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8900.1 CHG 210

Volume 10  Air Transportation Oversight System

Chapter 1  General

Section 5  Acronyms, Abbreviations, Terms, and Definitions

10-78    Acronyms and Abbreviations. The following acronyms/abbreviations and definitions apply to the Air Transportation Oversight System (ATOS):

Figure 10-9.    Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym/Abbreviation

Definition

AC

Advisory Circular

ACAT

Air Carrier Assessment Tool

ACEP

Air Carrier Evaluation Process

ACOP

Air Carrier Oversight Profile

ADI

Assessment Determination and Implementation

AFS

Flight Standards Service

AFS-1

Director of Flight Standards Service

AFS-40

Flight Standards Quality Assurance Division

AFS-500

Flight Standards Training Division

AFS-900

Flight Standards National Field Office

AQP

Advanced Qualification Program

ASA

Aviation Safety Assistant

ASAP

Aviation Safety Action Program

ASIAS

Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing

ASI

Aviation Safety Inspector

ASI-AD

Aviation Safety Inspector – Aircraft Dispatcher

ASI-AV

Aviation Safety Inspector – Avionics

ASI-CS

Aviation Safety Inspector – Cabin Safety

ASI-MX

Aviation Safety Inspector – Maintenance

ASI-OP

Aviation Safety Inspector – Operations

AST

Aviation Safety Technician

ATOS

Air Transportation Oversight System

AW

Airworthiness

CAD

Continuous ATOS Development

CAP

Comprehensive Assessment Plan

CAR

Civil Aviation Regulation

CAS

Continuing Analysis and Surveillance

CATT

Corrective Action Tracking Tool

CD

Air Carrier Dynamics

CFR

Code of Federal Regulations

CHDO

Certificate-Holding District Office

CMO

Certificate Management Office

CMT

Certificate Management Team

ConDOR

Constructed Dynamic Observation Report

CPD

Certification Process Document

CPM

Certification Project Manager

CPT

Certification Project Team

CSI

Cabin Safety Inspector

CSOP

Certification Services Oversight Process

CTL

Certification Team Leader

DA

Design Assessment

DCT

Data Collection Tool

DEPM

Data Evaluation Program Manager

DOD

Department of Defense

DOR

Dynamic Observation Report

DP

Designated Person

DQG

Data Quality Guidelines

EC

Environmental Criticality

EFIS

Electronic Flight Information System

eLMS

electronic Learning Management System

EMP

Essential Maintenance Provider

EPI

Element Performance Inspection

ETOPS

Extended Operations

eVID

enhanced Vital Information Database

FAA

Federal Aviation Administration

FLM

Front Line Manager

FOIA

Freedom of Information Act

FSAS

Flight Standards Automation System

FSDO

Flight Standards District Office

GPS

Global Positioning System

HAZMAT

Hazardous Materials

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organization

IEP

Internal Evaluation Program

InFO

Information for Operators

MEL/CDL

Minimum Equipment List/Configuration Deviation List

MIS

Mechanical Interruption Summary

MNPS

Minimum Navigation Performance Specification

MSL

Mean Sea Level

NTSB

National Transportation Safety Board

OAG

Official Airline Guide

OpSpecs

Operations Specifications

OPT

Oversight Prioritization Tool

ORA

Operations Research Analyst

OS

Operational Stability

OST

Office of the Secretary of Transportation

PA

Performance Assessment

PAC

Preapplication Checklist

PASI

Preapplication Statement of Intent

PH

Performance History

PI

Principal Inspector

PMT

Project Management Tool

PTRS

Program Tracking and Reporting Subsystem

RMP

Risk Management Process

RVSM

Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums

SAFO

Safety Alert for Operators

SAI

Safety Attribute Inspection

SASO

System Approach for Safety Oversight

SAT

System Analysis Team

SDR

Service Difficulty Reporting Subsystem

SPAS

Safety Performance Analysis System

SRR

Specific Regulatory Requirement

TC

Team Coordinator (SAI)

U.S.C.

United States Code

VDRP

Voluntary Disclosure Reporting Program

10-79    Terms and Definitions. The following terms and definitions apply to ATOS.

Figure 10-10.    Terms and Definitions

Term

Definition

Acceptable Risk

The level of risk that is allowed to persist after controls are applied. Risk is acceptable when further efforts to reduce it would degrade the probability of success of the operation, or when a point of diminishing returns has been reached.

Aging Aircraft

An aircraft of any make or model that is 15 years old or older.

All-Cargo Operations

Any operation for compensation or hire that is other than a passenger-carrying operation. If passengers are carried, they are only those specified in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121, § 121.583(a).

Air Carrier Assessment Tool (ACAT)

The ACAT documents a systematic review of the air carrier system elements using the risk indicators to identify conditions that may be creating hazards.

Air Carrier Configuration Checklist

A checklist provides the principal inspector (PI) or certification project manager (CPM) with series of questions to answer that pertain to the air carrier’s or applicant’s type of operation, types of aircraft and equipment, facilities, personnel, and other operations specifications (OpSpecs).

Air Carrier Dynamics

Aspects of the organization and environment that the air carrier directly controls and could enhance system stability and safety.

Air Carrier Maintenance Provider

Any person whom the air carrier has made arrangements with for the accomplishment of any of its maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations.

Air Carrier Oversight Profile (ACOP)

A tailored list of elements and Data Collection Tool (DCT) questions that apply to a specific air carrier or applicant.

Air Carrier Programs and Procedures

The subsystem (3.1) by which an air carrier ensures compliance with its programs and procedures for functioning within its operating environment.

Air Carrier System

A group of interrelated processes that are a composite of people, procedures, materials, tools, equipment, facilities, and software operating in a specific environment to perform a specific task or achieve a specific purpose, support, or mission requirement for an air carrier.

For the purposes of new certification and continued oversight, seven air carrier systems have been defined, including:

1.0 Aircraft Configuration Control.

2.0 Manuals.

3.0 Flight Operations.

4.0 Personnel Training and Qualifications.

5.0 Route Structures.

6.0 Airman and Crewmember Flight, Rest, and Duty Time.

7.0 Technical Administration.

Aircraft

The subsystem (1.1) by which an air carrier ensures that its aircraft meet airworthiness and operational safety requirements.

Aircraft Configuration Control

The system (1.0) by which an air carrier maintains the physical condition of the aircraft and associated components.

Airman and Crewmember Flight, Rest, and Duty Time

The system (6.0) that prescribes time limitations for air carrier employees.

Airman and Crewmember Limitations

The subsystem (6.1) by which an air carrier ensures that airmen or crewmembers meet the regulatory time limitations.

Air Transportation Oversight System (ATOS)

The system the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) uses to provide regulatory oversight of part 121 air carriers.

Applicant

An individual, group, or organization seeking new operating authority or, in the case of an existing air carrier, a modification to their operating authority.

Approved Routes/Areas

The subsystem (5.1) by which an air carrier ensures that it maintains the facilities to support its approved routes and areas of operation.

Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS)

A facility for the integration, analysis, and sharing of aviation safety data and information.

Authority Attribute

A clearly identifiable, qualified, and knowledgeable person with the authority to establish and modify a process.

Baseline Date

The date automatically generated from the Certificate Management Team’s (CMT) initial Comprehensive Assessment Plan (CAP). It is updated when the bottom-line assessment, with appropriate action, is documented for Design Assessments (DA) and Performance Assessments (PA).

Certificate Management Team (CMT)

This team is responsible for the oversight functions of a specific air carrier. The CMT develops and executes a CAP tailored to a specific air carrier.

Certification Process Document (CPD)

An electronic document with work instructions to be accomplished during the certification process.

Certification Project Manager (CPM)

The CPM is the primary FAA spokesperson throughout the ATOS initial certification process. The CPM is responsible for ensuring that all certification job functions are complete.

Certification Project Team

(CPT)

This team is responsible for the oversight functions of a specific applicant during initial certification. The CPT develops and executes a CAP (CAP tailored to an applicant’s proposed operation).

Comprehensive Assessment Plan (CAP)

The applicant or air carrier-specific assessment plan developed by the CPT or CMT during initial certification or at the annual planning meeting. The CAP documents the planned assessments for the applicant or air carrier at the system element level.

Constructed Dynamic Observation Report (ConDOR)

The ConDOR allows data collection activities to be requested or assigned with instructions to inspect and report on specific areas of immediate concern outside of the normal assessment schedule.

Contract Maintenance

Any maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations accomplished by an “air carrier maintenance provider.”

Control Attribute

Checks and restraints that are designed into a process to ensure a desired result.

Corrective Action Tracking Tool (CATT)

This tool is used to track corrective actions required of the certificate holder that result from DAs and PAs, or other oversight functions that are not required to be tracked by another system. The CATT cannot be used to replace documentation requirements specified in other guidance.

Crewmember and Dispatch Qualifications

The subsystem (4.3) by which an air carrier ensures that crewmembers and dispatchers are qualified.

Criticality

The likelihood that a failure of an air carrier system, subsystem, or element could lead to an unsafe condition.

Data Collection Tool (DCT)

DCTs are tools such as Element Performance Inspections

(EPI), Safety Attribute Inspections (SAI), ConDORs,

and Dynamic Observation Reports (DOR) that support DAs and PAs.

Data Evaluation Program Manager or Data Reviewer

The CPT or CMT member responsible for reviewing inspection reports and records to ensure they meet data quality guidelines (DQG).

Design Assessment (DA)

The ATOS function that measures an applicant’s or air carrier’s operating systems at the element level for compliance with the full intent of regulations and safety standards, including the requirement to provide service at the highest level of safety in the public interest.

Due Date

The required or expected completion date for DAs or PAs.

Dynamic Observation Report (DOR)

The DOR allows inspectors to record certain observations outside the comprehensive assessment planning process. These observations may involve any part 121 air carrier at any location, at any time.

Data Quality Guidelines (DQG)

These guidelines help determine the acceptable levels of data quality during the evaluation of inspection records. See Volume 10, Chapter 2, Section 6, Table 10-1, Specific Data Requirements Table, and Table 10-2, Data Dimensions Table.

Essential Maintenance

Essential maintenance encompasses any Required Inspection Item (RII) accomplished on wing after any maintenance or alteration. This maintenance, if done improperly or if improper parts or materials were used, would result in a failure effect that would endanger the continued safe flight and landing of the airplane. Essential maintenance is the accomplishment of the air carrier designated inspection item on wing. Essential maintenance does not encompass any off-wing maintenance.

Essential Maintenance Provider (EMP)

An EMP is a maintenance provider who is used by the part 121 air carrier to accomplish the inspection portion of an on-wing RII.

Element

One or more interrelated actions completed to support an air carrier subsystem. Elements are the level that design and performance is assessed for all part 121 carriers.

Element Performance Inspection (EPI) Data Collection Tool (DCT)

The ATOS tool designed to collect data to help the CPM or PI determine if an air carrier adheres to its written procedures and controls for each system element, and that the established performance measures for each system element are met.

En Route Inspection

An inspection of the in-flight operations of a certificate holder within the total operational environment of the air transportation system.

Environmental Criticality (EC)

Aspects of the air carrier’s surroundings that could lead to or trigger a failure in one of its systems, subsystems, or elements, and potentially create an unsafe condition.

Flight Operations

The system (3.0) that pertains to aircraft movement.

Front Line Manager (FLM)

FLMs provide first-level supervision to subordinate employees and manage the activities of one operating unit, project, or program area. FLMs report to middle or senior managers.

Gate

A set of prerequisites to proceed to the next step.

Ghost Icon "D" Ghost Icon.

This symbol (commonly referred to as a “Ghost Icon”) represents a DA that was scheduled in a previous quarter, but not resourced, and this element should compete for resources in the current quarter. This symbol will appear to the right of the green line and on the due date of the “missed” assessment meaning at the end of the quarter, not 30 days later. The symbol appears only in Draft and Final versions of the CAP and does not appear in history or in reports. When the cursor is placed over the symbol, the date of the missed assessment appears. The ghost icon has no other automation functionality.

Ghost Icon "P" Ghost Icon.

This ghost icon symbol represents a PA that was scheduled in a previous quarter, but not resourced, and this element should compete for resources in the current quarter. This symbol will appear to the right of the green line and on the due date of the “missed” assessment, meaning at the end of the quarter, not 30 days later. The symbol appears only in the Draft and Final versions of the CAP and does not appear in history or in reports. When the cursor is placed over the symbol, the date of the missed assessment appears. The ghost icon has no other automation functionality.

Hazard

A condition, event, or circumstance that could lead or contribute to an unplanned or undesired event.

High Criticality

A high likelihood that a failure in this element could lead to an unsafe condition.

Human Factors

The relationship between people and their operating environment (e.g., people, procedures, materials, tools, equipment, facilities, and software).

Identified Risk

A level of risk that is identified through various analysis techniques.

Indicates new/changed information.

Information for Operators (InFO)

An InFO message contains valuable information for operators that should help them meet administrative requirements or certain regulatory requirements with relatively low urgency or impact on safety. InFOs contain information or a combination of information and recommended action to be taken by the respective operators identified in each individual InFO.

Interfaces Attribute

The air carrier identifies, documents, and has a method to evaluate the impact of changes on related processes.

Job Task Item (JTI)

JTIs are bulleted items below many DCT questions to detail the tasks that may be performed to properly answer the question. The inspector is required to answer the higher-level EPI or SAI question and should use the attached JTIs as guidance only.

Key Personnel

The subsystem (7.1) by which an air carrier ensures that qualified management and technical personnel with operational control are in place and conducting operations at the highest level of safety.

Low Criticality

A low likelihood that a failure in this element could lead to an unsafe condition.

Maintenance Organization

The subsystem (1.3) by which an air carrier ensures the continuous airworthiness and servicing of aircraft in accordance with its approved procedures.

Maintenance Personnel Qualifications

The subsystem (4.1) by which an air carrier ensures maintenance personnel are properly certificated and authorized to perform assigned duties.

Manual Management

The subsystem (2.1) by which an air carrier prepares and maintains the manuals for the use of and guidance to its personnel.

Manuals

The system (2.0) for controlling the information and instruction that defines and governs air carrier activities.

Medium Criticality

A moderate likelihood that a failure in this element could lead to an unsafe condition.

Mitigate

Action is needed to reduce the level of risk.

Monitor

The risk level is within accepted limits and no action is required beyond the normal planning cycle.

Off Hour

Activities that occur outside of normal FAA duty hours, including weekends.

Operations Research Analyst (ORA)

The ORA is responsible for assisting the CMT in collecting and analyzing air carrier data.

Operational Control

The exercise of authority over initiating, conducting, or terminating a flight.

Operational Release

The subsystem (3.2) by which an air carrier ensures all activities required for safe dispatch and continuation of a flight to its destination.

Operational Risk

An identified risk that has the potential to affect the operations of the air carrier.

Operational Stability

Aspects of the air carrier’s organization and environment that they do not directly control and when managed effectively, could enhance system stability and safety.

Operations Specifications (OpSpecs)

Legal and binding contract between an air carrier and the FAA that documents specifically how the air carrier operation is conducted.

Other Programs

This subsystem (7.2) is used to determine if the operator’s Safety Program (Ground and Flight) meets all applicable requirements of 14 CFR, incorporates the safety attributes, and identifies any shortfalls in the operator’s procedures (Ground and Flight).

Outsourcing

The practice of contracting out internal air carrier programs, processes, and traditional air carrier functions, such as maintenance, training, and ground handling to external, independent vendors, suppliers, and contractors. Oversight for the quality of the overall process remains with the air carrier.

Oversight Prioritization Tool (OPT)

Use of the OPT is optional. Only one OPT is required for each air carrier when the PI chooses to use the OPT. It is advisable that the PI utilize the OPT or their normal risk-based prioritization methodology. When the PI utilizes the OPT for planning surveillance, it can assist in:

 

         1)   Prioritization of air carrier maintenance providers to determine specific data collection requirements,

         2)   Identifying areas of concern or criticality, and

         3)   Providing data that allows the PI to target resources toward maintenance providers with the highest risk.

Passenger-Carrying Operation

Any aircraft operation carrying any person, unless the only persons on the aircraft are those identified in § 121.583(a). An aircraft used in a passenger-carrying operation may also carry cargo or mail in addition to passengers.

Preapplication Statement of Intent (PASI)

The completed PASI is a document used in initial certification that denotes an intent by the applicant to initiate the certification process and which allows the FAA to plan activities and prepare to commit resources.

Performance Assessment (PA)

The ATOS function that measures an applicant’s or air carrier’s operating systems at the element level to confirm that the air carrier is following its procedures and that they are producing the intended result.

Performance History

The results of the air carrier’s operations over time.

Performance Measure

A description of the desired outcome of an air carrier element process. It is used to determine whether the desired results of that process were achieved.

Personnel Training and Qualifications

The system (4.0) by which air carrier personnel are trained and qualified.

Principal Inspector (PI)

The PI is the primary FAA spokesperson and decision maker for his or her specialty in all applications of ATOS.

Procedures Attribute

Documented methods for accomplishing a process.

Process

Policies and procedures designed to produce a desired result or end product for an air carrier.

Process Measurement Attribute

The air carrier measures and assesses its processes to identify and correct problems or potential problems.

Ramp Inspection

An inspection of a certificate holder’s operation while the crewmembers and aircraft are on the ground. A ramp inspection is an effective method for evaluating a certificate holder’s ability to prepare both the aircraft and crew for a flight to be conducted.

Random Inspections

Random inspections are unplanned cockpit en route inspections, cabin en route inspections, ramp inspections, or spot inspections. With management authorization, ATOS 1.2-trained part 121 air carrier inspectors may perform these inspections on any part 121 air carrier at any location, at any time.

Records and Reporting Systems

The subsystem (1.2) by which an air carrier manages the records used to show that the aircraft are Airworthy, reflect the air carrier’s use of its procedures, and ensure the issuance of required reports.

Responsibility Attribute

A clearly identifiable, qualified, and knowledgeable person who is accountable for the quality of a process.

Risk

An expression of the severity of potential consequences and the likelihood of their occurrence that could result if a hazard is not addressed or corrected.

Risk Analysis

The injury and damage potential of the events related to the hazards in terms of the likelihood of occurrence and the severity of resulting consequences.

Risk Assessment

The process by which the results of risk analysis is used to make decisions.

Risk Factors

The risk factors identify what must be fixed or controlled in order to reduce the level of risk.

Risk Indicator

A grouping of safety- and/or performance-related data that reflects an area of potential risk that is expected to have sufficient data or justification to calculate a representative value for a particular air carrier system, subsystem, or element.

Risk Likelihood Values

Frequent—Continuously experienced.

Probable—Will occur often.

Occasional—Will occur several times.

Remote—Unlikely, but can reasonably be expected to occur.

Risk Management (RM)

An interactive management activity dedicated to ensuring that risk is identified, documented, eliminated, or controlled within defined program risk parameters.

Risk Management Process (RMP)

This process is the ATOS function that identifies hazards and ensures that the air carrier either eliminates the hazards or controls the associated risk at acceptable levels. This process also allows the FAA to manage resources in accordance with risk-based priorities.

Risk Severity Values

High—Loss (or breakdown) of an entire system or subsystem, accident, or serious incident.

Medium—Potential moderate damage to an aircraft, partial breakdown of an air carrier system, or violation of regulations or company rules.

Low—Potential poor air carrier performance or disruption of the carrier’s operations.

Route Structures

The system (5.0) by which an air carrier maintains facilities on approved routes.

Safety

The state in which the risk of harm to persons or property damage is reduced to, and maintained at or below, an acceptable level through a continuing process of hazard identification and RM. The quality of a system that allows the system to function under predetermined conditions with an acceptable level of risk.

Safety Alert for Operators (SAFO)

A SAFO is an information tool that alerts, educates, and makes recommendations to the aviation community. This community includes air carrier certificate holders, fractional ownership program managers, and 14 CFR part 142 training centers.

Safety Attributes

The qualities of a system, (e.g., authority, responsibility, procedures, controls, process measurements, and interfaces) that should be present in well-designed air carrier systems and processes.

Safety Attribute Inspection (SAI) Data Collection Tool (DCT)

The ATOS tool used to collect data about regulatory compliance in order to assess the adequacy of the design of the processes associated with each system element for an air carrier. The tool is organized in accordance with six safety attributes.

SAI Team

The team of inspector(s) or a single inspector assigned to accomplish an SAI for a specific CPT or CMT.

Scope of Operation

Description of an applicant or air carrier’s activities in air commerce.

Show Cause Order

In determining the “fitness” of an applicant for air carrier authority, the Office of the Secretary of Transportation (OST) examines four areas of the applicant’s business: managerial competence, operating and financial plans, the compliance record, and ownership structure.

Spot Inspection

Inspect in-progress maintenance operations for compliance with specific methods, techniques, and practices in the certificate holder’s inspection and maintenance programs.

System

A group of interrelated processes which are a composite of people, procedures, materials, tools, equipment, facilities, and software operating in a specific environment to perform a specific task or achieve a specific purpose, support, or mission requirement for an air carrier.

System Analysis Team (SAT)

A team that includes participants from the CMT, the air carrier, other FAA organizations, and other non-FAA entities (e.g., the manufacturer) to accomplish further analysis and determine root causes of system deficiencies.

System Approach

The structured, safety-driven means by which the FAA certifies and conducts oversight activities on elements that are designed to interact predictably within the air carrier’s systems and subsystems.

System Reconfiguration

The air carrier may be required to modify its system, or the FAA may modify its authorizations.

System Safety

The application of special technical and managerial skills to identify, analyze, assess, and control hazards and risks associated with a complete system. System safety is applied throughout a system’s entire life cycle to achieve an acceptable level of risk within the constraints of operational effectiveness, time, and cost.

System Stability

The state of balanced constancy and safety that results when an air carrier is able to effectively manage both the aspects of their organization and their environment—those that they control directly and those over which they have no direct control.

Technical Administration

The system (7.0) for addressing all other aspects of air carrier certification and operations.

Training Program

The subsystem (4.2) by which an air carrier ensures that personnel are trained to perform assigned duties in accordance with the air carrier’s approved programs.

Transfer

To reassign the risk to another entity that has the authority to address the risk.

Unacceptable Risk

Risk that cannot be tolerated by the managing activity. It is a subset of identified risk that must be eliminated or controlled.

RESERVED. Paragraphs 10-80 through 10-94.