Volume 6 SURVEILLANCE
chapter 1 PART
Section 4 Conduct a Part
6-87 PROGRAM TRACKING AND REPORTING SUBSYSTEM (PTRS) ACTIVITY CODES.
A. Operations: 1661
B. Maintenance: 3627
C. Avionics: 5627
6-88 OBJECTIVE. The objective of this task is to determine that an airman, operator, and/or aircraft is in continuing compliance with Title
14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR). Completion of this task results in an indication in district office files and national PTRS of either a satisfactory
or an unsatisfactory inspection.
6-89 GENERAL. Part
inspections are numerous; however, it is important that the aviation safety inspector (ASI) become familiar with the aircraft he or she is inspecting.
Ramp inspections involving other 14 CFR parts are available in the appropriate related task heading. This section covers ramp inspections for part
Note: Airworthiness and Operations inspectors conduct ramp inspections
on airmen and aircraft operating under various 14 CFR parts. The information provided may be applicable to either discipline depending on the conditions
observed by the inspector and the 14 CFR part under which the aircraft is operated.
1) Operator. For the purposes of this chapter, an operator may be an owner, pilot, executive/corporate operator, etc.
2) Ramp Inspection. A ramp inspection is defined as surveillance of an airman, operator, air agency, or aircraft which may include conducting
maintenance record inspections (PTRS code 3694/5694) sufficient to show compliance with 14 CFR during actual operations at an airport or heliport.
B. Inspector Conduct. The inspector must always have their Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) credentials available, since an airman or operator
may or may not know an inspector.
Note: For special considerations concerning surveillance at fly-ins,
airshows, and other gatherings of General Aviation (GA) aircraft and airmen, see
Volume 6, Chapter 11, Section 10,
Surveillance of an Aviation Event, subparagraphs 6-2373A1) through 5). The inspector during a ramp inspection at a glider race or similar aviation event (where a waiver or authorization
is not required) should not interrupt or distract a pilot during their pre-race routine within 1 hour of their race unless there is a safety-related issue. Should the inspector need
to address an issue, he or she will do it as professionally as possible.
1) An inspector must not open or board any aircraft without the knowledge and consent of the crew or owner/operator. Some operators may prefer to have
a company representative present to answer questions.
2) If the surveillance will delay a flight, the inspector should use prudent judgment whether or not to continue an inspection that may affect
an operator’s busy schedule.
3) The inspector should also bear in mind that he or she may not be able to complete all items on every ramp inspection, but the operator should provide the inspector
with enough information that he or she is confident that the aircraft is in compliance with the regulations.
C. Common Reasons for a Ramp Inspection. Ramp inspections may result when the inspector:
1) Observes an unsafe operation in the traffic pattern or in the ramp.
2) Receives notification from air traffic control (ATC) of an unsafe operation.
3) Observes obvious discrepancies that may affect the airworthiness of the aircraft.
4) Conducts routine surveillance activities.
5) Receives a task from FAA Order
National Flight Standards Work Program Guidelines.
D. Ramp Inspections Planned for a Specific Operator. When an ASI plans an inspection for a specific operator, the inspector should review
the office files. Some of the reasons the ASI might plan a ramp inspection include:
· Recurring complaints.
· Suspected violations of 14 CFR.
· Special emphasis program required by the Regional Office (RO)
or headquarters (HQ).
E. Title 14 CFR Parts
Procedures and details for these 14 CFR parts appear in their appropriate chapter of this volume.
F. Additional Background. When conducting a ramp inspection of a part
operator or a part
Volume 6, Chapter 1, Section 1,
Inspect an Executive/Corporate Operator.
6-90 RAMP INSPECTION JOB AIDS. The Part
Inspection Job Aid (Figure 6-5) is a job aid provided for the inspector’s use in accomplishing this task. He or she uses this job aid when conducting
a ramp inspection of a single pilot, a flight instructor, an air agency, or other, less complex ramp inspections. You may also refer to Job Task Analysis
(JTA), GA JTA 2.2.1 (Operations) and 2.2.4 (Airworthiness).
6-91 AIRWORTHINESS COORDINATION. Although it is advisable to accomplish a ramp inspection with another inspector, inspectors may perform ramp inspections
individually, without the presence of both an Airworthiness and Operations inspector. If either an Airworthiness or Operations inspector is not available during the
inspection, and the inspector performing the ramp inspection discovers airworthiness discrepancies, he or she must coordinate with the appropriate inspector at the district office to determine the disposition of the
discrepancy. He or she should accomplish this before completing the inspection.
6-92 DISCREPANCIES FOUND DURING INSPECTION. The inspection should continue unless the inspector discovers a discrepancy that would affect the
safety of flight or dispatch of the aircraft that may result in a violation of 14 CFR. In those cases the inspector should take action appropriate to the
discrepancy. He or she must note all discrepancies on the job aid and discuss them with the owner/operator. The inspector may explain how to correct discrepancies
found during the inspection, but the inspector should keep in mind that it is the operator’s responsibility to ensure that items are in compliance with 14 CFR.
A. Responsibility for Airworthiness. The airworthiness of the aircraft is the responsibility of the pilot (refer to part
monitored by Airworthiness inspectors. However, if an inspector finds an obviously unairworthy aircraft, it is the responsibility of the inspector to see that an FAA Form 8620-1,
Aircraft Condition Notice (Figure 6-6) is issued. However, an inspector may need to contact the nearest Flight Standards Service (AFS) office to coordinate issuance of the notice.
B. FAA Form 8620-1.
The Aircraft Condition Notice form (Figure 6-6) is in triplicate. The top and middle sheet (both white) go to the airworthiness unit,
which mails the original to the owner/lessee and retains the second. The buff-colored card must be on the aircraft where the operator can easily see it. (See
Volume 8, Chapter 5, Section 5,
Issue Aircraft Condition Notice.)
6-93 PILOT DOCUMENTS. When asked to present airman and medical certificates, a pilot may present a radio license formerly required by the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) or make a statement that he or she does not have one. The FCC has determined that pilots are no longer required to have this license unless flying internationally.
6-94 PILOT CONDITION. If an inspector has reason to suspect a pilot or other required crewmember is under the influence of drugs or alcohol, see
Volume 6, Chapter 1, Section 6,
Alcohol or Drug Testing of Flight Crewmembers.
6-95 AIRCRAFT DOCUMENTS. The following are considerations when examining aircraft documents, including registration and airworthiness certificates and
approved Airplane Flight Manuals (AFM). The inspector will bring discrepancies found concerning the airworthiness or registration certificates to the attention of the owner/operator,
document them, and give them to the airworthiness unit for action.
A. Aircraft Identification. The N-number and serial number on the registration certificate must match the N‑number and serial number on the airworthiness certificate.
B. Registration Certificate. If the registered owner changes, the owner may display a temporary registration (Pink Slip) which is good for 90 days (refer to 14 CFR part
If the ownership has changed without a Pink Slip or the N-numbers do not match, the registration is not valid.
C. Flight Manual. An AFM may be required onboard the aircraft if required by 14 CFR part
or the appropriate markings and placards in accordance with §
D. Weight and Balance (W&B) Information. W&B documents, including a list of equipment, as appropriately revised, should be available for the inspectors review. Some
multiengine operators have minimum equipment lists (MEL) with a letter of authorization (LOA) issued by a district office. These constitute required documentation for the aircraft and must be onboard. The inspector
should compare inoperative equipment to the MEL to ensure compliance.
E. Aircraft Logbooks. Inspectors should check aircraft maintenance logbooks, when available, for currency and compliance with 14 CFR part
Aircraft maintenance records come in many styles. There is no standard form or format as long as the regulatory requirements (§§
43.11) for maintenance entries are provided.
F. Airworthiness Certificate.
1) There are two different classifications of FAA airworthiness certificates: standard airworthiness certificates and special airworthiness
certificates. The certificate most often seen by an inspector is a standard airworthiness certificate, which is issued for normal, utility, acrobatic, and
transport category aircraft. Special airworthiness certificates are issued in the following categories:
· Special flight permit, and
2) A list of limitations and conditions (§§
for safe operation must accompany a restricted, limited, or experimental certificate. Special flight permits (ferry permits) are issued to aircraft that may not be Airworthy but are capable of safe flight
under certain conditions which are listed and issued with the permit
Review the list of limitations and conditions to assure a valid airworthiness certificate. The N-number on the certificate must match the N-number on the fuselage to be valid.
G. LOAs. Some operations (e.g., Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM), North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and Category (CAT) II) require
approved LOAs which may include additional operational and maintenance requirements. Inspectors should verify an operator’s authorization based on observed or anticipated
activity. Inspectors should search the Web-based Operations Safety System (WebOPSS) database for an operator’s most current authorization(s).
6-96 FOREIGN PILOTS OR AIRCRAFT. An operator with a foreign pilot certificate and an aircraft registered in the same foreign country (e.g., Canadian pilot,
Canadian-registered aircraft) may operate in the United States; however, the holder of a foreign pilot certificate may not operate a U.S.-registered aircraft
in the United States without first receiving a U.S. pilot certificate. The foreign pilot may show a current medical of his or her country or a U.S. medical.
6-97 INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES (IFR) HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. Most rotorcraft are certificated visual flight rules (VFR) only. Under Special Federal
Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 29-4, some rotorcraft have been approved for IFR. Operators holding approval issued before March 2, 1983, under SFAR 29 through SFAR 29-4 may continue to use that approval until it is surrendered, revoked,
or otherwise terminated, or there is a change in aircraft ownership. After March 2, 1983, the new applicant must have met all certification requirements of 14 CFR
part 27 (Airworthiness
Standard: Normal Category Rotorcraft) or part
Standard: Transport Category Rotorcraft).
A. Helicopter Documents. A letter of approval (Figure 6-7) with a list of limitations is issued for the helicopter. This letter, list of limitations,
and a copy of SFAR 29-4 combine to become a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) for the rotorcraft and must be on board in the Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM).
B. Pilot Documents. The operator may be approved for a one-pilot or a two-pilot crew as listed in the letter of approval.
1) Each pilot must have an instrument-helicopter rating on his or her pilot certificate.
2) Each pilot must have a current instrument proficiency check (IPC) accomplished in one of the rotorcraft listed on the letter of approval.
The initial IPC must include a check in each type rotorcraft authorized. Subsequent 6-month checks must be in at least one type of rotorcraft in rotation.
3) A single pilot operation must have demonstrated ability using a Stability Augmentation System (SAS) or an autopilot.
4) The pilot may produce an FAA Form 8410-3,
Airman Competence/Proficiency Check, if the check was done under part
a logbook endorsement (or copy of one). If a pilot took this check in the calendar-month before or after the month in which it was due, the check is considered to have been done when due.
6-98 CAT II/III AUTHORIZATIONS. CAT II/III operators under part
issued an LOA.
A. Aircraft Documents. The authorization or a facsimile must be on board. The operator must comply with a CAT II/III manual, which must also be
on board. Operations specifications (OpSpecs) authorize CAT II/III authorizations other than part
B. Pilot Documents. CAT II/III operators must use a pilot in command (PIC) and, in some cases, a second in command (SIC). Initially, the ASI must check
the PIC in each type of airplane authorized. Every 6 months thereafter, the ASI must check the PIC in at least one type to renew all types. The flightcrew
must meet regulatory pilot training and currency requirements including those specified in the operator’s FAA–approved CAT II/III manual. There is no grace month as in part
PIC may substitute a part
Competence/Proficiency Check, Form 8410-3,
endorsed for CAT II or III or a logbook endorsement (or facsimile of one) to meet currency requirements.
6-99 PREREQUISITES AND COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS.
A. Prerequisites. This task requires knowledge of the regulatory requirements of parts
well as part
Airworthiness inspectors, and FAA policies and qualification as an ASI, Operations.
B. Coordination. This task requires coordination between operations and airworthiness units and with the airman records section of the Airmen Certification Branch (AFS-760).
6-100 REFERENCES, FORMS, AND JOB AIDS.
A. References (current editions):
· Title 14 CFR parts
· Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations (47 CFR) part 87.
· CAT II/III authorization and manual, if applicable.
· PTRS Field Office Manual.
· FAA Form 8000-36,
Program Tracking & Reporting Subsystem Data Sheet.
· FAA Form 8620-1,
Aircraft Condition Notice (Figure 6-6).
C. Job Aids. Sample letters and figures, including applicable JTAs.
A. PTRS. Open PTRS file.
B. Pre-Inspection Activities.
1) Review the district office file, if applicable, on the operator to determine if any prior violations of 14 CFR, past complaints, or inspection reports exist.
2) Note the review findings and any areas of emphasis on the part
91 job aid.
C. Location of Inspection. Proceed to the airport where the inspector will conduct the ramp inspection. Determine whether or not it is necessary to
identify FAA presence to the airport operator or other operators on the airport (see Figure 6-8, Ramp Inspection Flowchart). Use the part
aid to conduct the ramp inspection.
D. Inspect Airman Documents.
1) Inspect airman certificates to determine appropriate ratings and limitations for the type of operations they are conducting.
2) Determine if certificates are genuine and legible.
3) Inspect airman medical certificates to determine if they are current and of the appropriate class. In the case of an airman exercising the privileges of
a sport pilot certificate, the airman may not possess an airman medical certificate; however, they may present a U.S. driver’s license or neither (in certain cases); please refer to part
§ 61.303 for
sport pilot requirements. Check for a Statement of Demonstrated Ability (SODA), if required, on the medical certificate.
4) If available, examine pilot logbooks (or other reliable records) to determine recency of experience and qualifications, such as:
· Flight review.
· PIC proficiency check.
Note: Sport pilots have a requirement for endorsements authorizing use
of specific category and class of light-sport aircraft (LSA) and also for certain privileges; please refer to part
J, Sport Pilots.
5) If applicable, inspect pilot CAT II and/or CAT III authorization letters for currency (refer to §
6) Note any discrepancies on the job aid.
E. Record Aircraft Information. Record the N-number, make and model, and whether leased or owned on the job aid.
F. Inspect Aircraft Documents.
1) Determine that the operator displays the proper airworthiness certificate at the cabin or cockpit entrance.
2) Examine the registration certificate to ensure that it is issued for that specific aircraft. Determine that the N-number on the certificate
matches the N-number on the aircraft. Check that the certificate is issued to the present owner of the aircraft.
3) Determine that there is a current, approved AFM on board the aircraft, if required by §
4) Determine if an AFM is required and if current W&B information is available for review. Compare equipment listed on the W&B form and the aircraft
equipment list to the actual equipment installed.
5) If applicable, check the MEL to determine that it has:
a) Been issued by N-number and serial number to the aircraft operator.
b) An LOA from a district office; check deferred items for placards and dates.
6) If a Letter of Deviation (for part
has been issued, ensure that a true copy is in the aircraft.
7) If the operator is leasing the aircraft, determine that the aircraft is carrying a copy of the lease agreement or contract. Note the expiration
date on the lease and determine if the lease is still valid.
8) If applicable, determine that copies of the approved CAT II or CAT III authorization and manual are in the aircraft.
a) Review the CAT II/III authorization and provisions.
b) Check that the authorization and manual list the aircraft make, model, and N-number.
c) Consider any instrument, airport, or weather requirements listed in the authorization or in the manual.
9) If the aircraft operates under an LOA for special use airspace (North Atlantic (NAT) minimum navigation performance specification (MNPS) or RVSM, determine
if the authorization is carried on board the aircraft, or is available upon the Administrator’s request.
10) Determine if pertinent and current aeronautical charts are available.
11) Ask the operator what type of instrument operations he or she conducts (e.g., instrument landing
system (ILS), distance measuring equipment (DME), Area Navigation (RNAV), Global Positioning System (GPS), and Required Navigation Performance (RNP)). Determine if the required radio and navigational equipment is
installed for the specific operations conducted.
G. Inspect Aircraft.
1) Determine the general airworthiness of the aircraft by inspecting for items such as cracks, damage, and loose or missing fasteners, or other deficiencies
that may affect the safety of the flight.
2) Inspect seats and safety belts for proper installation and condition.
3) If applicable, determine if the operator has performed a current Very high frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR) equipment check.
4) Determine if an emergency locator transmitter (ELT) is installed. Check the expiration date of the battery.
5) Determine that the aircraft identification plate exists and is secured to aircraft fuselage exterior (refer to 14 CFR part
6) Inspect to determine that all required placards are present and legible.
H. Inspection Items for Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes Only. In addition to the items in subparagraphs 6-101F1) through F11) and
6-101G1) through G4), inspect the following items, if applicable:
1) Determine if the aircraft has an emergency checklist available to the flightcrew.
2) Determine if the aircraft has one engine inoperative climb performance data available to the flightcrew.
3) Determine if pertinent and current aeronautical charts are available.
4) Determine if a flashlight having two D-sized cell batteries, or equivalent, is accessible from the pilot station and in good working order.
5) If the operator conducts overwater operations, determine that the required radio equipment is installed (refer to §
6) If the operator conducts overwater operations, inspect the following survival equipment for installation and condition:
· Life preservers with approved survivor locator light (for each occupant).
· Life rafts with approved survivor locator light (number should
accommodate the number of occupants of the aircraft).
· Pyrotechnic signaling devices (for each life raft).
· Emergency radio signaling device.
· Appropriately equipped survival kit.
7) For transport category aircraft only, have the operator demonstrate that the aural speed warning device is in operating condition.
8) Have the operator activate the smoking and safety belt signs. Determine if they are in operable condition. Check operation from the cockpit and the cabin. If
applicable, at this time, conduct the altitude alerting system or device check.
9) Determine if the operator provides the fire extinguishers in accordance with part
§ 91.513 and
if the fire extinguishers are in compliance with Department of Transportation (DOT) inspection requirements.
10) Note whether the operator uses passenger briefing cards to supplement oral briefings. If so, inspect the cards for location and correct
information (refer to §
11) Determine if appropriate emergency equipment is on board the aircraft (refer to §
I. Inspection Items for Turbojet–Powered Civil Airplanes Only. In addition to the items in subparagraphs 6-101F1) through F11), 6-101G1) through
G4), and 6-101H1) through H11), inspect the altitude alerting system or device for installation and operation. Conduct this test at the same time as the smoking/safety belt sign and aural speed warning device test.
J. Inspection Discrepancies. If the inspector discovers a discrepancy during the inspection, he or she enters it on the appropriate job aid in the remarks section.
1) Advise the operator that if he or she operates the aircraft without correcting the discrepancy, he or she may be in violation of 14 CFR.
2) If necessary, issue FAA Form 8620-1 (Figure 6-6).
a) Attach the bottom card (buff) on the aircraft by using the string provided or any other acceptable means. Place it so that the operator will easily see it.
b) Retain the top and middle portions of FAA Form 8620-1 for
return to the Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) airworthiness unit.
K. Review Job Aid. Upon completion of the inspection, review the job aid to determine if an enforcement investigation is necessary.
L. Conclude Inspection.
1) Discuss any pertinent safety information with the pilot(s) or operator.
2) Return any documentation.
3) Advise the pilot(s) or operator of any upcoming accident prevention or other safety meetings.
4) If no discrepancies are evident, compliment the pilot(s) or operator.
M. PTRS Report. Send a followup Letter of Correction (Figure 6-9) with a suspense date to remind a pilot or operator of noted discrepancies.
Enter the report status in PTRS. If the pilots or aircraft are not based in the inspector’s district, forward a copy of the PTRS report and the job aid to the appropriate district office.
N. District Office File. File the job aids in accordance with normal office procedures.
6-102 TASK OUTCOMES. Completion of this task results in one or more of the following:
· An indication in the district office files of a satisfactory inspection.
· An indication in the district office files of an unsatisfactory inspection.
· A Letter of Correction.
· An Aircraft Condition Notice.
· Information package sent to another district office.
6-103 FUTURE ACTIVITIES.
· A pilot or operator may be subject to a compliance
investigation if the inspection reveals a possible violation of 14 CFR.
· A followup inspection may be conducted to determine if any noted discrepancies
have been corrected.
Figure 6-5. Part
Inspection Job Aid
Figure 6-6. FAA Form 8620-1, Aircraft Condition Notice
Figure 6-7. IFR Helicopter Letter of Approval
1234 Any Street
To Whom It May Concern:
ABC Construction, Inc., is authorized by this approval to conduct helicopter operations under instrument flight rules (IFR) in accordance
with Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 29, and the limitations contained herein. A copy of this approval and a copy of SFAR 29-4 will be set forth as
a supplement to the Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM), along with those operating limitations considered necessary for the safe operation of the rotorcraft in
IFR operations, as incorporated in the operating limitations section. This letter of approval, the operating limitations, and a copy of SFAR 29-4, constitute a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) and must be on board the aircraft.
1. Only those helicopters listed, as follows, will be operated under this approval: (e.g., Bell Model 206, Serial No. 123245, Registration No. N54321).
2. For single–pilot operation, an approved and operable Stability Augmentation System (SAS)/autopilot may be used in lieu of a second
in command (SIC). Otherwise, the minimum flightcrew must include a pilot in command (PIC) and an SIC (e.g., SAS/autopilot, make (XYZ) and model (123)).
3. Each pilot must hold a rotorcraft-helicopter rating and an instrument-helicopter rating (except as specified in paragraph 4).
4. For the purpose of instrument instruction, each PIC must hold a flight instructor certificate with rotorcraft-helicopter and
instrument-helicopter ratings. The SIC must hold a pilot’s certificate with a rotorcraft-helicopter rating. The second pilot need not comply with paragraph
5 of this letter while undergoing the formal training program leading toward an instrument-helicopter rating.
5. Each PIC authorized single–pilot approval must have satisfactorily accomplished an instrument proficiency check (IPC) utilizing an SAS or autopilot in lieu of an SIC within the preceding 6 calendar-months.
6. Each pilot crewmember must have in his or her personal possession evidence of proficiency issued by an FAA inspector or authorized check pilot within the previous 6 calendar-months.
7. Each helicopter operated under IFR shall meet the instrument and equipment requirements of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part
91.33 and the following additional equipment:
a. An independently powered standby attitude indicator.
b. A heated pitot tube and static port, or equivalent means of preventing airspeed and static system malfunction due to icing.
c. The required instruments per 14 CFR part
or 14 CFR part
29.1321, as appropriate.
d. The PIC must use a boom mike. The transmitter must be capable of being activated through a device located on the flight controls.
The instruments and equipment must be operable. A complete set of flight controls shall be installed and operable at each pilot station, except that single pilot approval will require a set of flight controls
only at the PIC station.
8. In accordance with paragraph 4 of SFAR 29-4, fuel reserve required by §
be reduced to 30 minutes.
9. ABC Construction, Inc., will provide immediate notification to the Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) issuing this approval of any “hazardous” flight conditions encountered during IFR
operations under SFAR 29-4.
This approval will remain in effect until such time as it is surrendered, revoked, or otherwise terminated, or a change in the aircraft ownership takes place.
John P. Brown,
Figure 6-8. Ramp Inspection Flowchart
Figure 6-9. Letter of Correction
Addressed to pilot/operator
This letter is to notify you that an inspection of your [insert either documents or aircraft; if aircraft, indicate the make,
model, and N-Number] on [insert date of the inspection] at [insert location] revealed deficiencies in the following:
List specific items and the related Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) (e.g., minimum equipment
list (MEL) letter of authorization (LOA) not carried on board the aircraft, refer to 14 CFR
part 91, § 91.213).
Your prompt attention to correcting these items is appreciated. Please respond to this office within 10 days to indicate your
corrective action. If we may be of assistance, please call [include telephone number and operating hours of the district office].
Signed by the inspector conducting the inspection
RESERVED. Paragraphs 6-104 through 6-118.