2/24/14

 

8900.1 CHG 338

Volume 12  International Aviation

Chapter 2  Foreign Air Carriers Operating To the united states and foreign operators of u.S.-Registered aircraft engaged in common carriage outside the united states

Section 5  Part 129 Part C Operations Specifications—Airplane Terminal Instrument Procedures and Airport Authorizations and Limitations

12-214    PART C OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS (OPSPECS). The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issues Part C OpSpecs to foreign air carriers who conduct airplane operations under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 129. The FAA does not issue Part C OpSpecs to foreign air carriers who conduct only helicopter operations. Instrument flight rules (IFR) helicopter operators are issued Part H OpSpecs. The FAA does not usually issue Part C OpSpecs to part 129 on-demand operators who are restricted to visual flight rules (VFR)-only operations.

OPSPEC C048, ENHANCED FLIGHT VISION SYSTEM (EFVS) USE ON STRAIGHT-IN INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES OTHER THAN CATEGORY II OR CATEGORY III.

A.    Authorization. The C048 authorization is issued to foreign air carriers conducting airplane operations under 14 CFR part 129. C048 authorizes a certified enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) to be used to descend below Decision Altitude (DA) or minimum descent altitude (MDA) on straight in instrument approach procedures (IAP), other than Category (CAT) II or CAT III, in accordance with applicable U.S. regulations.

B.    EFVS Use. Title 14 CFR part 91, § 91.175(l) and (m) authorize an EFVS to be used to descend below DA or MDA on straight-in IAP, other than CAT II or CAT III. These regulations require that the EFVS have an FAA type design approval (type certificate (TC) or Supplemental Type Certificate (STC)) or, for foreign-registered aircraft, that the EFVS complies with all of the EFVS requirements of the U.S. regulations. An EFVS uses imaging sensor technologies to provide a real-time enhanced image of the forward external visual scene to the pilot. An EFVS is used by the pilot to determine that the enhanced flight visibility is not less than the visibility prescribed in the IAP to be flown and that the required visual references for descending below DA or MDA down to 100 feet (ft) above the touchdown zone elevation (TDZE) are distinctly visible and identifiable using the sensor image when the runway environment is not visible using the pilot’s natural vision. An EFVS also helps to verify proper runway alignment at night and in low visibility conditions.

NOTE:  The authorization associated with this OpSpec is in keeping with the intent of § 91.175(l) and (m) and does not authorize an EFVS to be used to satisfy the § 91.175(e)(2) requirement that an identifiable part of the airport be distinctly visible to the pilot during a circling maneuver at or above MDA or while descending below MDA. An EFVS is permitted to be used to identify the required visual references in order to descend below DA or MDA on straight-in IAP only. An instrument approach with a circle-to-land maneuver is not a straight-in IAP and does not have straight-in minima. While the regulations do not prohibit EFVS from being used during any phase of flight, they do prohibit it from being used for operational credit on anything but a straight-in IAP. An EFVS may be used during a circle-to-land maneuver provided the visual references required at or above MDA and throughout the circling maneuver are distinctly visible using natural vision. Use of EFVS during a circling maneuver may enable a pilot to see much more of the external scene at night and in low visibility conditions than would be possible using natural vision, thereby enhancing situational awareness (SA).

C.    Visual References. In order to descend below DA or MDA, the following visual references for the runway of intended landing must be distinctly visible and identifiable to the pilot using the EFVS:

1)     The Approach Light System (ALS) (if installed); or
2)     The following visual references in both subparagraphs a) and b) below:
a)    The runway threshold, identified by at least one of the following:

1.     The beginning of the runway landing surface;

2.     The threshold lights; or

3.     The runway end identifier lights (REIL).

b)    The touchdown zone (TDZ), identified by at least one of the following:

1.     The runway TDZ landing surface;

2.     The TDZ lights;

3.     The TDZ markings; or

4.     The runway lights.

D.    Natural Vision. To descend below 100 ft above the TDZE of the runway of intended landing, the pilot must be able to see the visual references required by § 91.175(l)(4) using natural vision, without relying on the EFVS. That is, the enhanced flight visibility observed by use of an EFVS is no longer applicable. At this point, the flight visibility only has to be sufficient for the pilot to distinctly see and identify the lights or markings of the threshold or the lights or markings of the TDZ using natural vision before continuing to a landing.

E.    Using Natural Vision. The visual references required by § 91.175(l) using EFVS to descend below DA or MDA are different from those required by § 91.175(c) using natural vision. Table 12-4A, Required Visual References, Section 91.175(c) and (l), provides a comparison of visual reference requirements for both natural vision and EFVS. Generally, the visual reference requirements for EFVS are more stringent than those for natural vision. For example, § 91.175(c) allows descent below DA or MDA using natural vision when only one of the visual references listed can be seen. For EFVS, § 91.175(l) requires that a pilot either see the ALS or at least one visual reference listed for the threshold environment and one visual reference listed for the TDZ environment. When natural vision is used, the Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) is permitted to be used as a required visual reference for descent below DA or MDA. Under § 91.175(l) using EFVS, however, the VASI cannot be used as a visual reference for descent below DA or MDA using EFVS because the EFVS display is monochromatic. For descent below 100 ft above TDZE using natural vision, § 91.175(c)(3) permits the approach lights to be used as a reference only if the red terminating bars or the red side row bars are visible and identifiable. For EFVS operations below 100 ft above TDZE, the approach lights with red side row bars are not permitted to be used as a visual reference, even though the pilot is required to rely only on natural vision to descend below 100 ft above TDZE. The only visual references permitted to be used for EFVS operations below 100 ft above TDZE are the lights or markings of the threshold or the lights or markings of the TDZ.

Table 12-4A.    Required Visual References, Section 91.175(c) and (l)

Required Visual References Using

Natural Vision

(14 CFR 91.175(c))

Required Visual References Using an

Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS)

(14 CFR 91.175(l))

For operation below Decision Altitude (DA) or minimum descent altitude (MDA):

At least one of the following visual references:

Approach Light System (ALS).

Threshold.

Threshold markings.

Threshold lights.

Runway end identifier lights (REIL).

Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI).

Touchdown zone (TDZ).

TDZ markings.

TDZ lights.

Runway.

Runway markings.

Runway lights.

For operation below DA or MDA:

The following references, using the EFVS:

ALS

OR

BOTH paragraphs A and B:

A. The runway threshold, identified by at least one of the following:

·    Beginning of the runway landing surface,

·    Threshold lights, or

·    REIL.

AND

B. The touchdown zone, identified by at least one of the following:

·    Runway TDZ landing surface,

·    TDZ lights,

·    TDZ markings, or

·    Runway lights.

Descent below 100 ft height above TDZE:

At least one of the following visual references:

ALS, as long as the red terminating bars or red side row bars are also distinctly visible and identifiable.

Threshold.

Threshold markings.

Threshold lights.

REIL.

VASI.

TDZ.

TDZ markings.

TDZ lights.

Runway.

Runway markings.

Runway lights.

Descent below 100 ft height above TDZE:

The following references, using natural vision:

The lights or markings of the threshold,

OR

The lights or markings of the TDZ.

F.    Conditions of Approval. Before issuing C048 based on aircraft equipment and operation, inspectors shall ensure that the foreign air carrier meets the following conditions:

1)    Aircraft and Associated Aircraft Systems. The authorized aircraft must be equipped with an EFVS certified for conducting operations under § 91.175(l) and (m) and must either have an FAA type design approval (TC or STC) or, for a foreign-registered aircraft, the EFVS must comply with all of the EFVS requirements of the U.S. regulations. Furthermore, the foreign air carrier must be approved by the State of Operator to use an EFVS on straight‑in IAPs, other than CAT II or CAT III, and a copy of that approval must be provided to the FAA. Field approvals for EFVS installations are not authorized. An EFVS is an installed airborne system and must include:
a)    A head-up display (HUD) or equivalent display.

1.     The EFVS sensor imagery and aircraft flight symbology must be presented so that they are clearly visible to the Pilot Flying (PF) in his normal position, line of vision, and looking forward along the flightpath.

2.     The EFVS display must be conformal. That is, the sensor imagery, aircraft flight symbology, and other cues that are referenced to the imagery and external scene must be aligned with and scaled to the external view.

b)    Sensors that provide a real-time image of the forward external scene topography.
c)    Computers and power supplies.
d)    Indications and controls.
e)    Aircraft flight symbology that includes at least the following:

1.     Airspeed,

2.     Vertical speed,

3.     Aircraft attitude,

4.     Heading,

5.     Altitude,

6.     Command guidance as appropriate for the approach to be flown,

7.     Path deviation indications,

8.     Flight Path Vector (FPV) cue, and

9.     Flight Path Angle (FPA) reference cue. The FPA reference cue must be displayed with the pitch scale and must be selectable by the pilot for the appropriate approach descent angle.

NOTE:  An EFVS must not be confused with an Enhanced Vision System (EVS). An EVS is an electronic means to provide the flightcrew with a sensor-derived or enhanced image of the external scene (e.g., millimeter wave radar, Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR)). Unlike an EFVS, an EVS does not necessarily provide the additional flight information/symbology required by § 91.175(m). An EVS might not use a HUD, and might not be able to present the image and flight symbology in the same scale and alignment as the outside view. This system can provide SA to the pilot, but does not meet the regulatory requirements of § 91.175(m). As such, an EVS cannot be used as a means to determine enhanced flight visibility and to descend below the DA or MDA.

2)    Flightcrew Procedures. The pilot can continue the approach below DA or MDA to 100 ft above the TDZE if he or she determines that the enhanced flight visibility observed by the use of a certified EFVS is not less than the minimum visibility prescribed in the straight-in IAP being flown, and the pilot acquires the required visual references prescribed in § 91.175(l)(3. The pilot uses the EFVS to visually acquire the runway environment, confirm lateral alignment, maneuver to the extended runway centerline (RCL), and continue a normal descent from the DA or MDA to 100 ft above the TDZ.
a)    A pilot may continue the approach below 100 ft above the TDZE as long as the flight visibility, using natural vision, is sufficient for therequired visual references to be seen. In addition, the aircraft must be continuously in position from which a descent to landing can be made on the intended runway, at a normal rate of descent using normal maneuvers, and at a descent rate that allows touchdown to occur within the TDZ.
b)    It should be noted that the rule does not require the EFVS to be turned off or the sensor image to be removed from the HUD in order to continue to a landing without reliance on the EFVS sensor image. In keeping with the requirements of the regulations, however, the decision to continue descending below 100 ft above the TDZE must be based on seeing the visual references required by the rule through the HUD by means of natural vision. An operator may not continue to descend beyond this point by relying on the sensor image displayed on the HUD.
c)    EFVS equipage may vary. Some aircraft may be equipped with a single EFVS display. Others may have an EFVS display and a separate repeater display located in or very near the primary field of view (FOV) of the nonflying pilot. Still others may be equipped with dual EFVS displays. The regulations do not require a repeater display or a separate EFVS for the nonflying pilot, but neither do they preclude it. Procedures for EFVS operations should be developed that are appropriate to the equipment installed and the operation to be conducted. In establishing these procedures, both normal and abnormal or failure modes must be addressed for the various phases of the approach (e.g., prior to final approach fix (FAF), FAF to DA or MDA, and after reaching DA or MDA).
d)    Procedures should support appropriate levels of crew coordination with special emphasis on the transition to and reliance on natural vision. Each EFVS has a specified limit to the FOV. An offset final approach or crosswinds may affect use of the EFVS, as well as when the decision is made to rely on natural vision for the primary reference. Also, specific pilot/crew decisionmaking and coordination must be addressed in the segment from FAF to DA or MDA (or point that a decision to rely on natural vision is made) and the EFVS segment (from DA or MDA down to 100 ft height above TDZE). The transition from enhanced vision to natural vision for landing is an especially important segment. Foreign air carriers should describe how common SA will be achieved—either procedurally when a single EFVS is used or through a combination of procedures and equipment when a repeater display or dual EFVSs are used.
3)    Flightcrew Qualification and EFVS Training Program. The flightcrew must be trained in the use of EFVS and demonstrate proficiency conducting straight-in IAPs, other than CAT II or CAT III (e.g., CAT I instrument landing system (ILS), nonprecision, approach procedures with vertical guidance (APV), etc.). Part 129 operators must have approved training programs. Part 129 operators must have approved training programs approved by the State of Operator. These programs should include the following items:
a)    Pilots should demonstrate knowledge of the regulatory requirements for EFVS operations contained in § 91.175 for approach to straight-in landing operations below DA or MDA.
b)    Pilots operating an EFVS should be able to demonstrate knowledge and proficiency in the use of this equipment through training and checking as required by the type of operation. As a minimum, pilots should be knowledgeable and proficient in the following areas:

1.    The specific sensor technology to include limitations that impact enhanced vision under various environmental conditions (weather, system resolution, external interference, thermal characteristics, variability, and unpredictability of sensor performance, etc.).

2.    EFVS operational considerations:

a.    Use of HUD symbology.

b.    Preflight and warmup requirements, as applicable.

c.    Controls, modes, adjustments, and alignment of the EFVS/HUD.

d.    Importance of the Design Eye Position (DEP) in acquiring the proper EFVS image.

e.    System limitations, normal, and abnormal procedures, including visual anomalies such as noise, blooming, and thermal crossover.

f.    Use of EFVS on precision, non-precision, and APV approaches.

g.    Use of caged and uncaged modes of the EFVS, if applicable, in crosswind conditions.

3.    Impact of EFVS on other aircraft systems, such as autopilot minimum use height limitations.

4.    Runway lighting systems and ALS.

5.    Crew briefings, callouts, and crew coordination procedures.

6.    Visual references required by § 91.175(l)(3) and (4).

7.    Transition from EFVS imagery to natural vision and recognition of the required visual references.

8.    Obstacle clearance requirements for approach and missed approach:

a.    Flight planning for obstacle clearance on a missed approach (e.g., go-around or balked landing) below DA or MDA.

b.    Use and significance of a published vertical descent angle (VDA) on IAPs.

c.    Vertical Path (VPATH), Vertical Approach Slope Indicator (VASI), precision approach path indicator (PAPI), published visual descent points (VDP), calculated VDPs, etc.

d.    Use of the FPA reference cue and FPV cue.

9.    Missed approach requirements—loss of required equipment, enhanced flight visibility, or required visual references for various phases of the approach (e.g., FAF to DA or MDA, and after passing DA or MDA).

c)    The flightcrew shall not conduct any operations authorized by this paragraph unless they are trained and qualified in the equipment and special procedures to be used. For foreign air carriers operating under part 129, no pilot in command (PIC) or second in command (SIC) shall conduct EFVS operations in any airplane until that pilot has successfully completed the foreign air carrier’s approved EFVS training program and has been certified as being qualified for EFVS operations by one of the foreign air carrier’s check airmen properly qualified for EFVS operations or a civil aviation authority (CAA) inspector from the State of Operator. EFVS training is required in accordance with the Standards established in International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 6, Part 1. It should be noted that foreign EFVS regulatory requirements, operational concepts, operational authorizations, airworthiness criteria, and equipment requirements may differ from those specified in § 91.175(l) and (m). Where there are differences, it is important to ensure that the foreign air carrier’s approved training program addresses those differences and that operations are not authorized without appropriate training. European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) regulations for EFVS operations can be found in OPS 1: Commercial air transportation (aeroplanes), Annex III of Council Regulation (EEC) No 3922/91 (EU Ops) Subpart E, appendix 1 to OPS 1.430(h). It should be noted that EASA uses the term EVS to describe a system that has the same elements, features, and characteristics as an EFVS certified by the FAA for use in the United States.
4)    Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) Provisions. Foreign-registered aircraft used by a foreign air carrier for EFVS operations within the United States must have AFM provisions reflecting an appropriate level of EFVS capability that meets the display, features, and characteristics required by § 91.175. The approved AFM for the aircraft must contain EFVS provisions appropriate to the EFVS operation authorized. For foreign persons or foreign air carriers operating U.S.-registered aircraft, the approved AFM must contain EFVS provisions appropriate to the EFVS operation authorized.
5)    Minimum Equipment List (MEL). For foreign air carriers operating foreign-registered aircraft within the United States, the MEL for the aircraft, including EFVS provisions, if MEL relief for EFVS is sought, must be approved by the State of Operator CAA. For foreign persons or foreign air carriers operating U. S.-registered aircraft, the MEL for the aircraft, including EFVS provisions, if MEL relief for EFVS is sought, must be approved by the FAA and the State of Operator when operations issues are involved.
6)    Approved Maintenance Program. For foreign air carriers operating foreign registered aircraft within the United States, the maintenance program must be approved by the State of Operator CAA. Foreign persons or foreign air carriers operating U. S.-registered aircraft, within or outside the United States in common carriage, shall in accordance with part 129, § 129.14, “ensure that each aircraft is maintained in accordance with a program approved by the Administrator.” This maintenance program should also address issues unique to the EFVS.

OPSPEC C050—SPECIAL PILOT-IN-COMMAND QUALIFICATION AIRPORTS (required for all foreign air carriers conducting IFR operations into special airports requiring special qualification by the pilot in command, as designated by the FAA).

A.    The Intent of OpSpec C050. This OpSpec is issued to authorize the foreign air carrier to operate to U.S. special airports, designated as Special Pilot-In-Command (PIC) Qualification Airports by the FAA. Additionally, this paragraph imposes the same requirements regarding Special PIC Qualification Airports that would be imposed on a U.S. carrier for operations in accordance with 14 CFR part 121, § 121.445, in an attempt to ensure an equivalent level of safety. This OpSpecs applies to:

1)    Scheduled operations conducted using turbojet-powered airplanes or airplanes having a passenger‑seat configuration of more than nine passenger seats, excluding each crewmember seat.
2)    Any operation with large aircraft as defined in OpSpec A002 of the air carrier’s OpSpecs.

B.    Representing a New Process. This OpSpec and associated guidance also represent part of a new process for updating and maintaining a current Special PIC Qualification Airport List and notification to the foreign air carrier. Advisory circular (AC) 121.445-1D, Pilot-In-Command Qualifications for Special Area/Routes and Airports, dated June 20, 1990, was cancelled and OpSpec C050 was put into place.

C.    The Special PIC Qualification Airports List. The current Special PIC Qualification Airports list is maintained on the Flight Standards Information Management System (FSIMS). The list is also maintained in the automated Operations Safety System (OPSS) guidance subsystem in association with OpSpec C050 for those carriers that have access to the OPSS through the Industry Operations Specifications Subsystem (IOPSS).

D.    Special PIC Qualifications Airports. The FAA has designated certain airports in the United States as Special PIC Qualification Airports due to items such as surrounding terrain, obstructions, or complex approach or departure procedures (DPs). The foreign air carrier is only authorized to conduct instrument flight rules (IFR) operations into U.S. airports listed as Special PIC Qualification Airports with large aircraft as defined in OpSpec A002, turbojet‑powered airplanes, or airplanes having a passenger seat configuration of more than nine passenger seats, excluding each crewmember seat, in accordance with the following provisions:

1)     The foreign air carrier may not use any person, nor may any person serve, as PIC to or from a U.S. airport determined to require special airport qualifications, as indicated in the FAA’s list of Special PIC Qualification Airports, unless:
a)    The PIC or second in command (SIC) has made an entry to that airport using an aircraft or the entry is simulated using a level D simulator or better in accordance with a qualification program approved/accepted by their Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), including takeoff and landing, while serving as a pilot flightcrew member within the preceding 12 calendar-months, or
b)    The PIC has qualified by using a pictorial means approved/accepted by the foreign air carrier’s CAA for that airport.
c)    The PIC or SIC has made an entry to that airport while occupying the flight deck observer’s seat, they are qualified on the aircraft type and monitor radio communications during the entry, and the procedure is included in the carrier’s manual, which has been approved/accepted by the State of Operator CAA.
d)    The restrictions of subparagraph D1) do not apply when an entry (including a takeoff or a landing) to that airport is being made if the ceiling at that airport is at least 1,000 feet (ft) above the lowest minimum en route altitude (MEA) or minimum obstruction clearance altitude (MOCA), or the initial approach altitude prescribed for the instrument approach procedure (IAP) for that airport, and the visibility at that airport is at least 3 miles.
2)     In reference to subparagraph D1)a), the PIC or SIC would receive equally valuable familiarization with the Special PIC Qualification Airports whether they are the Pilot Flying (PF) or the pilot-not-flying (PNF) during the entry. There is no requirement for a pilot to act as PF during takeoff or landing in order for the entry to count towards the requirements of OpSpec C050.
3)     In reference to subparagraph D1)c), in order for the pilot to receive a familiarization benefit equal to a pilot who qualifies in a simulator or using pictorial means, in order for the foreign air carrier to use the provision of subparagraph D1)c), the foreign air carrier’s manual needs to clearly spell out the procedures used by a pilot occupying the flight deck for the purposes of qualification at U.S. Special PIC Qualification Airports. The foreign air carrier shall provide their responsible Flight Standards District Office (FSDO)/International Field Office (IFO)/International Field Unit (IFU) with a copy of this procedure and evidence of approval/acceptance by the State of Operator CAA, subparagraph c3) in OpSpec C050, which specifies this provision, is a selectable subparagraph that must be selected if applicable from the dropdown in subparagraph c during paragraph preparation.

E.    Applicability. This OpSpec is issued to all foreign air carriers conducting IFR operations into the United States and establishes provisions the foreign air carrier must comply with to operate to Special PIC Qualification Airports.

OPSPEC C051—TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES (required for all air carriers conducting IFR operations).

A.    Purpose. The FAA issues OpSpec C051 to all foreign air carriers who operate airplanes and conduct any flight operations under instrument flight rules (IFR). This paragraph provides direction and guidance on acceptance of U.S. Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS). This OpSpec also provides additional guidance to the foreign air carrier for converting any takeoff and landing minimum expressed in the metric linear measurement system to the U.S. standard linear measurement system

B.    No Inspector Input Required. This paragraph requires no inspector input. Additional information concerning TERPS is contained in Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 1.

OPSPEC C052—STRAIGHT-IN NON-PRECISION, APV, AND CATEGORY I PRECISION APPROACH AND LANDING MINIMA—ALL AIRPORTS (required for all carriers conducting IFR operations).

A.    Applicability. OpSpec C052 specifies the types of instrument approaches the foreign air carrier is authorized to conduct, prohibits the use of other types of instrument approaches, and authorizes the lowest straight-in non-precision, approach procedures with vertical guidance (APV), and Category (CAT) I precision approach and landing minima. Before authorizing a type of instrument approach procedure (IAP), the principal operations inspector (POI) must ensure the foreign air carrier has established the aircraft system eligibility and that its manual, which the State of Operator must have approved/accepted, includes both flightcrew training and procedures, as applicable, for the types of approaches authorized. All of the approaches authorized by OpSpec C052 must be published in accordance with 14 CFR part 97.

NOTE:  Questions regarding the issuance of OpSpec/management specification (MSpec)/letter of authorization (LOA) C052 should be directed to the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400) at 202-385-4623 or the International Programs and Policy Division (AFS-50) at 202‑385‑8070.

B.    Types of Instrument Approaches Authorized. In paragraph C052, Table 1 specifies the types of instrument approaches the operator is authorized to conduct under instrument flight rules (IFR) and prohibits the use of other types of instrument approaches. In the Web-based Operations Safety System (WebOPSS), the POI will select the approaches that apply to the operator. Refer to the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) for a detailed description of each approach.

1)     See Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 1 for information on required training for various types of approaches.
2)     All the approaches approved by OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 must be published in accordance with part 97.
3)     If the foreign air carrier is authorized to conduct Global Positioning System (GPS) procedures as listed in Table 1 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052, the aircraft and equipment must be listed in Table 1 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA B034.
4)     Required Navigation Performance Approaches (RNP APCH)—Area Navigation (RNAV) (RNP) approaches are different from RNAV (GPS) approaches in that a specific performance requirement is defined for the navigation system, and onboard performance monitoring and alerting is required. An RNP APCH typically addresses only the requirement for the lateral navigation aspect (2D navigation) along straight segments. RNP approaches that contain a curved segment (RF leg), Final Approach Segments (FAS) specifying less that 0.3 nm accuracy, or a Missed Approach Segment (MAS) that specifies less than 1.0 nm accuracy, require more rigorous equipment qualification and training so special authorization is required. These are referred to as RNAV RNP IAP with Authorization Required (AR) or RNP AR approaches. C052 does not authorize RNP AR operations. Authorization for RNAV RNP AR approaches is through nonstandard OpSpec C384. (Refer to the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 90-101, Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures with AR.)
5)     Three groups of IAPs may be authorized in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052:
a)    Column one specifies the Nonprecision Approaches (NPA) without vertical guidance that are authorized by OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. Operators must ensure the aircraft will not go below the minimum descent altitude (MDA) without the required visual references specified in 14 CFR part 91, § 91.175.

1.     The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) term for an airport surveillance radar (ASR) approach is surveillance radar approach (SRA).

2.     Belgium labels these approaches as “SRE.” Select “ASR/SRA/SRE” in column one to authorize these approaches.

b)    Column two of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 provides for the authorization of APV. These approaches provide vertical guidance, but do not meet the same standards as precision approach systems (e.g., instrument landing systems (ILS), microwave landing systems (MLS), and Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS)). These APVs are trained using an approved method that allows descent to a published decision altitude (DA).

1.     APV approaches may contain Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) minima requiring wide area augmentation system (WAAS) and lateral navigation (LNAV)/vertical navigation (VNAV) minima which may be flown with either barometric vertical navigation (baro-VNAV) or WAAS-based VNAV and are authorized in column two of Table 1 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. (See subparagraph C to determine applicable lines of minima.) The AIM and the approach chart legend also have this information.

2.     Aircraft accomplishing RNP approaches (RNAV (GPS) or RNAV Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)) are required to monitor lateral and, if approved for operational credit, vertical guidance deviations. For baro-VNAV approach operations on an RNP approach using the LNAV/VNAV minimums, the current vertical deviation limits are +100/-50 feet. Aircraft qualified using the current edition of AC 20-138, Airworthiness Approval of Positioning and Navigation Systems, deviation display requirements for navigation, may use a vertical deviation limit of ±75 feet (or a smaller value). This information must be published in the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM), a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) or verified by the Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG).

3.     To authorize RNAV APVs, select “RNAV (GPS)” (for part 97 approaches) or “RNAV Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)” (for foreign approaches) from the selectable menu for column two of the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 template Table 1.

c)    Column three of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 provides for the authorization of CAT I precision IAPs from an electronic glideslope (ILS, MLS, or GPS Landing System (GLS)).

1.     “*RNAV/ILS” in column three may only be selected in C052 if the operator meets the requirements in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063.

2.     For pilot qualifications, the initial qualification segment of the certificate holder’s approved ILS precision runway monitor (PRM) training program must be successfully completed prior to conducting ILS PRM approach and landing operations. Initial training materials must include published ILS PRM approach chart materials, the AIM, related Notices to Airmen (NOTAM), and the latest available FAA-produced and -approved ILS PRM video entitled “ILS PRM & SOIA Approaches Information for Air Carrier Pilots” that each pilot must view, and which appears on the FAA Web site at /http://www.faa.gov/training_testing/training/prm/.

3.     Pilots trained in PRM operations under previous guidance are not required to retrain using the new version of the video. However, pilots are required to know the change in operations of Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) during PRM operations, as well as the required actions in response to a controller instruction. Testing of knowledge objectives is required as part of initial and recurrent qualification training. See subparagraph K.

Figure 12-3A.    Sample OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 Table 1

Table 1.    Authorized Instrument Approach Procedures

Nonprecision Approaches (NPA) Without Vertical Guidance

Approaches With Vertical Guidance

(APV)

Precision Approach Procedures

(ILS, MLS, & GLS)

ASR/SRA/SRE

LDA w/ glideslope

ILS

AZI

RNAV (GPS)

ILS/PRM

AZI/DME

RNAV (GNSS)

MLS

AZI/DME Back Course

LDA PRM

PAR

GPS

LDA PRM DME

ILS/DME

LDA

SDF w/ glideslope

*RNAV/ILS

LDA/DME

LOC BC w/ glideslope

GLS

LOC

RNAV (GPS) PRM

 

LOC BC

 

 

LOC/DME

 

 

NDB

 

 

NDB/DME

 

 

RNAV (GPS)

 

 

VOR/DME RNAV

 

 

SDF

 

 

TACAN

 

 

VOR

 

 

VOR/DME

 

 

LOC/BC/DME

 

 

C.    GPS Authorization. Volume 4, Chapter 1, Section 2 provides more extensive guidance on GPS and GPS WAAS equipment. The applicant must show that it has the ability to safely conduct GPS operations.

1)    Background. GPS approach procedures have evolved from overlays of existing conventional approaches to standalone GPS approaches. (Overlay approaches are predicated upon the design criteria of the ground‑based Navigational Aid (NAVAID) used as the basis of the approach and do not adhere to the design criteria for standalone GPS approaches.) Due to this transition, the FAA has revised the titles of the approach procedures to reflect these upgrades. The titles of all remaining GPS overlay procedures have been revised on the approach charts to read “…or GPS” (e.g., “VOR or GPS RWY 24”). Therefore, all the approaches that can be used by GPS now contain “GPS” in the title (e.g., “VOR or GPS RWY 24,” “GPS RWY 24,” or “RNAV (GPS) RWY 24”). During these GPS approaches, underlying ground-based NAVAIDs are not required to be operational and associated aircraft avionics need not be installed, operational, turned on, or monitored (although monitoring of the underlying approach is suggested when equipment is available and operational). Existing overlay approaches may be requested using the GPS title. For example, request “GPS RWY 24” to fly the VOR or GPS RWY 24 approach.

NOTE:  VOR/DME RNAV approaches will continue to be identified as VOR/DME RNAV RWY (Number) (e.g., VOR/DME RNAV RWY 24). VOR/DME RNAV procedures which can be flown by GPS will be annotated with “or GPS” (e.g., VOR/DME RNAV or GPS RWY 24).

2)    WAAS. As the satellite navigation evolution continues, the WAAS has been developed to improve the accuracy, integrity, and availability of GPS signals. WAAS receivers support all basic GPS approach functions and will provide additional capabilities. One of the major improvements provided by the WAAS is the ability to generate an electronic glidepath, independent of ground equipment or barometric aiding. There are differences in the capabilities of the WAAS receivers. Some approach-certified receivers will only support a glidepath with performance similar to Baro-VNAV, and are authorized to fly the LNAV/VNAV line of minima on the RNAV (GPS) approach charts. Receivers with additional capability such as update rate and integrity limits are authorized to fly the LPV or Localizer Performance (LP) line of minima. WAAS approach procedures may provide LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LP, and LNAV minimums and are charted as RNAV (GPS) RWY (Number) (e.g., RNAV (GPS) RWY 24). For further guidance, please see the AIM or contact AFS-400 at FAA HQ.

NOTE:  Some WAAS installations do not support approaches at all, while some do not support LPV or LP lines of minima.

3)    Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS). An additional augmentation system, the LAAS has been developed to provide precision approaches similar to ILS at airfields. These precise approaches are based on GPS signals augmented by ground equipment. The international term for LAAS is GBAS and the approaches which use the equipment are referred to as GBAS Landing System (GLS) or Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Landing System (GLS) approaches. LAAS equipment consists of a GBAS Ground Facility (GFF) supported by a minimum of four accurately surveyed reference stations and an uplink antenna called the very high frequency (VHF) Data Broadcast (VDB) antenna, as well as an aircraft LAAS receiver. The GGF can support multiple runway ends or landing areas served by procedures that are within the service coverage.
a)    Similar to LPV and ILS approaches, GLS provides lateral and vertical guidance. By design, LAAS was developed as an “ILS look-alike” system from the pilot perspective. Unlike WAAS, LAAS may support approaches to CAT III minimums in the future due to its nearly identical performance standards to ILS in terms of accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity. Portions of the GLS approach prior to and after the FAS may be based on RNAV or RNP segments. Therefore, a switch transition between RNAV or RNP and GLS modes may be required. In the future, the GGF may be able to support portions of the procedure outside the FAS.
b)    There are also a few differences from LPV, GLS, and ILS approaches in terms of charting, procedure selection, and identification. The LAAS procedure is titled “GLS RWY XX” on the approach chart. In the aircraft, pilots will select a five-digit GBAS channel number or associated approach within the flight management system (FMS) menu. Selection of the GBAS channel number by pilot or FMS also tunes the VDB. The VDB provides information to the airborne receiver where the guidance is synthesized. The LAAS procedure is identified by a four alpha-numeric character field referred to as the Reference Path Indicator (RPI) or approach ID. This identifier is analogous with the IDENT feature of the ILS. The RPI is charted. Following procedure selection, confirmation that the correct LAAS procedure is loaded can be accomplished by cross-checking the charted RPI with the cockpit-displayed RPI or audio identification of the RPI with Morse code (for some systems). Once selected and identified, the pilot will fly the GLS approach using the same techniques as an ILS.

D.    Authorized Criteria for Approved IAPs. For operations to all U.S. airports, operators are authorized to execute instrument approach operations on IAPs that have been published:

1)     Under part 97.
2)     Under the criteria in the current edition of Order 8260.3, United Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS).
3)     Under any other criteria authorized by AFS-400.
4)     By the U.S. military agency operating the U.S. military airport.
5)     All published Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) in the United States meet this requirement.

E.    Runway Visual Range (RVR). Touchdown zone (TDZ) RVR is controlling for all operations authorized in paragraph C052. All other RVR reports are advisory. A mid-field RVR report may substitute for an inoperative TDZ RVR report, except for Special Authorization (SA) CAT I operations as described in subparagraph I below.

F.    Continuous Descent Final Approach (CDFA) Technique. A CDFA is a specific technique for flying the FAS of an IAP as a continuous descent, without level-off, from an altitude at or above the final approach fix (FAF) altitude, typically to a point approximately 50 feet (ft) above the runway threshold or the point where the flare will begin. For approaches that do not use LNAV/VNAV, LPV, or an ILS/MLS/GLS glidepath, a CDFA technique is recommended. When electronic or a pre-stored computed vertical guidance is not used, Vertical Speed (VS) or FPA may be used to achieve a CDFA profile. Compared to the “step down” descent approach technique, where the aircraft descends step-by-step prior to the next minimum altitude, a CDFA technique has safety and operational advantages, such as standardization of procedures, simplification of the decision process (one technique and one decision at one point), and use of a stable flightpath. However, precision approach (ILS, MLS, GLS) obstacle penetration is not provided. The continuous descent approach technique can be flown on almost any published approach when VNAV or ILS/MLS/GLS is not available.

1)     When using a CDFA technique, the decision point to determine if the flightcrew has the required visual references in sight to continue below the MDA may only be treated like a DA in reference to approach profiles and procedures. The operator must add an altitude increment to the MDA (e.g., 50 ft) to determine the altitude at which the missed approach must be initiated in order to prevent descent below the MDA or flight beyond the MAP.
2)     The operator should ensure that, prior to conducting a CDFA, each flightcrew member intending to fly CDFA profiles undertakes training appropriate to the aircraft, equipment, and IAPs to be flown.

G.    Reduced Precision CAT I Landing Minima. Paragraph C052 specifies the equipment usage requirements and part 97 SIAP depiction required for reduced CAT I landing minima. Credit is given for flight director (FD), autopilot , and head-up display (HUD) usage. The POI should allow the use of 1800 RVR minima to runways without centerline (CL) lighting or TDZ lighting, provided the SIAP contains a straight-in ILS minimum with the chart note, “RVR 1800 Authorized with use of FD or autopilot or HUD to DA.” Additionally, the foreign air carrier issued C052 is allowed to continue to use 1800 RVR line of minima on SIAPs without the above procedural note when the TDZ and/or CL lights are inoperative, if the approach is conducted in accordance with the equipment requirements outlined in paragraph C052. This is also reflected in the published inoperative components table for IAPs.

1)    FAA Approval. Operators may continue to use the standard CAT I minima based solely on ground lighting systems without alteration of current authorizations or procedures. Operators can utilize reduced CAT I landing minima, provided the SIAP contains a straight-in ILS minimum with the chart note, “RVR 1800 Authorized with use of FD or autopilot or HUD to DA.”
2)    Conditions of Approval. Before issuing the C052 authorization to use CAT I minima based on aircraft equipment and operation, inspectors shall ensure that each operator meets the following conditions:
a)    Aircraft and Associated Aircraft Systems. The authorized aircraft must be equipped with an FD, or autopilot, or HUD that provides guidance to DA. The FD, autopilot, or HUD must be used in approach mode (e.g., tracking the localizer and the glideslope). Inspectors must establish that the FD, autopilot, or HUD are certified for use down to an altitude of 200 ft above ground level (AGL) or lower.
b)    Flightcrew Procedures. The flightcrew must use the FD, or autopilot, or HUD to DA or to the initiation of a missed approach, unless visual references with the runway environment are established, thus allowing safe continuation to a landing.

1.     If the FD, autopilot, or HUD malfunctions or becomes disconnected, the flightcrew must execute a missed approach unless the runway environment is in sight.

2.     Single pilot operators are prohibited from using the FD to reduced landing minima without accompanying use of an autopilot or HUD.

c)    Flightcrew Qualification. Each member of the flightcrew must have demonstrated proficiency using the FD, autopilot, or HUD, (as appropriate) in the foreign air carrier’s training program approved by their Civil Aviation Authority (CAA).

H.    SA CAT I. OpSpec C052 contains selectable text which authorizes SA CAT I ILS approaches to runways without TDZ or RCL lights with a radio altimeter (RA) DH as low as 150 ft and a visibility minimum as low as RVR 1400 when using a HUD to DH. The operator must meet all of the following requirements:

1)    Eligibility Requirements. Before authorizing SA CAT I, the POI must ensure that the foreign air carrier has established the aircraft system eligibility and that its manual, which the State of Operator must have approved/accepted, includes both flightcrew training and procedures, as applicable.
2)    Aircraft Requirements. To be approved for SA CAT I, each airplane must be authorized and maintained for CAT II operations. Those airplanes and equipment must be listed in Table 2 of OpSpec C059. The authorized airplane(s) must be equipped with a HUD which is approved for CAT II or CAT III operations.
3)    Training Requirements. The flightcrew must be current and qualified for CAT II operations. Each member of the flightcrew must have demonstrated proficiency using the HUD in the foreign air carrier’s training program approved by their CAA. This requirement applies both to initial eligibility for SA CAT I as well as recurrent training.
4)    Operational Requirements:
a)    The flightcrew must use the HUD to DH in a mode used for CAT II or CAT III operations. This mode provides greater lateral and vertical flightpath accuracy and more sensitive alarm limits.
b)    The flightcrew must use the HUD to DH, or to the initiation of missed approach, unless adequate visual references with the runway environment are established that allow safe continuation to a landing. Should the HUD malfunction during the approach, the flightcrew must execute a missed approach unless visual reference to the runway environment has been established.
c)    The crosswind component on the landing runway must be 15 knots or less, unless the AFM’s crosswind limitations are more restrictive.
d)    The part 97 SIAP must have a published SA CAT I minimum. The first procedures with these minimums will be published in 2010.
e)    Unlike the other approaches authorized in C052, the mid-RVR report may not be substituted for the TDZ RVR report when using SA CAT I minima.

I.    PRM. The FAA began the Multiple Parallel Approach Program (MPAP) to research whether simultaneous ILS approaches to parallel runways would improve capacity. The objective was to achieve improvements in airport arrival rates through the conduct of simultaneous closely-spaced parallel approaches. That objective is being met using PRM.

1)    ILS PRM, LDA PRM and RNAV (GPS) PRM Approaches with Vertical Guidance. Where parallel RCLs are less than 4,300 feet apart, but not less than 3,000 feet apart, simultaneous ILS PRM approaches may be conducted. Similarly, where parallel RCLs are less than 3,000 feet apart, but no less than 750 feet, simultaneous offset instrument approaches (SOIA) may be conducted using an ILS and an LDA approach with glideslope. Those approaches are labeled “ILS PRM” and “LDA PRM,” respectively, on instrument approach charts. Air traffic control (ATC) provides one PRM monitor controller for each runway to provide intrusion protection for the No Transgression Zone (NTZ), located between the two final approach courses. Whenever the runway spacing (or in the case of SOIA the approach course spacing) is less than 3,600 feet and at least 3,000 feet, NTZ monitoring is accomplished using a special PRM radar. Utilization of vertical guidance is required for all PRM approaches. RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches may be substituted for the ILS PRM and/or the LDA PRM approach. Pilots must have completed PRM training prior to conducting any PRM approach. An ILS PRM and its overlayed RNAV (GPS) PRM approach are procedurally equivalent. LDA PRM and its overlayed RNAV (GPS) PRM approach are procedurally equivalent. Pilots may request the RNAV (GPS) PRM approach in lieu of the ILS PRM or LDA PRM approach; however, they may only conduct the approach when specifically cleared to do so by ATC.
2)    The Breakout Maneuver. Working with industry, the FAA conducted extensive analysis of simulation data and determined that the implementation of PRM and SOIA approach operations to closely-spaced parallel runways requires additional crew training. The primary focus of this training is to raise each pilot’s situational awareness in ILS PRM, LDA PRM and RNAV (GPS) PRM operations. The breakout maneuver must be flown manually.
a)    Traffic Alert. One important element of the additional training is the pilot understands the difference between a normal missed approach initiated by a pilot and a breakout initiated by a PRM final monitor controller. It must be clear to flightcrews that when the final monitor controller uses the words “Traffic Alert,” the controller will then give critical instructions that the pilot must act on promptly to preserve adequate separation from an airplane straying into the adjoining approach path.
b)    ATC Breakout Maneuver Command to Turn and/or Descend, Climb, or Maintain Altitude. The flightcrew must immediately follow the final monitor controller’s vertical (climb/descend/maintain altitude) and horizontal (turn) commands. If the flightcrew is operating the TCAS in the traffic advisory (TA)/Resolution Advisory (RA) mode and receives a TCAS RA at any time while following the final monitor controller’s command, the flightcrew will simultaneously continue to turn to the controller’s assigned heading and follow the vertical guidance provided by the TCAS RA.
c)    Time-to-Turn Standard. Regardless of airplane type, tests and data analysis revealed that pilots normally passed through an angle of bank of at least 3 degrees while rolling into a breakout turn within 10 seconds of receiving a breakout command. (Bank angles of between 20 and 30 degrees were normally achieved during the breakout.) The operator must show that its CAA has determined that pilots can readily meet this time-to-initiate-turn standard prior to the POI authorizing ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. Flightcrews are required to manually fly the breakout maneuver unless otherwise approved. The air carrier should demonstrate its ability to meet this standard by having representative pilots perform the breakout maneuver while the POI or the POI’s designated representative observes. The demonstration should conform to procedures contained in the air carrier’s approved operating manual for its flightcrews. The commercial operator should submit procedures to its POI for this authorization.

NOTE:    In a breakout, ATC will never command a descent below the applicable minimum vector altitude (MVA), thus assuring that no flight will be commanded to descend below 1,000 ft above the highest obstacle during a breakout.

3)    ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM, RNAV (GPS) PRM and the Use of TCAS. TCAS may be operated in TA/RA mode while executing ILS PRM, LDA PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches. However, when conducting these operations, pilots must understand that the final monitor controller’s instruction to turn is the primary means for ensuring safe separation from another airplane. Pilots must bear in mind that the TCAS does not provide separation in the horizontal plane; the TCAS accomplishes separation by commands solely in the vertical plane. Therefore, during final approach, only the final monitor controller has the capability to command a turn for lateral separation. Flightcrews are expected to follow any ATC instruction to turn.
a)    ATC Command to Turn with TCAS RA. In the unlikely event that a flightcrew should simultaneously receive a final monitor controller’s command to turn and a TCAS RA, the flightcrew must follow both the final monitor controller’s turn command and the TCAS RA’s climb or descent command.
b)    TCAS RA Alone. In the extremely unlikely event that an RA occurs without a concurrent breakout instruction from the final monitor controller, the pilot should follow the RA and advise the controller of the action taken as soon as possible. In this instance, it is likely that a breakout command would follow.
c)    TCAS Not Required. An operator does not need an operative TCAS to conduct ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches.
4)    Required and Recommended Training for ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM, and RNAV (GPS) PRM Approaches. A foreign air carrier must include required training in its training program and the State of Operator must approve that training before the FAA may authorize either or both PRM approaches in OpSpec C052. Flightcrews must accomplish required ground training before conducting ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches.
a)    Initial ground training—required.

1.    This training must include all elements of the “Attention All Users Page” of an ILS/PRM or an LDA/PRM or an RNAV (GPS) PRM as authorized, along with viewing the latest version of the PRM video. (Contact FAA Flight Standards at 202-267-8166 for the most current version.)

NOTE:  The FAA does not require flightcrews trained previously in PRM operations under earlier guidance to requalify with each new version of the PRM video.

2.    The ground portion of the training program must support the following knowledge objectives. Each flightcrew member must:

a.    Describe the PRM system to include the meaning of “no transgression zones.”

b.    Know that an airplane on an adjacent approach path may be less than 4,300 ft away and may be flying at a different speed.

c.    Know that the automated terminal information service (ATIS) broadcasts a pilot advisory when ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches are in progress.

d.    Identify the differences between PRM approach charts and normal approach charts, including the special instruction pages for PRM.

e.    Explain the unique communication requirements (equipment and procedures) for ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM, and RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches.

f.    Know that an unpublished missed approach instruction that ATC may issue prior to published MAPs is called a “breakout.”

g.    Know that a breakout may include instructions to descend and that the descent will be to no lower than the MVA for the sector. The MVA guarantees 1,000 ft above the highest obstruction in that sector. The rate of descent that controllers expect is not more than 1,000 ft per minute.

h.    Know that a pilot must initiate a breakout maneuver manually and immediately upon hearing the “Traffic Alert” command from ATC, and that adequate separation requires that the pilot establish a 3‑degree‑per‑second rate of turn within 8 seconds.

i.    Know that the three areas (ATIS, Dual VHF Comm. Required, and All “Breakouts”) in the “Attention All Users Page” must be briefed (in flight) prior to conducting an ILS/PRM or an LDA/PRM or an RNAV (GPS) PRM approach.

j.    Know that flightcrews may operate the TCAS in the TA/RA mode when conducting PRM approaches, including the following points:

·    When an RA occurs with a concurrent ATC breakout command—follow the turn required in the ATC instructions; follow the climb or descent in the RA command (split commands);

·    When an RA occurs without a concurrent ATC breakout command—follow the RA and contact ATC as soon as practical;

·    TCAS provides only vertical resolution to aircraft conflicts; and

·    An operative TCAS is not required for PRM operations.

k.    Know procedures for SOIAs, including the following points:

·    A visual segment of the LDA/PRM or the offset RNAV (GPS) PRM approach is established prior to the MAP to permit;

·    Visual acquisition of the traffic to the parallel runway and advising ATC;

·    Visual acquisition of the runway environment;

·    LDA PRM or the offset RNAV (GPS) PRM course is maintained until the MAP. At the MAP, the pilot must have the parallel traffic in sight and the runway environment in sight, or fly the missed approach;

·    At the MAP with the parallel traffic and the runway in sight, the pilot may continue to a landing;

·    Maneuver to align with the RCL;

·    Stabilize on glidepath no lower than 500 ft above TDZ; and

·    Avoid wake turbulence from the parallel runway traffic.

3.    Testing of these knowledge objectives is recommended.

b)    Initial flight training—required.
c)    Breakout maneuver—required.

NOTE:  Initial breakout flight training must focus on the descending breakout.

NOTE:  Air carriers who currently hold OpSpec approval to conduct PRM approaches have 12 months from the effective date of HBAT 03-03 (05/29/03) to initiate breakout flight training, and must complete training by the end of the next full training cycle.

NOTE:  Air carriers applying for initial approval to conduct PRM approaches must complete breakout flight training by the end of the next full training cycle after receiving OpSpec approval.

NOTE:  The FAA may authorize air carriers to conduct ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches. The FAA does not require duplicative flight training in the breakout maneuver (i.e., a breakout covered in flight training for ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM satisfies the requirement).

NOTE:  All air carriers who provide breakout training to flightcrews prior to the effective date of HBAT 03-03 (5/29/03) are not required to requalify.

NOTE:  LDA/PRM approach. Recommended: ILS/PRM approach (if authorized on OpSpecs).

d)    Recurrent ground training—required: Review of the ground training elements and the video in subparagraph E4)a) above and testing in those elements.
e)    Recurrent flight training.

1.    Required: None.

2.    Recommended:

·    ILS/PRM approach,

·    LDA/PRM approach, and

·    Breakout.

5)    Authorizing ILS/PRM Approaches, LDA/PRM Approaches, and RNAV (GPS) PRM Approaches for 14 CFR Part 129 Foreign Air Carriers. A part 129 foreign air carrier operating in the United States may be authorized in OpSpec C052 to conduct ILS/PRM approaches, LDA/PRM approaches, and/or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches if:
a)    That foreign air carrier meets the ground and flight training requirements contained in subparagraphs J4)a) through c) above;
b)    The CAA for the foreign air carrier authorizes these type approaches; and
c)    The air carrier’s POI determines that a point of contact (POC) for the foreign air carrier’s CAA has been established in the foreign air carrier’s OpSpec A006(c).

NOTE:  A definition of RNAV (GPS) PRM has been added to the A002 template.

OPSPEC C053 and C054. RESERVED.

OPSPEC C055—ALTERNATE AIRPORT IFR WEATHER MINIMUMS (OPTIONAL).

A.    Applicability. Paragraph C055 is an optional authorization available to all operators conducting airplane operations under 14 CFR part 129. The OpSpec is approved by the Administrator as an alternative method of calculating alternate minima to that specified in 14 CFR part 91, § 91.169(c). The OpSpec may be issued if the State of Operator has approved the foreign air carrier for this alternative method. The OpSpec must not be issued if the State of Operator has not approved the foreign air carrier for this alternative method. Without OpSpec C055, the foreign air carrier must comply with the highest minima of the State of Operator authorized method and § 91.169(c). The relevant International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 6 Part I, International Commercial Air Transport – Aeroplanes, standards are 4.3.4 and 4.3.5 with additional guidance in ICAO DOC 9976, Flight Planning and Fuel Management Manual. Paragraph C055 provides a two‑part table from which the operator, during the initial dispatch or flight release planning segment of a flight, derives alternate airport IFR weather minimums in those cases where it has been determined that an alternate airport is required.

NOTE:  Questions regarding the issuance of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C055 should be directed to the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS‑400) or the International Programs and Policy Division (AFS‑50). If the PI directs questions to AFS-50, the PI should copy AFS-400 and vice versa.

B.    Airports With At Least One Operational Navigation Facility. The first part of the table is for airports with at least 1 operational navigational facility providing a straight‑in Nonprecision Approach (NPA) procedure, or a straight‑in precision approach procedure, or, when applicable, a circling maneuver from an instrument approach procedure (IAP). The required ceiling and visibility is obtained by adding 400 feet (ft) to the minimum descent altitude/height (MDA/H) or, when applicable, the authorized decision altitude/height (DA/H) and by adding 1 statute mile (mi) or 1,600 meters (m) to the authorized landing minimum.

C.    Airports With At Least Two Operational Navigation Facilities. The second part of the table is for airports with at least two operational navigational facilities, each providing a straight‑in NPA procedure or a straight‑in precision approach procedure to different suitable runways. The required ceiling and visibility is obtained by adding 200 ft to the higher MDA/H or DA/H of the two approaches used and by adding 1/2 mi or 800 m visibility to the higher authorized landing minimum of the two approaches used.

D.    Higher Alternate Minimums When Using Two Operational Navigation Facilities. In some cases, it is possible to have higher alternate minimums when using two operational navigational facilities than when using one. For example, an airport with one straight‑in NPA procedure with a MDA/H of 400 ft and 1 mi visibility would have alternate minimums of 800 ft and 2 mi visibility (400 ft + 400 ft and 1 mi + 1 mi). On the other hand, an airport with two straight‑in approaches, one which is a straight‑in precision approach with a DA/H of 200 ft and 1/2 mi visibility and the other a straight‑in NPA with a MDA/H of 700 ft and 1 mi visibility, would have alternate minimums of 900 ft and 1 1/2 mi visibility (200 ft + 700 ft and 1/2 mi + 1 mi). Since the OpSpecs require that the operator use the higher ceiling and visibility, the minimums for the airport with two straight‑in approaches are higher than for the airport with only one straight‑in approach. When this situation exists, the operator may elect to consider the airport as having only one straight‑in approach procedure and may add the higher buffer requirement (400 ft and 1 mi) to whichever straight‑in approach procedure provides for the lowest possible ceiling and visibility minimums.

E.    Using Two Different Runways. Two different runways may be the different ends of the same physical runway surface (such as, runway 4 and runway 22 are two different runways). When determining the suitability of a runway, wind plus gust must be forecast to be within operating limits, including reduced visibility and runway contamination limits, and should be within the manufacturer’s maximum demonstrated crosswind. The operator should also take into account any other potential runway limitations, such as Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) that may affect the landing at the estimated time of arrival (ETA).

F.    Credit for Alternate Minimums. OpSpec C055 allows credit for alternate minimums for airports with a published Category (CAT) II or CAT III approach based on engine inoperative CAT II or CAT III capability. (See subparagraph I below for additional details.) Flightcrews having that capability may take credit for engine inoperative CAT II/III qualified aircraft and adjust minimums accordingly. The alternate minimums are based on CAT III engine inoperative requirements. The ceiling and visibility required for CAT II procedures is a ceiling of at least 300 ft and a visibility of at least RVR 4000, or for CAT III procedures, a ceiling of at least 200 ft height above touchdown (HAT), and a visibility of at least RVR 1800. Foreign air carriers having that capability may take credit for CAT II/III‑qualified aircraft and adjust minimums accordingly. The alternate minimums are based on CAT III engine inoperative requirements.

1)    The following are some but not all of those requirements. See the criteria in the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 120‑28, Criteria for Approval of Category III Weather Minima for Takeoff, Landing, and Rollout—engine inoperative, for further requirements.
a)    The aircraft is capable of engine inoperative CAT III.
b)    The carrier has established appropriate procedures.
c)    Performance and obstruction clearance information has been provided to the flightcrew.
d)    Appropriate aircraft configuration, wind limits, and other appropriate information is provided to the flightcrew.
2)    Before authorizing the additional selectable row(s) in Table 1 of the OpSpec, the principal operations inspector (POI) shall ensure through documentation that the foreign air carrier has provided that subparagraphs F1)a) through d) above are met and the air carrier’s Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) authorizes it for CAT II/III alternate minimum. If the foreign air carrier does not meet the preceding conditions or equivalent conditions acceptable to the FAA, the PI must ensure that the issued OpSpec does not contain any additional rows in Table 1 (should only have two rows).

NOTE:  The ICAO equivalent to AC 120‑28 is ICAO DOC 9365/AN910, Manual of All‑Weather Operations.

G.    Definition of “Two Operational Facilities.” Question: “Does the FAA consider an ILS facility that contains a single transmitter frequency for an ILS, but with two different ILS identifications (depending on which runway is being used) as one or two navigational facilities?”

1)    The words “two operational facilities” have always meant that in the event there is a single failure of one facility, the other would be operational. In the situation where both instrument landing system (ILS) facilities share a single transmitter, it would be considered “one operational navigational facility,” because both ILSs would become inoperative in the event of a single transmitter failure.
2)    The two ILS identifiers would have to be different even though the ILS transmitter frequency is the same for both. The charts should tell pilots whether there is one frequency or two. Thus, one or two navigational facilities.

H.    Use of Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Minima at a Destination Alternate. Pilots may plan to use any instrument approach authorized for use with wide area augmentation system (WAAS) avionics at a required alternate if the aircraft is suitably equipped with GPS WAAS equipment and the foreign air carrier is authorized to conduct Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) and/or Localizer Performance (LP) approach and landing operations by the State of Operator. When using WAAS at an alternate airport, flight planning must be based on flying the RNAV (GPS) lateral navigation (LNAV) minimums line, or minimums on a GPS approach procedure, or conventional approach procedure with “or GPS” in the title. Also, RNAV (GPS) (or RNAV Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)) are based on a single navigational facility when determining the approach facility configuration in Table 1 of the OpSpec, even if there are two or more RNAV (GPS) approaches to different suitable runways. Upon arrival at an alternate, when the WAAS navigation system indicates that LNAV/vertical navigation (VNAV) or LPV service is available, vertical guidance may be used to complete the approach using the displayed level of service. The FAA has begun removing the NA (alternate minimums not authorized) symbol from select RNAV (GPS) and GPS approach procedures so they may be used by approach approved WAAS receivers at alternate airports. Some approach procedures will still require the NA for other reasons (e.g., no weather reporting); therefore, it cannot be removed from all procedures. Because every procedure must be individually evaluated, removal of NA from RNAV (GPS) and GPS procedures will take some time.

I.    Selectable Text and Table 1. There are two selectable rows which can be loaded into Table 1 of the OpSpec (Alternate Airport IFR Weather Minimums) and three selectable text options for additional limitation and provisions (subparagraph b(5) of the OpSpec).

1)    Table 1. The two selectable rows in Table 1 authorize lower alternate minimums when planning to use either a CAT II or CAT III approach at the alternate airport. If a CAT II or CAT III credit is authorized, the first selectable text paragraph must be loaded as well.
2)    Selectable Text Options. Selectable text options for additional limitation and provisions (subparagraph b(5) of the OpSpec): The first selectable text option states requirements for CAT II and CAT III credit applicable to alternate airport flight planning, and must be loaded if the operator is authorized the CAT II or CAT III credit described in subparagraph I1) above. The second selectable text option authorizes operators equipped with WAAS to use GPS approaches when determining an alternate, and lists the restrictions associated with using GPS approaches in alternate planning. The third selectable text option authorizes both (the air carrier is authorized CAT II or III and GPS/WAAS alternate minimums.)

NOTE:  Prior to issuing C055 to the foreign air carrier, principal inspectors (PI) must ensure that the appropriate selectable text option is selected, if applicable. If none of the selectable text options apply, the PI must ensure that none of the selectable text options are selected.

OPSPEC C056—IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS – AIRPLANES (OPTIONAL).

A.    General. The FAA issues OpSpec C056 to foreign air carriers who conduct operations under IFR with airplanes to the United States. This OpSpec contains guidance regarding pilots, aircraft, and airports when lower minimums than those defined in 14 CFR part 91, § 91.175(f), hereinafter referred to as standard takeoff minimums, are used. OpSpec C056 lists the lowest RVR in feet based on the authorized airplane type.

B.    Inspector Action/Web-based Operations Safety System (WebOPSS) Entry. When issuing OpSpec C056, the principal operations inspector (POI) must select in the table in subparagraph a of the OpSpec the following:

1)     No lower than the lowest State of the Operator Authorized RVR for each airplane type to be used to fly to the U.S.

NOTE:  Regardless of the particular authorizations of a foreign carrier the POI may not authorize minima lower than RVR 300/300/300.

2)     The free text box to manually enter the appropriate HUD for each type of aircraft to be used to fly to the U.S. or select N/A if HUD is not authorized by the State of the Operator.
3)     Any additional limitations and provisions not specified in the OpSpec and applicable to the lowest RVR for the type of aircraft to be used.
4)     Additionally, the POI must select:
a)    The static text in subparagraphs b(3) and d of the OpSpec if the foreign air carrier is operating airplanes with a seating configuration of 30 seats or less or a maximum payload capacity of 7,500 pounds or less.
b)    All of the selectable paragraphs specifying the limitations and requirements applicable to all RVR values equal to or higher than the lowest RVR value selected in the table in subparagraph a) of the OpSpec. (For a summary see Table 12-4B below).
Table 12-4B.    Runway Equipment Requirements for Takeoff Minima

Runway Visual Aid Required

Lowest Allowable Takeoff Minimum Authorization

[visibility or RVR (TDZ/Mid/Rollout)]

Adequate visual reference,

or

Any one of the following:

·    Centerline (CL) lighting

·    High Intensity Runway Light (HIRL)

·    Runway centerline marking (RCLM)

RVR not available;

1/4 mile (mi) (500 meters (m)); or

RVR 1600 feet (ft) (500 m)/Not Required/Not Required. (Mid-point can substitute for an unavailable touchdown).

Note: Below RVR 1600, two operating RVR sensors are required. All operating RVR sensors are controlling (except per the note below for far-end sensors). Extremely long runways (e.g., Denver International Airport (DEN) 16R) utilize four RVR sensors (i.e., TDZ, mid, rollout, and far-end). When a fourth far-end RVR value is reported, it is not controlling and is not to be used as one of the two required operative RVR sensors. Visual aids (CL lighting, RCLM) must be visible (for example not obstructed by snow).

Day: CL lighting or HIRL or RCLM

Night: CL lighting or HIRL

RVR 1200 ft (350 m)/1200 ft (350 m)/1000 ft (300 m)

RCLM and HIRL, or CL lighting

RVR 1000 ft/1000 ft/1000 ft (300 m)

HIRL and CL lighting

RVR 600 ft/600 ft/600 ft (175 m) or

RVR 500 ft/500 ft/500 ft (150 m)

With an approved HUD takeoff guidance system, HIRL, and CL lighting

RVR 300 ft/300 ft/300 ft (75 m)

Note: Additionally, RVR 300 ft/300 ft/300 ft (75 m) takeoff is conducted on a runway with a published landing minimum of RVR 300 and localizer front course guidance displayed on the HUD.

OPSPEC C057. DECOMMISSIONED.

OPSPEC C059—CATEGORY II INSTRUMENT APPROACH AND LANDING OPERATIONS (OPTIONAL).

A.    Conditions for Approval. Category (CAT) II operations are approved by issuance of OpSpec C059 to foreign air carriers for 14 CFR part 29 operations. Before the FAA issues OpSpec C059, each foreign air carrier and each airplane type used by that foreign air carrier require approval by the State of Operator.

B.    Evaluation. CAT II operations are evaluated for approval in accordance with the following:

1)     The current edition of advisory circular (AC) 120-29, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minima for Approach.
2)     Volume 4, Chapter 2.
3)     For foreign-registered airplanes, a Lower Landing Minimums (LLM) maintenance program approved by the State of Operator and for U.S.-registered airplanes, an LLM maintenance program approved by the FAA in accordance with Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 11, in coordination with the principal avionics inspectors (PAI) and principal maintenance inspectors (PMI).
4)    Approval of the State of Operator is also required before amending OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 to include an airplane make, model, and series (M/M/S) new to the foreign air carrier.

C.    Approved Airplanes. Each airplane type (M/M/S) used in CAT II operations must be listed in Table 1 of C059 (see Table 12-5, Example Category II Approach and Landing Minimums, for example) and have an acceptable LLM maintenance program approved by the State of Operator and, in the case of U.S.-registered airplanes, it must be approved by the FAA in accordance with part 129, § 129.14. The lowest decision height (DH) and lowest Runway Visual Range (RVR) authorized for each airplane type must also be specified. The example in Table 3-17 illustrates the method for authorizing each airplane in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059:

Table 12-5.    Example Category II Approach and Landing Minimums (Sample Table 1)

CAT II Approach and Landing Minimums

Airplane M/M/S

DH Not Less Than

Lowest Authorized RVR

DOUG DC9 31

100 ft

1600 RVR

BOEING 727 217

100 ft

1600 RVR

AIRBUS 300 A300B4103

100 ft

1200 RVR

BOEING 757-200

100 ft

1200 RVR

LKHEED 1011 385114

100 ft

1200 RVR

DHC-8-402

100 ft

1000 RVR

BOEING 737-700

100 ft

1000 RVR

BOEING 777-200

100 ft

1000 RVR

D.    Required CAT II Airborne Equipment. The equipment required to conduct manually flown or automatically flown CAT II operations is specified in Table 2 of OpSpec C059 (see Table 12-6, Example of CAT II Items of Equipment (Sample Table 2)) for each airplane M/M/S. The equipment required is established in accordance with the applicable regulations, the approved Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) (if applicable), and AC 120-29. There are two acceptable methods of demonstrating that an airplane is airworthy for CAT II operations. These acceptable methods are “type design approval,” obtained by a manufacturer or Special Type Certification (STC) holder, or an “operational demonstration,” conducted by the foreign air carrier.

1)    Type Design Approval. The approved AFM (or flight manual supplement), for airplanes that have CAT II type design approval, contains a statement that the airborne systems have demonstrated the reliability and redundancy necessary for CAT II operations in accordance with AC 120-29. AFMs also specify that certain equipment is required for airworthiness approval of the various kinds of CAT II operations. Some AFMs also indicate that acceptable CAT II performance was demonstrated both with, and without, certain equipment (e.g., “autothrottles with or without”). AC 120-29 also specifies that certain types of equipment are required for operational approval of the various kinds of CAT II operations (manual/autopilot). Therefore, both the approved AFM and AC 120-29 must be considered in determining if the additional equipment requirement must be listed (specified) in Table 2 of OpSpec C059. The illustration below shows how the additional or required equipment should be listed in Table 2 of OpSpec C059.
a)    Equipment that is explicitly required by the airplane certification regulations (14 CFR parts 23 and 25, or the foreign equivalent), the operating regulations (14 CFR parts 91 and 129) and/or the approved AFM should not be listed in Table 2. The standard text of C059 requires this equipment to be functional. Therefore, the additional equipment or operational requirement that must be listed (specified) in OpSpec C059 is determined by cross‑checking the type of equipment required by AC 120-29 for the kinds of CAT II operations proposed against the equipment required by regulations and the approved AFM.
b)    Enter into Table 12-6 the additional equipment for the M/M/S and kind(s) of CAT II operations authorized. Do not include equipment explicitly required by regulations and/or the AFM (e.g., autoland for B-747 operations below RVR 1600). Do include additional equipment required in any of the following: AC 120-29, an STC, an Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS), the current edition of Order 8400.13, Procedures for the Evaluation and Approval of Facilities for Special Authorization Category I Operations and All Category II and III Operations.rocedures for the Evaluation and Approval of Facilities for Special Authorization Category I Operations and All Category II and III Operations.
c)    When the AFM indicates acceptable performance either with or without certain items of equipment (which are not explicitly required by AC 120-29), it must be determined how the foreign air carrier intends to conduct CAT II operations and train flightcrews with those items of equipment. If the foreign air carrier proposes to conduct operations either with or without certain items of equipment (such as autothrottle, autopilot), flightcrews must be trained for both situations and the item of equipment does not need to be listed in Table 2 of OpSpec C059.
2)    Operational Demonstration. This method is used when equipment eligibility is not stated in the AFM, the AFMS, or the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report. The operational demonstration method is only appropriate for airplanes and equipment that do not have CAT II type design approval. The operational demonstration must be conducted in accordance with AC 120-29. A part 129 foreign air carrier should request that its responsible Flight Standards District Office (FSDO)/International Field Office (IFO)/International Field Unit (IFU) provide assistance in the eligibility assessment.
a)    The foreign air carrier should provide the responsible FSDO/IFO/IFU with the aircraft make, model, and serial number, any evidence of instrument flight rules (IFR) approach approval, and pertinent information from flightcrew operating procedures.
b)    For U.S.-registered aircraft, if the responsible FSDO/IFO/IFU is unable to determine equipment eligibility from the approved documentation, it should forward the request and supporting data through its FAA regional Flight Standards division (RFSD) to the appropriate Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG). The AEG will verify that the aircraft and its landing system meet the criteria for CAT II operations, and that the system can safely fly the CAT II approach procedures. The AEG will provide written documentation (e.g., amended FSB report or other official documentation) to verify the eligibility of that equipment.
c)    For foreign-registered aircraft, the foreign air carrier should forward the request and supporting data to the appropriate State Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) to verify eligibility of equipment.

E.    Table 2 Guidelines. The kind of CAT II operation (manual head-up display (HUD), and/or autopilot) must be specified for each item of equipment listed in Table 2 of OpSpec C059. The following guidelines should be followed for filling out Table 2:

1)     CAT II equipment required by the regulations or the approved AFM should not be listed.
2)     The required airborne equipment table combines the manual HUD and autopilot columns into one column for programming purposes. The POI will select the appropriate phrase: manual HUD, or autopilot.
3)     If an item of equipment is applicable to a specific airplane’s M/M/S for both manual HUD and autopilot CAT II operations, both manual HUD and autopilot can be highlighted and selected for insertion into the column.
4)     The equipment required for RVR 1000 CAT II authorization is to be listed in the “Additional Equipment” column.
5)     See Table 12-6 below for examples of how the items of equipment should be specified for the kind of CAT II operation.

Table 12-6.    Example of Category II Items of Equipment (Sample Table 2)

Kind of CAT II Operation

Airplane (Make/Model/Series (M/M/S))

Additional Equipment

& Special Provis ions

Manual Head-Up Display (HUD)/

Autopilot

Boeing 767 219

1. Approach coupler and flight director (FD) must be operative.

autopilot

Boeing 757-232

1. An independent FD and display for each pilot (L and R or C and R).

autopilot

Boeing 737-200

None- Approved Flight Manual (AFM) guidance.

Manual Head-Up-Guidance System (HGS) or

autopilot

NIHON YSII A200

Approved Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS) dated 3/26/2003.

autopilot

F.    Airplane Maintenance. For CAT II authorization, the foreign air carrier must have an acceptable LLM maintenance program.

1)     For U.S.-registered airplanes, this LLM maintenance program shall be in accordance with Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 3, and must be approved by the FAA in accordance with § 129.14. This LLM maintenance program should be coordinated with the principal Airworthiness inspectors and PAIs.
2)     For foreign-registered airplanes, this LLM maintenance program shall be approved by the State of Operator.

G.    Flightcrew Qualifications. Flightcrews are trained and checked in accordance with the foreign air carrier’s approved training program for CAT II operations authorized with a DH of 100 ft and RVR 1,000 ft (300 m), and these minimums are approved by the State of Operator. If the flightcrew is currently authorized CAT III operations, no further training is required for this authorization in C059.

H.    Authorized CAT II Approach and Landing Minimums. To determine the applicable minima for an approach, the pilot must first compare the DH shown on the 14 CFR part 97 approach chart with the foreign air carrier’s lowest authorized DH for the airplane being flown. The higher number is used. Then, the RVR to be used for the approach is the highest RVR value shown in the approach chart, Table 1 of the OpSpec or subparagraph g. of the OpSpec, considering RVR sensor reports available.

I.    Authorized CAT II Approaches, Airports, and Runways.

1)     If the airport and runways are approved for CAT II operations in part 97, they should not be routinely listed in OpSpec C059 unless the POI determines there is a need to specify a special limitation for foreign air carriers at a particular airport.
a)    Standard CAT II approaches are published in the National Aeronautical Charting Office (NACO) instrument approach procedures (IAP) flight information publication as CAT II procedures. They are identified by the procedure name “ILS RWY 16C (CAT II)” and by the note in the minima section stating “CATEGORY II ILS – SPECIAL AIRCREW & AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION REQUIRED.”
b)    Reduced lighting CAT II approaches are published by NACO with the same identifiers as standard CAT II approaches, but they also have a note in the Procedure Notes section stating, “Procedure does not meet ICAO standard for Approach Lighting System With ALSF/TDZ/CL lighting systems. Requires specific OPSPEC, MSPEC or LOA approval. Requires Autoland or HUD to touchdown.”
2)    Standard CAT II. The foreign air carriers may be authorized up to three different minima for use with published 14 CFR part 97 approaches, 1600 RVR,1200 RVR, and 1000 RVR. Allowable minima depend on availability of RVR sensors and availability and use of required airplane equipment.
a)    1600 RVR (touchdown zone (TDZ) RVR only) and 1200 RVR (TDZ and one other RVR) minima require the flightcrew to use an approach coupler or to fly under manual control using a HUD for flight guidance at least to DH. A manually flown landing is assumed and need not be specified.
b)    1000 RVR (TDZ RVR and one other RVR) minima requires the flightcrew to use autoland or to fly under manual control using a HUD to touchdown.

1.     For operations to touchdown, the airplane and its automatic flight control guidance system (AFCGS), or manually flown guidance system, are approved for approach and landing operations as specified by AC 120-29.

2.     For manual control using a HUD to touchdown, the HUD must be flown in a CAT III mode.

c)    Foreign air carriers authorized reduced lighting CAT II as described in subparagraph I.3) below may also be authorized to conduct approaches to standard CAT II facilities when the TDZ and/or centerline (CL) lights are inoperative. They must comply with all requirements in subparagraph I.2), using minima appropriate to the RVR available and using autoland or manual HUD to touchdown.
3)    Reduced Lighting CAT II. In addition to the standard CAT II operations authorized by OpSpec C059, reduced lighting CAT II operations can be authorized to qualifying runways that do not meet the performance or equipment requirements normally associated with a compliant CAT II operation (e.g., TDZ lighting, CL lighting, or Approach Lighting System With Sequenced Flashing Lights (ALSF)-1 & 2).
a)    Approval criteria for reduced lighting CAT II approaches are given in FAA Order 8400.13, where they are described as CAT II Approach Operations on Type I ILS facilities. These Type I facilities are CAT I ILS installations that meet the glideslope (GS) and localizer signal quality requirements of CAT II facilities. The reduced lighting requirements are mitigated by the required increase in aircraft capabilities (i.e., HUD and/or autoland).here they are described as CAT II Approach Operations on Type I ILS facilities. These Type I facilities are CAT I ILS installations that meet the glideslope (GS) and localizer signal quality requirements of CAT II facilities. The reduced lighting requirements are mitigated by the required increase in aircraft capabilities (i.e., HUD and/or autoland).
b)    RVR requirements and available minima are the same as standard CAT II, 1600 RVR (TDZ RVR only) and 1200 RVR (TDZ and one other RVR), but these minima require the flightcrew to use autoland or to fly under manual control using a HUD to touchdown.
c)    Aircraft operational approval, HUD usage and flightcrew training requirements are the same as for standard CAT II to 1000 RVR.
4)    The lists restricted U.S. facilities approved for CAT 2-3 operations and U.S. runways approved for CAT II on Type I operations can be found on the Flight Operations Branch (AFS-410) Web site at http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs410/status_lists.

J.    Missed Approach Requirements. The missed approach decision point has been changed from 1,000 feet (ft) above touchdown to the final approach fix (FAF). After passing the FAF, if the required visual landing references are not acquired, and any failure of required equipment occurs, or if the primary guidance system in use (autopilot or HUD) is disengaged for any reason, the flightcrew must execute the missed approach. The exception to this requirement is that if both guidance systems are properly briefed and engaged before reaching the FAF and one system is disengaged or fails after the FAF, the remaining guidance system is considered the primary and the approach may be continued.

K.    CAT II Runway Restrictions. The requirement to conduct automatic landings in reduced lighting and 1000 RVR operations implies that autoland restrictions imposed by pre-threshold terrain must be considered. Approaches that have pre-threshold terrain problems will have a note on the approach chart requiring a special autoland evaluation. Approved runways will be on the AFS-410 Web site.

OPSPEC C060—CATEGORY III INSTRUMENT APPROACH AND LANDING OPERATIONS (OPTIONAL). The FAA evaluates Category (CAT) III operations in accordance with the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 120-28, Criteria for Approval of CAT III Landing Weather Minima for Takeoff, Landing, and Rollout, equivalent European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) criteria, or the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) DOC 9365/AN910, Manual of All Weather Operations. The FAA authorizes CAT III operations by issuing OpSpec C060. Each airplane type make, model, and serial (M/M/S) used in CAT III operations must be listed in OpSpec C060 subparagraph a along with the Decision Height (DH)/Alert Height (AH), lowest Runway Visual Range (RVR) authorized, and runway field length factor for the type of CAT III operation authorized. Foreign air carriers requesting authorization for CAT III at U.S. airports should meet the following criteria.

A.    Acceptable Criteria. Criteria acceptable for use for assessment of foreign air carrier’s applications for CAT III at U.S. airports include AC 120-28, equivalent EASA criteria, or the ICAO Manual of All Weather Operations DOC 9365/AN910. Foreign air carriers previously approved by the FAA in accordance with earlier criteria may continue to apply those earlier criteria. Foreign air carriers seeking credit for operations addressed only by the current edition of AC 120-28 (e.g., CAT III head-up display (HUD) operations) must meet the criteria of this AC, or equivalent criteria acceptable to the FAA, for those applicable provisions.

B.    Foreign Air Carrier Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) Provisions. Unless the FAA authorizes otherwise, aircraft used by foreign air carriers for CAT III within the United States should have AFM provisions reflecting an appropriate level of CAT III capability as demonstrated to or authorized by the FAA, or demonstrated to or authorized by a civil aviation authority (CAA) recognized by the FAA, as having acceptable equivalent CAT III airworthiness criteria (e.g., EASA, Canada Minister of Transportation (MOT), UK CAA).

C.    Foreign Air Carrier CAT III Demonstrations. Foreign air carriers meeting FAA criteria, or criteria acceptable to the FAA (e.g., EASA, ICAO criteria including Doc. 9365/AN910), and having more than 6 months experience in the use of CAT III operations with the applicable aircraft type may be approved for CAT III in accordance with the provisions of their own CAA, or in accordance with the standard provisions of OpSpec C060, whichever is the more restrictive. The FAA does not require a separate demonstration period if the foreign air carrier’s CAA does not require it. However, foreign air carriers authorized in accordance with this provision may nonetheless be subject to additional FAA demonstration for special situations, such as at airports with irregular underlying terrain (see subparagraph D below), or for aircraft types not having flown to U.S. facilities having CAT III procedures. For foreign air carriers having current U.S. CAT III authorization, the CAT III demonstration period may be reduced or waived for the addition of a new type aircraft to the existing CAT III authority. The demonstration period may be reduced or waived to the extent that the FAA has accepted a successful demonstration for that aircraft type for any other U.S. or foreign air carrier. Foreign air carriers not meeting the above provisions may be subject to the demonstration described in paragraphs 10.5.2 and 10.9 of the current edition of AC 120-28 (equivalent to those necessary for U.S. operators) as the FAA determines applicable.

D.    Issuance of 14 CFR Part 129 OpSpecs. If a foreign air carrier operating to U.S. airports meets the above applicable provisions, the FAA authorizes that air carrier for CAT III by issuing OpSpec C060. Air Carriers intending CAT III operations at U.S.-designated irregular terrain airports, or airports otherwise requiring special assessments, mustsuccessfully complete those assessments before using those facilities.

E.    Use of Certain Restricted U.S. Facilities.

1)    Foreign air carriers typically use CAT III procedures in the United States that are available as unrestricted public use procedures. However, the FAA may also authorize certain restricted public use procedures and special CAT III approach procedures for non-U.S. operators. Typically, these procedures require special airborne equipment capability, special training, or nonstandard facility and obstacle assessments. The CAT II/III status checklist identifies these special procedures. They are not usually published as a 14 CFR part 97 CAT III Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP). Foreign air carriers may be eligible to use certain of these procedures if they meet the same special criteria as would apply to a U.S. operator, and if their own CAA approves them specifically for the use of the procedure. Some procedures may not be eligible for foreign air carriers because of other applicable restrictions such as a restriction placed on private facility use. Special or restricted procedures require both FAA authorization and specific authorization from the foreign air carrier’s CAA for each procedure. This is to ensure that both the operator and foreign CAA are aware of the special provisions needed, and to ensure equivalent safety to use of standard ICAO criteria. Each foreign air carrier seeking CAT III procedure authorization at a facility not published as a standard and unrestricted CAT III SIAP, or at any other facilities that the FAA CAT II/III status checklist identifies as special or restricted, and that carrier’s CAA must:
a)    Be aware of the restrictions applicable to the procedure (e.g., facility status),
b)    Provide evidence to FAA of the CAA’s approval of the foreign air carrier for each special procedure requested, and
c)    Must have the applicable limitations and conditions included in that air carrier’s OpSpecs for each procedure to be used.
2)    Foreign air carriers shall not normally be authorized special CAT III operations to minima lower than those specified in part 97 CAT III SIAPs consistent with ICAO criteria. If special instrument approach procedures (IAP) other than those specified in part 97 are authorized, paragraph C381 shall also be issued.

F.    Type of CAT III Operation. The type of CAT III landing system and rollout control system (fail-passive and/or fail-operational) must be specified for each airplane type in OpSpec C060, Table 1. This is accomplished by selecting the type of operation from the select data screen in the automated Operations Safety System (OPSS). Selections available are NA=Not applicable; FP=Fail Passive, or FO=Fail Operational.

G.    DH/AH and Lowest RVR. In Table 1, enter the DH/AH and lowest authorized RVR that the State of Operator has authorized for each airplane M/M/S and type of CAT III operation.

H.    Field Length Factor Required. Runway field length factor is used in determining the required runway field length for CAT III operations and is multiplied times the runway field length required by State of Operator performance regulations or ICAO Annex 6 performance requirements, whichever are more restrictive.

1)     OpSpec C060 Table 1 must specify the runway field length factor required for the various kinds of CAT III operations for each airplane. For operations with a controlling RVR at or above 600 feet (ft) the required field length is 1.15 times the field length required by the previously cited regulations, or AFM as appropriate.
2)     For a precision instrument approach and landing with a controlling RVR below 600 ft, the required field length is either 1.15 or 1.3 times the field length required by the previously cited regulations depending on the operational procedures and/or additional equipment the operator uses or AFM, as appropriate.

I.    Special Operational Equipment and Limitations. OpSpec C060 subparagraph a Table 1 should not list equipment that the airplane certification regulations (14 CFR parts 23 and 25 or foreign equivalent if foreign-registered), the operating regulations of 14 CFR, and/or the approved AFM explicitly require. The “Special Operational Equipment and Limitations” column is provided for equipment that is in addition to that required by regulation and not included in the AFM. For example, additional equipment may be required if a field length factor of 1.15 is used in operations below RVR 600 where a procedural means alone is not acceptable (see AC 120-28). For foreign air carriers that have CAT III approval, copy the airplane M/M/S, rollout control system (e.g., FP or FO), the DH/AH, and lowest authorized RVR for each rollout control system into Table 1. Determine the field length factor as described above (e.g., 1.3 or 1.15) and copy special operational equipment and limitations noted in the air carrier’s current OpSpec C060, if any, and insert that information into Table 1 of the new OpSpec. If the operator does not need special operational equipment, put “NA” under the appropriate column. Do not delete or leave any cells blank.

NOTE:  Only include that equipment which is not explicitly required by the regulations and/or the Airplane Flight Manual.

J.    Authorized CAT III Airports and Runways.

1)     All airports and runways to which a foreign air carrier is authorized to conduct CAT III instrument approach and landing operations need to be entered in Table 2, along with any required limitations.
2)    CAT II/III status lists. The lists contain information concerning U.S. airports/runways approved for CAT II and CAT III instrument landing system (ILS) operations. The CAT II/III status list will be published semi‑annually on January 31 and July 31. The CAT III lists in Sections 3, 4, and 7 replace the information in FAA Order 8400.8, Procedures for the Approval of Facilities for FAR Part 121 and Part 135 Cat III Operations, appendix 4.

OPSPEC C063. Please refer to Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 4.

OPSPEC C064. DECOMMISSIONED.

OPSPEC C065—POWERBACK OPERATIONS WITH AIRPLANES (OPTIONAL). OpSpec C065 authorizes the use of powerplant reversing systems for rearward taxi operations. Before issuing OpSpec C065, the foreign air carrier must provide documentation to enable the principal operations inspector (POI) to determine whether the carrier has established procedures for powerback operations that its civil aviation authority (CAA) has accepted/approved. Airplane types make, model, and series (M/M/S) authorized for powerback operations must be listed in OpSpec C065. Airports where powerback operations are authorized must also be listed. If the POI and/or foreign air carrier determine that restrictions to powerback operations are required at certain gates or ramp areas, the restrictions must be described (adjacent to the airport name) in the “Restrictions and Limitations” column.

OPSPEC C067—SPECIAL AUTHORIZATIONS, PROVISIONS, AND LIMITATIONS FOR CERTAIN AIRPORTS (required for all foreign air carriers).

A.    General. OpSpec C067 authorizes and limits the foreign air carrier’s operation of airplanes into certain airports. These authorizations and limitations include the following types of operations:

·    Foreign air carriers conducting certain passenger-carrying operations into uncertificated airports (see subparagraph C),

·    Foreign air carriers conducting operations at airports that require curfew limitations for flights into or out of specific airports (see subparagraph D),

·    Foreign air carriers conducting operations into airports that because of operational considerations may require special aircraft performance charts and equipment, special lighting (flare pots, etc.), or unpaved runways (see subparagraph D),and

·    Foreign air carriers conducting operations using the Reginald Bennett International (RBI) Runway Reflectorization System in Alaska (see subparagraph D2).

B.    Authorizations Where Other OpSpecs Are Applicable.

1)    OpSpec C050 for “special PIC qualification airports” is applicable for the airport if contained on the List of Special Pilot In Command Qualifications Airports at the Flight Standards Information Management System (FSIMS) http://fsims.avs.faa.gov, Publications, Operations Safety System (OPSS) Documents, Operations Safety System (OPSS) Guidance. Do not list those airports in OpSpec C067 unless one of the items in subparagraph A also applies.
2)     Use OpSpec C381 for listing the airports/runways where the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400) has approved specific “special” instrument procedures for a foreign air carrier.
3)     OpSpec C064 and C080 are applicable for authorizing a foreign air carrier to conduct airplane operations in airport terminal areas in Class G airspace or at airports without an operating control tower.

C.    Uncertificated Airports. Title 49 of the United States Code (49 U.S.C.) § 44706, and 14 CFR part 121, § 121.590 impose restrictions on U.S. carriers operating certain types of passenger-carrying operations into U.S. land airports that are not certified under 14 CFR part 139 and allow for authorization for such operations by the FAA. OpSpec C067 imposes the same restrictions for foreign air carriers operating to U.S. land airports under 14 CFR part 129 and makes allowances for certain authorizations.

1)    Limitations on the use of uncertificated U.S. land airports by passenger-carrying airplanes in OpSpec C067 are designed to mirror the requirements of § 121.590.
2)    In accordance with the requirements of OpSpec C067, a foreign air carrier may be authorized to conduct passenger-carrying airplane operations into an airport (military and nonmilitary) operated by the U.S. Government that is not certificated under part 139 if those airports to be used meet:

·    The equivalent safety standards for airports certificated under part 139, and

·    The equivalent airport classification requirements under part 139 to serve the type of airplanes to be operated and the type of operations to be conducted.

3)     Inspectors may grant authorization to serve such airports by entering the location/identifier of each airport, and the make, model, and series (M/M/S) of the airplanes to be operated in Table 1, provided the State of Operator civil aviation authority (CAA) has also approved/accepted the operation.
4)     Operators should obtain permission from the airport manager of nonmilitary airports and the base commander of military airports to operate at these airports before starting operations.
5)     This permission is not needed for operations at joint-use civil and military airports.

D.    Other Special Authorizations.

1)     Other special authorizations, limitations, and provisions include those operations that would require special operational considerations and special flightcrew member training if operations were conducted by a U.S. carrier. (See guidance in Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5.) Each of these operations must also be approved/accepted by the State of Operator CAA. These may include but are not limited to:

·    Operations into airports with special runway markings, such as flare pots or trees;

·    High altitude airports with special airplane performance requirements; and

·    Airports with unpaved runways or runways constructed on frozen lakes and rivers.

2)     Special authorization for conducting operations at airports in Alaska. For authorization to conduct airplane operations using the RBI Runway Reflectorization System in Alaska:
a)    The air carrier must provide a station agent at the airport trained to give wind information to the flightcrew, and
b)    The air carrier must train its flightcrews on this specific system in accordance with an approved training program. The training program must be approved in accordance with the following criteria:

1.     Each pilot must receive initial and recurrent training in accordance with their company’s training program approved by the State of Operator’s CAA.

2.     Each person must complete initial training (both ground and flight personnel) prior to his or her participation with this authorization.

3.     Recurrent training must be completed within each subsequent 12 calendar-months.

4.     Whenever a person who is required to take this recurrent training completes the training in the calendar-month before or the calendar-month after the month in which this recurrent training is required, that person is considered to have completed it in the calendar-month in which it was required.

5.     The sample Table 1 (Table 12-7, Sample of Table 1 Airports and Special Provisions) shows how to provide authorization for conducting operations after curfew hours at specific airports or use of the RBI Runway Reflectorization system at specific airports in Table 1 of OpSpec C067.

3)     Foreign air carrier turbojet operations on unpaved runways. Airports with unpaved runways shall be required to have special operational procedures and flightcrew member training approved/accepted as appropriate by the State of Operator CAA. For authorization of operations at an airport with unpaved runways, the principal operations inspector (POI) must identify the airport and reference the appropriate section of the foreign air carrier’s manuals in Table 1 of OpSpec C067.
4)     Foreign air carrier operations to U.S. airports that do not have an available alternate in accordance with Annex 6, Part I, Paragraph 4.3.4.3 (b) that are dispatched in accordance with the required fuel reserves set forth in Annex 6, Part I, Paragraph 4.3.6.3.2 (b), shall be listed along with any special provisions or limitations, including those imposed by the foreign CAA.
5)     Although the FAA does not encourage operators to list in their OpSpecs aircraft limitations at certain airports during curfew hours, if an airport authority requires operators to list these limitations in their OpSpecs, then operators may list them in Table 1 of OpSpec C067. A sample of Table 1 (Table 12-7) below shows an example of limitations for air carrier operations into specific airports during curfew hours.

Table 12-7.    Sample of Table 1 Airports and Special Provisions

Airport Location/Identifier

Aircraft Make, Model, and Series (M/M/S)

(enter “NA” if not applicable)

Special Provisions and Limitations and Special Flightcrew Member Training

PKEK, Ekwok, Alaska

NA

A station agent is required to give wind information to the flightcrews and the flightcrew must have completed the required approved training on the Reginald Bennett International (RBI) Runway Reflectorization System.

DCA, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport

Boeing 737-800

Limitations during the curfew hours.

Boeing 737-800—Max Takeoff—159,000 pounds

Max Landing—137,600 pounds.

OPSPECC068—NOISE ABATEMENT DEPARTURE PROFILES (NADP)(OPTIONAL).

A.    The Intent of OpSpec C068. OpSpec C068 authorizes foreign air carriers to conduct Noise Abatement Departure Profile (NADP) operations in accordance with the provisions of OpSpec C068 and the procedures in the foreign air carrier’s manuals that its civil aviation authority (CAA) has accepted/approved. The foreign air carrier shall use the approved NADPs for its turbojet airplanes, having a maximum certificated gross takeoff weight (GTOW)of more than 75,000 pounds, operating from a noise-sensitive airport within the United States. The foreign air carrier shall conduct each NADP in accordance with the restrictions and limitations specified in OpSpec C068 and shall not conduct any other noise abatement departure profile operations.

1)     For the purpose of these OpSpecs, the NADPs for any airplane type at any one time shall be limited to a maximum of two profiles:

·    Close-In NADP operations, and/or

·    Distant NADP operations.

2)     Only one NADP can be designated for each runway at each airport. The foreign air carrier’s NADPs must meet the following criteria:
a)    For each NADP, the foreign air carrier shall specify the altitude above field elevation (AFE) at which flightcrews will initiate thrust reduction from takeoff thrust (close-in profile) or airplane configuration change (distant profile), excluding gear retraction.
b)    Close-In NADP. The foreign air carrier shall use the following NADP criteria for individual airplane types intended to provide noise reduction for noise-sensitive areas located in close proximity to the departure end of the runway:

1.     Initiate thrust cutback at an altitude of no less than 800 feet (ft) AFE and prior to initiation of flaps or slats retraction.

2.     The thrust cutback may be made by manual throttle reduction or by approved automatic means. Flightcrews may arm the automatic means before takeoff for cutback at or above 800 ft AFE or may be pilot initiated at or above 800 ft AFE.

3.     For airplanes without an operational automatic thrust restoration system, achieve and maintain no less than the thrust level necessary after thrust reduction to maintain, for the flaps/slats configuration of the airplane, the takeoff path engine-inoperative climb gradients specified in 14 CFR part 25, § 25.111(c)(3) in the event of an engine failure.

4.     For airplanes with an operational automatic thrust restoration system, achieve and maintain no less than the thrust level necessary after thrust reduction to maintain, for the flaps/slats configuration of the airplane, a takeoff path engine-inoperative climb gradient of zero percent, provided that the automatic thrust restoration system will, at a minimum, restore sufficient thrust to maintain the takeoff path engine-inoperative climb gradients that § 25.111(c)(3) specifies in the event of an engine failure.

5.     During the thrust reduction, coordinate the pitchover rate and thrust reduction to provide a decrease in pitch consistent with allowing indicated airspeed to decay to no more than 5 knots below the all-engine target climb speed, and in no case to less than takeoff safety speed (multi) (V2) for the airplane configuration. For automated throttle systems, acceptable speed tolerances can be found in the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 25-15, Approval of Flight Management Systems in Transport Category Airplanes.

6.     Maintain the speed and thrust criteria as described in steps A2)b)3 through A2)b)5 to 3,000 ft AFE or above, or until the airplane has been fully transitioned to the en route climb configuration (whichever occurs first), then transition to normal en route climb procedures.

c)    Distant NADP. The foreign air carrier shall use the following NADP criteria for individual airplane types intended to provide noise reduction for all other noise sensitive areas.

1.     Initiate flaps/slats retraction prior to thrust cutback initiation. Flightcrews should initiate thrust cutback at an altitude no less than 800 ft AFE.

2.     Flightcrews may make the thrust cutback by manual throttle reduction or by approved automatic means. Flightcrews may arm the automatic means prior to takeoff for cutback at or above 800 ft AFE or the flightcrew may initiate it at or above 800 ft AFE.

3.     For airplanes without an operational automatic thrust restoration system, achieve and maintain no less than the thrust level necessary after thrust reduction to maintain, for the flaps/slats configuration of the airplane, the takeoff path engine-inoperative climb gradients specified in § 25.111(c)(3) in the event of an engine failure.

4.     For airplanes with an operational automatic thrust restoration system, achieve and maintain no less than the thrust level necessary after thrust reduction to maintain, for the flaps/slats configuration of the airplane, a takeoff path engine-inoperative climb gradient of zero percent, provided that the automatic thrust restoration system will, at a minimum, restore sufficient thrust to maintain the takeoff path engine-inoperative climb gradients specified in § 25.111(c)(3) in the event of an engine failure.

5.     During the thrust reduction, coordinate the pitchover rate and thrust reduction to provide a decrease in pitch consistent with allowing indicated airspeed to decay to no more than five knots below the all-engine target climb speed, and in no case to less than V2 for the airplane configuration. For automatic throttle systems, acceptable speed tolerances can be found in AC 25-15.

6.     Maintain the speed and thrust criteria as described in steps A2)c)3 through A2)c)5 to 3,000 ft AFE or above, or until the airplane has been fully transitioned to the en route climb configuration (whichever occurs first), then transition to normal en route climb procedures.

B.    Airplane Vertical Departure Profiles. Before authorizing this paragraph, the POI must ensure that all airplane vertical departure profiles described in the certificate holder’s operations and/or training manuals comply with the above criteria before authorizing OpSpec C068 for the foreign air carrier.

NOTE:  Configuration changes necessary to meet regulatory performance or operations requirements shall not be affected by this procedure. For those airplanes that have a performance requirement to reduce takeoff flaps to an intermediate takeoff flap setting at 400 ft AFE or above, the next flap/slats retraction should be initiated at an altitude of no less than 800 ft AFE.

OPSPEC C069-C074. RESERVED.

OPSPEC C075—CIRCLING MANEUVERS AND/OR CONTACT APPROACHES AT U.S. AIRPORTS (OPTIONAL).

A.    Issuing OpSpec C075. The FAA issues OpSpec C075 to foreign air carriers with fixed-wing airplanes who conduct either circling maneuvers, contact approaches, or both (circling maneuvers and contact approaches). OpSpec C075 specifies the lowest minimums that can be used.

NOTE:  Do not issue OpSpec C075 if the foreign air carrier is not authorized for either the circling maneuver or contact approach.

B.    Before Issuing OpSpec C075. The foreign air carrier must submit documentation showing that their crewmember training program approved by their Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) provides the appropriate training and checking, and that the CAA authorized the maneuver and/or approach.

C.    Drafting OpSpec C075. Within the OpSpec there are two sets of selectable static text for circling maneuvers and contact approaches (one for each when authorized, and one for each when not authorized). The inspector must select the appropriate text based on what the air carrier is authorized. For example, if the air carrier is authorized for circling maneuvers and not for contact approaches, then select the text that states the limitations of circling maneuvers and the “not authorized” text for contact approaches.

D.    Circling Maneuvers Terminology. In any weather condition, a foreign air carrier that permits its pilots to accept a “circle to land” or a “circle to runway (runway number)” clearance from air traffic control (ATC) conducts circle-to-land maneuvers. The term “circle-to-land maneuver” includes the maneuver that is referenced in various regulations, publications, and documents as “circle-to-land maneuver,” “circling,” “circling maneuver,” “circle,” “circling approach,” and “circling approach maneuver.” With regard to pilots, conducting a circle-to-land maneuver means to act as the Pilot Flying (PF) when a circle-to-land maneuver is being conducted.

E.    Aircraft Operating Under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) During All Circle-To-Land Maneuvers. Aircraft operating under IFR during all circle-to-land maneuvers are required to remain clear of clouds. If a flightcrew loses visual reference to the airport while conducting a circle-to-land maneuver, they must follow the missed approach procedure specified for the applicable instrument approach, unless ATC specifies an alternate missed approach procedure.

F.    Circling Landing Maneuver. When the ceiling is less than 1,000 feet and visibility is less than 3 statute miles, then the foreign air carrier shall not use any circling landing minimum lower than that prescribed for the applicable published instrument approach to be used.

NOTE:  This does not authorize the pilots to go below the lowest minimum authorized by the State of Operator.

G.    Pilots Restricted to Circling in Visual Conditions. Any pilot who possesses a pilot certificate restricting circling approaches to visual meteorological conditions (VMC) is not eligible to conduct circle-to-land maneuvers except as provided below:

1)     He or she must use the higher of the minimum descent altitude (MDA) of 1,000 feet height above airport (HAA) or the MDA of the published circling landing minimums for the instrument approach to be used.
2)     He or she remains under an IFR clearance and must comply with the procedures otherwise required for circle-to-land maneuvers. The foreign air carrier may conduct a circle-to-land maneuver when the reported ceiling is at least 1,000 feet and the visibility is at least 3 miles, or the reported weather is at least equal to the published circling landing minimums for the instrument approach to be used, whichever is higher.

NOTE:  Foreign air carriers conducting circle to land maneuvers without training and checking are subject to the same provisions as pilots restricted to circling in visual conditions.

H.    Contact Approach Criteria. The Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) of the United States provides further guidance on foreign operators operating contact approaches in the United States. See Part 2—En Route (ENR), ENR 1.1, paragraph 42.3 and ENR 1.5, paragraph 23 of the AIP of the United States, located at the following Web site: http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/atpubs/AIP/aip.pdf.

OPSPEC C076. Decommissioned.

OPSPEC C077—TERMINAL FLIGHT RULES LIMITATIONS AND PROVISIONS (required for all carriers conducting IFR operations).

A.    To Whom OpSpec C077 is Issued. The FAA issues OpSpec C077 to all foreign air carriers operating turbojet and large airplanes to the United States. Except as provided within OpSpec C077, it restricts all operations to those conducted to instrument flight rules (IFR) except in accordance with the provisions of 14 CFR part 93, Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 50-2, SFAR 71, or OpSpec B051, if issued. OpSpec C077 allows the foreign air carrier to conduct the following operations in the terminal area with the restrictions and limitations listed therein:

1)     Terminal arrival IFR—visual approach or a charted visual flight procedure (CVFP).
2)     Terminal arrival visual flight rules (VFR).
3)     Terminal departures VFR.
4)     Terminal departures IFR.

B.    CVFP. For a foreign air carrier conducting a CVFP, the weather minimums of 14 CFR part 91 prevail except that the carrier shall not use minimums lower than those established in the CVFP.

C.    OpSpec C077 Subparagraph b(2)(b)—Uncontrolled Airports. Uncontrolled airports may be in Class G airspace. In order for the foreign air carrier to exercise this provision, OpSpecs C064 and/or C080 must also be issued allowing operation at airports without an operating control tower and/or operation in Class G airspace.

D.    OpSpec C077 Subparagraph b(3). In lieu of a CVFP, a charted visual procedure that the air carrier’s civil aviation authority (CAA) approved is highly recommended for all terminal VFR departures/arrivals that fall under this OpSpec. The proximity of obstacles to the departure flightpath, the seeing conditions, the accuracy of the guidance and control systems, the pilot’s proficiency, and the foreign air carrier’s training should determine the size of the area in which obstacle clearance or avoidance must be considered.

E.    OpSpec C077 Subparagraph c(3). This subparagraph contains a requirement to obtain an IFR clearance no farther than 50 nautical miles (NM) from the departure airport. However, it is recognized that this procedure may not be practical in all situations. If a greater distance is necessary, the foreign air carrier may apply for a nonstandard paragraph. If OpSpec B051 is issued for VFR en route operations, then for propeller-driven aircraft, except for certain en route VFR provisions in part 93, SFAR 50-2, or SFAR 71, the flightcrew may depart VFR under the provision of OpSpec C077 subparagraph c, and the requirement to obtain an IFR clearance en route does not apply.

F.    Terminal Departure IFR Requirements in Subparagraph d. If air traffic control (ATC) clears the flight, it is acceptable to execute a visual meteorological conditions (VMC) takeoff and climb to a specified point in the clearance as part of an IFR clearance. However, the foreign air carrier must ensure that the obstacle performance requirements are met. Further, the flight must not depart on a VFR flight plan if the capability to go on an IFR flight plan is evident.

G.    Subparagraph e. Subparagraph e provides special limitations and provisions for all VFR operations. This subparagraph is applicable to all the provisions and limitations of OpSpec C077.

1)    Subparagraph e(1). In order for the foreign air carrier to conduct VFR operations under OpSpec C077, they must have in place either a procedure or program that can identify obstacles and the airport obstacle data. Further, they must ensure that the flightcrew use that information. The POI shall request documentation from the foreign air carrier that this program is in place and that the air carrier’s CAA has approved VFR terminal operations.
2)    OpSpec C077, Subparagraph e(2). Although each subparagraph has specific details and minimums regarding VFR, the requirement for sufficient seeing conditions to identify and avoid obstacles is required for all VFR operations.

OPSPEC C078. RESERVED.

OPSPEC C080—TERMINAL AREA IFR OPERATIONS IN CLASS G AIRSPACE AND AT AIRPORTS WITHOUT AN OPERATING CONTROL TOWER (OPTIONAL). The FAA issues OpSpec C080 to authorize a foreign air carrier to conduct terminal area airplane instrument flight rules (IFR) operations in Class G airspace or at airports without an operating control tower.

A.    Before Authorizing OpSpec C080. Before authorizing OpSpec C080, the principal operations inspector (POI) must determine that the foreign air carrier’s civil aviation authority (CAA) has authorized/approved it for these types of operations. The foreign air carrier must provide documentation to the POI showing that they have the required methods or procedures and arrangements in place for obtaining and disseminating necessary operational information and that their CAA has accepted/approved them. This operational information must include the following:

1)     That the airport is served by an authorized instrument approach procedure (IAP) (and departure procedure, when applicable).
2)     Applicable charts for crewmember use.
3)     Operational weather data from an approved source for control of flight movements and crewmember use. (For a list of examples, see Volume 3, Chapter 26, Section 4. Note that the examples contained therein are not all inclusive.)
4)     Status of airport services and facilities at the time of the operation.
5)     Suitable means for pilots to obtain traffic advisories (TA).
6)     Sources of traffic and airport advisories.
7)     Scheduled passenger operations. The POI must select the optional text for scheduled operations. The optional text specifies the following additional requirement: would it not have been for weather, or mechanical or air traffic control (ATC) delays, the flight would have arrived at the scheduled time and the airspace would have been Class D.

B.    Sources of Traffic and Airport Advisories. Foreign air carriers may be authorized to use any two-way radio source of air TA information listed in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) (for operations in U.S. airspace) or equivalent Aeronautical Information Publications (AIP).

1)     These sources include common traffic advisory frequencies (CTAF), Aeronautical Advisory Stations (UNICOM), Multicom, and Flight Service Stations (FSS).
2)     In those cases where two sources are listed at the same airport, inspectors must ensure that the foreign air carrier’s manuals have procedures that require pilots to continuously monitor and use the TA frequency when operating within 10 nautical miles (NM) of the airport. The procedures should require communication concerning airport services and facilities to be completed while more than 10 NM from the airport.
3)     At some airports, no public use frequencies may be available. In those cases, a foreign air carrier must arrange for radio communication of essential information, including surveillance of local or transient aircraft operations by ground personnel. Ground personnel who provide airport status and TA reports using a company radio must be able to view airspace around the airport.

OPSPEC C381. RESERVED.

OPSPEC C083—IASA CATEGORY 2 SPECIAL OPERATIONAL RESTRICTIONS—SCHEDULED AND NON-SCHEDULED OPERATIONS, ADDITIONAL AIRCRAFT AND SPECIAL AUTHORIZATIONS (required for all carriers from International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) CAT II countries).

A.    General. OpSpec C083 shall be issued to any foreign air carrier conducting operations to the United States under 14 CFR part 129, when the FAA determines under the international aviation safety assessment program (IASA) that the State of Operator does not oversee civil aviation safety in accordance with minimum international standards. Such countries are placed in IASA Category 2. Foreign air carriers with existing operations to the United States will be permitted to continue operations at current levels under heightened FAA surveillance. The FAA does not permit expansion or changes in services to the United States by such carriers while their home country is in Category 2 status. The FAA will permit new services only if operated using aircraft wet-leased from a duly authorized and properly supervised U.S. carrier or a foreign air carrier from a Category 1 country that is authorized to serve the United States using its own aircraft under part 129. Those operations are not restricted by this OpSpec. Issuance of OpSpec C083 shall be coordinated with the International Programs and Policy Division (AFS-50). If no operations were conducted to the United States in the 6 calendar-months prior to the month in which their home country was determined to be Category 2, the responsible FSDO/IFO/IFU should begin the process of withdrawing the carrier’s part 129 OpSpecs instead of issuing this paragraph. That process should only begin after consultation with AFS-50.

B.    Scheduled Operations. In order to maintain operations at current levels for these carriers, each foreign airport from which the foreign air carrier provides scheduled service to the United States shall be listed in OpSpec C083 subparagraph a. The foreign air carrier must have provided scheduled service to the listed city pairs either at the time their home country was determined to be Category 2, or during the 6 calendar-months prior to the month their home country was determined to be Category 2. The foreign air carrier shall also be limited to the frequency operated to those city pairs during the 6 calendar-months prior to the CAT 2 determination. OpSpec C083 limits the foreign air carrier’s scheduled operations to the United States to those city pairs and frequency. If the carrier’s home country once again obtains IASA Category 1 status, this OpSpec will be withdrawn.

C.    Nonscheduled Operations. When a foreign air carrier’s home country is determined to be in IASA Category 2, the FAA restricts the foreign air carrier’s nonscheduled operations to the geographic areas to which operations were conducted and frequency of operation during the 6 calendar-months prior to the Category 2 determination. Each U.S. geographic area to which the foreign air carrier provides nonscheduled service to the United States and the frequency of that nonscheduled service over the preceding 6 months shall be listed in the table in subparagraph b. If the carrier’s home country once again obtains IASA Category 1 status, this OpSpec will be withdrawn. The applicable geographic areas are only those that also are listed in OpSpec A001. To list the areas of geographic authorization, accomplish the following:

1)     First, obtain the “list of areas of en route operation.” The Web-based Operations Safety System (WebOPSS) guidance subsystem contains detailed information on geographical areas. The areas authorized for issuance to a foreign air carrier in 129 OpSpecs are:

·    USA—The 48 Contiguous United States and the District of Columbia,

·    USA—The State of Alaska,

·    USA—The State of Alaska; the Following Islands [insert],

·    USA—The State of Hawaii,

·    USA—The State of Hawaii; the Following Islands [insert],

·    USA—The States of [insert], and

·    USA—The Territory of [insert].

2)     Then select the individual areas of en route operations to be authorized.
a)    Certain selections have blank spaces, which when selected must be completed. These selections should normally be used only when the operation is to be limited to certain states, or islands within a larger geographic area. For example, a foreign air carrier may have its nonscheduled operations limited to Hawaii and other specific island(s) and territories within the region of the South Pacific Ocean, such as Guam and Samoa, if that carrier provided nonscheduled service to the area during the prior 6 months. While these types of selections provide two or three blank spaces, as many states or islands as appropriate can be entered.
b)    If the standard phraseology for a particular selection is not appropriate, the principal operations inspector (POI) may develop an appropriate description of the area to be authorized. In these cases, the POI) can delete the standard phraseology and insert the nonstandard description of the geographic area.

Figure 12-3.    Example Listing of Restrictions for a Foreign Air Carrier

A. Scheduled Operations. The foreign air carrier shall only conduct scheduled operations to and from the United States between the specific city pairs listed in this paragraph.

UNITED STATES CITY

FOREIGN COUNTRY CITY

FREQUENCY

PANC Anchorage, Alaska

XXXX anywhere city

Twice per week

B. Nonscheduled Operations. The foreign air carrier’s nonscheduled operations to and from the United States is restricted to the U.S. geographic area and frequency listed in this paragraph.

UNITED STATES GEOGRAPHIC AREA

FREQUENCY

USA—The 48 Contiguous United States and the District of Columbia

6 flights per year

D.    Additional Aircraft. On or after the date their home country was determined to be CAT 2, no additional aircraft (including substitution of aircraft) may be added to the carrier’s OpSpecs, except through the issuance of OpSpec A028 allowing aircraft wet-leased from a duly authorized and properly supervised U.S. carrier or foreign air carrier from a CAT 1 country that is authorized to serve the United States using its own aircraft.

E.    Special Authorizations. On or after the date their home country was determined to be CAT 2, no additional special authorizations such as Category (CAT) II/III, instrument landing system (ILS)/precision runway monitor (PRM), land-and-hold-short operations (LAHSO), Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM), etc., that require approval, acceptance or authorization by the foreign air carrier’s Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), shall be authorized in these OpSpecs, unless such authorizations are necessary in the interest of safety, and shall be issued only with the concurrence, in writing, of AFS-50. Any existing special authorizations such as CAT II/III, ILS/PRM, LAHSO, RVSM, etc., that require an initial approval, acceptance, or authorization and continuing oversight by the foreign air carrier’s CAA, shall be reviewed to determine that adequate oversight by the foreign air carrier’s CAA is occurring on a continuous basis. If it is determined that such adequate oversight by the foreign air carrier’s CAA is not occurring on a continuous basis, the responsible FSDO/IFO/IFU should consider withdrawing those special authorizations from the foreign air carrier’s OpSpecs. That withdrawal process should be initiated only after consultation with and clearance by AFS-50.

NOTE:  Additional information on the FAA’s IASA program, including a country’s IASA category, can be obtained on the FAA Web site at http://www.faa.gov/about/initiatives/iasa/.

OPSPEC C084-C090. RESERVED.

Indicates new/changed information.

OPSPEC C091, OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS AIRPLANE DESIGN GROUP VI, (ICAO
GROUP F), (OPTIONAL).

A.    Applicability. OpSpec C091 must be issued to foreign air carriers who conduct takeoff and landing operations using Airplane Design Group VI (ADG-VI), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Group F, within the United States on runways as narrow as 150 feet (45 meters) wide.

B.    Operational Requirements. OpSpec C091 specifies the runway width, Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ), and other airport requirements for these aircraft. ADG-VI are airplanes with a wingspan from 214 feet (65 meters) up to 262 feet (80 meters). It closely parallels ICAO Group F criteria. However, where the ICAO Code designation is also dependent on main gear track width, the FAA criteria is dependent on the wingspan of the aircraft and tail height. The current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 150/5300-13, Airport Design, establishes airport requirements for the different airplane design groups including runway width requirements, taxiway width requirements, OFZ dimensions, and other airport considerations. Historically, the FAA has authorized deviations from these established design standards on an air-carrier-by-air-carrier basis after evaluating the specific air carrier’s operational procedures and flightcrew training program and standards. Operational limitations were typically part of the air carrier’s operational authorization to operate as per the specific deviation granted to the air carrier.

NOTE:  In order to allow ADG-VI aircraft operations on existing infrastructure, U.S. Airplane Design Group V (ADG-V) airports accepting scheduled service of ADG-VI aircraft are required to undergo a special modification of standards (MoS) evaluation. The MoS evaluation applies to those portions of the airport that do not comply with ADG-VI standards. FAA issues approved MoSs for those portions of the airport deemed safe for ADG-VI operations. In many cases, approved MoSs include operational limitations to the ADG-VI airplane or the airport operation or both.

C.    Foreign Air Carrier and Principal Operation Inspector (POI) Actions. Prior to initiating service to any ADG-V/ICAO Group F airport with an aircraft designed for ADG-VI/ICAO Group F, the air carrier must supply the POI with the following:

·    State of the Operator authorization;

·    Evidence that the requirements of OpSpec C091 were met for the proposed runway(s) of operations at those airports including potential alternates;

·    For destination airports, U.S. airport MoS approval for that make and model (e.g., A-380 or
B-747-8); and

·    For alternate airports, the process the operator used to evaluate the airport to ensure it could accommodate the aircraft.

1)    It is the air carrier’s responsibility to confirm that they can comply with the requirements of OpSpec C091 and to supply the POI sufficient documentation to verify their compliance. The air carrier is responsible for any necessary coordination and letters of understanding with applicable air traffic control (ATC) facilities and the airport operators to meet the requirements of OpSpec C091. For example, taxi routes to be used and procedures to follow applicable to the specific foreign air carrier shall be established in a written Taxi Operational Plan approved by the airport operator, ATC, and local control.
2)    The POI should provide the air carrier, ATC facility, or airport operator support, as necessary, to comply with the requirements of OpSpec C091. A list of airports with MoSs for the A-380 and B-747-8 is located at http://www.faa.gov/airports/engineering/nla_mos/.

NOTE:  The air carrier’s compliance with the requirements of OpSpec C091 eliminates the air carrier from having to demonstrate its capability to operate to the lower criteria specified in OpSpec C091 prior to being issued OpSpec C091 for that aircraft and airport combination.

D.    ADG-VI/ICAO Group F Aircraft. ADG-VI/Group F specifies that the required runway width be at least 200 feet (60 meters), while ADG-V/Group E specifies that the runway width be at least 150 feet (45 meters). Currently, the A-380 and the B-747-8 are the only commercial aircraft in regular airline service that fit into the ADG‑VI/ICAO Group F criteria, and are therefore subject to the C091 requirements to takeoff and land on ADG V/ICAO Group E runways.

E.    B-747-8 Limitations. The following limitations apply to B-747-8 operations:

1)    Runways for takeoffs and landings shall be at least 150 feet (45 meters) wide;
2)    Operators must comply with all limitations and procedures specified in the applicable B-747-8 Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for lightweight and aft center of gravity (CG) takeoffs.

NOTE:  In accordance with FAA Airports Engineering Brief #74A, Use of 150-Foot (45-M) Wide Runways and Blast Pads for Boeing 747-8 Operations, the 35-foot standard stabilized runway shoulder width for ADG-V does not need to increase to the ADG-VI standard of 40 feet.

F.    A-380 Limitations. The following limitations apply to A-380 operations:

1)    The overall runway plus shoulder width is of 280 feet (85 meters) for U.S. ADG-VI and 250 feet (75 meters) for ICAO Group F. In order to reduce the jet blast impact to 150 feet (45 meters) of runway surface, the FAA recommends stabilized shoulders beyond the runway edge. The FAA 150 foot runway (width) evaluation for the A-380, along with the recommendations for these operations contained in ICAO Annex 14, Aerodromes, and the A‑380 AFM has led to the following runway width authorization for A-380 operation in the United States:
2)    Runways for takeoffs and landings shall be at least 150 feet (45 meters) wide with stabilized runway shoulders on both sides of the runway extending an additional 50 feet (15 meters) outward from the runway edge.

NOTE:  The additional safety width is prescribed because the standard ADG-V runway shoulder width is only 35 feet (10 meters).

3)    Runways as narrow as 150 feet (45 meters) wide with or without the 35 foot (10 meter) wide stabilized shoulders may be used for takeoffs and landings, provided applicable flight manual procedures for takeoffs on such runway are followed and procedures are implemented for the full length of the runway to be inspected by the airport operator for foreign object damage (FOD) after each takeoff prior to successive aircraft operations.

NOTE:  Only the airport operator conducts runway inspections for FOD. Hence, the air carrier should make sure, or have some documentation, that the airport operator will do it. The document is the Federally required Airport Certification Manual under 14 CFR part 139.

4)    The hold short lines or hold position must expand outward from the 280 feet point by 1 foot for every 100 feet the runway threshold elevation is above sea level. (For example, a threshold elevation of 5,000 feet above mean sea level (MSL) requires an additional 50 feet. Thus, the hold short lines or hold position can be no closer than 330 feet (280 feet + 50 feet) from the runway centerline (RCL).

NOTE:  This is to address the hold position of aircraft when an A-380 is on final approach and is as required per the current edition of AC 150/5300-13. Specifically, so that if the A-380 has to go-around (balked landing) then the lateral area on both sides of the runway is clear of obstacles so that if the A‑380 deviates left or right during the go-around maneuver (balked landing) its wing tips will not strike anything.

OPSPEC C381—SPECIAL NON-14 CFR PART 97 INSTRUMENT APPROACH OR DEPARTURE PROCEDURES (OPTIONAL).

NOTE:  To obtain the nonstandard authorization C381, the operator is required to use the nonstandard request process. See Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 2, paragraphs 3-712 to 3-713, for the nonstandard request process. For foreign air carriers conducting operations under 14 CFR part 129, submit the formal request to the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400).

A.    Applicability. OpSpec C381 is applicable to all foreign air carriers conducting airplane operations under part 129. OpSpec C381 authorizes foreign air carriers to conduct special (non-14 CFR part 97) instrument approach procedures (IAP) or departure procedures (DPs). OpSpec C381 is an optional authorization for foreign air carriers conducting operations under part 129.

B.    Authorization. The foreign air carrier’s training program must provide training in the equipment and special procedures to be used, and the foreign air carrier’s civil aviation authority (CAA) must approve the use of these special procedures. The carrier must be from an international aviation safety assessment program (IASA) Category 1 State. OpSpec C381 can be issued once the inspector determines that the foreign air carrier is able to obtain the operational status of the non-part 97 instrument approach or departure operations.

1)     All airports and all special IAPs and DPs must be listed in Table 1 of OpSpec C381. The full name of the procedure (e.g., “ILS or LOC/DME RWY 23, Amdt 2”) must be included in the table. Include any limitations or provisions relevant to a specific procedure in the third column of Table 1.
2)     When submitting the formal request to AFS-400 in accordance with the nonstandard request process, include the draft OpSpec and the approval documentation from the foreign air carrier’s CAA. AFS-400 will review the technical content, and forward the request to AFS-50 for approval.

Special Terminal IAPs or DPs. For more information on special instrument procedures, see Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 10, or contact your regional AXX-220 branch for more information.

OPSPEC C384—AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV) REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE (RNP) INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES WITH SPECIAL AIRCRAFT AND AIRCREW AUTHORIZATION REQUIRED (AR).

A.    General. OpSpec C384 is used to authorize foreign air carriers to conduct Area Navigation (RNAV) Required Navigation Performance (RNP) instrument approach procedures (IAP), which require special aircraft and aircrew authorization required (SAAAR). These approaches have been published in accordance with 14 CFR part 97 and are charted as “RNAV (RNP) RWY XX,” hereinafter referred to as RNP SAAAR IAP.

B.    Alternative Method. The current edition of FAA advisory circular (AC) 90-101, Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures with Special Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required (SAAAR), provides an acceptable method of compliance with public RNP SAAAR IAP requirements. In lieu of following this method without deviation, foreign air carriers may elect to follow an alternative method, provided the alternative method is also found to be acceptable to the FAA.

C.    RNP Approaches. RNP approaches provide an opportunity to improve safety, efficiency, and capacity. Safety is improved when RNP approaches replace visual or Nonprecision Approaches (NPA), and efficiency is improved through more repeatable and optimum flightpaths. Capacity can be improved by de-conflicting traffic during instrument conditions.

1)     RNP SAAAR approaches provide an unprecedented flexibility in construction of approach procedures. These operations are RNAV procedures with a specified level of performance and capability. RNP SAAAR approach procedures build upon the performance-based National Airspace System (NAS) concept. The performance requirements to conduct an approach are defined, and aircraft are qualified against these performance requirements. Obstacle evaluation areas for approaches using conventional navigation aids are based on a predefined aircraft capability and navigation system. RNP SAAAR criteria for obstacle evaluation are flexible and designed to adapt to unique operational environments. This allows approach-specific performance requirements as necessary for that approach procedure. The operational requirement can include avoiding terrain or obstacles, deconflicting airspace, or resolving environmental constraints.
2)     RNP approaches include unique capabilities that require special aircraft and aircrew authorization similar to Category (CAT) II/III instrument landing system (ILS) operations. All RNP SAAAR approaches have reduced lateral obstacle evaluation areas and vertical obstacle clearance surfaces predicated on the aircraft and aircrew performance requirements of AC 90-101. In addition, there are two characteristics used for selected procedures, as necessary. Foreign air carriers can be authorized for any subset of these characteristics:

·    Aircraft ability to fly a published arc (also referred to as a radius to a fix (RF) leg); and

·    Reduced lateral obstacle evaluation area on the missed approach (also referred to as a missed approach requiring RNP less than 1.0).

3)     When conducting an RNP SAAAR approach using a line of minima less than RNP 0.3 and/or a missed approach that requires RNP less than 1.0, you must comply with AC 90-101, appendix 2, paragraph 5 and/or 6.
4)     The defining components of RNP capability is the ability of the aircraft navigation system to monitor its achieved navigation performance and to identify, display, and alert the pilot when the operational requirement is not being met during an operation.

D.    Authorization.

1)    Overview. Any foreign air carrier with an appropriate operational authorization (e.g., OpSpecs) may conduct specified RNP SAAAR IAPs, with a process similar to when foreign air carriers with the proper authorization may conduct CAT II and CAT III ILS operations. Subparagraph D3)b) (Figure 12-4, RNP SAAAR Authorization Checklist—(Refer to AC-90-101 for Current Version)) contains a checklist and a list of the documents foreign air carriers must submit to their assigned principal inspectors (PI) when seeking FAA authorization for these operations. Foreign air carriers should comply with the requirements in AC 90-101, appendices 2 through 6. Before application, foreign air carriers and manufacturers should review all performance requirements. Installation of equipment by itself does not guarantee final approval for use.
2)    Aircraft Qualification and Initial Acceptance of Recommended Operational Documentation.
a)    Aircraft Qualification Documentation. Aircraft manufacturers should develop aircraft qualification documentation showing compliance with AC 90-101, appendix 2. This documentation identifies the optional capabilities (e.g., RF legs and RNP missed approaches), the RNP capability of each aircraft configuration, and the characteristics that may alleviate the need for operational mitigations. This documentation should also define the recommended RNP maintenance procedures.
b)    RNP SAAAR Operational Documentation. The FAA recommends that the aircraft manufacturer develop RNP SAAAR operational documentation. The operational documentation consists of a recommended navigation data validation program (Refer to AC 90-101, appendix 3) and operational considerations (Refer to AC 90‑101, appendix 4), training programs (Refer to AC 90-101, appendix 5), and RNP monitoring programs (Refer to AC 90-101, appendix 6).
c)    FAA Acceptance.

1.     For new aircraft, the aircraft qualification documentation can be approved as part of an aircraft certification project and reflected in the Approved Flight Manual (AFM) and related documents. The RNP SAAAR operational documentation can be accepted by the Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG) in coordination with the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400).

2.    For existing aircraft, the aircraft manufacturer should submit the aircraft qualification and RNP SAAAR operational documentation to AFS-400. AFS-400 will coordinate with other FAA offices and may accept the package as appropriate for RNP SAAAR operations. Acceptance will be documented in a letter to the aircraft manufacturer.

3)    Operator Authorization.
a)    Procedures. Foreign air carriers must present a package of documentary evidence to their PIs at their responsible Flight Standards District Office (FSDO)/International Field Office (IFO)/International Field Unit (IFU) showing compliance with the requirements below, in accordance with AC 90-101, appendices 2 through 6, which is specific to the aircraft, equipment, and their procedures. Once the principal operations inspector (POI) has made a determination in cooperation with the principal avionics inspector (PAI) and principal maintenance inspector (PMI) that the package is satisfactory and complete, the package shall be forwarded to AFS-400 for review and concurrence. Once AFS-400 concurrence has been obtained that the operator has satisfied the requirements contained in AC 90‑101, or equivalent, the POI issues OpSpec C384, authorizing RNP SAAAR IAPs. An RNP SAAAR authorization checklist has been provided on the following pages for use.
b)    RNP SAAAR Application Package Contents. The operator submits documentation of its proposed operation to its responsible FSDO/IFO/IFU. The package should include, as a minimum, the following:

1.    Aircraft qualification documentation. Documentation from the aircraft manufacturer showing that the proposed aircraft equipment meets the requirements as outlined in AC 90-101, appendix 2. This documentation should contain any specific hardware or software equipment requirements, procedural requirements, and limitations.

2.     Type of aircraft and description of aircraft equipment to be used. Provide a configuration list that details pertinent components and equipment to be used for the operation. The list should include each make, model, and version of flight management system (FMS) software installed.

3.     Operating procedures and practices. Company manuals and checklists must adequately address the special characteristics of a proposed area of operation and the operational (navigation) practices and procedures identified in AC 90-101, appendix 4. These procedures shall be included as part of the manual required by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 6, Part I, paragraph 4.2.3, which is approved/accepted by the State of Operator Civil Aviation Authority (CAA).

4.    Navigation data validation program. The foreign air carrier must provide the specifics of the navigation data validation program as described in AC 90-101, appendix 3. The program will be included in the manual required by ICAO Annex 6, Part I, paragraph 4.2 that is approved/accepted by the State of Operator CAA.

5.     Flightcrew and flight operations officer/flight dispatcher training programs. Foreign air carriers must submit training syllabi and other appropriate material to show that RNP SAAAR operations are incorporated into their programs. Training programs must adequately address the special characteristics of a proposed area of operation and the operational (navigation) practices and procedures identified in AC 90-101, appendix 5. The training and qualification program must be approved by the State of Operator CAA.

6.    Maintenance program. The operator should submit maintenance program procedures that include instructions for airworthiness/maintenance of the equipment/systems to be used in the operation and required training for maintenance personnel. The foreign air carrier must provide a procedure for removing the aircraft from and returning the aircraft to RNP SAAAR operational capability. The program must be approved by the State of Operator CAA. Additionally, for each U.S.-registered aircraft, the FAA must approve the maintenance program in accordance with 14 CFR part 129, § 129.14.

7.    RNP SAAAR approach monitoring program. The foreign air carrier must submit a program that collects data on RNP SAAAR procedures conducted. Each operation should be recorded; unsuccessful attempts should include the factors that prevented successful completion of the operation.

8.     Minimum equipment list (MEL). The operator must revise its MEL as necessary for the conduct of the operation in accordance with AC 90-101, appendix 4, paragraph 2a and submit the foreign CAA-approved revision. Additionally, for U.S.-registered aircraft, the foreign air carrier must submit the MEL revision for approval to the FAA in accordance with § 129.14.

9.    Validation. The foreign air carrier must submit documentary evidence that the State of Operator CAA has approved/accepted its U.S. RNP SAAAR IAP operations in accordance with the criteria in AC 90-101 without deviation, including validation testing. If the foreign air carrier’s RNP SAAAR IAP operations have been approved/accepted using other criteria, the criteria used must be submitted to the FAA POI. When the foreign air carriers use an alternative method other than strict compliance with the requirements of AC 90-101, the foreign air carrier’s package will be forwarded to AFS-400 for review and concurrence before authorization is granted. Validation testing should include:

·    Demonstration of the aircraft capability to perform RNP procedures with AR,

·    The carrier’s operational and dispatch procedures,

·    The effectiveness of the carrier’s training,

·    The effectiveness of the equipment maintenance procedures, and

·    MEL procedures

NOTE:  Validation testing should take advantage of ground training devices (GTD), simulators, and aircraft demonstrations. If the demonstration will be conducted in an aircraft, it must be completed in day visual meteorological conditions (VMC).

NOTE:  Demonstration may be required in each make, model, and version of FMS software installed.

Figure 12-4.    RNP SAAAR Authorization Checklist—(Refer to AC 90-101 for Current Version)

RNP SAAAR Authorization CHECKLIST

Date Application Submitted:                                               

Aircraft Qualification                                                         

Navigation Data Validation Program                                    

Established Maintenance Procedures                                    

Training (e.g., flightcrew/dispatch)                                       

Minimum equipment list (MEL) Revision (as required)                

Operational Procedures Requirements                                  

Required Navigation Performance (RNP) monitoring program      

Conditions or Limitations for approval                                    

Dispatch/flight following procedures                                      

Validation successfully completed (as required)                        

POI ACTION:

AFS-400 Concurrence                                                       

Interim RNP special aircraft and aircrew authorization required (SAAAR) Approval (issue 14 CFR part 129 OpSpecs)               

Final RNP SAAAR Approval (issue part 129 OpSpecs)             

RNP SAAAR Disapproval                                                 

Reason for Disapproval:

                                                                                                

Date:                                                                 

POI Signature:                                                     

c)    Interim Authorization. For the first 90 days and at least 100 SAAAR approaches in each aircraft type, the foreign air carrier will be authorized to conduct RNP approaches with SAAAR using minima associated with RNP 0.3. For approach procedures with no line of minima associated with RNP 0.3, the procedure must be flown in VMC. The interim authorization will be removed after completion of the applicable time period and number of approaches and upon FAA review of the reports from the RNP SAAAR monitoring program.

NOTE:  RNP SAAAR foreign air carrier with experience of equivalent RNP approaches may receive credit toward the interim authorization requirements.

NOTE:  Experienced RNP SAAAR foreign air carriers operating new or upgraded aircraft types/systems, derivative types, or different aircraft types with identical crew interface and procedures, may use reduced interim authorization periods (e.g., fewer than 90 days and 100 approaches) as determined by the POI with written concurrence from AFS-400.

NOTE:    In unique situations where the completion of 100 successful approaches could take an unreasonably long period of time due to factors such as a small number of aircraft in the fleet, limited opportunity to use runways having appropriate procedures, and where or when equivalent reliability can be achieved, a reduction in the required number of approaches may be considered on a case-by-case basis by the POI with written concurrence from AFS-400.

d)    Final Authorization. The responsible FSDO/IFO/IFU will issue OpSpec C384, authorizing use of lowest applicable minima after the foreign air carrier satisfactorily complete their initial 90-day/100-RNP SAAAR approach demonstration period.
e)    Aircraft Modification. If any aircraft system required for RNP SAAAR is modified (e.g., software or hardware change), the aircraft modification must be evaluated. The foreign air carrier must obtain a new FAA authorization, supported by the manufacturer’s updated aircraft qualification and operational documentation.

E.    Inspector Action to Complete OpSpec C384.

1)     OpSpec C384 identifies each make, model, and series (M/M/S) of aircraft, equipment, limitations, and lowest authorized RNP the foreign air carrier is authorized to use when conducting RNP SAAAR IAP operations within the United States.
2)     All aircraft information must be first entered into the Web-based automated Operations Safety System (WebOPSS) in the left navigation area, under CHDO > Maintain Operator Data > Aircraft.
a)    From the dropdown in Table 1 of the OpSpec, under the column “Aircraft M/M/S” select an aircraft M/M/S. Use the “+” symbol to add additional rows. Repeat for each authorized aircraft.
b)    Enter navigation system make/model and software version. The specific make and model of navigation equipment including the current software version installed on each associate aircraft M/M/S must be entered in the column labeled “Enter Navigation System M/M/S and Software Version” of Table 1.
c)    Enter limitations in the column labeled “Limitations.” If there are no limitations, then select “None” from the dropdown; do not leave blank. Enter all applicable limitations as follows:

“Not authorized to use temperature compensation system. Enter this limitation unless the aircraft has temperature compensation in accordance with AC 90-101, appendix 2, paragraph 3a(7), and the foreign air carrier provides pilot training on the use of the temperature compensation function.

“Not authorized procedures requiring radius to fix RF. Enter this limitation if the aircraft/navigation system does not have RF leg capability.

“Not authorized procedures with missed approaches requiring RNP less than 1.0. Enter this limitation when the aircraft/navigation system does not meet AC 90-101, appendix 2 criteria—Approaches with a Missed Approach less than RNP 1.0.”

d)    Enter autopilot or flight director (FD) requirement. RNP SAAAR procedures with RNP values less than RNP 0.3 or with RF legs require the use of autopilot or FD driven by the RNAV system in all cases. Select in Table 1, in the column labeled “Autopilot Coupled or Flight Director Required,” one of the following in accordance with the aircraft/navigation system qualification:

“Autopilot coupled with Flight Director”

or

“Flight Director Only”

e)    Enter Lowest Authorized RNP Value in Table 1 of the OpSpec, in the column labeled “Lowest RNP.” These values will vary depending on the M/M/S and navigation system combination.

Note:  Many aircraft will have different RNP values associated with “Autopilot coupled with Flight Director” or “Flight Director Only” operations.

F.    Interim Authorization. For interim authorization during the first 90 days and at least 100 SAAAR approaches in each aircraft type, in accordance with subparagraph D3)c). On the select data screen, text tab, the POI should select “load subparagraph g. For interim authorization text” and click on “load data,” then draft the paragraph.

RESERVED. Paragraphs 12-215 through 12-268.