programs and advanced simulation devices, has proven to be an effective and economical means for some operators to accomplish required training. Consequently, a number of operators have come to rely on part
142 training centers as
a source of technical expertise and as their primary training provider. As the use of approved training centers continues to expand,
it becomes increasingly important to understand the roles, responsibilities, and coordination activities required of each participant. Subparagraphs 3-4413A
through D emphasize the regulatory roles and responsibilities as well as the coordination required between operators and training centers when an operator
is using a training center to conduct a portion of their required training program. Subparagraphs 3-4413A through D do not focus on day-to-day activities associated
with the surveillance of training centers or operators outside of the context and scope of this section. It is presumed that these activities are being conducted
in accordance with the guidance located elsewhere in this chapter, associated regulations, orders, and policy guidance.
A. Air Operators. The regulatory responsibility for ensuring that an operatorís training program remains current and continues to meet the
operatorís needs resides with the operator, not the training provider. When an operator makes application to use the services of an authorized training provider they must:
1) Ensure that all training, testing, and/or checking to be conducted by the training center has been approved by the POI before any training is accomplished.
2) Develop an instructor/check airman standardization program including a checklist, which clearly identifies those elements of the operatorís
program that are to be completed by the training center and those that are to be completed by the operator. This checklist must specifically identify each
training element that will be conducted by the center and include the regulatory and/or the training program reference for each item.
NOTE: A sample air operator standardization review may be found on the AFS-210 Web site. The sample program is designed to be all-inclusive and therefore
not every item covered in the sample may be applicable to all operators. The sample is intended to be comprehensive and include sufficient detail to ensure
the training provider has an accurate understanding of the operatorís training requirements. The FAA suggests that each subject in the sample standardization
program be reviewed with a potential training provider to ensure a complete understanding of each partyís role.
3) Develop an implementation plan to perform oversight of center facilities and personnel engaged in the conduct of the operatorís training and
associated evaluations. The operatorís implementation plan must:
a) Ensure that all training center personnel selected to act as contract instructors (both ground and flight) and/or contract check airmen are appropriately
trained and qualified. Flight instructors and/or check airmen must be qualified in accordance with the operatorís approved program. (Refer to ßß
121.414; and ßß
135.339, as appropriate.)
NOTE: Operators must complete a detailed comparison between their check airman curriculum and that of the training centerís TCE curriculum to determine
what, if any, additional training must be provided to qualify the centerís personnel to act as a contract check airman. Elements of the centerís instructor/TCE training
curriculum that the operator finds equivalent to their training program may, with the POIís approval, be credited toward the completion of the operatorís
instructor/check airmen curriculum. If the centerís curriculum is approved as meeting the requirements of the operatorís curriculum, other than the operator
specific items, no additional training for the centerís personnel would be required. Any differences or deficiencies noted will require the operator to develop a
training module to ensure all regulatory requirements are met and to qualify the centerís personnel as contract check airman. This module that includes the
operator-specific subjects must be presented to the operatorís POI for approval/acceptance.
b) Provide the center with appropriate administration procedures and instructions to be used in the accomplishment of agreed training.
c) Provide for the oversight of all contract center personnel who are authorized to conduct training, testing, and/or checking on behalf of the operator.
4) Additionally, the following procedures must be followed when
requesting the use of center personnel to become qualified as contract check airmen:
NOTE: These procedures follow the guidance outlined in Volume 3, Chapter 20, and should be accomplished in the order shown.
a) Evaluate the instructorís/TCEís credentials to ensure he/she meets company requirements to become a contract check airman;
b) Evaluate the individualís training record to determine the differences training required to qualify the individual as a contract check airman;
c) Develop an appropriate training differences module(s) to qualify the
centerís instructor/TCE as a contract check airman and submit the training module to the POI for acceptance/approval; and
d) Conduct and record appropriate check airman training; submit the individualís
name, short resume, and training records to the POI for review and approval in accordance with Volume 3, Chapter 20.
NOTE: POIs should notify the centerís TCPM whenever they authorize one of the centerís personnel to act as a contract check airman by forwarding the
TCPM a copy of the contract check airmenís letter of authorization (LOA).
5) Coordinate the approval of flight simulation training device (FSTD) missing, malfunctioning, or inoperative (MMI) equipment procedures that
will be used in support of the operatorís curriculum.
1) When an operator requests the use of a training centerís facilities, training devices, curriculums (core and/or specialty), flight instructors, TCEs,
and/or other services, including recordkeeping, the POI is responsible for determining the operatorís request conforms to the appropriate regulations, policies, and procedures.
2) The approval authority for an operator to conduct training at a training center resides with the operatorís POI, and must conform to the
training program approval process outlined in Volume 3, Chapter 19. If an operator wishes to use a training centerís core and/or specialty curriculums to meet
a portion of their required training program, it is the operatorsí responsibility to ensure:
a) The centerís curriculums/courses meet the operatorís training requirements.
b) The curriculums are submitted to the operatorís POI for review and approval in accordance with the procedures outlined in
Volume 3, Chapter 1, Section 1.
c) The curriculums are integrated into the operators training program.
NOTE: If the curriculums are approved for the operatorís use, these curriculums now become a portion of the operatorís approved training program,
and the maintenance/currency of those curriculums becomes the responsibility of the operator, not the training center.
3) If an operator applies to have the same training curriculum conducted by two or more centers (either operated by the same or a different
training provider/company), the operator must develop an implementation plan for each center and ensure that each of the approved centers conducts their
training curriculum using the operatorís approved training curriculum (including maneuvers, procedures, and checklists). Additionally, each center must be specifically
approved for use by the POI and listed in the operatorís OpSpec/MSpec A031. It is the responsibility of the operator to ensure that all required software
and hardware approved to support the subject curriculum is available and used by each center during the delivery of their training curriculum. See subparagraph 3-4414D for additional guidance.
NOTE: POIs should notify the centerís TCPM whenever they authorize one of the centerís personnel to act as a contract check airman. This may be accomplished
by forwarding the TCPM a copy of the contract check airmenís LOA. POIs are encouraged to contact the centerís TCPM for assistance with the review and potential approval
of a contract check airman. TCPMs are often the POIís best source of information relating to a centerís operation and personnel. A sample contract check airman
LOA is located on the AFS-210 Web site.
4) When an operator requests approval of a training providerís personnel, to act as contract instructor and/or contract check airmen to conduct
a portion of their required training, it is the operatorís responsibility to ensure those individuals are qualified to conduct the subject training. Prior
to authorizing a centerís flight instructors or TCE(s) to conduct any portion of an operatorís training, the operator must qualify each individual in accordance
with the training and testing requirements of their operating rule and provide sufficient evidence of such training and checking to the POI for review and approval.
an observation of each authorized flight instructor to be accomplished at least once every 24 months. Additionally, ßß
and 91.1093(a)(2) require
an observation of each simulator and aircraft check airman to be accomplished at least once every 24 months.
similar requirements for flight instructors and evaluators. However, part
these observations to be conducted at least once every 12 months. (Refer to ßß
a) The intent of these regulations is to ensure the continued standardization and quality of each operatorís training program by performing periodic observations
of each flight instructor and check airman by focusing on the individualís performance in conducting a representative part of a curriculum or training program approved
for that operator.
b) A qualified inspector or APD may be requested to observe contract flight instructors and contract check airmen on behalf of the POI. Whether conducting
its own training or contracting for training with a training provider, each operator must ensure that all required observations are accomplished and documented. A training centerís part
of their flight instructors may meet the requirements for the center under part
do not meet the requirements for an air carrier under part
121 or part
an observation might be acceptable for a portion of an operatorís requirement under the following conditions:
1. When the training curriculum or curriculum segment conducted by the
training center is essentially the same as that of the operator.
NOTE: Training program components may be viewed as ďessentially the sameĒ when they comprise identical checklists, operational procedures, and call-outs,
and cockpit layouts and flight manuals (fm) which are compatible in the judgment of the operatorís POI. Training program components, which relate to like-aircraft
types, are dissimilar when they do not meet the criterion for ďessentially the same.Ē When differences are too pronounced or too numerous in the judgment of
the POI, cockpit layouts and fm must not be viewed as compatible.
2. When the observation is acceptable to the operatorís POI.
c) An observation conducted by the FAA is always permissible instead of an observation conducted by an approved check airman or by a designated examiner
employed by the operator. An observation by an FAA inspector counts toward the observation requirements of all operators contracting for training program services
provided by a training center. POIs and TCPMs may conduct an observation at any time at their discretion. It is anticipated that operators and training
centers will exchange information regarding observations of their instructors. However, it is the responsibility of the operator to ensure that all required
observations are kept current and are documented.
6) Conduct training center surveillance to determine continued compliance with the operatorís approved program.
7) If the operator requests approval of two or more centers, determine that all training, testing, and checking is conducted using the operatorís
approved curriculum. To ensure standardized training for all of the operatorís crewmembers, it is essential that, before authorizing multiple sources of training,
the operator provides the POI with a surveillance plan to ensure continued compliance with their approved curriculum by all centers. Each authorized training center
must conduct the operatorís curriculum as approved by the operatorís POI and be alike in content, training times, maneuvers descriptions, procedures, checklists,
and training devices. Crewmember training using differing curriculums for the same aircraft is not acceptable. If a training center is providing the
same training program to two or more operators at the same center, it may be permissible (with the operatorís permission) to interchange crewmembers during
the flight training phase. This may only be accomplished providing the individual operatorís training curriculums are essentially similar, including aircraft
checklist, flows, emergency procedures, and profiles. In this example, two separate but identical programs are being accomplished simultaneously. It is important
to ensure that operators may only have one approved training curriculum for each series of aircraft they operate.
8) Determine that simulators and/or FTDs are appropriate to, and representative of, the aircraft being operated by the air carrier. Flight
training equipment must be specifically qualified and approved for the operatorís use, as well as each maneuver, procedure, or crewmember function to be trained.
9) Each training facility must be authorized and listed in the operatorís OpSpec/MSpec A031.
10) Each training curriculum/module approved to be conducted by
a training provider must be listed, by curriculum title, in the operatorís OpSpec/MSpec A031.
11) Review the operatorís instructor/check airman standardization program.
NOTE: A sample instructor/check airman standardization program can be found on the AFS-210 Web site.
12) Review the operatorís training center audit program.
NOTE: Many of the training centers used by operators are located in areas apart from the operatorís primary operations base and are often outside
of the geographical area of its assigned certificate-holding district office (CHDO). This makes routine surveillance of the training center difficult for
POIs and increases the coordination necessary between the CHDO and the FAA office with geographical oversight responsibilities. Under these conditions, it is
very important that the POI and CHDO work closely to ensure adequate surveillance of the operatorís approved training facilities, equipment, and curriculums.
13) Ensure that required airman training records meet regulatory requirements. If requested by the operator the POI may permit the training provider
to maintain the operatorís crewmember training records. However, the operator must be advised that they (the operator) remain responsible for the security,
accuracy, and availability of all required records. Permitting a training center to maintain operatorsí records does not relieve the POI of required check airman/APD
tracking requirements outlined elsewhere in this order or the POIís office Quality Management System (QMS) policies.
C. TCPMs. From time to time, TCPMs may be called upon to assist a POI whose operator is using the services of a training center. The TCPMís
firsthand knowledge of center personnel, facilities, equipment, and curriculums is a valuable resource that POIs have come to rely on. This knowledge enables TCPMs to:
1) Provide the POI information regarding the status and approval
level of simulators, FTDs, and the installed equipment used by center instructors and TCEs;
2) Assist the POI by providing technical information regarding the centerís curriculums, training devices, and facilities; and
NOTE: TCPMs should advise the POI of any status change involving an instructor or TCE that is also approved as a contract check airman for an operator.
3) Assist the POI with the evaluation of TCEs or other training center personnel nominated by the operator to become contract check airmen or
flight instructors. The procedures outlined in Volume 3, Chapter 20, will be followed when evaluating center personnel as potential contract check airman candidates.
4) Assist the POI with required surveillance activities including:
a) Potential contract check airmen;
b) Observing contract check airman during the evaluation of the operatorís
airman to ensure evaluations are objective, accurate, and consistent with the operatorís program;
c) Evaluation of required crewmember training records that were authorized to be maintained by the training center; and
d) Other surveillance activities appropriate to the operatorís activities at the training center.
NOTE: In all cases, the TCPMís assistance is subject to their offices workload requirements.
D. Training Center(s). A training centerís roles, responsibilities, and coordination activities include:
1) Participating in the operatorís instructor/check airman standardization program to ensure there is a clear understanding between the center and the
operator of exactly what portions (by regulation) of the operatorís approved curriculums the center will be conducting;
2) Ensuring the operator has received approval from their POI to use center facilities and personnel in the conduct of their approved curriculums;
3) Establishing a naming convention that will enable operator-approved curriculums/courses to be distinguished from center-approved curriculums. Operator
programs are not to be referred to as core or specialty, as these terms are only appropriate for TCPM-approved center curriculums/courses;
NOTE: Training centers are not required to list operator names or the operator curriculums/courses in the centerís training specifications (TSpec).
Only the centerís TCPM-approved core or specialty curriculums/courses are required to be listed in the centerís TSpecs.
4) Ensuring that all center personnel used to instruct and/or check on behalf of the operator have been appropriately trained, evaluated,
and authorized in accordance with the operatorís approved curriculums to conduct such activities. This training must include, at a minimum, training in all portions
of the operatorís curriculums for which the contract instructors/check airman are assigned to conduct on behalf of the operator;
5) Ensuring that sufficient contract instructors are qualified to support the operatorís training agreement and requirements;
6) Recommending (not qualifying) center personnel as potential contract check airman. The center must ensure recommended individuals:
a) Have completed the centerís approved instructor training program; and
b) Are currently qualified and actively participating in one or more of the centerís core curriculums appropriate to the operatorís needs;
7) Maintaining the centerís simulators and FTDs in accordance with their qualification standards.
NOTE: If a Simulator Component Inoperative Guide (SCIG) has been developed
for a particular simulator, and the training agreement with an operator includes simulator training, make sure the SCIG has been approved for operatorís use.
8) Advising the operator whenever flight training equipment fails
to meet required qualification standards and/or when maintenance problems will restrict training;
9) Ensuring required training records are appropriately maintained and remain readily available to both the Administrator and operator;
10) Ensuring crew pairing policies and procedures are adhered to as it relates to the operatorís training and testing/checking; and
NOTE: Crew pairing policies and procedures may be found in
Volume 3, Chapter 54, Section 5, paragraph 3-4414.
11) Advising operators of any proposed revisions to the centerís
curriculums that are being used partially or in total by the operator.
3-4414 OUTSOURCED TRAINING PROVIDER APPROVAL PROCESS.
A. Application to Outsource Required Crewmember Training.
1) Operators requesting approval to outsource a portion of their required flight crewmember training must submit an application
in a form and manner prescribed by the Administrator. The application must contain sufficient detail to enable the Administrator to evaluate the applicantís request.
Applications must be submitted a minimum of 60 days prior to the proposed training and contain at least the following information:
a) A copy of the standardization review including an analysis of the training
providers curriculums, courseware, procedures, equipment, facilities, and personnel that will be used in the conduct of the operatorís training;
b) A detailed outline, by regulatory reference, of the training elements proposed to be outsourced;
c) If center personnel will be used as contract instructors to conduct the operatorís training the application must contain an appropriate training module
developed to qualify centers instructors/TCEs on the operators curriculum;
d) If center personnel are being requested to act as contract check airmen the application must contain an appropriate training module developed to qualify
centers instructors/TCEs as contract check airman for the operator. (See paragraph 3-4415 for complete details.)
e) A copy of the operatorís instructor/check airman standardization program;
f) A copy of the operatorís proposed surveillance plan to ensure the center continues to provide the agreed training;
g) Proposed method to maintain required crewmember, contract instructors, and contract check airman training records including the methodology proposed
to ensure curriculum revisions and an appropriate instructor/check airman read file are maintained;
h) Other data that the POI may require to evaluate the application.
2) The approval for an operator to use a part
center or other provider in the conduct of their required training is authorized through the issuance of OpSpec/MSpec A031. An initial standardization
review must be conducted by the operator and submitted to the POI before any contract training or checking may be conducted. OpSpec/MSpec A031 also requires
the operator to conduct ongoing audits of the training center/provider to ensure the training center is continuing to provide training and checking in accordance
with the operatorís approved program. The initial audit must be completed within 60 days of the commencement of contract training or checking operations.
Each audit with evaluation must be presented to the certificate holderís POI for review and acceptance within 30 days after completion. Ongoing audits will
be conducted at least every 24 months in order for the operator to continue to use the training center/provider. Guidelines for the scope and content of the operator standardization and audit
program are located on the AFS-210 Web site. Additional information is contained in paragraph 3-4416. If an operator does not conduct the required 24-month audit, their authorization to use the
training center/provider will cease on the last day of the 24th month following the date of their last audit. Operators may reapply to use the training center/provider by completing the
application process outlined in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph 3-4414A.
3) A sample outline of the modules and elements of an operatorís curriculum that are typically contracted out to a training center can be found
on the AFS-210 Web site. These curriculum checklists have been developed to provide a guideline for the operator and center in determining which regulatory
requirements may be satisfied by the training provider and which will be completed by the operator.
B. Flight Training Equipment.
1) In order to receive training/checking/testing credit for the use of a simulator or training device, the specific device must be a part of
the operatorís approved curriculum. The subject curriculum and training device are a part of the outsourced training audit and must include a comparison of
the aircraft flown by the operator to the flight training equipment available at the training center. The comparison should encompass the make, model, and
series (M/M/S) (and serial number, in some cases) of the aircraft and simulator and include a summary of the flight instrumentation, autopilot, flight management
system (FMS) equipment, aircraft modifications (electrical system, hydraulic system, engines, propellers, thrust rev, heads-up display, etc.) applicable
to each. Regulations require that the flight training equipment fully meet the requirements of the operatorís training program and accurately represent the
M/M/S of aircraft flown by the operator including installed equipment. If the flight training equipment available at the training center does not match the
operatorís aircraft, the operatorís program must state how any differences between the aircraft and the simulator or training devices will be addressed and develop
an appropriate differences training module.
2) A TCPMís approval of a centerís training devices (FTDs and simulators) for use within the centerís approved curriculum does not authorize
an operator to use the same devices within the operatorís curriculum. The TCPMís approval only ensures that the training devices are approved to conduct the
training, testing, and checking permitted under part
order for an operator to use a centerís training devices in support of the operatorís curriculum, the operator must include the devices in its training
program and have the devices approved by its POI. The operatorís POI will evaluate the requirements of the operatorís program and make a determination concerning
the appropriateness of the centerís training devices and their qualification as it relates to the operatorís curriculum. POIs may request verification of
the flight training equipment authorized for use by a training center by contacting the centerís TCPM.
3) To receive training credit for a particular simulator and/or training device, the device must first be qualified by the National Simulator
Program Team (AFS-205) and be assigned a specific level of qualification. TCPMs and POIs may than approve the device for use by a center or operator respectively,
by specific maneuver(s), procedure(s), and crewmember function(s). Approval letters are generally issued to operators and centers specifying the deviceís
use within a specific curriculum. Operators are authorized the use of training devices through the inclusion of the device in their training program.
C. Approving/Accepting a Centerís Core or Specialty Curriculums for Use by an Operator.
1) Training centers often submit programs to their TCPM for approval
that are targeted for specific customers and/or operators. However, these curriculums must meet part
and are either ďcoreĒ or ďspecialtyĒ as defined by part
a curriculum is approved by the TCPM, it is listed in the centerís TSpecs as a core or a specialty curriculum/course. For an operator to use a
center-developed curriculum it must submit the curriculum to its POI for approval. The procedure for approving a center-developed curriculum is the same as if
the operator had developed the curriculum or paid a consultant to develop the curriculum. The important point to remember is that when the subject curriculum/course
is approved by the operatorís POI, it becomes part of the operatorís training program and as it relates to the operator, it ceases to be either a core or a specialty curriculum.
2) Once the subject curriculum/course is approved by the operatorís POI, the center, when conducting training for the operator, should refer to
the subject curriculum by the name given to it by the operator. It is important to note that the training center should not refer to the operatorís program
as a specialty curriculum. This naming convention is important to clarify oversight and ownership responsibilities for the subject curriculum/course. An operatorís
programs are approved by its POI in accordance with the appropriate operating rule.
a) Training center curriculums, both core and specialty, are approved by a TCPM in accordance with part
designed to meet the training, testing, and checking requirements of airmen certification under part
b) The flightcrew member requirements of parts
135 differ in numerous respects to part
A TCPMís approval of a centerís curriculum does not enable an operator to use such curriculum without the specific approval of the operatorís POI.
3) In order for an operator to request a training centerís approved curriculum to be incorporated into their program, the operator must first complete
a comparison between the proposed centerís curriculum to their approved curriculum. All differences must be noted and a training module developed to bridge the
differences. This training module will be used to qualify the centerís instructors and/or TCEs on the operatorís curriculum. It is the operatorís responsibility
to ensure all center instructors and/or proposed contract check airmen receive training on the differences module(s) developed as a result of the curriculum
comparison before they may be authorized as contract instructors or contract check airman for the operator.
4) The operator may find that a centerís curriculum may be used without change but that there may be minor differences in operating procedures
and/or checklists. As part of the standardization and audit process, the operator must determine all differences between their curriculum and the centerís. If
the differences found are minor, the operatorís POI may authorize the operator to develop a briefing guide outlining the differences as a suitable method to
provide the training necessary to qualify the centerís personnel. Major differences between the curriculums will require specialized differences or formal retraining
of the centerís personnel. In all cases, the operatorís regulations require contract instructors and check airman to be trained in the approved methods,
procedures, and limitations for performing required normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures appropriate to the curriculum segment.
5) Operators must have training policies and procedures in their operations manuals or training program that describe their standard operating
procedures and type of operation(s). At a minimum, operators that apply to contract a portion of their required crewmember training to an authorized provider must
have policies and procedures in place that clearly identify the following:
a) This portion of the operatorís program must clearly define these functions and their procedures to ensure adequate training is conducted and recorded.
b) Standard operating procedures, including but not limited to:
∑ Crew coordination and ďcall-outs,Ē
∑ Maneuvers descriptions and aircraft configuration,
∑ Cockpit ďflows,Ē
∑ Checklist procedures,
∑ Autopilot use and crew coordination,
∑ Crew resource management, and
∑ Approach procedures (including approach charts, crew briefing,
Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) use, etc.).
6) POIs and operators must be aware that training center-approved curriculum are designed to meet the certification requirements of parts
not required to include operator-specific items required by part
135 training regulations. Part
center-developed curriculums are required to meet the certification requirements of parts
63 and the associated
practical test standards. Consequently, part
center curriculums will not comply with the operating rules governing an air carrier and by default
do not contain or reference operator-specific requirements or the limitations/authorizations contained within an operatorís OpSpecs/management specifications (MSpecs).
7) If an operator is introducing a new aircraft and requesting the adoption of a centerís curriculum in support of the introduction, the operator
is responsible for ensuring the proposed curriculum meets their operational requirements. Additionally the operator must:
a) Evaluate the proposed curriculum and submit it to their POI for approval/acceptance.
b) Develop a module(s) outlining any operator-specific training required
to qualify center personnel as contract instructors and or contract check airman based on the POIís authorized curriculum.
c) If a contract check airman is being proposed, the operator must provide
the selected individual with any operator specific training identified during the curriculum approval process.
d) Submit an appropriate contract check airman request to their POI a minimum
of 15 working-days prior to the proposed use of the contract check airman.
8) Table 3-122A, SampleóWeight and Balance Curriculum Module Comparison Chart, provides an illustration of the differences that normally
occur when an operator completes a comparison and evaluation of a weight and balance (W&B) training module that was designed for a part
center against one designed for an air carrier. The table also illustrates the complexities typically encountered by an operator when conducting
a curriculum comparison between their approved training program and that of a training center.
9) Column A in Table 3-122A lists the elements normally associated with an approved part
training module. Column B represents a typical part
training module. These differences are a result of the requirements of ß
require operators to train and check their pilots on their (the operatorís) method of determining compliance with W&B limitations. Part
the centerís curriculum to comply with
ß 61.155(c)(9), which
is typically modeled after the manufacturerís procedures. When confronted with these differences, an operator must decide to either:
a) Train and qualify the centerís instructors to enable them to conduct the operators approved W&B training module; or
b) Providing there is no negative training involved, permit the center to conduct the manufacturerís weight, balance training, and then conduct a specialized
course designed to cover the differences between the centerís curriculum and that of the operator. If the operator chooses to permit the center to conduct
the centerís W&B module, the operator would than be required to convene a separate instructional period to train and test the differences between the centerís
curriculum and its (operatorís) W&B curriculum. This differences training would be required prior to releasing any crewmember for line operations.
c) As mentioned in subparagraph 3-4414C9)a), the operator could elect to provide W&B training to one of the centerís instructors in those elements of
their curriculum that are different from the centerís curriculum. It would then be possible for the qualified instructor to conduct the entire W&B module for
the operatorís crewmembers. However, without specified training in the operatorís procedures, the center may only be authorized to provide training and testing
in those subjects that are part of the centerís curriculum (Table 3-122A, lines 1 through 4). In either case, operators must develop a quality control program
that will ensure their entire curriculum is conducted in accordance with their approved procedures and conducted by qualified individuals. The Instructor/Check
Airman Standardization Program located on AFS-210 Web site has been designed to provide assistance in this area.
Table 3-122A. SampleóWeight and Balance Curriculum Module Comparison Chart
Aircraft Manufacturers Weight & Balance Procedures Airplane Flight Manual (AFM))
Aircraft Manufacturers Weight & Balance Procedures (AFM)
Load Shift/Fuel Management and Use
Load Shift/Fuel Management and Use
Operations Specifications (Paragraph A096, A097, A098)
Carry-on Baggage identification and load and storage
Passenger Weight determinationóaverage, surveyed, actual
Baggage/cargo weight determination
Cabin Configuration and loading
Baggage Compartment loading and security
Air Carrier Computation method (computer)
1: Topic may comply with the operatorís approved curriculum. However, the use of company developed
flip charts, computers, ďWIZ WheelsĒ, etc., may require specialized training. Differences evaluation required.
2 through 4: Topics may comply with the operatorís approved curriculum. Differences evaluation required.
5 through 13: Topics do not conform to the operatorís curriculum.
14: Applicable to the particular curriculum. Differences evaluation required.
10) The curriculum an operator submits for approval to its POI must contain sufficient detail to assure all required training is addressed.
The operator is responsible for submitting the subject curriculum to its POI for review, approval/acceptance, and subsequent inclusion in its training program,
before any training is accomplished by the training provider.
11) This document will be jointly developed by the training provider and the operator, and will specify the division of all tasks required for training/testing/checking
between the training provider and the operator. (Other equivalent methods that specify the division of tasks may be acceptable.) The operator bears the primary
responsibility to ensure that all ground and flight training required by their specific operating rule is conducted and appropriately evaluated. The POIís
oversight responsibility is to ensure that the operatorís compliance efforts are satisfactory. The POI should check sign-offs (certifications) of ground
training and all testing for completeness, and should cross-check those sign-offs against the source document showing the division of tasks. For example, part
must ensure the training required by ß
conducted and all subjects required by ßß
evaluated. A properly executed standardization document between the operator and the training provider will provide guidance to both parties
concerning the training and testing/checking obligations for each party. A sample Instructor/Check Airman Standardization Program is located on the AFS-210 Web site.
NOTE: Training centers are not certificated as air carriers or commercial operators and are not issued OpSpecs/MSpecs. The operator-specific requirements
of an air carrierís operating regulations make it impossible for a part
center to have a training curriculum approved under those regulations. TCPMs may only approve training center curriculums that comply with part
centers may develop curriculums designed to comply with the operating rules of an air carrier; however, the curriculums cannot be approved
as ďmeetingĒ the requirements of those parts. Training center instructors and evaluators are likewise qualified in accordance with a centerís approved curriculums
and therefore cannot conduct an air operatorís training without first being qualified by an air operator before conducting any of the operatorís required training. (Refer to ßß
ßß 121.411 through
121.414; and ßß
on the content of a particular centerís instructor/TCE training curriculum, an operator may be able to credit a portion of the center-provided
training as meeting some of their required instructor/check airman training requirements.
12) When a center revises one of their core or specialty training curriculums that originally formed the basis of an operatorís approved curriculum,
the center should be encouraged to advise the operator of the revision. However, it is important to understand that revisions to a centerís core or specialty
curriculums, which were used as the basis of an operatorís training curriculum, does not automatically create a revision to the operatorís POI-approved course.
The adoption of such changes is subject to the operatorís evaluation and approval by its POI. Center revisions that are considered appropriate for the operatorís
program may be incorporated by the operator if approved by the operatorís POI. Likewise, the operator may make changes to its curriculum, in which case they
must notify the center and ensure that all contract instructors and contract check airman are trained in the new procedures (differences). Operators must
be especially vigilant to ensure that changes to the training centerís core or specialty curriculums do not affect the training they receive.
D. Air Carrier Training at Multiple Training Centers.
1) Occasionally, an air carrier will request that training be conducted at two or more training centers. These centers may be owned by the
same parent company, satellite centers of the same certificate holder, or may be training centers operated by different companies. It is common practice for
training centers operated by different owners/companies to take varied approaches to curriculum design and development for the same aircraft M/M/S. These differences
often include training equipment, training hours, maneuvers description, operating procedures, and checklists. When evaluated individually each variant may be
perfectly acceptable for the specific aircraft; however, as training products for an air carrier these differences, although subtle, are not consistent with
the standardization requirements demanded by air carrier regulations. To ensure standardized training is provided, it is essential that before authorizing the
use of multiple sources of training, the air carrier and subsequently the POI determine that the same curriculum and syllabus, including courseware, flight
training equipment, maneuver descriptions, procedures, checklists, etc., will be conducted by each provider.
2) Subtle differences between or among training providers may not create standardization difficulties for non-certificated operators. However,
because air operators are required to have their own approved programs, differing curriculum between or among training providers is not authorized. Additionally,
an operator is only permitted to have one training program/curriculum for each aircraft type in its fleet; therefore, training conducted by different centers
will present a standardization problem if not properly monitored and managed by the operator.
3) To qualify a centerís personnel to conduct an operatorís training curriculums will require the operator to conduct an evaluation of the centerís
curriculums to determine what, if any, differences exist between the two and provide center instructors and evaluators training in those differences. This
process must be repeated for each center authorized to conduct training for the operator. If a contract check airman is requested, the additional training
appropriate to the operatorís check airmen training will also have to be completed.
4) If POIs have reason to believe that multiple centers can provide the quality training required by the operatorís approved curriculum, they may
authorize two or more facilities or training companies to conduct the subject training. However, if the POI suspects that an operator curriculum cannot be
adequately presented at multiple centers due to differing delivery methods, FTDs, simulators, training hours, maneuver descriptions, qualified personnel,
etc., and/or the operatorís ability to adequately monitor and audit the training being provided, the POI and the operator have the responsibility to limit the number of training providers.
E. Training Policy and Procedures.
1) Operators are required to develop and document, as part of their approved program, adequate procedures and policies to ensure all training
providers conduct the operatorís crewmember training as approved. These procedures may be part of the operatorís manual used by the certificate holderís flight
personnel in conducting its operations and/or contained in the operatorís approved training program.
2) Operators must establish training policies and procedures to ensure crewmembers are trained and evaluated in accordance with the policies
and procedures that represent the manner in which it conducts its aircraft operations. It is unacceptable to have differences between training/checking and actual
aircraft operations or between individual crewmembers.
3) POIs are not to approve requests for outsourced training unless the operatorís program contains appropriate policies and procedures to ensure
the training conducted by the authorized training provider(s) is in accordance with the operatorís approved program.
NOTE: Operators must ensure that approved training providers are provided at least one copy of their operating manual(s), including the revision service
for such manuals, which cover the particular areas that the training provider has been approved to conduct. The operator must also ensure the training provider
maintains a ďread fileĒ specific to the operator that is available to all contract instructors, contract check airmen, and the operatorís crewmembers. This read
file must contain information pertinent to their flight operations and crewmember operating procedures. See the Instructor/Check Airman Standardization Program
on the AFS-210 Web site for additional information.
4) An operator that determines a center-developed curriculum is suitable for its use must receive its POIís approval to integrate the subject
curriculum into its training program. See subparagraph 3-4414C for policies and procedures for the integration of a centerís curriculum into an operatorís program.
F. Crew Pairing.
1) Training centers often provide services to air operators which must meet requirements of particular operating rules (i.e., parts
these rules, training programs include checklists, callouts, profiles, approach procedures, and other features that are approved for the
specific air operator by its assigned POI. Occasionally an operator may not be able to assign a complete crew for its training/checking/testing activities at
part 142 training centers. When
this situation occurs, the training center may provide a qualified crewmember that meets the requirements outlines in the operatorís training program.
2) The FAA promotes the crew concept in air carrier training and checking to ensure that crew coordination and other flight management issues
are adequately and appropriately addressed. Flight training must address the performance of duties as Pilot Flying (PF) and pilot monitoring (PM) as described
in the air operatorís approved procedures. To meet both of these seat-dependent training needs, each required cockpit crew position must be occupied by a qualified crewmember.
3) It is desirable that each flight training session be scheduled so that two pilots from the same company or air operator may be trained during
a single flight training session. The preferred crew pairing is a pilot in command (PIC) and a second in command (SIC). Other acceptable crew pairings are two
PICs or two SICs employed by the same certificate holder. Each pilot receiving training should have completed the appropriate aircraft ground training, including
basic indoctrination, prior to beginning the flight training segment.
4) Permissible crew pairings. Some air carriers often operate with small pilot rosters or with pilots who are widely dispersed. Providing
the operatorís training program does not otherwise restrict crew pairings for flight training/checking/testing in a simulator at a training center, the center
may use the following guidelines when determining who may be considered an appropriate crewmember.
a) An appropriate crewmember must be one of the following:
1. One of the air carrierís line qualified pilots,
2. One of the air carrierís pilots undergoing training for the same aircraft, or
3. A contract flight instructor (airplane or simulator) or a contract
check airman (airplane or simulator) who is authorized to serve in that air carrierís training program.
b) The following conditions apply when a part
carrier pilot is training in an FAA-approved training program for another part
carrier, whose training program is essentially similar.
∑ When the training curriculums are not essentially similar, pilots
may not be paired; similarly, when operational differences between carriers are too pronounced or too numerous, at the discretion of the appropriate POI, pilots may not be paired.
∑ Each air carrier pilot must be trained in accordance with the
training program approved by the POI of his/her own air carrier.
∑ Minimum equipment lists (MEL), OpSpec/MSpecs, and other features
specific to each air carrierís operations must be addressed during flight training.
∑ When only one pilot is receiving flight training, the other pilot
seat must be occupied by a person who is line qualified or line familiar in the specified duty position (see Advisory Circular
(AC) 120-35, Line
Operational Simulations: Line Oriented Flight Training, Special Purpose Operational Training, Line Operational Evaluation, current edition,
for definition of terms), unless the flight training is being conducted for single pilot operations.
NOTE: Training programs may be viewed as essentially similar when they include the same curriculum, the same checklists, and the same callouts and
include cockpit configurations, operational procedures, and fms which are compatible in the judgment of the appropriate POI.
c) Pilots must have completed the operatorís applicable ground training curriculum segments prior to starting the flight training curriculum segments.
5) Pairing pilots in flight training and evaluation for operations under different parts. When pilots from different operators are paired in training
programs that are essentially similar, the operator-specific features (such as MELs and OpSpecs/MSpecs) of each operator must be addressed. Pilots in training for part
should not routinely be paired with pilots training for operations under part
crew pairings should be avoided in favor of the pairings outlined in subparagraph 3-4414F4). However, such crew pairings are permissible provided
the following conditions are met:
∑ The part
must conform to the training program of the part
in every respect. Specifically, checklists, profiles, approach procedures and callouts must be those used in the training program of the part
135 pilot (not vice versa), and the part
must understand and apply Crew Resource Management (CRM) principles in accordance with the air transport pilot
practical test standards.
∑ Each certificated air operatorís crewmember must complete the
appropriate air operatorís evaluation module. Part
135 pilots may support the part
91 pilotís training activities as appropriate.
paired with an air operator crewmember must use the operatorís approved curriculum. In these cases, the TCPM must either concur with the part
use of the air operatorís curriculum to complete required training and currency, or approve a documented process submitted by the training center
that ensures all requirements described herein are met. The training center should maintain records of such pairings in sufficient detail to allow FAA inspectors
to easily determine compliance with the applicable regulation, operatorís crew pairing procedures (if provided) and these requirements.
∑ The part
must have received differences training in the features of the part
135 training curriculum that distinguishes it from the part
curriculum. That training should also include the operatorís OpSpecs and operational control procedures.
NOTE: In crew pairings involving pilots of different part
or pilots operating under different operating rules (parts
91)) POIs and TCPMs must be especially vigilant. The part
training program must not be distorted or diminished in order to accommodate dissimilar training needs. If the integrity of the air carrier
training program cannot be upheld the crew pairing must not be permitted.
1) Regulations require an operator to maintain training and qualification records for each crewmember, flight instructor, and check airman. This requirement
includes contract instructors and contract check airmen employed by training providers that are authorized to provide training and checking for the operator.
The means and methodology of maintaining required crewmember records must include an acceptable process to record training, checking, and qualifications of the
operatorís crewmember training conducted by an outsourced training provider. The operatorís training program should contain a description of their recordkeeping
system as well as describing what records are to be used to comply with each regulatory requirement. If the operator wishes to use an electronic recordkeeping system,
AC 120-78, Acceptance
and Use of Electronic Signatures, Electronic Recordkeeping Systems, and Electronic Manuals, current edition, provides guidance for the
evaluation and approval of these systems.
2) Operators and training providers must establish and document procedures to ensure they have a clear understanding of their individual responsibilities
for complying with required training and testing/checking recordkeeping requirements. These procedures must include identification of responsible personnel and approved
location(s) where specific records will be maintained.
3) Training conducted by center personnel must be documented in accordance with the operatorís approved system. Center personnel acting as
contract instructors and/or contract check airman for the operator must also be trained in the operatorís records system.
4) Training centers are not required under part
maintain an air carrierís crewmember training records when the training was accomplished in accordance with the operatorís approved program. Training
centers are only required to maintain the records required to support the training accomplished under part
leads to airman certification or proficiency required by part
operatorís crewmembers are not trained and evaluated in accordance with part
are trained and evaluated in accordance with the operatorís operating regulations and approved curriculums. Therefore, the responsibility for record
maintenance remains with the operator. Training centers that have been authorized to provide training for an operator are considered to be an integral part of
that operatorís training program. In that context, FAA policy permits the center to be used as a suitable location for required records if approved by the operatorís
POI. Many training centers provide a large portion of an operatorís training and in some cases are the sole providers of such training, which may make the center a logical location for such records.
training centers to maintain the training records of their instructors and TCEs. When these individuals are also approved as contract instructors
and/or contract check airman for an operator, it may also make sense for the operator to have its instructor and/or check airmen records maintained by the
center. It is, however, the responsibility of the operator to ensure that all crewmember records are readily available for inspection as required by applicable regulations.
6) Operators must ensure that training records developed and maintained by their training providers are available in a timely manner. Records
of crewmember training and checking are required to be furnished to the operator upon completion (within 24 hours) of any training and/or checking in order to
enable the operator to determine qualifications for crew assignment(s). Training and qualification records for contract instructors and contract check airman
must also be made readily available to the operator.
7) In many cases, the TCPM will be the best qualified individual to assist the POI with required inspections, proficiency checks, and observations
of assigned operators. Properly maintained records will also enable the TCPM and training centers to provide information on instructors and TCEs to other
operators that may need instructor and evaluator assistance.
8) A TCE who is authorized as a contract check airman may be approved by one or more POIs to conduct checks for multiple operators that have
contracted with a training center. This may occur when multiple operators of the same aircraft type have contracted for training at the same center and are
using essentially the same curriculum.
9) Although not required, training centers that maintain contract check airman records for operators may be a good source of information for other
operators who are evaluating center personnel as potential contract check airman.
10) Training centers must have a process whereby they keep customers apprised of all training or checking conducted on the operatorís behalf. Additionally,
the center must notify the operator within 24 hours if there is a job functions status change with a TCE or instructor who is also a contract check airman or
contract flight instructor for the operator that may affect the individualís check airman or instructor status with the operator.
11) TCPMs are responsible for maintaining eVID information regarding the training center, its instructors, and evaluators. POIs are responsible for
maintaining eVID files pertaining to each training center employee authorized as a contract check airman.
3-4415 REQUIREMENTS TO AUTHORIZE CONTRACT FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS AND/OR CONTRACT CHECK AIRMEN FOR AN AIR OPERATOR.
A. Requirements. Sections
operators to provide enough flight instructors and check airmen to conduct the flight training and flight checks required by the applicable operating rules.
1) The determination of a ďsufficientĒ number of contract check airman and/or contract instructors for a particular operator will require a
careful evaluation of the following:
∑ Number of aircrew program designees authorized by the FAA and employed by the operator;
∑ Geographic location of the operator with respect to available FAA support;
∑ The operators understanding that they are required to provide
surveillance and supervision of their contract instructors/check airman;
∑ Availability of simulators and location relative to the operators crewmember domiciles; and
∑ Operators required crewmember training and evaluation workload.
2) There is no fixed formula that will definitively answer the question of how many contract check airman/instructors are appropriate. Maintaining
an equitable balance between the operatorís ability to provide required management oversight and surveillance, while meeting their evaluation requirements without
compromising standardization or safety, is a primary concern.
B. Qualification and Training Requirements. The qualification and training requirements for
individuals to become contract flight instructors and/or contract check airmen for an air carrier are outlined in the specific regulations governing the type of operation (specifically part
121 subpart N, and/or part
135 subpart H, as
appropriate). Training center instructors and evaluators are trained and qualified under part
does not mirror the instructor and/or check airmen qualification requirements of an air carrier. Although some of the instructor/evaluator training required by part
be considered equivalent to the instructor/check airmen training required by an air carrier, the two currently do not align. The differences
between these two regulatory requirements will generate additional training requirements for training center instructors and evaluators selected to provide training and checking services for operators.
C. Instructors. Consider the case of a part
center flight instructor (simulator) who is qualified to provide instruction under the training centerís approved core curriculum for a particular aircraft.
1) In order for a training center instructor to serve as a flight instructor for an air carrier, the individual must be trained and qualified
to instruct in each training segment, module, or element of the air carrierís curriculum that the instructor will be responsible for providing to the air
carrierís crewmembers. Current policy does not require center instructors to complete the carrierís entire approved training program or curriculum provided:
a) The individuals are limited to conducting only the training elements of the operatorís curriculums that they have been specifically trained and qualified
to conduct and have been authorized by the operator; or
b) The individual has had previously received the same training, proficiency/competency
checks, and observations in the same M/M/S aircraft for another air carrier operating under the same part.
2) Situations where an air carrier adopts a training centerís core or specialty curriculum(s) and the POI approves these curriculums as part
of the air carrierís training program would also mitigate some of the training required by the operator to qualify the subject instructor. In this situation
the only training the air carrier would be required to provide the centerís instructor(s) would be limited to any differences that exist between the training
centerís curriculum(s) (as approved by the TCPM) and the air carrierís training curriculum (as approved by the carrierís POI).
NOTE: In such cases, it is the air carrierís responsibility to identify each difference between the carrierís approved training curriculum (including
curriculum content, checklists, and procedures) and the training centerís curriculum. The air carrier must than develop and provide their POI a training module to
qualify the centerís personnel on all noted differences. This differences training module must be approved by the POI prior to conducting the subject training.
3) The air carrierís POI has the responsibility to determine if the manner and method proposed by the air carrier to train and qualify the
centerís personnel on curriculum differences, will meet the operatorís training requirements.
D. Review. To ensure the centerís personnel meet the operatorís check airman standards, the operator will need to review the individualís training history and qualifications.
Elements of the centerís instructor/TCE training curriculums that the operator finds equivalent to their training program may, with the POIís approval, be
credited toward the completion of the operatorís instructor/check airmen curriculums. If the centerís curriculum has been submitted to the POI for approval and is
approved as meeting the requirements of the operatorís curriculum, other than the operator-specific items, no additional training for the centerís personnel
would be required. Any differences or deficiencies noted will require the operator to develop a training module to ensure all regulatory requirements are met in
order to qualify the centerís personnel as contract check airmen.
1) In addition to the instructor qualification and testing requirements
outlined in subparagraphs 3-4415 B and C (above), operators must accomplish the following to qualify an individual as a contract check airman:
a) Evaluate the instructorís/TCEís credentials to ensure he/she meets the certificate holderís requirements to become a contract check airmen.
NOTE: Individuals must have at least one year of experience as a center instructor or TCE in the make and model aircraft in order to be considered as
a contract check airman for an operator. POIs are encouraged to contact the centerís TCPM for assistance with the review and potential approval of contract
check airman. TCPMs are often the POIís best source of information relating to a centerís operation and personnel.
b) Evaluate the centerís instructor and TCE training curriculum by comparing it to the operatorís check airman curriculum to determine the differences training
required to qualify the centerís personnel as a contract check airman.
c) Develop an appropriate differences training module(s) to include the operator-specific elements of the check airmen qualification and training/checking
regulations to qualify the centerís instructor/TCE as a contract check airman.
d) Submit the contract check airmen training module(s) to its POI for acceptance/approval.
e) If the training course is approved, ensure the course is provided to all contract check airmen candidates.
f) Provide the POI with complete training records and submit the individualís
name and rťsumť for review and approval in accordance with Volume 3, Chapter 20.
g) If the applicant is approved as a contract check airman the POI will make the necessary eVID entries.
NOTE: POIs should notify the centerís TCPM whenever they authorize one of the centerís personnel to act as a contract check airman. This may be accomplished
by forwarding the TCPM a copy of the check airmanís LOA. A sample contract check airman LOA is located on the AFS-210 Web site.
E. Categories of Authorization. The standard categories of authorization for check airmen currently shown in Volume 3 do not provide the level of specificity
required for the approval of contract check airmen. For example, an operatorís check airman, qualified as a line captain may be authorized as a simulator only
check airman permitting them to administer both ß
135.293(a)(1 through 8) as well as ß
A contract check airman who is only qualified in the aircraft-specific modules of an operatorís curriculum may be authorized to conduct
simulator-only evaluations; however, he or she would be limited, due to his or her training, to evaluations of ß
135.293(a)(2) and (b) and ß
Unless the contract airman is qualified in the operators complete curriculum for the specific aircraft, he or she may not be authorized to conduct the elements required by ß
(a)(3 through 8). Other restrictions may also apply depending on the training and qualification provided by the operator. A sample contract
check airmen LOA is located on the AFS-210 Web site.
F. Training of Instructors and Evaluators.
1) Because the typical training program offered by the training center currently does not include all of the ground training subjects contained
in an operatorís curriculum, it follows that neither the trainees nor the instructors and evaluators themselves receive training in those subjects. It is important
to ensure all training center instructors and evaluators are trained and evaluated in all subjects that the center is contracted to conduct. For example, because
the typical training program offered by the training center currently does not include ground training in the subjects contained in ß
(a)(4Ė8), it follows that neither the trainees nor the instructors and evaluators themselves receive training in those subjectsówhich ignores the training requirements of ßß
a training center evaluator typically is not qualified to evaluate subjects other than those contained in the centerís core curriculum which equates to ß
potentially (3). Similarly, a trainee should not be evaluated in those subjects by individuals not qualified in the operatorís procedures.
NOTE: To preclude any confusion concerning a contract check airmanís authorization, the POI must specify in each contract check airmanís LOA what
specific subjects the check airman is authorized to test and check.
2) Particular caution must be exercised to ensure that individuals being nominated by an air carrier to become contract instructors/check airmen
have a good understanding of the issues typically faced by crewmembers on a daily basis, many of which are learned only through the completion of an air
carrierís initial new hire training curriculum. Knowledge of an air carrierís operational environment becomes very important when instructors/check airmen
may be required to draw upon that knowledge to ensure that the quality of training and evaluations demanded by the regulations is not compromised. Non-aircraft-specific
issues such as flight following/dispatch, MEL/CDLs, cabin crew/cockpit interactions, hazmat, security, company standard operating procedures (SOP), etc., play an
important role in a crewmemberís training; especially during Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) events. To effectively function as an air carrier instructor/evaluator,
individuals must have a good understanding of these issues.
3) Before an air carrier authorizes a contract instructor or nominates an individual to become a contract check airman, the air carrier must
provide its POI with evidence that these individuals have completed at least one air carrierís initial training and qualification curriculum as a flight
crewmember for an operator certificated under the same 14 CFR part. Providing the operator and the assigned POI find this training and qualification acceptable,
individuals may be considered to have met the non-aircraft-specific training requirements to become a contract instructor/check airman. The completion of
an operatorís line check requirement(s) is not required. Following the completion of an appropriate differences training curriculum, the subject individuals may
be authorized as contract instructors and nominated to become contract check airman. This process should preclude an individual from conducting training
and checking in an air carrier environment without ever having had the benefit of, at a minimum, the training required to qualify an individual to act as required crewmember for an air carrier.
G. Proficiency Evaluations. The proficiency evaluations required by an air carrier to qualify and maintain the currency of its check airmen are
also applicable to center personnel that are being nominated as contract check airmen for the operator.
NOTE: TCPMs are only required to verify that the centerís TCEs receive annual training on the conduct of part
functions in accordance with part
142 subpart C, relating
to the curriculums approved for the training centerís use. As outlined above, this training and checking does not qualify an individual
to act as an operatorís check airman. Operators must complete a detailed comparison between its check airman curriculum and that of the training centerís TCE curriculum
to determine the extent of the additional training they must provide to qualify the centerís personnel to act as a contract check airman on their behalf. If
this comparison indicates that the operatorís training programs are identical, other than the operator specific items, no additional training for the centerís
personnel is required. Any differences noted between the curriculums will require the operator to develop a training module to qualify the centerís personnel
as a check airman. This module must be presented to the operatorís POI for approval/acceptance.
H. Contract Instructors/Check Airmen. Training center employees that have been qualified by an operator to serve as a contract instructor/contract
check airman may be considered qualified to act in the same capacity for another operator provided that:
1) Both operators are certificated under the same 14 CFR part.
2) Both operators are operating the same M/M/S of aircraft with identical configurations.
3) Both operators are using identical training curriculums, including checklist and operating procedures.
4) The requesting operator finds the subject individual acceptable as a contract instructor/check airmen.
5) The subject instructor/check airman has met the operating or observation experience requirements for at least one operator for which they
are providing services. For example, if a training center instructor is qualified to provide instruction in a particular aircraft for three different operators,
the instructor may be considered to have met the initial and recurrent line operating or observation requirements for all three by remaining qualified in
one of the operatorís programs.
NOTE: In all cases, the acceptance of an instructor/check airmenís qualification
by another operator is subject to the approval of the requesting operatorís POI.
I. Reports. The POI should arrange to have the operator provide the POI with a periodic report of each check airmanís checking activities, including
a pass/fail rate, to coincide with the POIís periodic review (annual, semiannual, or other). POIs may arrange for these reports to arrive at a time that meets
the POIís needs. A contract check airman should be active enough to retain the required knowledge and skills. This activity level may vary depending on the
contract check airman functions and other operators for which he/she is authorized check airmen activities, the size of the operator, and the number of approved
check airmen. Usually a check airman should conduct at least eight authorized check airman activities during a 12-month period (including supervision of Operating
Experience (OE)). The POI should specifically reassess the operatorís need for those check airmen whose records indicate low activity levels.
3-4416 OUTSOURCED TRAINING PROVIDER AUDITS AND ASSOCIATED OPSPEC/MSPEC PROCEDURES.
A. Self-Audit Program. The FAA requires a mandatory self-audit program for operators certificated under the provisions of parts
contract with a training provider to conduct a portion of their required crewmember training. Such training arrangements are informally known
as outsourced training. POIs will use OpSpec/MSpec A031 to record FAA approval of these contract training arrangements.
B. Operator Responsibility. The FAA is often limited in its ability to oversee an air carrierís training operations conducted under contract by
a training provider(s). This oversight is the primary responsibility not of the FAA but of the operator itself. The operator holds an air carrier certificate
as a privilege granted by the Administrator on the presumption that the operator will continually maintain the highest safety standards, including flightcrew
training standards. The operator must ensure that its flightcrew training conducted by a contractor continually meets the requirements set by regulations and the
standards contemplated at the time of initial certification.
Carrier Internal Evaluation Programs, current edition, recommends a voluntary self-audit strategy for air carriers that may be readily adapted
to continuing analysis and surveillance of outsourced flightcrew training.
C. Self-Audit and Summary Report. The self-audit and summary report cycle outlined in this section may be used as the first phase of a plan
to implement more effective operator-driven quality assurance where outsourced flightcrew training is concerned. The cycle must be conducted at least every
24 months in accordance with OpSpec/MSpec A031, and should be conducted at any time that a major change affects the operatorís outsourced flightcrew training.
D. POI Verification. POIs must verify that their operators arranging
with training providers to conduct contract training for their crewmembers, otherwise known as outsourced training, will accomplish the following activities.
a) Training Program Components: Adherence to Approved Program. The operator must document that the training program delivered by the training provider is
identical to the training program approved for the operatorís use by the POI. The documentation will address at least the following:
∑ The format and content of curriculums, curriculum segments, training
modules, and documents depicting flight maneuvers and procedures;
∑ Facilities; and
∑ Qualifications of instructors and check airmen.
b) Training Curriculums: Adherence to Approved Program. The operator must audit curriculums and document that those curriculums presented by the training
provider adhere to the curriculums contained in its FAA‑approved training program. The documentation must address at least the following, including ground training
and flight training curriculum segments:
∑ Initial new-hire training;
∑ Upgrade training;
∑ Transition training;
∑ Recurrent training;
∑ Refresher training
∑ Initial equipment training;
∑ Requalification training; and
∑ All other approved training such as differences, related aircraft differences
hazmat, security, and crew resource management, as appropriate.
c) Flight Training and Testing/Checking: Adherence to Approved Program. The operator must observe all contract instructors and contract check airman
who are conducting required instruction and evaluations on their behalf by center personnel. The operator must document that regulations contained in ßß
through 91.1095; ßß
121.414; or ßß
appropriate, are being met and that approved standards are being maintained. Documentation must address at least the following, as applicable:
∑ Certification flight checks;
∑ Proficiency checks, and instrument proficiency checks (parts
∑ Flight checks (part
121 Flight Engineer (FE))
∑ Flight training in lieu of the proficiency check, including line-oriented
∑ Competency checks;
∑ Maneuver validation (Advanced Qualification Program (AQP)); and
∑ Line operational evaluations.
d) Training Records: Completion of All Approved Training. The operator must review required training and testing records to ensure compliance with their
operating rule. This review must cover all of the operatorís crewmembers, including pilots, FEs, and Flight Attendants (F/A) who have received outsourced training
since the last review cycle. The operator must document that each crewmember has successfully completed all of the required components of training and checking
comprised by its approved training program.
2) Summary Report. The operator must prepare a report, summarizing the findings of its self-audit. A sample report is on the AFS-210 Web site.
This sample report form may be used to compile self-audit findings and to submit findings to the POI as a summary report. Another form mutually acceptable to
the operator and the POI may be used instead. The summary report must be signed by the operatorís director of operations. In all instances that discrepancies
are found between the training program delivered by the training provider and that which is approved by the FAA, the operator must propose effective remedies.
Those remedies must be included in the summary report and must be addressed under the following categories:
a) Immediate corrective action:
1. Action already taken, showing dates, and
2. Action planned, showing target dates.
b) Long-term corrective action, showing target dates; and
c) A strategy for ensuring continuing prevention of recurrence.
3) OpSpec/MSpec A031. All affected operators are required to be issued OpSpec/MSpec A031. Any training provider conducting contract training,
within the meaning of this section, must be approved by the POI and recorded in OpSpec/MSpec A031.
E. Program Discrepancies. An operator contracting for training must address any training program discrepancy and undertake corrective action
as soon as the discrepancy becomes known. When the operatorís own remedies are insufficient, the POI must take additional steps as deemed necessary and appropriate,
in accordance with applicable provisions of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR), 14 CFR, FAA Order 8900.1, and FAA Order
and Enforcement Program, current edition.
NOTE: For guidance in accomplishing an Internal Evaluation Program (IEP) evaluation, see
AC 120‑59, and
Volume 3, Chapter 28, Section 1.
F. New Outsourced Training Arrangements. When approving new outsourced training arrangements use the regular Program Tracking and Reporting Subsystem
(PTRS) recording procedures for the appropriate job function and enter ďContractĒ in the ďNational UseĒ field.
RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-4417 through 3-4432.