Volume 12 INTERNATIONAL AVIATION
chapter 2 fOREIGN AIR CARRIERS OPERATING TO THE UNITED STATES AND FOREIGN
OPERATORS OF U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT ENGAGED IN COMMON CARRIAGE OUTSIDE THE
Section 5 Part
129 Part C Operations Specifications–Airplane Terminal Instrument Procedures
and Airport Authorizations and Limitations
12-214 PART C OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS (OPSPECS).
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issues Part C OpSpecs to foreign air
carriers who conduct airplane operations under Title 14 of the Code of Federal
Regulations (14 CFR) part 129.
The FAA does not issue Part C OpSpecs to foreign air carriers who conduct only
helicopter operations. Instrument flight rules (IFR) helicopter operators are
issued Part H OpSpecs. The FAA does not usually issue Part C OpSpecs to part 129
on-demand operators who are restricted to visual flight rules (VFR)-only operations.
OPSPEC C048ENHANCED FLIGHT VISION SYSTEM (EFVS) USE ON STRAIGHT-IN
INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES OTHER THAN CATEGORY II OR CATEGORY III.
A. Authorization. The C048 authorization is
issued to foreign air carriers conducting airplane operations under 14 CFR part 129.
C048 authorizes a certified enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) to be used
to descend below Decision Altitude (DA) or minimum descent altitude (MDA)
on straight-in instrument approach procedures (IAP), other than Category (CAT)
II or CAT III, in accordance with applicable U.S. regulations.
B. EFVS Use. Title 14 CFR part 91,
(m) authorize an EFVS to be used to descend below DA or MDA on straight-in
IAP, other than CAT II or CAT III. These regulations require that
the EFVS have an FAA type design approval (type certificate (TC) or Supplemental
Type Certificate (STC)) or, for foreign-registered aircraft, that the EFVS complies
with all of the EFVS requirements of the U.S. regulations. An EFVS uses imaging
sensor technologies to provide a real-time enhanced image of the forward external
visual scene to the pilot. An EFVS is used by the pilot to determine that the
enhanced flight visibility is not less than the visibility prescribed in the
IAP to be flown and that the required visual references for descending below
DA or MDA down to 100 feet (ft) above the touchdown zone elevation (TDZE)
are distinctly visible and identifiable using the sensor image when the runway
environment is not visible using the pilot’s natural vision. An EFVS also helps
to verify proper runway alignment at night and in low visibility conditions.
NOTE: The authorization associated with this OpSpec is
in keeping with the intent of § 91.175(l)
(m) and does not authorize an EFVS to be used to satisfy the § 91.175
(e)(2) requirement that an identifiable part of the airport be distinctly
visible to the pilot during a circling maneuver at or above MDA or while descending
below MDA. An EFVS is permitted to be used to identify the required visual references
in order to descend below DA or MDA on straight-in IAP only. An instrument approach
with a circle-to-land maneuver is not a straight-in IAP and does not have straight-in minima.
While the regulations do not prohibit EFVS from being used during any phase
of flight, they do prohibit it from being used for operational credit on anything
but a straight-in IAP. An EFVS may be used during a circle-to-land maneuver
provided the visual references required at or above MDA and throughout the circling
maneuver are distinctly visible using natural vision. Use of EFVS during a circling
maneuver may enable a pilot to see much more of the external scene at night
and in low visibility conditions than would be possible using natural vision,
thereby enhancing situational awareness (SA).
C. Visual References. In order to descend
below DA or MDA, the following visual references for the runway of intended
landing must be distinctly visible and identifiable to the pilot using the EFVS:
1) The Approach Light System (ALS) (if installed);
2) The following visual references in both
subparagraphs a) and b) below:
a) The runway threshold, identified by at least one
of the following:
1. The beginning of the
runway landing surface;
2. The threshold lights;
3. The runway end identifier
b) The touchdown zone (TDZ), identified by at least
one of the following:
1. The runway TDZ landing
2. The TDZ lights;
3. The TDZ markings; or
4. The runway lights.
D. Natural Vision. To descend below 100 ft
above the TDZE of the runway of intended landing, the pilot must be able to
see the visual references required by § 91.175(l)(4)
using natural vision, without relying on the EFVS. That is, the enhanced flight
visibility observed by use of an EFVS is no longer applicable. At this point,
the flight visibility only has to be sufficient for the pilot to distinctly
see and identify the lights or markings of the threshold or the lights or markings
of the TDZ using natural vision before continuing to a landing.
E. Using Natural Vision. The visual references
required by § 91.175(l)
using EFVS to descend below DA or MDA are different from those required by § 91.175(c)
using natural vision. Table 12-4A, Required Visual References, Section
(l) , provides a comparison of visual reference requirements for both natural
vision and EFVS. Generally, the visual reference requirements for EFVS are more
stringent than those for natural vision. For example, § 91.175(c)
allows descent below DA or MDA using natural vision when only one of the visual
references listed can be seen. For EFVS, § 91.175(l)
requires that a pilot either see the ALS or at least one visual reference listed
for the threshold environment and one visual reference listed for the TDZ environment.
When natural vision is used, the Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) is permitted
to be used as a required visual reference for descent below DA or MDA. Under
using EFVS, however, the VASI cannot be used as a visual reference for descent
below DA or MDA using EFVS because the EFVS display is monochromatic. For descent
below 100 ft above TDZE using natural vision, § 91.175(c)(3)
permits the approach lights to be used as a reference only if the red terminating
bars or the red side row bars are visible and identifiable. For EFVS operations
below 100 ft above TDZE, the approach lights with red side row bars are
not permitted to be used as a visual reference, even though the pilot is required
to rely only on natural vision to descend below 100 ft above TDZE. The
only visual references permitted to be used for EFVS operations below 100 ft
above TDZE are the lights or markings of the threshold or the lights or markings
of the TDZ.
Table 12-4A. Required Visual References, Section
below Decision Altitude (DA) or minimum descent altitude (MDA):
At least one of the
following visual references:
Approach Light System (ALS).
Runway end identifier lights (REIL).
Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI).
Touchdown zone (TDZ).
below DA or MDA:
The following references,
using the EFVS:
BOTH paragraphs A and B:
A. The runway threshold, identified by at least
one of the following:
Beginning of the runway landing surface,
B. The touchdown zone, identified by at least one
of the following:
TDZ landing surface,
· Runway lights.
100 ft height above TDZE:
At least one of the
following visual references:
ALS, as long as the red terminating bars or red
side row bars are also distinctly visible and identifiable.
Descent below 100 ft height above TDZE:
The following references,
using natural vision:
The lights or markings
of the threshold,
The lights or markings of the TDZ.
F. Conditions of Approval. Before issuing C048
based on aircraft equipment and operation, inspectors shall ensure that the
foreign air carrier meets the following conditions:
1) Aircraft and Associated Aircraft Systems.
The authorized aircraft must be equipped with an EFVS certified for conducting
operations under § 91.175(l)
(m) and must either have an FAA type design approval (TC or STC) or, for
a foreign-registered aircraft, the EFVS must comply with all of the EFVS requirements
of the U.S. regulations. Furthermore, the foreign air carrier must be approved
by the State of Operator to use an EFVS on straight-in IAPs, other than CAT II
or CAT III, and a copy of that approval must be provided to the FAA. Field
approvals for EFVS installations are not authorized. An EFVS is an installed
airborne system and must include:
a) A head-up display (HUD) or equivalent display.
1. The EFVS sensor imagery
and aircraft flight symbology must be presented so that they are clearly visible
to the Pilot Flying (PF) in his normal position, line of vision, and looking
forward along the flightpath.
2. The EFVS display must
be conformal. That is, the sensor imagery, aircraft flight symbology, and other
cues that are referenced to the imagery and external scene must be aligned with
and scaled to the external view.
b) Sensors that provide a real-time image of the
forward external scene topography.
c) Computers and power supplies.
d) Indications and controls.
e) Aircraft flight symbology that includes at least
2. Vertical speed,
3. Aircraft attitude,
6. Command guidance as
appropriate for the approach to be flown,
7. Path deviation indications,
8. Flight Path Vector
(FPV) cue, and
9. Flight Path Angle (FPA)
reference cue. The FPA reference cue must be displayed with the pitch scale
and must be selectable by the pilot for the appropriate approach descent angle.
NOTE: An EFVS must not be confused with an Enhanced
Vision System (EVS). An EVS is an electronic means to provide the flightcrew
with a sensor-derived or enhanced image of the external scene (e.g., millimeter
wave radar, Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR)). Unlike an EFVS, an EVS does not
necessarily provide the additional flight information/symbology required by
An EVS might not use a HUD, and might not be able to present the image
and flight symbology in the same scale and alignment as the outside view. This
system can provide SA to the pilot, but does not meet the regulatory requirements
of § 91.175(m).
As such, an EVS cannot be used as a means to determine enhanced flight visibility
and to descend below the DA or MDA.
2) Flightcrew Procedures. The pilot can continue
the approach below DA or MDA to 100 ft above the TDZE if he or she determines
that the enhanced flight visibility observed by the use of a certified EFVS
is not less than the minimum visibility prescribed in the straight-in IAP
being flown, and the pilot acquires the required visual references prescribed
in § 91.175(l)(3).
The pilot uses the EFVS to visually acquire the runway environment, confirm
lateral alignment, maneuver to the extended runway centerline (RCL), and continue
a normal descent from the DA or MDA to 100 ft above the TDZ.
a) A pilot may continue the approach below 100 ft
above the TDZE as long as the flight visibility, using natural vision, is sufficient
for the required visual references to be seen. In addition, the aircraft must
be continuously in position from which a descent to landing can be made on the
intended runway, at a normal rate of descent using normal maneuvers, and at
a descent rate that allows touchdown to occur within the TDZ.
b) It should be noted that the rule does not require
the EFVS to be turned off or the sensor image to be removed from the HUD in
order to continue to a landing without reliance on the EFVS sensor image. In
keeping with the requirements of the regulations, however, the decision to continue
descending below 100 ft above the TDZE must be based on seeing the visual
references required by the rule through the HUD by means of natural vision.
An operator may not continue to descend beyond this point by relying on the
sensor image displayed on the HUD.
c) EFVS equipage may vary. Some aircraft may be equipped
with a single EFVS display. Others may have an EFVS display and a separate repeater
display located in or very near the primary field of view (FOV) of the nonflying
pilot. Still others may be equipped with dual EFVS displays. The regulations
do not require a repeater display or a separate EFVS for the nonflying pilot,
but neither do they preclude it. Procedures for EFVS operations should be developed
that are appropriate to the equipment installed and the operation to be conducted.
In establishing these procedures, both normal and abnormal or failure modes
must be addressed for the various phases of the approach (e.g., prior to
final approach fix (FAF), FAF to DA or MDA, and after reaching DA or MDA).
d) Procedures should support appropriate levels of
crew coordination with special emphasis on the transition to and reliance on
natural vision. Each EFVS has a specified limit to the FOV. An offset final
approach or crosswinds may affect use of the EFVS, as well as when the decision
is made to rely on natural vision for the primary reference. Also, specific
pilot/crew decisionmaking and coordination must be addressed in the segment
from FAF to DA or MDA (or point that a decision to rely on natural vision is
made) and the EFVS segment (from DA or MDA down to 100 ft height above
TDZE). The transition from enhanced vision to natural vision for landing is
an especially important segment. Foreign air carriers should describe how common
SA will be achievedeither procedurally when a single EFVS is used or through
a combination of procedures and equipment when a repeater display or dual EFVSs
3) Flightcrew Qualification and EFVS Training
Program. The flightcrew must be trained in the use of EFVS and demonstrate
proficiency conducting straight-in IAPs, other than CAT II or CAT III
(e.g., CAT I instrument landing system (ILS), nonprecision, approach
procedures with vertical guidance (APV), etc.). Part
129 operators must have approved training programs. Part
129 operators must have approved training programs approved by the State
of Operator. These programs should include the following items:
a) Pilots should demonstrate knowledge of the regulatory
requirements for EFVS operations contained in § 91.175
for approach to straight-in landing operations below DA or MDA.
b) Pilots operating an EFVS should be able to demonstrate
knowledge and proficiency in the use of this equipment through training and
checking as required by the type of operation. As a minimum, pilots should
be knowledgeable and proficient in the following areas:
1. The specific sensor
technology to include limitations that impact enhanced vision under various
environmental conditions (weather, system resolution, external interference,
thermal characteristics, variability, and unpredictability of sensor performance,
2. EFVS operational considerations:
a. Use of HUD symbology.
b. Preflight and warmup requirements,
c. Controls, modes, adjustments,
and alignment of the EFVS/HUD.
d. Importance of the Design Eye
Position (DEP) in acquiring the proper EFVS image.
e. System limitations, normal,
and abnormal procedures, including visual anomalies such as noise, blooming,
and thermal crossover.
f. Use of EFVS on precision, non-precision,
and APV approaches.
g. Use of caged and uncaged modes
of the EFVS, if applicable, in crosswind conditions.
3. Impact of EFVS on other
aircraft systems, such as autopilot minimum use height limitations.
4. Runway lighting systems
5. Crew briefings, callouts,
and crew coordination procedures.
6. Visual references required
by § 91.175(l)(3)
7. Transition from EFVS
imagery to natural vision and recognition of the required visual references.
8. Obstacle clearance requirements
for approach and missed approach:
a. Flight planning for obstacle
clearance on a missed approach (e.g., go-around or balked landing)
below DA or MDA.
b. Use and significance of a published
vertical descent angle (VDA) on IAPs.
c. Vertical Path (VPATH), Vertical
Approach Slope Indicator (VASI), precision approach path indicator (PAPI), published
visual descent points (VDP), calculated VDPs, etc.
d. Use of the FPA reference cue
and FPV cue.
9. Missed approach requirementsloss
of required equipment, enhanced flight visibility, or required visual references
for various phases of the approach (e.g., FAF to DA or MDA, and after passing
DA or MDA).
c)  The flightcrew shall not conduct any operations
authorized by this paragraph unless they are trained and qualified in the
equipment and special procedures to be used. For foreign air carriers operating
under part 129,
no pilot in command (PIC) or second in command (SIC) shall conduct EFVS operations
in any airplane until that pilot has successfully completed the foreign air
carrier’s approved EFVS training program and has been certified as being qualified
for EFVS operations by one of the foreign air carrier’s check airmen properly
qualified for EFVS operations or a civil aviation authority (CAA) inspector
from the State of Operator. EFVS training is required in accordance with the
Standards established in International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex
6, Part 1. It should be noted that foreign EFVS regulatory requirements, operational
concepts, operational authorizations, airworthiness criteria, and equipment
requirements may differ from those specified in § 91.175(l)
(m). Where there are differences, it is important to ensure that the foreign
air carrier’s approved training program addresses those differences and that
operations are not authorized without appropriate training. European Aviation
Safety Agency (EASA) regulations for EFVS operations can be found in OPS 1:
Commercial air transportation (aeroplanes ), Annex
III of Council Regulation (EEC) No 3922/91 (EU Ops) Subpart E, appendix 1
to OPS 1.430(h). It should be noted that EASA uses the term EVS to describe
a system that has the same elements, features, and characteristics as an EFVS
certified by the FAA for use in the United States.
4) Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) Provisions.
Foreign-registered aircraft used by a foreign air carrier for EFVS operations
within the United States must have AFM provisions reflecting an appropriate
level of EFVS capability that meets the display, features, and characteristics
required by § 91.175.
The approved AFM for the aircraft must contain EFVS provisions appropriate to
the EFVS operation authorized. For foreign persons or foreign air carriers operating
U.S.-registered aircraft, the approved AFM must contain EFVS provisions appropriate
to the EFVS operation authorized.
5) Minimum Equipment List (MEL). For foreign
air carriers operating foreign-registered aircraft within the United States,
the MEL for the aircraft, including EFVS provisions, if MEL relief for EFVS
is sought, must be approved by the State of Operator CAA. For foreign persons
or foreign air carriers operating U. S.-registered aircraft, the MEL for the
aircraft, including EFVS provisions, if MEL relief for EFVS is sought, must
be approved by the FAA and the State of Operator when operations issues are
6) Approved Maintenance Program. For foreign
air carriers operating foreign-registered aircraft within the United States,
the maintenance program must be approved by the State of Operator CAA. Foreign
persons or foreign air carriers operating U. S.-registered aircraft, within
or outside the United States in common carriage, shall in accordance with part 129,
“ensure that each aircraft is maintained in accordance with a program approved
by the Administrator.” This maintenance program should also address issues unique
to the EFVS.
OPSPEC C050. DECOMMISSIONED.
OPSPEC C051TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES (Required For All Air
Carriers Conducting IFR Operations).
A. Purpose. The FAA issues OpSpec C051 to
all foreign air carriers who operate airplanes and conduct any flight operations
under instrument flight rules (IFR). This paragraph provides direction
and guidance on acceptance of U.S. Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS). This
OpSpec also provides additional guidance to the foreign air carrier for converting
any takeoff and landing minimum expressed in the metric linear measurement
system to the U.S. standard linear measurement system.
B. No Inspector Input Required. This paragraph requires
no inspector input. Additional information concerning TERPS is contained in
Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 1.
OPSPEC C052STRAIGHT-IN NON-PRECISION, APV, AND CATEGORY I PRECISION
APPROACH AND LANDING MINIMAALL AIRPORTS (Required for All Air Carriers
Conducting IFR Operations).
A. Applicability. OpSpec C052 specifies the
types of instrument approaches the foreign air carrier is authorized to conduct,
prohibits the use of other types of instrument approaches, and authorizes the
lowest straight-in non-precision, approach procedures with vertical guidance
(APV), and Category (CAT) I precision approach and landing minima. Before
authorizing a type of instrument approach procedure (IAP), the principal operations
inspector (POI) must ensure the foreign air carrier has established the aircraft
system eligibility and that its manual, which the State of Operator must have
approved/accepted, includes both flightcrew training and procedures, as applicable,
for the types of approaches authorized. All of the approaches authorized by
OpSpec C052 must be published in accordance with 14 CFR part 97.
NOTE: Questions regarding the issuance of OpSpec/management
specification (MSpec)/letter of authorization (LOA) C052 should be directed
to the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS400) at 2023854623
or the International Programs and Policy Division (AFS50) at 2023858070.
B. Types of Instrument Approaches Authorized.
In paragraph C052, Table 1 specifies the types of instrument approaches
the operator is authorized to conduct under instrument flight rules (IFR) and
prohibits the use of other types of instrument approaches. In the Web-based
Operations Safety System (WebOPSS), the POI will select the approaches that
apply to the operator. Refer to the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) for
a detailed description of each approach.
Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 1 for information on required training for
various types of approaches.
2) All the approaches approved by OpSpec/MSpec/LOA
C052 must be published in accordance with part 97.
3) If the foreign air carrier is authorized
to conduct Global Positioning System (GPS) procedures as listed in Table 1
of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052, the aircraft and equipment must be listed in Table 1
of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA B034.
4) Required Navigation Performance Approaches
(RNP APCH)Area Navigation (RNAV) (RNP) approaches are different from RNAV
(GPS) approaches in that a specific performance requirement is defined for the
navigation system, and onboard performance monitoring and alerting is required.
An RNP APCH typically addresses only the requirement for the lateral navigation
aspect (2D navigation) along straight segments. RNP approaches that contain
a curved segment (RF leg), Final Approach Segments (FAS) specifying less than
0.3 NM accuracy, or a Missed Approach Segment (MAS) that specifies less
than 1.0 NM accuracy, require more rigorous equipment qualification and
training so special authorization is required. These are referred to as RNAV
RNP IAP with Authorization Required (AR) or RNP AR approaches. C052 does not
authorize RNP AR operations. Authorization for RNAV RNP AR approaches is through
nonstandard OpSpec C384. (Refer to the current edition of Advisory Circular
(AC) 90-101, Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures with AR.)
5) Three groups of IAPs may be authorized
in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052:
a) Column one specifies the Nonprecision Approaches
(NPA) without vertical guidance that are authorized by OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052.
Operators must ensure the aircraft will not go below the minimum descent
altitude (MDA) without the required visual references specified in 14 CFR part 91,
1. The International Civil
Aviation Organization (ICAO) term for an airport surveillance radar (ASR) approach
is surveillance radar approach (SRA).
2. Belgium labels these
approaches as “SRE.” Select “ASR/SRA/SRE” in column one to authorize these approaches.
b) Column two of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 provides for
the authorization of APV. These approaches provide vertical guidance, but do
not meet the same standards as precision approach systems (e.g., instrument
landing systems (ILS), microwave landing systems (MLS), and Ground Based
Augmentation System (GBAS)). These APVs are trained using an approved method
that allows descent to a published decision altitude (DA).
1. APV approaches may contain
Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) minima requiring wide
area augmentation system (WAAS) and lateral navigation (LNAV)/vertical navigation
(VNAV) minima which may be flown with either barometric vertical navigation
(baro-VNAV) or WAAS-based VNAV and are authorized in column two of Table 1
of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. (See subparagraph C to determine applicable lines
of minima.) The AIM and the approach chart legend also have this information.
2. Aircraft accomplishing
RNP approaches (RNAV (GPS) or RNAV Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS))
are required to monitor lateral and, if approved for operational credit, vertical
guidance deviations. For baro-VNAV approach operations on an RNP approach using
the LNAV/VNAV minimums, the current vertical deviation limits are +100/-50 feet.
Aircraft qualified using the current edition of
AC 20-138, Airworthiness Approval of Positioning and Navigation Systems,
deviation display requirements for navigation, may use a vertical deviation
limit of ±75 feet (or a smaller value). This information must be published
in the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM), a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) or
verified by the Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG).
3. To authorize RNAV APVs,
select “RNAV (GPS)” (for part 97
approaches) or “RNAV Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)” (for foreign
approaches) from the selectable menu for column two of the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA
C052 template Table 1.
c) Column three of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 provides
for the authorization of CAT I precision IAPs from an electronic glideslope
(ILS, MLS, or GPS Landing System (GLS)).
1. “*RNAV/ILS” in column
three may only be selected in C052 if the operator meets the requirements in
2. For pilot qualifications,
the initial qualification segment of the certificate holder’s approved ILS precision
runway monitor (PRM) training program must be successfully completed prior to
conducting ILS PRM approach and landing operations. Initial training materials
must include published ILS PRM approach chart materials, the AIM, related Notices
to Airmen (NOTAM), and the latest available FAA-produced and -approved ILS PRM
video entitled “ILS PRM & SOIA Approaches Information for Air Carrier Pilots”
that each pilot must view, and which appears on the FAA Web site at http://www.faa.gov/training_testing/training/prm/.
3. Pilots trained in PRM
operations under previous guidance are not required to retrain using the new
version of the video. However, pilots are required to know the change in operations
of Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) during PRM operations,
as well as the required actions in response to a controller instruction. Testing
of knowledge objectives is required as part of initial and recurrent qualification
training. See subparagraph K.
Figure 12-3A. Sample OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 Table 1
Table 1Authorized Instrument Approach Procedures
LDA w/ glideslope
AZI/DME Back Course
LDA PRM DME
SDF w/ glideslope
LOC BC w/ glideslope
RNAV (GPS) PRM
C. GPS Authorization.
Volume 4, Chapter 1, Section 2 provides more extensive guidance on GPS and
GPS WAAS equipment. The applicant must show that it has the ability to safely
conduct GPS operations.
1) Background. GPS approach procedures have
evolved from overlays of existing conventional approaches to standalone GPS
approaches. (Overlay approaches are predicated upon the design criteria of the
ground-based Navigational Aid (NAVAID) used as the basis of the approach and
do not adhere to the design criteria for standalone GPS approaches.) Due to
this transition, the FAA has revised the titles of the approach procedures to
reflect these upgrades. The titles of all remaining GPS overlay procedures have
been revised on the approach charts to read “…or GPS” (e.g., “VOR or GPS
RWY 24”). Therefore, all the approaches that can be used by GPS now contain
“GPS” in the title (e.g., “VOR or GPS RWY 24,” “GPS RWY 24,” or “RNAV (GPS)
RWY 24”). During these GPS approaches, underlying ground-based NAVAIDs are not
required to be operational and associated aircraft avionics need not be installed,
operational, turned on, or monitored (although monitoring of the underlying
approach is suggested when equipment is available and operational). Existing
overlay approaches may be requested using the GPS title. For example, request
“GPS RWY 24” to fly the VOR or GPS RWY 24 approach.
NOTE: VOR/DME RNAV approaches will continue to be
identified as VOR/DME RNAV RWY (Number) (e.g., VOR/DME RNAV RWY 24). VOR/DME
RNAV procedures which can be flown by GPS will be annotated with “or GPS” (e.g., VOR/DME
RNAV or GPS RWY 24).
2) WAAS. As the satellite navigation evolution
continues, the WAAS has been developed to improve the accuracy, integrity, and
availability of GPS signals. WAAS receivers support all basic GPS approach functions
and will provide additional capabilities. One of the major improvements provided
by the WAAS is the ability to generate an electronic glidepath, independent
of ground equipment or barometric aiding. There are differences in the capabilities
of the WAAS receivers. Some approach-certified receivers will only support a
glidepath with performance similar to Baro-VNAV, and are authorized to fly the
LNAV/VNAV line of minima on the RNAV (GPS) approach charts. Receivers with
additional capability such as update rate and integrity limits are authorized
to fly the LPV or Localizer Performance (LP) line of minima. WAAS approach
procedures may provide LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LP, and LNAV minimums and are charted
as RNAV (GPS) RWY (Number) (e.g., RNAV (GPS) RWY 24). For further guidance,
please see the AIM or contact AFS400 at FAA HQ.
NOTE: Some WAAS installations do not support approaches
at all, while some do not support LPV or LP lines of minima.
3) Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS).
An additional augmentation system, the LAAS has been developed to provide precision
approaches similar to ILS at airfields. These precise approaches are based on
GPS signals augmented by ground equipment. The international term for LAAS is
GBAS and the approaches which use the equipment are referred to as GBAS Landing
System (GLS) or Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Landing System (GLS)
approaches. LAAS equipment consists of a GBAS Ground Facility (GGF) supported
by a minimum of four accurately surveyed reference stations and an uplink
antenna called the very high frequency (VHF) Data Broadcast (VDB) antenna, as
well as an aircraft LAAS receiver. The GGF can support multiple runway ends
or landing areas served by procedures that are within the service coverage.
a) Similar to LPV and ILS approaches, GLS provides
lateral and vertical guidance. By design, LAAS was developed as an “ILS look-alike”
system from the pilot perspective. Unlike WAAS, LAAS may support approaches
to CAT III minimums in the future due to its nearly identical performance
standards to ILS in terms of accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity.
Portions of the GLS approach prior to and after the FAS may be based on RNAV
or RNP segments. Therefore, a switch transition between RNAV or RNP and GLS
modes may be required. In the future, the GGF may be able to support portions
of the procedure outside the FAS.
b) There are also a few differences from LPV, GLS,
and ILS approaches in terms of charting, procedure selection, and identification.
The LAAS procedure is titled “GLS RWY XX” on the approach chart. In the aircraft,
pilots will select a five-digit GBAS channel number or associated approach within
the flight management system (FMS) menu. Selection of the GBAS channel number
by pilot or FMS also tunes the VDB. The VDB provides information to the airborne
receiver where the guidance is synthesized. The LAAS procedure is identified
by a four alpha-numeric character field referred to as the Reference Path Indicator
(RPI) or approach ID. This identifier is analogous with the IDENT feature of
the ILS. The RPI is charted. Following procedure selection, confirmation that
the correct LAAS procedure is loaded can be accomplished by cross-checking the
charted RPI with the cockpit-displayed RPI or audio identification of the RPI
with Morse code (for some systems). Once selected and identified, the pilot
will fly the GLS approach using the same techniques as an ILS.
D. Authorized Criteria for Approved IAPs.
For operations to all U.S. airports, operators are authorized to execute instrument
approach operations on IAPs that have been published:
1) Under part 97.
2) Under the criteria in the current edition
Order 8260.3, United Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS).
3) Under any other criteria authorized by
4) By the U.S. military agency operating
the U.S. military airport.
5) All published Standard Instrument Approach
Procedures (SIAP) in the United States meet this requirement.
E. Runway Visual Range (RVR). Touchdown zone
(TDZ) RVR is controlling for all operations authorized in paragraph C052.
All other RVR reports are advisory. A mid-field RVR report may substitute
for an inoperative TDZ RVR report, except for Special Authorization (SA) CAT I
operations as described in subparagraph I below.
F. Continuous Descent Final Approach (CDFA) Technique.
A CDFA is a specific technique for flying the FAS of an IAP as a continuous
descent, without level-off, from an altitude at or above the final approach
fix (FAF) altitude, typically to a point approximately 50 feet (ft) above
the runway threshold or the point where the flare will begin. For approaches
that do not use LNAV/VNAV, LPV, or an ILS/MLS/GLS glidepath, a CDFA technique
is recommended. When electronic or a pre-stored computed vertical guidance is
not used, Vertical Speed (VS) or FPA may be used to achieve a CDFA profile.
Compared to the “step down” descent approach technique, where the aircraft descends
step-by-step prior to the next minimum altitude, a CDFA technique has safety
and operational advantages, such as standardization of procedures, simplification
of the decision process (one technique and one decision at one point), and use
of a stable flightpath. However, precision approach (ILS, MLS, GLS) obstacle
penetration is not provided. The continuous descent approach technique can be
flown on almost any published approach when VNAV or ILS/MLS/GLS is not available.
1) When using a CDFA technique, the decision
point to determine if the flightcrew has the required visual references in sight
to continue below the MDA may only be treated like a DA in reference to approach
profiles and procedures. The operator must add an altitude increment to the
MDA (e.g., 50 ft) to determine the altitude at which the missed
approach must be initiated in order to prevent descent below the MDA or flight
beyond the MAP.
2) The operator should ensure that, prior
to conducting a CDFA, each flightcrew member intending to fly CDFA profiles
undertakes training appropriate to the aircraft, equipment, and IAPs to be flown.
G. Reduced Precision CAT I Landing Minima.
Paragraph C052 specifies the equipment usage requirements and part 97
SIAP depiction required for reduced CAT I landing minima. Credit is
given for flight director (FD), autopilot, and head-up display (HUD) usage.
The POI should allow the use of 1800 RVR minima to runways without centerline
(CL) lighting or TDZ lighting, provided the SIAP contains a straight-in ILS minimum
with the chart note, “RVR 1800 Authorized with use of FD or autopilot or HUD
to DA.” Additionally, the foreign air carrier issued C052 is allowed to continue
to use 1800 RVR line of minima on SIAPs without the above procedural note
when the TDZ and/or CL lights are inoperative, if the approach is conducted
in accordance with the equipment requirements outlined in paragraph C052.
This is also reflected in the published inoperative components table for IAPs.
1) FAA Approval. Operators may continue to
use the standard CAT I minima based solely on ground lighting systems
without alteration of current authorizations or procedures. Operators can utilize
reduced CAT I landing minima, provided the SIAP contains a straight-in
ILS minimum with the chart note, “RVR 1800 Authorized with use of FD or
autopilot or HUD to DA.”
2) Conditions of Approval. Before issuing
the C052 authorization to use CAT I minima based on aircraft equipment
and operation, inspectors shall ensure that each operator meets the following
a) Aircraft and Associated Aircraft Systems. The
authorized aircraft must be equipped with an FD, or autopilot, or HUD that provides
guidance to DA. The FD, autopilot, or HUD must be used in approach mode (e.g., tracking
the localizer and the glideslope). Inspectors must establish that the FD, autopilot,
or HUD are certified for use down to an altitude of 200 ft above ground
level (AGL) or lower.
b) Flightcrew Procedures. The flightcrew must use
the FD, or autopilot, or HUD to DA or to the initiation of a missed approach,
unless visual references with the runway environment are established, thus allowing
safe continuation to a landing.
1. If the FD, autopilot,
or HUD malfunctions or becomes disconnected, the flightcrew must execute a missed
approach unless the runway environment is in sight.
2. Single pilot operators
are prohibited from using the FD to reduced landing minima without accompanying
use of an autopilot or HUD.
c) Flightcrew Qualification. Each member of the flightcrew
must have demonstrated proficiency using the FD, autopilot, or HUD, (as appropriate)
in the foreign air carrier’s training program approved by their Civil Aviation
H. SA CAT I. OpSpec C052 contains selectable
text which authorizes SA CAT I ILS approaches to runways without TDZ or
RCL lights with a radio altimeter (RA) DH as low as 150 ft and a visibility minimum
as low as RVR 1400 when using a HUD to DH. The operator must meet all
of the following requirements:
1) Eligibility Requirements. Before authorizing
SA CAT I, the POI must ensure that the foreign air carrier has established
the aircraft system eligibility and that its manual, which the State of Operator
must have approved/accepted, includes both flightcrew training and procedures,
2) Aircraft Requirements. To be approved for
SA CAT I, each airplane must be authorized and maintained for CAT II
operations. Those airplanes and equipment must be listed in Table 2 of
OpSpec C059. The authorized airplane(s) must be equipped with a HUD which is
approved for CAT II or CAT III operations.
3) Training Requirements. The flightcrew must
be current and qualified for CAT II operations. Each member of the flightcrew
must have demonstrated proficiency using the HUD in the foreign air carrier’s
training program approved by their CAA. This requirement applies both to initial
eligibility for SA CAT I as well as recurrent training.
4) Operational Requirements:
a) The flightcrew must use the HUD to DH in a mode
used for CAT II or CAT III operations. This mode provides greater
lateral and vertical flightpath accuracy and more sensitive alarm limits.
b) The flightcrew must use the HUD to DH, or to the
initiation of missed approach, unless adequate visual references with the
runway environment are established that allow safe continuation to a landing.
Should the HUD malfunction during the approach, the flightcrew must execute
a missed approach unless visual reference to the runway environment has
c) The crosswind component on the landing runway
must be 15 knots or less, unless the AFM’s crosswind limitations are more restrictive.
d) The part 97
SIAP must have a published SA CAT I minimum. The first procedures
with these minimums will be published in 2010.
e) Unlike the other approaches authorized in C052,
the mid-RVR report may not be substituted for the TDZ RVR report
when using SA CAT I minima.
I. PRM. The FAA began the Multiple Parallel
Approach Program (MPAP) to research whether simultaneous ILS approaches to parallel
runways would improve capacity. The objective was to achieve improvements in
airport arrival rates through the conduct of simultaneous closely-spaced parallel
approaches. That objective is being met using PRM.
1) ILS PRM, LDA PRM and RNAV (GPS) PRM Approaches
with Vertical Guidance. Where parallel RCLs are less than 4,300 feet
apart, but not less than 3,000 feet apart, simultaneous ILS PRM approaches
may be conducted. Similarly, where parallel RCLs are less than 3,000 feet
apart, but no less than 750 feet, simultaneous offset instrument approaches
(SOIA) may be conducted using an ILS and an LDA approach with glideslope. Those
approaches are labeled “ILS PRM” and “LDA PRM,” respectively, on instrument
approach charts. Air traffic control (ATC) provides one PRM monitor controller
for each runway to provide intrusion protection for the No Transgression Zone
(NTZ), located between the two final approach courses. Whenever the runway spacing
(or in the case of SOIA the approach course spacing) is less than 3,600 feet
and at least 3,000 feet, NTZ monitoring is accomplished using a special
PRM radar. Utilization of vertical guidance is required for all PRM approaches.
RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches may be substituted for the ILS PRM and/or the LDA
PRM approach. Pilots must have completed PRM training prior to conducting any
PRM approach. An ILS PRM and its overlayed RNAV (GPS) PRM approach are procedurally
equivalent. LDA PRM and its overlayed RNAV (GPS) PRM approach are procedurally
equivalent. Pilots may request the RNAV (GPS) PRM approach in lieu of the ILS
PRM or LDA PRM approach; however, they may only conduct the approach when specifically
cleared to do so by ATC.
2) The Breakout Maneuver. Working with industry,
the FAA conducted extensive analysis of simulation data and determined that
the implementation of PRM and SOIA approach operations to closely-spaced parallel
runways requires additional crew training. The primary focus of this training
is to raise each pilot’s situational awareness in ILS PRM, LDA PRM and RNAV
(GPS) PRM operations. The breakout maneuver must be flown manually.
a) Traffic Alert. One important element of the additional
training is the pilot understands the difference between a normal missed
approach initiated by a pilot and a breakout initiated by a PRM final monitor
controller. It must be clear to flightcrews that when the final monitor controller
uses the words “Traffic Alert,” the controller will then give critical instructions
that the pilot must act on promptly to preserve adequate separation from an
airplane straying into the adjoining approach path.
b) ATC Breakout Maneuver Command to Turn and/or Descend,
Climb, or Maintain Altitude. The flightcrew must immediately follow the final
monitor controller’s vertical (climb/descend/maintain altitude) and horizontal
(turn) commands. If the flightcrew is operating the TCAS in the traffic advisory
(TA)/Resolution Advisory (RA) mode and receives a TCAS RA at any time while
following the final monitor controller’s command, the flightcrew will simultaneously
continue to turn to the controller’s assigned heading and follow the vertical
guidance provided by the TCAS RA.
c) Time-to-Turn Standard. Regardless of airplane
type, tests and data analysis revealed that pilots normally passed through an
angle of bank of at least 3 degrees while rolling into a breakout turn within
10 seconds of receiving a breakout command. (Bank angles of between 20 and 30
degrees were normally achieved during the breakout.) The operator must show
that its CAA has determined that pilots can readily meet this time-to-initiate-turn
standard prior to the POI authorizing ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches
in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. Flightcrews are required to manually fly the breakout
maneuver unless otherwise approved. The air carrier should demonstrate its ability
to meet this standard by having representative pilots perform the breakout maneuver
while the POI or the POI’s designated representative observes. The demonstration
should conform to procedures contained in the air carrier’s approved operating
manual for its flightcrews. The commercial operator should submit procedures
to its POI for this authorization.
NOTE: In a breakout, ATC will never command a descent
below the applicable minimum vector altitude (MVA), thus assuring that
no flight will be commanded to descend below 1,000 ft above the highest
obstacle during a breakout.
3) ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM, RNAV (GPS) PRM and the Use
of TCAS. TCAS may be operated in TA/RA mode while executing ILS PRM, LDA
PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches. However, when conducting these operations,
pilots must understand that the final monitor controller’s instruction to turn
is the primary means for ensuring safe separation from another airplane. Pilots
must bear in mind that the TCAS does not provide separation in the horizontal
plane; the TCAS accomplishes separation by commands solely in the vertical plane.
Therefore, during final approach, only the final monitor controller has the
capability to command a turn for lateral separation. Flightcrews are expected
to follow any ATC instruction to turn.
a) ATC Command to Turn with TCAS RA. In the unlikely
event that a flightcrew should simultaneously receive a final monitor controller’s
command to turn and a TCAS RA, the flightcrew must follow both the final monitor
controller’s turn command and the TCAS RA’s climb or descent command.
b) TCAS RA Alone. In the extremely unlikely event
that an RA occurs without a concurrent breakout instruction from the final monitor
controller, the pilot should follow the RA and advise the controller of the
action taken as soon as possible. In this instance, it is likely that a breakout
command would follow.
c) TCAS Not Required. An operator does not need an
operative TCAS to conduct ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches.
4) Required and Recommended Training for ILS/PRM,
LDA/PRM, and RNAV (GPS) PRM Approaches. A foreign air carrier must include
required training in its training program and the State of Operator must approve
that training before the FAA may authorize either or both PRM approaches in
OpSpec C052. Flightcrews must accomplish required ground training before conducting
ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches.
a) Initial ground trainingrequired.
1. This training must include
all elements of the “Attention All Users Page” of an ILS/PRM or an LDA/PRM or
an RNAV (GPS) PRM as authorized, along with viewing the latest version of the
PRM video. (Contact FAA Flight Standards at 2022678166 for the most
NOTE: The FAA does not require flightcrews trained
previously in PRM operations under earlier guidance to requalify with each new
version of the PRM video.
2. The ground portion of
the training program must support the following knowledge objectives. Each flightcrew
a. Describe the PRM system to
include the meaning of “no transgression zones.”
b. Know that an airplane on an
adjacent approach path may be less than 4,300 ft away and may be flying
at a different speed.
c Know that the automated terminal
information service (ATIS) broadcasts a pilot advisory when ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM
or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches are in progress.
d. Identify the differences between
PRM approach charts and normal approach charts, including the special instruction
pages for PRM.
e. Explain the unique communication
requirements (equipment and procedures) for ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM, and RNAV (GPS)
f. Know that an unpublished missed
approach instruction that ATC may issue prior to published MAPs is called a
g. Know that a breakout may include
instructions to descend and that the descent will be to no lower than the MVA
for the sector. The MVA guarantees 1,000 ft above the highest obstruction
in that sector. The rate of descent that controllers expect is not more than
1,000 ft per minute.
h. Know that a pilot must initiate
a breakout maneuver manually and immediately upon hearing the “Traffic Alert”
command from ATC, and that adequate separation requires that the pilot establish
a 3‑degree‑per‑second rate of turn within 8 seconds.
i. Know that the three areas (ATIS,
Dual VHF Comm. Required, and All “Breakouts”) in the “Attention All Users Page”
must be briefed (in flight) prior to conducting an ILS/PRM or an LDA/PRM or
an RNAV (GPS) PRM approach.
j. Know that flightcrews may operate
the TCAS in the TA/RA mode when conducting PRM approaches, including the following
an RA occurs with a concurrent ATC breakout commandfollow the turn required
in the ATC instructions; follow the climb or descent in the RA command (split
an RA occurs without a concurrent ATC breakout commandfollow the RA and
contact ATC as soon as practical;
provides only vertical resolution to aircraft conflicts; and
operative TCAS is not required for PRM operations.
k. Know procedures for SOIAs,
including the following points:
visual segment of the LDA/PRM or the offset RNAV (GPS) PRM approach is established
prior to the MAP to permit;
acquisition of the traffic to the parallel runway and advising ATC;
acquisition of the runway environment;
PRM or the offset RNAV (GPS) PRM course is maintained until the MAP. At the
MAP, the pilot must have the parallel traffic in sight and the runway environment
in sight, or fly the missed approach;
the MAP with the parallel traffic and the runway in sight, the pilot may continue
to a landing;
to align with the RCL;
on glidepath no lower than 500 ft above TDZ; and
wake turbulence from the parallel runway traffic.
3. Testing of these knowledge
objectives is recommended.
b) Initial flight trainingrequired.
c) Breakout maneuverrequired.
NOTE: Initial breakout flight training must focus
on the descending breakout.
NOTE: Air carriers who currently hold OpSpec approval
to conduct PRM approaches have 12 months from the effective date of HBAT 03-03
(05/29/03) to initiate breakout flight training, and must complete training
by the end of the next full training cycle.
NOTE: Air carriers applying for initial approval
to conduct PRM approaches must complete breakout flight training by the end
of the next full training cycle after receiving OpSpec approval.
NOTE: The FAA may authorize air carriers to conduct
ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches. The FAA does not require duplicative
flight training in the breakout maneuver (i.e., a breakout covered in flight
training for ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM satisfies the requirement).
NOTE: All air carriers who provide breakout training
to flightcrews prior to the effective date of HBAT 03-03 (5/29/03) are
not required to requalify.
NOTE: LDA/PRM approach. Recommended: ILS/PRM approach
(if authorized on OpSpecs).
d) Recurrent ground trainingrequired: Review
of the ground training elements and the video in subparagraph E4)a) above
and testing in those elements.
e) Recurrent flight training.
1. Required: None.
LDA/PRM approach, and
5) Authorizing ILS/PRM Approaches, LDA/PRM Approaches,
and RNAV (GPS) PRM Approaches for 14 CFR Part
129 Foreign Air Carriers. A part 129
foreign air carrier operating in the United States may be authorized in OpSpec
C052 to conduct ILS/PRM approaches, LDA/PRM approaches, and/or RNAV (GPS) PRM
a) That foreign air carrier meets the ground and
flight training requirements contained in subparagraphs J4)a) through c) above;
b) The CAA for the foreign air carrier authorizes
these type approaches; and
c) The air carrier’s POI determines that a point
of contact (POC) for the foreign air carrier’s CAA has been established in the
foreign air carrier’s OpSpec A006(c).
NOTE: A definition of RNAV (GPS) PRM has been added
to the A002 template.
OPSPEC C053 and C054. RESERVED.
OPSPEC C055ALTERNATE AIRPORT IFR WEATHER MINIMUMS (OPTIONAL).
A. Applicability. Paragraph C055 is an optional
authorization available to all operators conducting airplane operations under
14 CFR part 129.
The OpSpec is approved by the Administrator as an alternative method of calculating
alternate minima to that specified in 14 CFR part 91,
The OpSpec may be issued if the State of Operator has approved the foreign air
carrier for this alternative method. The OpSpec must not be issued if the State
of Operator has not approved the foreign air carrier for this alternative method.
Without OpSpec C055, the foreign air carrier must comply with the highest minima
of the State of Operator authorized method and § 91.169(c).
The relevant International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 6 Part I,
International Commercial Air Transport – Aeroplanes, standards are 4.3.4 and
4.3.5 with additional guidance in ICAO DOC 9976, Flight Planning and Fuel Management
Manual. Paragraph C055 provides a two-part table from which the operator,
during the initial dispatch or flight release planning segment of a flight,
derives alternate airport IFR weather minimums in those cases where it
has been determined that an alternate airport is required.
NOTE: Questions regarding the issuance of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA
C055 should be directed to the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS400)
or the International Programs and Policy Division (AFS-50). If the PI directs
questions to AFS-50, the PI should copy AFS400 and vice versa.
B. Airports With At Least One Operational Navigation
Facility. The first part of the table is for airports with at least
1 operational navigational facility providing a straight-in Nonprecision Approach
(NPA) procedure, or a straight-in precision approach procedure, or, when applicable,
a circling maneuver from an instrument approach procedure (IAP). The required
ceiling and visibility is obtained by adding 400 feet (ft) to the minimum
descent altitude/height (MDA/H) or, when applicable, the authorized decision
altitude/height (DA/H) and by adding 1 statute mile (mi) or 1,600 meters
(m) to the authorized landing minimum.
C. Airports With At Least Two Operational Navigation
Facilities. The second part of the table is for airports with at least
two operational navigational facilities, each providing a straight-in NPA procedure
or a straight-in precision approach procedure to different suitable runways.
The required ceiling and visibility is obtained by adding 200 ft to the
higher MDA/H or DA/H of the two approaches used and by adding 1/2 mi or
800 m visibility to the higher authorized landing minimum of the two
D. Higher Alternate Minimums When Using Two Operational
Navigation Facilities. In some cases, it is possible to have higher alternate minimums
when using two operational navigational facilities than when using one. For
example, an airport with one straight-in NPA procedure with a MDA/H of 400 ft
and 1 mi visibility would have alternate minimums of 800 ft and
2 mi visibility (400 ft + 400 ft and 1 mi + 1 mi).
On the other hand, an airport with two straight-in approaches, one which is
a straight-in precision approach with a DA/H of 200 ft and 1/2 mi
visibility and the other a straight-in NPA with a MDA/H of 700 ft and 1 mi
visibility, would have alternate minimums of 900 ft and 1 1/2 mi
visibility (200 ft + 700 ft and 1/2 mi + 1 mi).
Since the OpSpecs require that the operator use the higher ceiling and visibility,
the minimums for the airport with two straight-in approaches are higher
than for the airport with only one straight-in approach. When this situation
exists, the operator may elect to consider the airport as having only one straight-in
approach procedure and may add the higher buffer requirement (400 ft and
1 mi) to whichever straight-in approach procedure provides for the lowest
possible ceiling and visibility minimums.
E. Using Two Different Runways. Two different
runways may be the different ends of the same physical runway surface (such
as, runway 4 and runway 22 are two different runways). When determining the
suitability of a runway, wind plus gust must be forecast to be within operating
limits, including reduced visibility and runway contamination limits, and should
be within the manufacturer’s maximum demonstrated crosswind. The operator should
also take into account any other potential runway limitations, such as Notices
to Airmen (NOTAM) that may affect the landing at the estimated time of arrival
F. Credit for Alternate Minimums. OpSpec C055
allows credit for alternate minimums for airports with a published Category
(CAT) II or CAT III approach based on engine inoperative CAT II or
CAT III capability. (See subparagraph I below for additional details.)
Flightcrews having that capability may take credit for engine inoperative CAT II/III
qualified aircraft and adjust minimums accordingly. The alternate minimums
are based on CAT III engine inoperative requirements. The ceiling and visibility
required for CAT II procedures is a ceiling of at least 300 ft and
a visibility of at least RVR 4000, or for CAT III procedures, a ceiling
of at least 200 ft height above touchdown (HAT), and a visibility of at
least RVR 1800. Foreign air carriers having that capability may take credit
for CAT II/III-qualified aircraft and adjust minimums accordingly.
The alternate minimums are based on CAT III engine inoperative requirements.
1) The following are some but not all of those
requirements. See the criteria in the current edition of Advisory Circular
(AC) 120-28, Criteria for Approval of Category III Weather Minima for Takeoff,
Landing, and Rolloutengine inoperative, for further requirements.
a) The aircraft is capable of engine inoperative
b) The carrier has established appropriate procedures.
c) Performance and obstruction clearance information
has been provided to the flightcrew.
d) Appropriate aircraft configuration, wind limits,
and other appropriate information is provided to the flightcrew.
2) Before authorizing the additional selectable
row(s) in Table 1 of the OpSpec, the principal operations inspector (POI)
shall ensure through documentation that the foreign air carrier has provided
that subparagraphs F1)a) through d) above are met and the air carrier’s Civil
Aviation Authority (CAA) authorizes it for CAT II/III alternate minimum.
If the foreign air carrier does not meet the preceding conditions or equivalent
conditions acceptable to the FAA, the PI must ensure that the issued OpSpec
does not contain any additional rows in Table 1 (should only have two rows).
NOTE: The ICAO equivalent to
AC 120-28 is ICAO DOC 9365/AN910, Manual of All-Weather Operations.
G. Definition of “Two Operational Facilities.”
Question: “Does the FAA consider an ILS facility that contains a single transmitter
frequency for an ILS, but with two different ILS identifications (depending
on which runway is being used) as one or two navigational facilities?”
1) The words “two operational facilities”
have always meant that in the event there is a single failure of one facility,
the other would be operational. In the situation where both instrument landing
system (ILS) facilities share a single transmitter, it would be considered “one
operational navigational facility,” because both ILSs would become inoperative
in the event of a single transmitter failure.
2) The two ILS identifiers would have to be
different even though the ILS transmitter frequency is the same for both. The
charts should tell pilots whether there is one frequency or two. Thus, one or
two navigational facilities.
H. Use of Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning
System (GPS) Minima at a Destination Alternate. Pilots may plan to use any
instrument approach authorized for use with wide area augmentation system (WAAS)
avionics at a required alternate if the aircraft is suitably equipped with GPS
WAAS equipment and the foreign air carrier is authorized to conduct Localizer
Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) and/or Localizer Performance (LP) approach
and landing operations by the State of Operator. When using WAAS at an alternate
airport, flight planning must be based on flying the RNAV (GPS) lateral navigation
(LNAV) minimums line, or minimums on a GPS approach procedure, or
conventional approach procedure with “or GPS” in the title. Also, RNAV (GPS)
(or RNAV Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)) are based on a single navigational
facility when determining the approach facility configuration in Table 1
of the OpSpec, even if there are two or more RNAV (GPS) approaches to different
suitable runways. Upon arrival at an alternate, when the WAAS navigation system
indicates that LNAV/vertical navigation (VNAV) or LPV service is available,
vertical guidance may be used to complete the approach using the displayed level
of service. The FAA has begun removing the NA (alternate minimums not authorized)
symbol from select RNAV (GPS) and GPS approach procedures so they may be used
by approach approved WAAS receivers at alternate airports. Some approach procedures
will still require the NA for other reasons (e.g., no weather reporting);
therefore, it cannot be removed from all procedures. Because every procedure
must be individually evaluated, removal of NA from RNAV (GPS) and GPS procedures
will take some time.
I. Selectable Text and Table 1. There
are two selectable rows which can be loaded into Table 1 of the OpSpec
(Alternate Airport IFR Weather Minimums) and three selectable text options for
additional limitation and provisions (subparagraph b(5) of the OpSpec).
1) Table 1. The two selectable rows in
Table 1 authorize lower alternate minimums when planning to use either
a CAT II or CAT III approach at the alternate airport. If a CAT II
or CAT III credit is authorized, the first selectable text paragraph must
be loaded as well.
2) Selectable Text Options. Selectable text
options for additional limitation and provisions (subparagraph b(5) of
the OpSpec): The first selectable text option states requirements for CAT II
and CAT III credit applicable to alternate airport flight planning, and
must be loaded if the operator is authorized the CAT II or CAT III
credit described in subparagraph I1) above. The second selectable text
option authorizes operators equipped with WAAS to use GPS approaches when determining
an alternate, and lists the restrictions associated with using GPS approaches
in alternate planning. The third selectable text option authorizes both (the
air carrier is authorized CAT II or III and GPS/WAAS alternate minimums.)
NOTE: Prior to issuing C055 to the foreign air carrier,
principal inspectors (PI) must ensure that the appropriate selectable text option
is selected, if applicable. If none of the selectable text options apply, the
PI must ensure that none of the selectable text options are selected.
OPSPEC C056IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMSAIRPLANES (OPTIONAL).
A. General. The FAA issues OpSpec C056 to
foreign air carriers who conduct operations under IFR with airplanes to the
United States. This OpSpec contains guidance regarding pilots, aircraft, and
airports when lower minimums than those defined in 14 CFR part 91,
hereinafter referred to as standard takeoff minimums, are used. OpSpec
C056 lists the lowest Runway Visual Range (RVR) in feet based on the authorized
B. Inspector Action/Web-based Operations Safety
System (WebOPSS) Entry. When issuing OpSpec C056, the principal operations
inspector (POI) must select in the table in subparagraph b of the OpSpec
1) No lower than the lowest State of the Operator
Authorized RVR for each airplane type to be used to fly to the U.S.
NOTE: Regardless of the particular authorizations of
a foreign carrier the POI may not authorize minima lower than RVR 300/300/300.
2) The free text box to manually enter the
appropriate Head Up Display (HUD) for each type of aircraft to be used to fly
to the U.S. or select N/A if HUD is not authorized by the State of the Operator.
3) Any additional limitations and provisions
not specified in the OpSpec and applicable to the lowest RVR for the type of
aircraft to be used.
4) Additionally, the POI must select:
a) The static text in subparagraphs c(3) and e of
the OpSpec if the foreign air carrier is operating airplanes with a seating
configuration of 30 seats or less or a maximum payload capacity of 7,500 pounds
b) The radio button specifying the limitations and
requirements applicable to the lowest RVR value selected in the table in subparagraph b)
of the OpSpec. (For a summary see Table 12-4B below).
Table 12-4B. Runway Equipment Requirements for Takeoff
Adequate visual reference,
Any one of the following:
Centerline (CL) lighting
High Intensity Runway Light (HIRL)
Runway centerline marking (RCLM)
RVR not available;
1/4 mile (mi) (500 meters (m)); or
RVR 1600 feet (ft) (500 m)/Not Required/Not
Required. (Mid-point can substitute for an unavailable touchdown).
NOTE: Below RVR 1600, two operating RVR sensors
are required. All operating RVR sensors are controlling (except per
the note below for far-end sensors). Extremely long runways (e.g., Denver
International Airport (DEN) 16R) utilize four RVR sensors (i.e., TDZ, mid,
rollout, and far-end). When a fourth far-end RVR value is reported,
it is not controlling and is not to be used as one of the two required
operative RVR sensors. Visual aids (CL lighting, RCLM) must be visible
(for example not obstructed by snow).
Day: CL lighting or HIRL or RCLM
Night: CL lighting or HIRL
RVR 1200 ft (350 m)/1200 ft (350 m)/1000 ft
RCLM and HIRL, or CL lighting
RVR 1000 ft/1000 ft/1000 ft (300
HIRL and CL lighting
RVR 600 ft/600 ft/600 ft (175 m)
RVR 500 ft/500 ft/500 ft (150 m)
With an approved HUD takeoff guidance system, HIRL,
and CL lighting
RVR 300 ft/300 ft/300 ft (75 m)
NOTE: Additionally, RVR 300 ft/300 ft/300 ft
(75 m) takeoff is conducted on a runway with a published landing minimum
of RVR 300 and localizer front course guidance displayed on the HUD.
OPSPEC C057. DECOMMISSIONED.
OPSPEC C059CATEGORY II INSTRUMENT APPROACH AND LANDING OPERATIONS
A. Conditions of Approval. The FAA authorizes
Category (CAT) II operations in accordance with 14 CFR part 91,
(g) by issuance of OpSpec C059. Before the FAA issues OpSpec C059, each
foreign air carrier and each airplane type used by that foreign air carrier
require approval by the State of Operator.
B. Acceptable Criteria. The FAA issues the
OpSpec for CAT II operations in accordance with but not limited to the
1) The current edition of Advisory Circular
(AC) 120-29, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather
Minima for Approach, if adopted by the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), or equivalent
standards, such as European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) certification (CS-AWO)
and operational approval (EU-OPS) regulations or the International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO) Manual of All Weather Operations DOC 9365/AN910.
2) Volume 4, Chapter 2 of this Order.
3) For foreign-registered airplanes, a Lower
Landing Minimums (LLM) maintenance program approved by the State of Operator
and for U.S.-registered airplanes, an LLM maintenance program approved by the
FAA in accordance with part 129,
Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 11, Introduction of Performance-Based Operations).
The POI must coordinate with the principal avionics inspectors (PAI) and principal
maintenance inspectors (PMI).
4) Approval of the State of Operator is also
required before amending OpSpec C059 to include an airplane make, model, and
series (M/M/S) new to the foreign air carrier.
C. Approved Airplanes. Each airplane type
(M/M/S) used in CAT II operations must be listed in Table 1 of OpSpec
C059 (see Table 12-5, Example Category II Approach and Landing Minimums,
for example). The approach/landing system used, lowest decision height (DH),
lowest touchdown zone (TDZ) Runway Visual Range (RVR) authorized for each airplane
type, and any special equipment and other limitations must also be specified.
The example in Table 12-5 illustrates the method for authorizing each airplane
in OpSpec C059:
Table 12-5. Example Category II Approach and Landing
Minimums (Sample OpSpec Table 1)
Dual HUD A3 Mode
All engines and autothrottle operating
AFM supplement< 4
Autoland required for RVR 1000 (300 m)
1000 (300 m)
D. Required CAT II Airborne equipment. Examples
of C059 Table 1 additional equipment are shown in Table 12-5, above,
for each airplane M/M/S. The equipment required is established in accordance
with the applicable regulations, the approved Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) (if
AC 120-29, and equipment required by acceptable equivalent standards. There
are two acceptable methods of demonstrating that an airplane is airworthy for
CAT II operations. These acceptable methods are “type design approval,”
obtained by a manufacturer or Supplemental Type Certification (STC) holder,
or an “operational demonstration,” conducted by the foreign air carrier.
1) Type Design Approval. Unless otherwise
authorized by FAA, aircraft used by international operators for CAT II
within the United States should have Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) provisions
reflecting an appropriate level of CAT II capability as demonstrated to
or authorized by FAA, or demonstrated to or authorized by an authority recognized
by FAA as having acceptable equivalent CAT II airworthiness criteria (e.g., EASA
CS-AWO, Canada MOT, UK CAA). The approved AFM (or flight manual supplement),
for airplanes that have CAT II type design approval, contains a statement
that the airborne systems have demonstrated the reliability and redundancy necessary
for CAT II operations in accordance with
AC 120-29. AFMs also specify that certain equipment is required for
airworthiness approval of the various kinds of CAT II operations. Some
AFMs also indicate that acceptable CAT II performance was demonstrated
both with, and without, certain equipment (e.g., “autothrottles with or
AC 120‑29 also specifies that certain types of equipment are
required for operational approval of the various kinds of CAT II operations
(manual/autopilot). Therefore, both the approved AFM and
AC 120‑29 must be considered in determining if the additional
equipment requirement must be listed (specified) in Table 1 of OpSpec C059.
The illustration above shows how the additional or required equipment should
be listed in Table 1 of OpSpec C059.
a) Equipment that is explicitly required by the airplane
certification regulations (14 CFR parts 23
25, or the foreign equivalent), the operating regulations (parts 91
129)) and/or the approved AFM should not be listed in Table 1. The
standard text of OpSpec C059 requires this equipment to be functional. Therefore,
the additional equipment or operational requirement that must be listed (specified)
in OpSpec C059 is determined by cross-checking the type of equipment required
AC 120-29 for the kinds of CAT II operations proposed against the equipment
required by regulations and the approved AFM.
b) Enter into Table 1 the additional equipment
for the M/M/S and kind(s) of CAT II operations authorized (see example
Table 12-5). Do not include equipment explicitly required by regulations
and/or the AFM (e.g., autoland for B-747 operations below RVR 1600). Do
include additional equipment required in any of the following:
AC 120-29, an STC, an Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS), or
the current edition of
Procedures for the Evaluation and Approval of Facilities for Special Authorization
Category I Operations and All Category II and III Operations.rocedures for the
Evaluation and Approval of Facilities for Special Authorization Category I Operations
and All Category II and III Operations.
c) When the AFM indicates acceptable performance
either with or without certain items of equipment (which are not explicitly
AC 120-29), it must be determined how the foreign air carrier intends to
conduct CAT II operations and train flightcrews with those items of equipment.
If the foreign air carrier proposes to conduct operations either with or without
certain items of equipment (such as autothrottle, autopilot), flightcrews must
be trained for both situations and the item of equipment does not need to be
listed in Table 1 of OpSpec C059.
2) Operational Demonstration. This method
is used when equipment eligibility is not stated in the AFM, the AFMS, or the
Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report. The operational demonstration method
is only appropriate for airplanes and equipment that do not have CAT II
type design approval. The operational demonstration must be conducted in accordance
AC 120-29. A part 129
foreign air carrier should request that its responsible Flight Standards District
Office (FSDO)/International Field Office (IFO)/International Field Unit (IFU)
provide assistance in the eligibility assessment.
a) The foreign air carrier should provide the responsible
FSDO/IFO/IFU with the aircraft make, model, and serial number, any evidence
of instrument flight rules (IFR) approach approval, and pertinent information
from flightcrew operating procedures.
b) For U.S.-registered aircraft, if the responsible
FSDO/IFO/IFU is unable to determine equipment eligibility from the approved
documentation, it should forward the request and supporting data through its
FAA regional Flight Standards division (RFSD) to the appropriate Aircraft Evaluation
Group (AEG). The AEG will verify that the aircraft and its landing system meet
the criteria for CAT II operations, and that the system can safely fly
the CAT II approach procedures. The AEG will provide written documentation
(e.g., amended FSB report or other official documentation) to verify the
eligibility of that equipment.
c) For foreign-registered aircraft, the foreign air
carrier should forward the request and supporting data to the appropriate State
CAA to verify eligibility of equipment.
E. OpSpec C059 Table 1 guidelines.
The following guidelines should be followed for filling out Table 1:
1) CAT II equipment required by the regulations
or the approved AFM should not be listed.
2) The kind of CAT II approach/landing
system (manual Head Up Display (HUD), i.e., manual control using a HUD
to touchdown; autopilot, i.e., approach coupler used to DH, followed by
manual control landing; or autoland) must be specified for each airplane listed
in Table 1 of OpSpec C059. The principal operations inspector (POI)
will select the appropriate phrase to place in the Approach/Landing System column:
Manual (HUD), Autopilot, or Autoland.
3) If an operator is authorized to conduct
a particular CAT II operation using more than one approach/landing system
(e.g., CAT II at 1200 RVR using a HUD or autopilot to DH), both manual
HUD and autopilot can be highlighted and selected for insertion into the column.
4) The equipment required for RVR 1000 CAT II
authorization is to be listed in the “Additional Equipment” column.
F. Operational RVR Minimums. Table 2
in OpSpec C059, shown below as Table 12‑6, Example of Category II
Runway Visual Range Minimums (Sample OpSpec Table 2), is a summary of the
required RVR minimums for each type of CAT II operation.
1) Row 1 of Table 12-6, below, shows
that for Standard CAT II operations at 1600 RVR, only the touchdown RVR
report is required. During the 6-month Operator Use Suitability Demonstration,
1600 RVR is commonly authorized for new CAT II operators. Also, if the
rollout RVR is out of service, CAT II approaches may still be flown to
1600 RVR. Note that the intention of this requirement is not that rollout and
mid RVR reports may be ignored and CAT II approaches may still be flown
to 1600 RVR. If these reports are available, minimum RVR values shown in the
lower rows of Table 12-6 must be used.
2) Rows 2–4 of Table 12-6, below, show
the TDZ RVR requirements for other, lower visibility CAT II operations.
Mid RVR equal to 600 and rollout RVR equal to 300 are the lowest values that
may be reported to conduct Standard CAT II, CAT II to 1000 RVR (TDZ),
or Special Authorization (SA) CAT II operations. All available RVR reports
are controlling, and a TDZ and rollout report are required in order to conduct
CAT II operations below 1600 RVR. If the rollout report is not available,
the mid or far-end report may be substituted. Midfield reports substituted for
unavailable rollout reports must report 600 RVR or greater; far-end reports
substituted for unavailable rollout reports must report 300 RVR or greater.
Table 12-6. Example of Category II Runway
Visual Range Minimums (Sample OpSpec Table 2)
Standard CAT II
1600 (500 m)
Standard CAT II
1200 (350 m)
600 (175 m)#
300 (75 m)
CAT II to 1000 RVR
1000 (300 m)
600 (175 m)#
300 (75 m)
1200 (350 m)
600 (175 m)#
300 (75 m)
NR = Not Required; # = If available.
G. Airplane Maintenance. For CAT II authorization,
the foreign air carrier must have an acceptable LLM maintenance program.
1) For U.S.-registered airplanes, this LLM
maintenance program shall be in accordance with
Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 3, Approval of Small Category A Aircraft for
Category II Operations – Part 91,
and must be approved by the FAA in accordance with § 129.14.
This LLM maintenance program should be coordinated with the PMIs and PAIs.
2) For foreign-registered airplanes, this
LLM maintenance program shall be approved by the State of Operator.
H. Flightcrew Qualifications. Flightcrews
are trained and checked in accordance with the foreign air carrier’s approved
training program for CAT II operations authorized with a DH of 100 ft
and RVR 1,000 ft (300 m), and these minimums are approved by the State
of Operator. If the flightcrew is currently authorized CAT III operations,
no further training is required for this authorization in OpSpec C059.
I. Authorized CAT II Approach and Landing
Minimums. To determine the applicable minima for an approach, the pilot
must first compare the DH shown on the 14 CFR part 97
approach chart with the foreign air carrier’s lowest authorized DH for the airplane
being flown. The higher number is used. Then, the RVR to be used for the approach
is the highest RVR value shown in the approach chart, Table 1 of the OpSpec
or paragraph g. of the OpSpec, considering RVR sensor reports available.
J. Authorized CAT II Approaches, Airports,
1) CAT II Airport and Runway Approval. If
the airport and runways are approved for CAT II operations in part 97,
they should not be routinely listed in OpSpec C059 unless the POI determines
there is a need to specify a special limitation for foreign air carriers at
a particular airport.
a) Standard CAT II approaches are published
in the FAA National Aeronautical Navigation (AeroNav) Products office instrument
approach procedures (IAP) flight information publication as CAT II procedures.
They are identified by the procedure name “ILS RWY 16C (CAT II)” and by
the note in the minima section stating “CATEGORY II ILS - SPECIAL AIRCREW &
AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION REQUIRED.”
b) SA CAT II approaches are published by the
National Aeronautical Navigation Services (AeroNav) with the same identifiers
as standard CAT II approaches, but they also have a note in the Procedure
Notes section stating, “Reduced Lighting: Requires specific OPSPEC approval.
Requires Autoland or HUD to touchdown.”
2) Standard CAT II. The foreign air carriers
may be authorized up to three different minima for use with published part 97
approaches, 1600 RVR, 1200 RVR, and 1000 RVR. Allowable minima depend on
availability of RVR sensors and availability and use of required airplane equipment.
a) The 1600 RVR (TDZ RVR only) and 1200 RVR (TDZ
and at least one other RVR) minima require the flightcrew to use an approach
coupler or to fly under manual control using a HUD for flight guidance at least
to DH. A manually flown landing is assumed and need not be specified. Autoland
or HUD-to-touchdown operations for Standard CAT II may be authorized if
the operators are authorized for these operations by the CAA.
b) The 1000 RVR (TDZ RVR and at least one other RVR) minima
requires the flightcrew to use autoland or to fly under manual control using
a HUD to touchdown.
1. For operations to touchdown,
the airplane and its automatic flight control guidance system (AFCGS), or manually
flown guidance system, are approved for approach and landing operations as specified
2. For manual control using
a HUD to touchdown, the HUD must be flown in a CAT III mode.
c) Foreign air carriers authorized SA CAT II
as described in subparagraph J.3) below may also be authorized to conduct
approaches to standard CAT II facilities when the TDZ and/or centerline
(CL) lights are inoperative. They must comply with all requirements in subparagraph J.3),
using minima appropriate to the RVR available and using autoland or manual
HUD to touchdown.
3) SA CAT II. In addition to the standard
CAT II operations authorized by OpSpec C059, SA CAT II operations
can be authorized to qualifying runways that do not meet the performance or
equipment requirements normally associated with a compliant CAT II operation
(e.g., TDZ lighting, CL lighting, or Approach Lighting System With Sequenced
Flashing Lights (ALSF)-1 and 2).
a) Approval criteria for SA CAT II approaches
are given in FAA Order 8400.13,
where they are described as CAT II Approach Operations on Type I ILS
facilities. These Type I facilities are CAT I ILS installations that
meet the glideslope (GS) and localizer signal quality requirements of CAT II
facilities. The SA requirements are mitigated by the required increase
in aircraft capabilities (i.e., HUD and/or autoland).here they are described
as CAT II Approach Operations on Type I ILS facilities. These Type I
facilities are CAT I ILS installations that meet the glideslope (GS) and
localizer signal quality requirements of CAT II facilities. The SA requirements
are mitigated by the required increase in aircraft capabilities (i.e., HUD
b) RVR requirements and available minima are
the same as standard CAT II, 1600 RVR (TDZ RVR only) and 1200 RVR
(TDZ and at least one other RVR), but these minima require the flightcrew to
use autoland or to fly under manual control using a HUD to touchdown.
c) Aircraft operational approval, HUD usage and flightcrew
training requirements are the same as for standard CAT II to 1000 RVR.
d) The operational equipment requirements above are
summarized in Table 12-6A, Category II Approach and Landing System (Sample
OpSpec Table 3).
Table 12-6A. Category II Approach and Landing Systems
(Sample OpSpec Table 3)
Standard CAT II
Autopilot to DH or
HUD to DH or
CAT II to 1000 RVR
HUD to Touch down or
SA CAT II
HUD to Touch down or
4) CAT II Type Operations Information. The
lists of restricted U.S. facilities approved for CAT II/III operations
and U.S. runways approved for CAT II on Type I operations can be found
on the Flight Operations Branch (AFS-410) Web site at
K. Missed Approach Requirements. The point
at which a decision is made to continue or abort the approach based on weather,
equipment failure, etc. is changed from 1,000 feet above touchdown to the
final approach fix (FAF). After passing the FAF, if the required visual landing
references are not acquired, and any failure of required equipment occurs, or
if the primary guidance system in use (autopilot or HUD) is disengaged for any
reason, the flightcrew must execute the missed approach. The exception
to this requirement is that if both guidance systems are properly briefed and
engaged before reaching the FAF and one system is disengaged or fails after
the FAF, the remaining guidance system is considered the primary and the approach
may be continued.
L. CAT II Runway Restrictions and SA CAT II
Runways. The requirement to conduct automatic landings in reduced lighting
and 1000 RVR operations implies that autoland restrictions imposed by pre-threshold
terrain must be considered. The airport name/identifier and runway along with
the restrictions and limitations should be listed in Table 4 of OpSpec
C059 The list of restricted U.S. facilities approved for CAT II/III operations
can be found on AFS-410 Web site at
The list of U.S. runways approved for SA CAT II operations can be found
at the same site, but is provided for convenience only, and may not be complete.
Any published SA CAT II procedure, subject to the Restricted Runway considerations
above, may be flown. These runways need not be listed in OpSpec C059.
Table 12-8. Example of Runway and Airplane
Restrictions and Limiting Conditions for Part
97 CAT II Operations (Sample Table 4)
Airport Name/Identifier, and Runways
Restrictions and Limitations
Pittsburgh, PA / PIT / 10L
MD-80 not authorized
OPSPEC C060CATEGORY III INSTRUMENT APPROACH AND LANDING OPERATIONS
(OPTIONAL). The FAA evaluates Category (CAT) III operations in accordance
with the current edition of Advisory Circular
(AC) 120-28, Takeoff, Landing, and Rollout, equivalent European Aviation
Safety Agency (EASA) criteria, or the International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO) DOC 9365/AN910, Manual of All Weather Operations. The FAA authorizes
CAT III operations by issuing OpSpec C060. Each airplane type make, model,
and serial (M/M/S) used in CAT III operations must be listed in OpSpec
C060 subparagraph a along with the Decision Height (DH)/Alert Height (AH),
lowest Runway Visual Range (RVR) authorized, and runway field length factor
for the type of CAT III operation authorized. Foreign air carriers requesting
authorization for CAT III at U.S. airports should meet the following criteria.
A. Acceptable Criteria. Criteria acceptable
for use for assessment of foreign air carrier’s applications for CAT III
at U.S. airports include
AC 120-28, equivalent EASA criteria, or the ICAO Manual of All Weather
Operations DOC 9365/AN910. Foreign air carriers previously approved by the FAA
in accordance with earlier criteria may continue to apply those earlier criteria.
Foreign air carriers seeking credit for operations addressed only by the current
AC 120-28 (e.g., CAT III head-up display (HUD) operations)
must meet the criteria of this AC, or equivalent criteria acceptable to the
FAA, for those applicable provisions.
B. Foreign Air Carrier Aircraft Flight Manual
(AFM) Provisions. Unless the FAA authorizes otherwise, aircraft used by
foreign air carriers for CAT III within the United States should have AFM
provisions reflecting an appropriate level of CAT III capability as demonstrated
to or authorized by the FAA, or demonstrated to or authorized by a civil aviation
authority (CAA) recognized by the FAA, as having acceptable equivalent CAT III
airworthiness criteria (e.g., EASA, Canada Minister of Transportation (MOT),
C. Foreign Air Carrier CAT III Demonstrations.
Foreign air carriers meeting FAA criteria, or criteria acceptable to the FAA
(e.g., EASA, ICAO criteria including Doc. 9365/AN910), and having more
than 6 months experience in the use of CAT III operations with the applicable
aircraft type may be approved for CAT III in accordance with the provisions
of their own CAA, or in accordance with the standard provisions of OpSpec C060,
whichever is the more restrictive. The FAA does not require a separate demonstration
period if the foreign air carrier’s CAA does not require it. However, foreign
air carriers authorized in accordance with this provision may nonetheless be
subject to additional FAA demonstration for special situations, such as at airports
with irregular underlying terrain (see subparagraph D below), or for aircraft
types not having flown to U.S. facilities having CAT III procedures. For
foreign air carriers having current U.S. CAT III authorization, the CAT III
demonstration period may be reduced or waived for the addition of a new type
aircraft to the existing CAT III authority. The demonstration period may
be reduced or waived to the extent that the FAA has accepted a successful demonstration
for that aircraft type for any other U.S. or foreign air carrier. Foreign air
carriers not meeting the above provisions may be subject to the demonstration
described in paragraphs 10.5.2 and 10.9 of the current edition of
AC 120-28 (equivalent to those necessary for U.S. operators) as the
FAA determines applicable.
D. Issuance of 14 CFR Part 129 OpSpecs.
If a foreign air carrier operating to U.S. airports meets the above applicable
provisions, the FAA authorizes that air carrier for CAT III by issuing
OpSpec C060. Air Carriers intending CAT III operations at U.S.-designated
irregular terrain airports, or airports otherwise requiring special assessments,
must successfully complete those assessments before using those facilities.
E. Use of Certain Restricted U.S. Facilities.
1) Foreign air carriers typically use CAT III
procedures in the United States that are available as unrestricted public use
procedures. However, the FAA may also authorize certain restricted public use
procedures and special CAT III approach procedures for non-U.S. operators.
Typically, these procedures require special airborne equipment capability, special
training, or nonstandard facility and obstacle assessments. The CAT II/III
status checklist identifies these special procedures. They are not usually published
as a 14 CFR part 97
CAT III Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP). Foreign air carriers
may be eligible to use certain of these procedures if they meet the same special
criteria as would apply to a U.S. operator, and if their own CAA approves them
specifically for the use of the procedure. Some procedures may not be eligible
for foreign air carriers because of other applicable restrictions such as a
restriction placed on private facility use. Special or restricted procedures
require both FAA authorization and specific authorization from the foreign air
carrier’s CAA for each procedure. This is to ensure that both the operator and
foreign CAA are aware of the special provisions needed, and to ensure equivalent
safety to use of standard ICAO criteria. Each foreign air carrier seeking CAT III
procedure authorization at a facility not published as a standard and unrestricted
CAT III SIAP, or at any other facilities that the FAA CAT II/III status
checklist identifies as special or restricted, and that carrier’s CAA must:
a) Be aware of the restrictions applicable to the
procedure (e.g., facility status),
b) Provide evidence to FAA of the CAA’s approval
of the foreign air carrier for each special procedure requested, and
c) air carrier’s OpSpecs for each procedure to be
2) Foreign air carriers shall not normally
be authorized special CAT III operations to minima lower than those
specified in part 97
CAT III SIAPs consistent with ICAO criteria. If special instrument approach
procedures (IAP) other than those specified in part 97
are authorized, paragraph C381 shall also be issued.
F. Type of CAT III Operation. The type
of CAT III landing system and rollout control system (fail-passive and/or
fail-operational) must be specified for each airplane type in OpSpec C060, Table 1.
This is accomplished by selecting the type of operation from the select data
screen in the automated Operations Safety System (OPSS). Selections available
are NA=Not applicable; FP=Fail Passive, or FO=Fail Operational.
G. DH/AH and Lowest RVR. In Table 1,
enter the DH/AH and lowest authorized RVR that the State of Operator has authorized
for each airplane M/M/S and type of CAT III operation.
H. Field Length Factor Required. Runway field
length factor is used in determining the required runway field length for CAT III
operations and is multiplied times the runway field length required by State
of Operator performance regulations or ICAO Annex 6 performance requirements,
whichever are more restrictive.
1) OpSpec C060 Table 1 must specify the
runway field length factor required for the various kinds of CAT III operations
for each airplane. For operations with a controlling RVR at or above 600 feet
(ft) the required field length is 1.15 times the field length required by the
previously cited regulations, or AFM as appropriate.
2) For a precision instrument approach and
landing with a controlling RVR below 600 ft, the required field length
is either 1.15 or 1.3 times the field length required by the previously cited
regulations depending on the operational procedures and/or additional equipment
the operator uses or AFM, as appropriate.
I. Special Operational Equipment and Limitations.
OpSpec C060 subparagraph a Table 1 should not list equipment that
the airplane certification regulations (14 CFR parts 23
25 or foreign equivalent if foreign-registered), the operating regulations
of 14 CFR, and/or the approved AFM explicitly require. The “Special Operational
Equipment and Limitations” column is provided for equipment that is in addition
to that required by regulation and not included in the AFM. For example, additional
equipment may be required if a field length factor of 1.15 is used in operations
below RVR 600 where a procedural means alone is not acceptable (see
AC 120-28). For foreign air carriers that have CAT III approval, copy
the airplane M/M/S, rollout control system (e.g., FP or FO), the DH/AH,
and lowest authorized RVR for each rollout control system into Table 1.
Determine the field length factor as described above (e.g., 1.3 or 1.15)
and copy special operational equipment and limitations noted in the air carrier’s
current OpSpec C060, if any, and insert that information into Table 1 of
the new OpSpec. If the operator does not need special operational equipment,
put “NA” under the appropriate column. Do not delete or leave any cells blank.
NOTE: Only include that equipment which is not explicitly
required by the regulations and/or the Airplane Flight Manual.
J. Authorized CAT III Airports and Runways.
1) All airports and runways to which a foreign
air carrier is authorized to conduct CAT III instrument approach and landing
operations need to be entered in Table 2, along with any required limitations.
2) CAT II/III status lists. The lists
contain information concerning U.S. airports/runways approved for CAT II
and CAT III instrument landing system (ILS) operations. The CAT II/III
status list will be published semi-annually on January 31 and July 31. The CAT III
lists in Sections 3, 4, and 7 replace the information in FAA Order 8400.8, Procedures
for the Approval of Facilities for FAR Part
121 and Part
135 CAT III Operations, appendix 4.
OPSPEC C063IFR RNAV 1 DEPARTURE PROCEDURES (DP) AND STANDARD TERMINAL
ARRIVALS (STAR)U.S. AIRPORTS (OPTIONAL).
A. General. The FAA authorizes instrument
flight rules (IFR) Area Navigation (RNAV) 1 Departure Procedures (DP) and Standard
Terminal Arrival Route (STAR) to U.S. airports in accordance with 14 CFR part 129,
by issuance of OpSpec C063. Before the FAA issues OpSpec C063, each foreign
air carrier and each airplane type used by that foreign air carrier require
approval by the State of the Operator.
1) OpSpec C063 authorizes foreign air carriers
to conduct operations using 14 CFR part 97,
Standard Instrument Procedures, U.S. IFR terminal area navigation RNAV 1 DP
and RNAV 1 STAR in the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS). Foreign air carriers
must be authorized to conduct RNAV 1 DPs and STAR operations by the State of
the Operator Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) prior to applying to the FAA for
issuance of OpSpec C063.
2) The term RNAV 1 DPs includes Standard Instrument
Departures (SID) and Obstacle Departure Procedures (ODP).
3) OpSpec C063 authorization must not be issued
to a foreign air carrier unless the State of the Operator CAA has approved the
air carrier for RNAV 1 DPs and STAR (to include operations, procedures, aircraft
and aircraft equipment, and flightcrew training to conduct RNAV 1 DP and STAR).
B. Criteria Acceptable to the FAA.The FAA
issues OpSpec C063 for RNAV 1 DPs and STAR operations in accordance with, but
not limited to, the following:
1) The current edition of International Civil
Aviation Organization (ICAO) Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual.
2) Joint Aviation Authority (JAA) temporary
guidance leaflet (TGL) Number 10, Airworthiness and Operational Approval for
Precision RNAV Operations in Designated European Airspace.
3) If adopted by the CAA, equivalent standards
to the current edition of Advisory Circular
(AC) 90-100, U.S. Terminal and En Route Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations,
AC 90-105, Approval Guidance for RNP Operations and Barometric Vertical
Navigation in the U.S. National Airspace System.
NOTE: Principal Inspectors (PI) must coordinate all
acceptable criteria other than these specified in subparagraph b with the
International Programs and Policy Division (AFS-50) and the Flight Technologies
and Procedures Division (AFS‑400).
C. RNAV 1 DPs and STARs.
AC 90-100 provides detailed guidance for operations on RNAV 1 DPs and RNAV
1 STAR in U.S. airspace.
2) Additional information may also be found
in the Web-based Operations Safety System (WebOPSS) guidance in association
with OpSpec C063 by clicking on the “Guidance” tab.
D. Outlining Procedures Using this Approval.
Procedures used under this approval should be outlined in the appropriate operations
manual approved by the State of the Operator CAA or within the OpSpec C063 template
for foreign air carriers that do not have an operations manual. Foreign air
carriers that do not have an operations manual must still have procedures using
RNAV 1 or Required Navigation Performance (RNP) 1 approved by the State
of the Operator CAA.
E. Designation of RNAV 1. Part
97 U.S. RNAV DPs and STARs throughout the NAS are designated as RNAV 1 and
published in accordance with part 97.
F. Definitions Related to This Authorization.
Some important definitions as they relate to this authorization:
1) Climb Via and Descent Via. Refer to Information
for Operators (InFO) 14003, “Climb Via” Phraseology for Standard Instrument
Departure (SID), Modification to “Descend Via” Phraseology for Standard Terminal
Arrival Route (STAR), and Phraseology associated with Speed Instructions.
2) Flight Management System Procedure (FMSP).
An RNAV arrival, departure, or approach procedure developed for use by aircraft
equipped with a flight management system (FMS).
NOTE: The number of FMSPs in the NAS is limited and
FMSP criteria are no longer preferred for the design of RNAV procedures.
3) Instrument DP. Instrument DPs are published
IFR procedures that provide obstruction clearance from the terminal area to
the en route structure. There are two types of DPs: SIDs and ODPs.
a) SID. A SID is a published IFR air traffic control
(ATC) DP that provides obstacle clearance and a transition from the terminal
area to the en route structure. SIDs are primarily designed for air traffic
system enhancement to expedite traffic flow and to reduce pilot/controller workload.
b) ODP. An ODP is a published IFR DP that provides
obstruction clearance via the least onerous route from the terminal area to
the appropriate en route structure. ODPs are recommended for obstruction
clearance unless an alternate DP (such as a SID or radar vector) has been specifically
assigned by ATC. The RNAV 1 ODP must be retrievable from the FMS database
and included in the filed flight plan.
4) STAR. An RNAV STAR is a published IFR ATC
arrival procedure that provides a transition from the en route structure
to the terminal area.
5) RNAV 1 DPs and STARs. RNAV 1
terminal procedures require the aircraft’s track‑keeping accuracy remain
bounded by +1 nautical mile for 95 percent of the total flight
time. RNAV 1 terminal procedures requiring, as a minimum, a distance measuring
equipment (DME)/DME/Inertial Reference Unit (IRU)-based and/or Global Position
System (GPS)-based RNAV system satisfying the criteria of
G. Training. All foreign air carrier flightcrews
must have successfully completed their State of the Operator CAA-approved IFR
RNAV 1 DP or STAR training program prior to conducting IFR RNAV 1 DPs or STARs
at U.S. airports.
H. Foreign Air Carrier Actions. A foreign
air carrier applying to the FAA for the issuance of OpSpec C063 must provide
the responsible Flight Standards District Office (FSDO)/International Field
Office (IFO)/International Field Unit (IFU) with evidence that the State of
the Operator has approved the foreign air carrier for this operation. The approval
statement from the State of the Operator’s CAA stating that the foreign air
carrier is approved for RNAV 1 DP and STAR in accordance with xxxx (e.g., ICAO Doc
9613) criteria, that the aircraft and aircraft equipment are eligible and approved
for RNAV 1 DP and STAR, and that the flightcrews are trained to conduct RNAV
1 DP and STARs;
system make, model, and part number(s) approved;
using RNAV 1 DP and STAR (see subparagraph d), and
other pertinent information.
NOTE: The FAA and PIs are not responsible for evaluating
a foreign air carrier’s training program. Air carrier training programs are
evaluated and approved by the Atate of the operator CAA. PIs may accept equipment
eligibility that has been determined eligible and approved by a foreign air
carrier’s CAA when it is also documented by the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM)
or other FAA‑recognized means.
I. PI Actions. Based on the information supplied
by the foreign air carrier, the principal operations inspector (POI) must coordinate
with the principal avionics inspector (PAI) to determine equipment eligibility
in accordance with the RNAV 1 DPs and STARs compliance table. An aircraft equipment
compliance table is available via the AFS470 Web site at
A link to this site may also be found under the guidance tab in WebOPSS
for OpSpec C063.
1) The PAI determines the proper nomenclature
of the equipment manufacturer’s make, model, and software version, and that
the RNAV equipment and system is installed in accordance with approved data
and meets the criteria of
AC 90-100 or
AC 90-105. To ensure the proper configuration control of the approved RNAV
operating system, it is required to list both the hardware and the software
part numbers or version/revision numbers in Table 1 of OpSpec C063.
2) As described in the
AC 90-100 and
AC 90-105, the term “compliance” means meeting the operational and functional
performance criteria. For the intended purpose of this policy, “compatible”
means equipment and systems that perform their intended function and meet performance
requirements for RNAV 1 operations, as determined to be in compliance for approval.
NOTE: Aircraft compliant with the current edition
of AC 90‑45, Approval of Area Navigation Systems for Use in the U.S.
National Airspace System, may not be compliant with the criteria in
AC 90-100 and
AC 90-105, data suppliers and avionics data suppliers must have an LOA in
accordance with the current edition of
AC 20-153, Acceptance of Aeronautical Data Processes and Associated Databases;
operators must ensure that data supplier(s) are compliant.
3) RNAV 1 procedures require DME/DME/Inertial
Reference Units (IRU) sensors and/or GPS inputs. Due to gaps in the DME infrastructure
of the NAS, “RNAV 1” procedures require IRU sensor inputs to augment DME/DME,
which is often referred to as DME/DME/IRU.
NOTE: The Air Traffic Control Flight Plan must contain
information in item 18 of the Flight Plan Form indicating the RNAV capabilities
and include applicable descriptors.
NOTE: If the responsible FSDO/IFO/IFU is unable to
determine equipment eligibility for RNAV 1 DPs and STARs via the AFS470
Web site, contact AFS470 for guidance.
4) Some RNAV equipment and systems may not
be able to perform multiple STAR runway transitions, sometimes known as “route
Type 3,” because of database limitations. Operators of such RNAV systems
must procure a “tailored” database and charts to allow the use of multiple runway
transitions in order to qualify for RNAV 1 approval.
5) After the POI and PAI agree that the foreign
air carrier has been authorized to conduct RNAV 1 DPs and STAR operations
by the State of the Operator CAA and that the foreign air carrier is eligible
for RNAV 1 DPs and STARs operations in the U.S. NAS, the OpSpec C063
template may be issued indicating the appropriate authorizations in Table 1.
J. References to Include (current editions):
CFR parts 91,
91.503 (data currency);
95; and 129,
1050.1, Environmental Impacts Policies and Procedures.
Order JO 7100.9, Standard Terminal Arrival Program and Procedures.
Order JO 7110.65, Air Traffic Control.
Order JO 7400.2, Procedures for Handling Airspace Matters.
8260.3, United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures(TERPS).
8260.19, Flight Procedures and Airspaces.
90-100, U.S Terminal and En Route Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations.
90-105,Approval Guidance for RNP Operations and Barometric Vertical Navigation
in the U.S. National Airspace System.
90-45, Approval of Area Navigation Systems for use in the U.S. National Airspace
90-96, Approval of U.S. Operators and Aircraft to Operate Under Instrument
Flight Rules (IFR) in European Airspace Designated for Basic Area Navigation
(B-RNAV) and Precision Area Navigation (P-RNAV).
20-153, Acceptance of Aeronautical Data Processes and Associated Databases.
Global Operational Data Link Document (GOLD).
Doc 9613, Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) Manual.
OPSPEC C064. DECOMMISSIONED.
OPSPEC C065POWERBACK OPERATIONS WITH AIRPLANES (OPTIONAL).
OpSpec C065 authorizes the use of powerplant reversing systems for rearward
taxi operations. Before issuing OpSpec C065, the foreign air carrier must provide
documentation to enable the principal operations inspector (POI) to determine
whether the carrier has established procedures for powerback operations that
its civil aviation authority (CAA) has accepted/approved. Airplane types make,
model, and series (M/M/S) authorized for powerback operations must be listed
in OpSpec C065. Airports where powerback operations are authorized must also
be listed. If the POI and/or foreign air carrier determine that restrictions
to powerback operations are required at certain gates or ramp areas, the restrictions
must be described (adjacent to the airport name) in the “Restrictions and Limitations”
OPSPEC C067SPECIAL AIRPLANE AUTHORIZATIONS, PROVISIONS, AND LIMITATIONS
FOR CERTAIN AIRPORTS (Required for All Foreign Air Carriers).
A. General. Title 49 of the United States
Code (49 U.S.C.) § 44701 and 14 CFR part 129,
state that foreign air carriers must conduct their operations in accordance
with operations specifications (OpSpecs) issued by the Administrator. Foreign
air carriers, prior to operation into any U.S. airport, must ensure that the
airport is appropriate for the type of operation and aircraft. OpSpec C067 authorizes
and limits the foreign air carrier’s operation of airplanes into certain airports.
These authorizations and limitations include the following types of operations:
1) Foreign air carriers conducting certain
passenger‑carrying operations into alternate airports that are not certificated
(see subparagraph B).
2) Foreign air carriers conducting operations
at airports that require curfew limitations for flights into or out of specific
NOTE: The FAA does not encourage operators to list
in their OpSpecs aircraft‑specific limitations for airports with curfew
hours. If an airport authority requires operators to list such limitations in
their OpSpecs, then operators should list them in Table 1 of OpSpec C067.
A sample of Table 1 (Table 12‑7 below) shows an example of limitations
for air carrier operations into specific airports with curfew hours.
3) Foreign air carriers conducting operations
into airports that require special aircraft performance charts and equipment
or special lighting (e.g., flare pots), or operate on unpaved runways.
4) Foreign air carriers conducting operations
using the Reginald Bennett International Runway Reflectorization System in Alaska.
5) Foreign air carriers conducting operations
into a U.S. airport where the U.S. airport requires a special provision to be
included in OpSpecs.
NOTE: Principal inspectors (PI) must not list any
“special PIC qualification airports” contained in the List of Special Pilot-In-Command
(PIC) Qualifications airports in the Flight Standards Information Management
System (FSIMS) publications except when there are additional special limitations
and provisions required by the foreign Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and associated
with operations into a specific airport beyond those specified in International
Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 6, or on request by the U.S. airport
authority, or when the PI determines it necessary in the interest of safety.
NOTE: The content entered into the Special Provisions
and Limitations section of Table 12-7 should specify the approved limitations
and/or provisions for the designated airport and aircraft, or provide a manual
reference from the foreign air carrier’s approved manual system.
6) Airports/runways where the Flight Technologies
and Procedures Division (AFS400) has approved specific “special” instrument
procedures for a foreign air carrier.
7) Class G airspace or at airports without
an operating control tower.
8) Foreign air carriers that may conduct operations
at alternate airports located in the United States for those scheduled regular
airports which are located outside the United States. An example is when a foreign
air carrier conducts scheduled operations into the Vancouver, Canada (CYVR)
airport, but uses Seattle (KSEA) and Portland (KPDX) airports as alternate airports.
Table 12-7. Sample Table 1 Airport(s)
and Special Provisions
KJFK, John F Kennedy International Airport, NY
Must operate in accordance with the FAA-Approved
Taxi Operational Plan for the aircraft at the airport.
May only be used as a destination airport.
KDCA, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport,
Limitations during the curfew hours.
Max Takeoff159,000 pounds
Max Landing137,600 pounds.
KEWR, Newark Liberty International Airport, NY
Operate in accordance with the FAA-Approved Taxi
Operational Plan for the aircraft at the airport.
May only be used as an alternate airport.
Limited to taxi speed restriction of 17kt/20mph.
B. Alternate Airports Operated by the U.S. Government.
1) The OpSpec imposes restrictions on foreign
air carriers operating aircraft with more than 9 passenger seats in scheduled
passenger‑carrying operations, or more than 30 passenger seats in
non‑scheduled passenger‑carrying operations into U.S. land airports
not certificated under 14 CFR part 139.
The OpSpec may allow for authorization for such operations by the FAA if:
a) The airport (military and non-military) is operated
by the U.S. Government;
b) The equivalent safety standards for airport(s)
certificated under part 139
are met; and
c) The equivalent airport classification requirements
under part 139
serve the types of airplanes and the types of operations to be conducted.
2) Operators should obtain permission to operate
a) The airport manager of non-military airports.
b) The base operations of military airports.
c) The designated airport manager for a joint-use
civil and military airport.
NOTE: See Airport Facility Directory (airport database
of every U.S. airport) for airport permission contact details.
Foreign Air Carrier Actions. Foreign air carriers applying
to the FAA for authorization to operate into an airport within the U.S. must
provide the responsible Flight Standards District Office (FSDO)/International
Field Office (IFO)/International Field Unit (IFU) with evidence that the State
of the Operator has approved it to operate to the requested airport. The approval
1) Documentation (e.g., a letter from
the CAA or an excerpt from CAA-approved manual if in English) that the flightcrews
2) A list of approved airports.
3) Any special limitations and provisions
4) Make, model, and series (M/M/S) authorized
for the proposed airport(s).
5) Any other pertinent information. For example:
station office location(s), name of station manager (or point of contact (POC)),
maintenance personnel information (or contractor information) and any other
contractors (e.g., de-icing or baggage/cargo handlers), including contact
information (name, address, phone/fax numbers) for all contractors, and a list
of which tasks are to be performed by each of the contractors.
of U.S. economic authority (if required) issued by the Department of Transportation
(DOT) to the foreign air carrier to assure that it reflects the addition of
the requested airport.
documentation (e.g., an excerpt from a CAA‑approved manual if in
English or a letter from a CAA) that the foreign air carrier has airport analysis
for the aircraft it intends to operate into the new airport (and its alternate
documentation that the foreign air carrier has properly trained the servicing
personnel in accordance with the foreign air carrier’s CAA‑approved policies
documentation that the foreign air carrier’s contract baggage and cargo handlers
have been properly trained to the foreign air carrier’s CAA‑approved policies
and procedures, which should include dangerous goods training (if applicable).
documentation that the foreign air carrier has properly trained its aircraft
maintenance personnel (or contractor maintenance personnel) to its CAA‑approved
policies and procedures.
documentation that the foreign air carrier has a copy of the State of the Operator’s
required manuals (which should address the above-mentioned procedures) available
at each new airport.
NOTE: All of the foreign air carrier’s personnel
(including contractor personnel) must be able to read and understand the language
that the manuals are written in or be provided by the operator with an English
NOTE: Procedures should be outlined in the appropriate
operations manual approved by the CAA or within the OpSpec for operators without
an operations manual.
NOTE: If the CAA does not go into this level of detail,
then it will be up to the PI to determine if additional clarification is needed.
D. Regulatory Compliance. Each foreign air
carrier operating to the United States must comply with the current edition
1) All applicable regulatory requirements
in 14 CFR, including, but not limited to, the following:
91 (in particular, §§ 91.13,
91.103 , and
e) Any other applicable regulations and laws of the
2) Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP)
of the United States of America.
NOTE: Foreign air carriers may find a link to the
FSIMS list of U.S. special airports in the U.S. AIP. Refer to U.S. AIP, page
3) ICAO Annex 6 standards (to include, but
not limited to 126.96.36.199, 188.8.131.52, 184.108.40.206, 220.127.116.11, and 18.104.22.168).
4) Any regulations of the State of the Operator
that are more restrictive than the equivalent U.S. regulations, as approved
by the State of the Operator for the foreign air carrier applying to operate
to an airport within the United States. Examples:
the State of the Operator requires that to operate to KSFO airport with the
B777 all takeoffs and landings must be conducted by the PIC, then this limitation
must be entered into the opspec table.
the State of the Operator requires that takeoffs and landings in the B747 into
XXX airport may only be conducted between sunrise and sunset and the XXX airport
limits B747 operations only between midnight and 6 a.m., then the more
restrictive State of the Operator limitation must be entered into the OpSpec
OPSPEC C068NOISE ABATEMENT DEPARTURE PROFILES (NADP) (OPTIONAL).
A. The Intent of OpSpec C068. OpSpec
C068 authorizes foreign air carriers to conduct Noise Abatement Departure Profile
(NADP) operations in accordance with the provisions of OpSpec C068 and the procedures
in the foreign air carrier’s manuals that its civil aviation authority (CAA)
has accepted/approved. The foreign air carrier shall use the approved NADPs
for its turbojet airplanes, having a maximum certificated gross takeoff weight
(GTOW) of more than 75,000 pounds, operating from a noise-sensitive airport
within the United States. The foreign air carrier shall conduct each NADP in
accordance with the restrictions and limitations specified in OpSpec C068 and
shall not conduct any other noise abatement departure profile operations.
1) For the purpose of these OpSpecs, the NADPs
for any airplane type at any one time shall be limited to a maximum of two profiles:
NADP operations, and/or
2) Only one NADP can be designated for each
runway at each airport. The foreign air carrier’s NADPs must meet the following
a) For each NADP, the foreign air carrier shall specify
the altitude above field elevation (AFE) at which flightcrews will initiate
thrust reduction from takeoff thrust (close-in profile) or airplane configuration
change (distant profile), excluding gear retraction.
b) Close-In NADP. The foreign air carrier shall
use the following NADP criteria for individual airplane types intended to provide
noise reduction for noise‑sensitive areas located in close proximity to
the departure end of the runway:
1. Initiate thrust cutback
at an altitude of no less than 800 feet (ft) AFE and prior to initiation
of flaps or slats retraction.
2. The thrust cutback
may be made by manual throttle reduction or by approved automatic means. Flightcrews
may arm the automatic means before takeoff for cutback at or above 800 ft
AFE or may be pilot initiated at or above 800 ft AFE.
3. For airplanes without
an operational automatic thrust restoration system, achieve and maintain no
less than the thrust level necessary after thrust reduction to maintain, for
the flaps/slats configuration of the airplane, the takeoff path engine-inoperative
climb gradients specified in 14 CFR part 25,
in the event of an engine failure.
4. For airplanes with
an operational automatic thrust restoration system, achieve and maintain no
less than the thrust level necessary after thrust reduction to maintain, for
the flaps/slats configuration of the airplane, a takeoff path engine-inoperative
climb gradient of zero percent, provided that the automatic thrust restoration
system will, at a minimum, restore sufficient thrust to maintain the takeoff
path engine‑inoperative climb gradients that § 25.111(c)(3)
specifies in the event of an engine failure.
5. During the thrust reduction,
coordinate the pitchover rate and thrust reduction to provide a decrease in
pitch consistent with allowing indicated airspeed to decay to no more than 5
knots below the all-engine target climb speed, and in no case to less than takeoff
safety speed (multi) (V2) for the airplane configuration. For automated
throttle systems, acceptable speed tolerances can be found in the current edition
of Advisory Circular
(AC) 25-15, Approval of Flight Management Systems in Transport Category
6. Maintain the speed
and thrust criteria as described in steps A2)b)3 through A2)b)5
to 3,000 ft AFE or above, or until the airplane has been fully transitioned
to the en route climb configuration (whichever occurs first), then transition
to normal en route climb procedures.
c) Distant NADP. The foreign air carrier shall use
the following NADP criteria for individual airplane types intended to provide
noise reduction for all other noise sensitive areas.
1. Initiate flaps/slats
retraction prior to thrust cutback initiation. Flightcrews should initiate thrust
cutback at an altitude no less than 800 ft AFE.
2. Flightcrews may make
the thrust cutback by manual throttle reduction or by approved automatic means.
Flightcrews may arm the automatic means prior to takeoff for cutback at or above
800 ft AFE or the flightcrew may initiate it at or above 800 ft AFE.
3. For airplanes without
an operational automatic thrust restoration system, achieve and maintain no
less than the thrust level necessary after thrust reduction to maintain, for
the flaps/slats configuration of the airplane, the takeoff path engine-inoperative
climb gradients specified in § 25.111(c)(3)
in the event of an engine failure.
4. For airplanes with
an operational automatic thrust restoration system, achieve and maintain no
less than the thrust level necessary after thrust reduction to maintain, for
the flaps/slats configuration of the airplane, a takeoff path engine-inoperative
climb gradient of zero percent, provided that the automatic thrust restoration
system will, at a minimum, restore sufficient thrust to maintain the takeoff
path engine-inoperative climb gradients specified in § 25.111(c)(3)
in the event of an engine failure.
5. During the thrust reduction,
coordinate the pitchover rate and thrust reduction to provide a decrease in
pitch consistent with allowing indicated airspeed to decay to no more than five
knots below the all‑engine target climb speed, and in no case to less
than V2 for the airplane configuration. For automatic throttle systems,
acceptable speed tolerances can be found in
6. Maintain the speed
and thrust criteria as described in steps A2)c)3 through A2)c)5
to 3,000 ft AFE or above, or until the airplane has been fully transitioned
to the en route climb configuration (whichever occurs first), then transition
to normal en route climb procedures.
B. Airplane Vertical Departure Profiles. Before
authorizing this paragraph, the POI must ensure that all airplane vertical departure
profiles described in the certificate holder’s operations and/or training manuals
comply with the above criteria before authorizing OpSpec C068 for the foreign
NOTE: Configuration changes necessary to meet regulatory
performance or operations requirements shall not be affected by this procedure.
for those airplanes that have a performance requirement to reduce takeoff flaps
to an intermediate takeoff flap setting at 400 ft AFE or above, the
next flap/slats retraction should be initiated at an altitude of no less than
800 ft AFE.
OPSPEC C069-C074. RESERVED.
OPSPEC C075CIRCLING MANEUVERS AND/OR CONTACT APPROACHES AT U.S.
A. Issuing OpSpec c075. The FAA issues OpSpec
C075 to foreign air carriers with fixed-wing airplanes who conduct either circling
maneuvers, contact approaches, or both (circling maneuvers and contact approaches).
OpSpec C075 specifies the lowest minimums that can be used.
NOTE: Do not issue OpSpec C075 if the foreign air
carrier is not authorized for either the circling maneuver or contact approach.
B. Before Issuing OpSpec C075. The foreign
air carrier must submit documentation showing that their crewmember training
program approved by their Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) provides the appropriate
training and checking, and that the CAA authorized the maneuver and/or approach.
C. Drafting OpSpec C075. Within the OpSpec
there are two sets of selectable static text for circling maneuvers and contact
approaches (one for each when authorized, and one for each when not authorized).
The inspector must select the appropriate text based on what the air carrier
is authorized. For example, if the air carrier is authorized for circling maneuvers
and not for contact approaches, then select the text that states the limitations
of circling maneuvers and the “not authorized” text for contact approaches.
D. Circling Maneuvers Terminology. In any
weather condition, a foreign air carrier that permits its pilots to accept a
“circle to land” or a “circle to runway (runway number)” clearance from air
traffic control (ATC) conducts circle‑to‑land maneuvers. The term
“circle‑to‑land maneuver” includes the maneuver that is referenced
in various regulations, publications, and documents as “circle‑to‑land
maneuver,” “circling,” “circling maneuver,” “circle,” “circling approach,” and
“circling approach maneuver.” With regard to pilots, conducting a circle‑to‑land
maneuver means to act as the Pilot Flying (PF) when a circle‑to‑land
maneuver is being conducted.
E. Aircraft Operating Under Instrument Flight
Rules (IFR) During All Circle‑to‑Land Maneuvers. Aircraft operating
under IFR during all circle‑to‑land maneuvers are required to remain
clear of clouds. If a flightcrew loses visual reference to the airport while
conducting a circle‑to‑land maneuver, they must follow the missed
approach procedure specified for the applicable instrument approach, unless
ATC specifies an alternate missed approach procedure.
F. Circling Landing Maneuver. When the ceiling
is less than 1,000 feet and visibility is less than 3 statute miles,
then the foreign air carrier shall not use any circling landing minimum lower
than that prescribed for the applicable published instrument approach to be
NOTE: This does not authorize the pilots to go below
the lowest minimum authorized by the State of Operator.
G. Pilots Restricted to Circling in Visual Conditions.
Any pilot who possesses a pilot certificate restricting circling approaches
to visual meteorological conditions (VMC) is not eligible to conduct circle‑to‑land
maneuvers except as provided below:
1) He or she must use the higher of the minimum
descent altitude (MDA) of 1,000 feet height above airport (HAA) or the
MDA of the published circling landing minimums for the instrument approach to
2) He or she remains under an IFR clearance
and must comply with the procedures otherwise required for circle‑to‑land
maneuvers. The foreign air carrier may conduct a circle‑to‑land
maneuver when the reported ceiling is at least 1,000 feet and the visibility
is at least 3 miles, or the reported weather is at least equal to the published
circling landing minimums for the instrument approach to be used, whichever
NOTE: Foreign air carriers conducting circle‑to‑land
maneuvers without training and checking are subject to the same provisions as
pilots restricted to circling in visual conditions.
H. Contact Approach Criteria. The Aeronautical
Information Publication (AIP) of the United States provides further guidance
on foreign operators operating contact approaches in the United States. See
Part 2En Route (ENR), ENR 1.1, paragraph 42.3 and ENR 1.5,
paragraph 23 of the AIP of the United States, located at the following
OPSPEC C076. DECOMMISSIONED.
OPSPEC C077TERMINAL FLIGHT RULES LIMITATIONS AND PROVISIONS (Required
for All Carriers Conducting IFR Operations).
A. To Whom OpSpec C077 is Issued. The
FAA issues OpSpec C077 to all foreign air carriers operating turbojet and large
airplanes to the United States. Except as provided within OpSpec C077, it restricts
all operations to those conducted to instrument flight rules (IFR) except in
accordance with the provisions of 14 CFR part 93,
Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 50‑2, SFAR 71, or OpSpec B051,
if issued. OpSpec C077 allows the foreign air carrier to conduct the following
operations in the terminal area with the restrictions and limitations listed
1) Terminal arrival IFRvisual approach
or a charted visual flight procedure (CVFP).
2) Terminal arrival visual flight rules (VFR).
3) Terminal departures VFR.
4) Terminal departures IFR.
B. CVFP. For a foreign air carrier conducting
a CVFP, the weather minimums of 14 CFR part 91
prevail except that the carrier shall not use minimums lower than those established
in the CVFP.
C. OpSpec C077 Subparagraph b(2)(b)Uncontrolled
Airports. Uncontrolled airports may be in Class G airspace. In order for
the foreign air carrier to exercise this provision, OpSpecs C064 and/or C080
must also be issued allowing operation at airports without an operating control
tower and/or operation in Class G airspace.
D. OpSpec C077 Subparagraph b(3).
In lieu of a CVFP, a charted visual procedure that the air carrier’s civil
aviation authority (CAA) approved is highly recommended for all terminal VFR
departures/arrivals that fall under this OpSpec. The proximity of obstacles
to the departure flightpath, the seeing conditions, the accuracy of the guidance
and control systems, the pilot’s proficiency, and the foreign air carrier’s
training should determine the size of the area in which obstacle clearance or
avoidance must be considered.
E. OpSpec C077 Subparagraph c(3).
This subparagraph contains a requirement to obtain an IFR clearance
no farther than 50 nautical miles (NM) from the departure airport.
However, it is recognized that this procedure may not be practical in all situations.
If a greater distance is necessary, the foreign air carrier may apply for a
nonstandard paragraph. If OpSpec B051 is issued for VFR en route operations,
then for propeller‑driven aircraft, except for certain en route VFR
provisions in part 93,
SFAR 50‑2, or SFAR 71, the flightcrew may depart VFR under
the provision of OpSpec C077 subparagraph c, and the requirement to
obtain an IFR clearance en route does not apply.
F. Terminal Departure IFR Requirements in Subparagraph d.
If air traffic control (ATC) clears the flight, it is acceptable to execute
a visual meteorological conditions (VMC) takeoff and climb to a specified point
in the clearance as part of an IFR clearance. However, the foreign air
carrier must ensure that the obstacle performance requirements are met. Further,
the flight must not depart on a VFR flight plan if the capability to go on an
IFR flight plan is evident.
G. Subparagraph e. Subparagraph e
provides special limitations and provisions for all VFR operations. This subparagraph is
applicable to all the provisions and limitations of OpSpec C077.
1) Subparagraph e(1). In order for the
foreign air carrier to conduct VFR operations under OpSpec C077, they must
have in place either a procedure or program that can identify obstacles and
the airport obstacle data. Further, they must ensure that the flightcrew use
that information. The POI shall request documentation from the foreign air carrier
that this program is in place and that the air carrier’s CAA has approved VFR
2) OpSpec C077, Subparagraph e(2).
Although each subparagraph has specific details and minimums regarding
VFR, the requirement for sufficient seeing conditions to identify and avoid
obstacles is required for all VFR operations.
OPSPEC C078. RESERVED.
OPSPEC C080TERMINAL AREA IFR OPERATIONS IN CLASS G AIRSPACE AND
AT AIRPORTS WITHOUT AN OPERATING CONTROL TOWER (OPTIONAL). The FAA issues
OpSpec C080 to authorize a foreign air carrier to conduct terminal area
airplane instrument flight rules (IFR) operations in Class G airspace or
at airports without an operating control tower.
A. Before Authorizing OpSpec C080. Before
authorizing OpSpec C080, the principal operations inspector (POI) must determine
that the foreign air carrier’s civil aviation authority (CAA) has authorized/approved
it for these types of operations. The foreign air carrier must provide documentation
to the POI showing that they have the required methods or procedures and arrangements
in place for obtaining and disseminating necessary operational information and
that their CAA has accepted/approved them. This operational information must
include the following:
1) That the airport is served by an authorized
instrument approach procedure (IAP) (and departure procedure, when applicable).
2) Applicable charts for crewmember use.
3) Operational weather data from an approved
source for control of flight movements and crewmember use. (For a list of examples,
Volume 3, Chapter 26, Section 4. Note that the examples contained therein
are not all inclusive.)
4) Status of airport services and facilities
at the time of the operation.
5) Suitable means for pilots to obtain traffic
6) Sources of traffic and airport advisories.
7) Scheduled passenger operations. The POI
must select the optional text for scheduled operations. The optional text specifies
the following additional requirement: would it not have been for weather, or
mechanical or air traffic control (ATC) delays, the flight would have arrived
at the scheduled time and the airspace would have been Class D.
B. Sources of Traffic and Airport Advisories.
Foreign air carriers may be authorized to use any two‑way radio source
of air TA information listed in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) (for
operations in U.S. airspace) or equivalent Aeronautical Information Publications
1) These sources include common traffic advisory
frequencies (CTAF), Aeronautical Advisory Stations (UNICOM), Multicom, and Flight
Service Stations (FSS).
2) In those cases where two sources are listed
at the same airport, inspectors must ensure that the foreign air carrier’s manuals
have procedures that require pilots to continuously monitor and use the TA frequency
when operating within 10 nautical miles (NM) of the airport. The procedures
should require communication concerning airport services and facilities to be
completed while more than 10 NM from the airport.
3) At some airports, no public use frequencies
may be available. In those cases, a foreign air carrier must arrange for radio
communication of essential information, including surveillance of local or transient
aircraft operations by ground personnel. Ground personnel who provide airport
status and TA reports using a company radio must be able to view airspace around
OPSPEC C381. RESERVED.
OPSPEC C083IASA CATEGORY 2 SPECIAL OPERATIONAL RESTRICTIONSSCHEDULED
AND NON-SCHEDULED OPERATIONS, ADDITIONAL AIRCRAFT AND SPECIAL AUTHORIZATIONS
(Required for All Carriers from International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA)
Cat II Countries).
A. General. OpSpec C083 shall be issued to
any foreign air carrier conducting operations to the United States under
14 CFR part 129, when the FAA determines under the international
aviation safety assessment program (IASA) that the State of Operator does not
oversee civil aviation safety in accordance with minimum international
standards. Such countries are placed in IASA Category 2. Foreign air carriers
with existing operations to the United States will be permitted to continue
operations at current levels under heightened FAA surveillance. The FAA does
not permit expansion or changes in services to the United States by such carriers
while their home country is in Category 2 status. The FAA will permit new
services only if operated using aircraft wet‑leased from a duly authorized
and properly supervised U.S. carrier or a foreign air carrier from a Category 1
country that is authorized to serve the United States using its own aircraft
under part 129.
Those operations are not restricted by this OpSpec. Issuance of OpSpec C083
shall be coordinated with the International Programs and Policy Division (AFS50).
If no operations were conducted to the United States in the 6 calendar‑months
prior to the month in which their home country was determined to be Category 2,
the responsible FSDO/IFO/IFU should begin the process of withdrawing the carrier’s
OpSpecs instead of issuing this paragraph. That process should only begin after
consultation with AFS50.
B. Scheduled Operations. In order to maintain
operations at current levels for these carriers, each foreign airport from which
the foreign air carrier provides scheduled service to the United States shall
be listed in OpSpec C083 subparagraph a. The foreign air carrier must
have provided scheduled service to the listed city pairs either at the time
their home country was determined to be Category 2, or during the 6 calendar‑months
prior to the month their home country was determined to be Category 2. The foreign
air carrier shall also be limited to the frequency operated to those city pairs
during the 6 calendar‑months prior to the CAT 2 determination.
OpSpec C083 limits the foreign air carrier’s scheduled operations to the
United States to those city pairs and frequency. If the carrier’s home country
once again obtains IASA Category 1 status, this OpSpec will be withdrawn.
C. Nonscheduled Operations. When a foreign
air carrier’s home country is determined to be in IASA Category 2, the FAA restricts
the foreign air carrier’s nonscheduled operations to the geographic areas to
which operations were conducted and frequency of operation during the 6 calendar-months
prior to the Category 2 determination. Each U.S. geographic area to which the
foreign air carrier provides nonscheduled service to the United States and the
frequency of that nonscheduled service over the preceding 6 months shall
be listed in the table in subparagraph b. If the carrier’s home country
once again obtains IASA Category 1 status, this OpSpec will be withdrawn.
The applicable geographic areas are only those that also are listed in OpSpec A001.
To list the areas of geographic authorization, accomplish the following:
1) First, obtain the “list of areas of en route
operation.” The Web-based Operations Safety System (WebOPSS) guidance subsystem
contains detailed information on geographical areas. The areas authorized for
issuance to a foreign air carrier in 129 OpSpecs are:
48 Contiguous United States and the District of Columbia,
State of Alaska,
State of Alaska; the Following Islands [insert],
State of Hawaii,
State of Hawaii; the Following Islands [insert],
States of [insert], and
Territory of [insert].
2) Then select the individual areas of en route
operations to be authorized.
a) Certain selections have blank spaces, which when
selected must be completed. These selections should normally be used only when
the operation is to be limited to certain states, or islands within a larger
geographic area. For example, a foreign air carrier may have its nonscheduled
operations limited to Hawaii and other specific island(s) and territories within
the region of the South Pacific Ocean, such as Guam and Samoa, if that carrier
provided nonscheduled service to the area during the prior 6 months. While
these types of selections provide two or three blank spaces, as many states
or islands as appropriate can be entered.
b) If the standard phraseology for a particular selection
is not appropriate, the principal operations inspector (POI) may develop an
appropriate description of the area to be authorized. In these cases, the POI)
can delete the standard phraseology and insert the nonstandard description of
the geographic area.
Figure 12-3. Example Listing of Restrictions for
a Foreign Air Carrier
A. Scheduled Operations.The foreign air carrier shall only
conduct scheduled operations to and from the United States between
the specific city pairs listed in this paragraph.
UNITED STATES CITY
FOREIGN COUNTRY CITY
PANC Anchorage, Alaska
XXXX anywhere city
Twice per week
B. Nonscheduled Operations.The foreign air carrier’s nonscheduled
operations to and from the United States is restricted to the U.S.
geographic area and frequency listed in this paragraph.
UNITED STATES GEOGRAPHIC AREA
USAThe 48 Contiguous United
States and the District of Columbia
6 flights per year
D. Additional Aircraft. On or after the date their
home country was determined to be CAT 2, no additional aircraft (including
substitution of aircraft) may be added to the carrier’s OpSpecs, except through
the issuance of OpSpec A028 allowing aircraft wet‑leased from a duly authorized
and properly supervised U.S. carrier or foreign air carrier from a CAT 1
country that is authorized to serve the United States using its own aircraft.
E. Special Authorizations. On or after the
date their home country was determined to be CAT 2, no additional special
authorizations such as Category (CAT) II/III, instrument landing system (ILS)/precision
runway monitor (PRM), land‑and‑hold‑short operations (LAHSO),
Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM), etc., that require approval, acceptance
or authorization by the foreign air carrier’s Civil Aviation Authority (CAA),
shall be authorized in these OpSpecs, unless such authorizations are necessary
in the interest of safety, and shall be issued only with the concurrence, in
writing, of AFS50. Any existing special authorizations such as CAT II/III,
ILS/PRM, LAHSO, RVSM, etc., that require an initial approval, acceptance, or
authorization and continuing oversight by the foreign air carrier’s CAA, shall
be reviewed to determine that adequate oversight by the foreign air carrier’s
CAA is occurring on a continuous basis. If it is determined that such adequate
oversight by the foreign air carrier’s CAA is not occurring on a continuous
basis, the responsible FSDO/IFO/IFU should consider withdrawing those special
authorizations from the foreign air carrier’s OpSpecs. That withdrawal process
should be initiated only after consultation with and clearance by AFS50.
NOTE: Additional information on the FAA’s IASA program,
including a country’s IASA category, can be obtained on the FAA Web site at
OPSPEC C084-C090. RESERVED.
OPSPEC C091OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS AIRPLANE DESIGN GROUP VI, (ICAO
GROUP F), (OPTIONAL).
A. Applicability. OpSpec C091 must be issued
to foreign air carriers who conduct takeoff and landing operations using Airplane
Design Group VI (ADG-VI), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Group
F, within the United States on runways as narrow as 150 feet (45 meters)
B. Operational Requirements. OpSpec C091 specifies
the runway width, Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ), and other airport requirements for
these aircraft. ADG-VI are airplanes with a wingspan from 214 feet (65 meters)
up to 262 feet (80 meters). It closely parallels ICAO Group F criteria.
However, where the ICAO Code designation is also dependent on main gear track
width, the FAA criteria is dependent on the wingspan of the aircraft and tail
height. The current edition of Advisory Circular
(AC) 150/5300-13, Airport Design, establishes airport requirements for the
different airplane design groups including runway width requirements, taxiway
width requirements, OFZ dimensions, and other airport considerations. Historically,
the FAA has authorized deviations from these established design standards on
an air‑carrier‑by‑air‑carrier basis after evaluating
the specific air carrier’s operational procedures and flightcrew training program
and standards. Operational limitations were typically part of the air carrier’s
operational authorization to operate as per the specific deviation granted to
the air carrier.
NOTE: In order to allow ADG‑VI aircraft operations
on existing infrastructure, U.S. Airplane Design Group V (ADG‑V) airports
accepting scheduled service of ADG‑VI aircraft are required to undergo
a special modification of standards (MOS) evaluation. The MOS evaluation applies
to those portions of the airport that do not comply with ADG-VI standards. FAA
issues approved MoSs for those portions of the airport deemed safe for ADG‑VI
operations. In many cases, approved MoSs include operational limitations to
the ADG‑VI airplane or the airport operation or both.
C. Foreign Air Carrier and Principal Operation
Inspector (POI) Actions. Prior to initiating service to any ADG-V/ICAO Group
F airport with an aircraft designed for ADG-VI/ICAO Group F, the air carrier
must supply the POI with the following:
of the Operator authorization;
the requirements of OpSpec C091 were met for the proposed runway(s) of operations
at those airports including potential alternates;
destination airports, U.S. airport MoS approval for that make and model (e.g., A‑380
or B‑747‑8); and
alternate airports, the process the operator used to evaluate the airport to
ensure it could accommodate the aircraft.
1) It is the air carrier’s responsibility
to confirm that they can comply with the requirements of OpSpec C091 and to
supply the POI sufficient documentation to verify their compliance. The air
carrier is responsible for any necessary coordination and letters of understanding
with applicable air traffic control (ATC) facilities and the airport operators
to meet the requirements of OpSpec C091. For example, taxi routes to be used
and procedures to follow applicable to the specific foreign air carrier shall
be established in a written Taxi Operational Plan approved by the airport operator,
ATC, and local control.
2) The POI should provide the air carrier,
ATC facility, or airport operator support, as necessary, to comply with the
requirements of OpSpec C091. A list of airports with MoSs for the A‑380
and B‑747‑8 is located at
NOTE: The air carrier’s compliance with the requirements
of OpSpec C091 eliminates the air carrier from having to demonstrate its
capability to operate to the lower criteria specified in opspec c091 prior to
being issued OpSpec C091 for that aircraft and airport combination.
D. ADG-VI/ICAO Group F Aircraft. ADG-VI/Group
F specifies that the required runway width be at least 200 feet (60 meters),
while ADG-V/Group E specifies that the runway width be at least 150 feet
(45 meters). Currently, the A-380 and the B-747-8 are the only commercial
aircraft in regular airline service that fit into the ADG-VI/ICAO Group F criteria,
and are therefore subject to the C091 requirements to takeoff and land on ADG
V/ICAO Group E runways.
E. B‑747‑8 Limitations. The following
limitations apply to B‑747‑8 operations:
1) Runways for takeoffs and landings shall
be at least 150 feet (45 meters) wide;
2) Operators must comply with all limitations
and procedures specified in the applicable B‑747‑8 Airplane Flight
Manual (AFM) for lightweight and aft center of gravity (CG) takeoffs.
NOTE: In accordance with FAA Airports Engineering
Brief #74A, Use of 150‑Foot (45‑m) Wide Runways and Blast Pads for
Boeing 747-8 Operations, the 35‑foot standard stabilized runway shoulder
width for ADG‑V does not need to increase to the ADG‑VI standard
of 40 feet.
F. A‑380 Limitations. The following
limitations apply to A‑380 operations:
1) The overall runway plus shoulder width
is of 280 feet (85 meters) for U.S. ADG‑VI and 250 feet
(75 meters) for ICAO Group F. In order to reduce the jet blast impact to
150 feet (45 meters) of runway surface, the FAA recommends stabilized
shoulders beyond the runway edge. The FAA 150‑foot runway (width) evaluation
for the A‑380, along with the recommendations for these operations contained
in ICAO Annex 14, Aerodromes, and the A‑380 AFM has led to the following
runway width authorization for A‑380 operation in the United States:
2) Runways for takeoffs and landings shall
be at least 150 feet (45 meters) wide with stabilized runway
shoulders on both sides of the runway extending an additional 50 feet (15 meters)
outward from the runway edge.
NOTE: The additional safety width is prescribed because
the standard ADG‑V runway shoulder width is only 35 feet (10 meters).
3) Runways as narrow as 150 feet (45 meters)
wide with or without the 35 foot (10 meter) wide stabilized shoulders
may be used for takeoffs and landings, provided applicable flight manual procedures
for takeoffs on such runway are followed and procedures are implemented for
the full length of the runway to be inspected by the airport operator for foreign
object damage (FOD) after each takeoff prior to successive aircraft operations.
NOTE: Only the airport operator conducts
runway inspections for FOD. Hence, the air carrier should make sure, or have
some documentation, that the airport operator will do it. The document is the
Federally required Airport Certification Manual under 14 CFR part 139.
4) The hold short lines or hold position must
expand outward from the 280 feet point by 1 foot for every 100 feet
the runway threshold elevation is above sea level. (For example, a threshold
elevation of 5,000 feet above mean sea level (MSL) requires an additional
50 feet. Thus, the hold short lines or hold position can be no closer than
330 feet (280 feet + 50 feet) from the runway centerline
NOTE: This is to address the hold position of aircraft
when an A‑380 is on final approach and is as required per the current
AC 150/5300-13. Specifically, so that if the A‑380 has to go‑around
(balked landing) then the lateral area on both sides of the runway is clear
of obstacles so that if the A‑380 deviates left or right during the go‑around
maneuver (balked landing) its wing tips will not strike anything.
OPSPEC C381SPECIAL NON-14 CFR PART
97 INSTRUMENT APPROACH OR DEPARTURE PROCEDURES (OPTIONAL).
NOTE: To obtain the nonstandard authorization C381,
the operator is required to use the nonstandard request process. see
Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 2, paragraphs 3‑712
to 3‑713, for the nonstandard request process. For foreign air carriers
conducting operations under 14 CFRpart 129,
submit the formal request to the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division
A. Applicability. OpSpec C381 is applicable
to all foreign air carriers conducting airplane operations under part 129.
OpSpec C381 authorizes foreign air carriers to conduct special (non‑14
CFR part 97
) instrument approach procedures (IAP) or departure procedures (DPs). OpSpec
C381 is an optional authorization for foreign air carriers conducting operations
under part 129.
B. Authorization. The foreign air carrier’s
training program must provide training in the equipment and special procedures
to be used, and the foreign air carrier’s civil aviation authority (CAA) must
approve the use of these special procedures. The carrier must be from an international
aviation safety assessment program (IASA) Category 1 State. OpSpec C381
can be issued once the inspector determines that the foreign air carrier is
able to obtain the operational status of the non‑part 97
instrument approach or departure operations.
1) All airports and all special IAPs and DPs
must be listed in Table 1 of OpSpec C381. The full name of the procedure
(e.g., “ILS or LOC/DME RWY 23, Amdt 2”) must be included in the table.
Include any limitations or provisions relevant to a specific procedure in the
third column of Table 1.
2) When submitting the formal request to AFS400
in accordance with the nonstandard request process, include the draft OpSpec
and the approval documentation from the foreign air carrier’s CAA. AFS400
will review the technical content, and forward the request to AFS-50 for approval.
C. Special Terminal IAPs or DPs. For more
information on special instrument procedures, see
Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 10, or contact your regional AXX220 branch
for more information.
OPSPEC C384AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV) REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE
(RNP) INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES WITH SPECIAL AIRCRAFT AND AIRCREW AUTHORIZATION
A. General. OpSpec C384 is used to authorize
foreign air carriers to conduct Area Navigation (RNAV) Required Navigation Performance
(RNP) instrument approach procedures (IAP), which require special aircraft and
aircrew authorization required (SAAAR). These approaches have been published
in accordance with 14 CFR part 97
and are charted as “RNAV (RNP) RWY XX,” hereinafter referred to as RNP SAAAR
B. Alternative Method. The current edition
of FAA advisory circular
(AC) 90-101, Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures with Special Aircraft
and Aircrew Authorization Required (SAAAR), provides an acceptable method of
compliance with public RNP SAAAR IAP requirements. In lieu of following this
method without deviation, foreign air carriers may elect to follow an alternative
method, provided the alternative method is also found to be acceptable to the
C. RNP Approaches. RNP approaches provide
an opportunity to improve safety, efficiency, and capacity. Safety is improved
when RNP approaches replace visual or Nonprecision Approaches (NPA), and efficiency
is improved through more repeatable and optimum flightpaths. Capacity can be
improved by de-conflicting traffic during instrument conditions.
1) RNP SAAAR approaches provide an unprecedented
flexibility in construction of approach procedures. These operations are RNAV
procedures with a specified level of performance and capability. RNP SAAAR approach
procedures build upon the performance-based National Airspace System (NAS) concept.
The performance requirements to conduct an approach are defined, and aircraft
are qualified against these performance requirements. Obstacle evaluation areas
for approaches using conventional navigation aids are based on a predefined
aircraft capability and navigation system. RNP SAAAR criteria for obstacle evaluation
are flexible and designed to adapt to unique operational environments. This
allows approach-specific performance requirements as necessary for that approach
procedure. The operational requirement can include avoiding terrain or obstacles,
deconflicting airspace, or resolving environmental constraints.
2) RNP approaches include unique capabilities
that require special aircraft and aircrew authorization similar to Category
(CAT) II/III instrument landing system (ILS) operations. All RNP SAAAR approaches
have reduced lateral obstacle evaluation areas and vertical obstacle clearance
surfaces predicated on the aircraft and aircrew performance requirements of
AC 90-101. In addition, there are two characteristics used for selected
procedures, as necessary. Foreign air carriers can be authorized for any subset
of these characteristics:
ability to fly a published arc (also referred to as a radius to a fix (rf) leg);
lateral obstacle evaluation area on the missed approach (also referred
to as a missed approach requiring rnp less than 1.0).
3) When conducting an RNP SAAAR approach using
a line of minima less than RNP 0.3 and/or a missed approach that requires
RNP less than 1.0, you must comply with
AC 90-101, appendix 2, paragraph 5 and/or 6.
4) The defining components of RNP capability
is the ability of the aircraft navigation system to monitor its achieved navigation
performance and to identify, display, and alert the pilot when the operational
requirement is not being met during an operation.
1) Overview. Any foreign air carrier with
an appropriate operational authorization (e.g., OpSpecs) may conduct specified
RNP SAAAR IAPs, with a process similar to when foreign air carriers with the
proper authorization may conduct CAT II and CAT III ILS operations.
Subparagraph D3)b) (Figure 12-4, RNP SAAAR Authorization Checklist(Refer
AC 90-101 for current edition)) contains a checklist and a list of the documents
foreign air carriers must submit to their assigned principal inspectors (PI)
when seeking FAA authorization for these operations. Foreign air carriers should
comply with the requirements in
AC 90-101, appendices 2 through 6. Before application, foreign
air carriers and manufacturers should review all performance requirements. Installation
of equipment by itself does not guarantee final approval for use.
2) Aircraft Qualification and Initial Acceptance
of Recommended Operational Documentation.
a) Aircraft Qualification Documentation. Aircraft
manufacturers should develop aircraft qualification documentation showing compliance
AC 90-101 , appendix 2. This documentation identifies the optional
capabilities (e.g., RF legs and RNP missed approaches), the RNP capability
of each aircraft configuration, and the characteristics that may alleviate the
need for operational mitigations. This documentation should also define
the recommended RNP maintenance procedures.
b) RNP SAAAR Operational Documentation. The FAA recommends
that the aircraft manufacturer develop RNP SAAAR operational documentation.
The operational documentation consists of a recommended navigation data validation
program (Refer to
AC 90-101, appendix 3) and operational considerations (Refer to
AC 90-101, appendix 4), training programs (Refer to
AC 90-101, appendix 5), and RNP monitoring programs (Refer to
AC 90-101, appendix 6).
c) FAA Acceptance.
1. For new aircraft, the
aircraft qualification documentation can be approved as part of an aircraft
certification project and reflected in the Approved Flight Manual (AFM) and
related documents. The RNP SAAAR operational documentation can be accepted by
the Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG) in coordination with the Flight Technologies
and Procedures Division (AFS400).
2. For existing aircraft,
the aircraft manufacturer should submit the aircraft qualification and RNP SAAAR
operational documentation to AFS400. AFS400 will coordinate with
other FAA offices and may accept the package as appropriate for RNP SAAAR operations.
Acceptance will be documented in a letter to the aircraft manufacturer.
3) Operator Authorization.
a) Procedures. Foreign air carriers must present
a package of documentary evidence to their PIs at their responsible Flight Standards
District Office (FSDO)/International Field Office (IFO)/International Field
Unit (IFU) showing compliance with the requirements below, in accordance with
AC 90-101, appendices 2 through 6, which is specific to the aircraft,
equipment, and their procedures. Once the principal operations inspector (POI)
has made a determination in cooperation with the principal avionics inspector
(PAI) and principal maintenance inspector (PMI) that the package is satisfactory
and complete, the package shall be forwarded to AFS400 for review and
concurrence. Once AFS400 concurrence has been obtained that the operator
has satisfied the requirements contained in
AC 90-101, or equivalent, the POI issues OpSpec C384, authorizing RNP
SAAAR IAPs. An RNP SAAAR authorization checklist has been provided on the following
pages for use.
b) RNP SAAAR Application Package Contents. The operator
submits documentation of its proposed operation to its responsible FSDO/IFO/IFU.
The package should include, as a minimum, the following:
1. Aircraft qualification
documentation. Documentation from the aircraft manufacturer showing that the
proposed aircraft equipment meets the requirements as outlined in
AC 90-101, appendix 2. This documentation should contain any specific
hardware or software equipment requirements, procedural requirements, and limitations.
2. Type of aircraft and
description of aircraft equipment to be used. Provide a configuration list that
details pertinent components and equipment to be used for the operation. The
list should include each make, model, and version of flight management system
(FMS) software installed.
3. Operating procedures
and practices. Company manuals and checklists must adequately address the special
characteristics of a proposed area of operation and the operational (navigation)
practices and procedures identified in
AC 90-101, appendix 4. These procedures shall be included as part of
the manual required by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 6,
Part I, paragraph 4.2.3, which is approved/accepted by the State of
Operator Civil Aviation Authority (CAA).
4. Navigation data validation
program. The foreign air carrier must provide the specifics of the navigation
data validation program as described in
AC 90-101, appendix 3. The program will be included in the manual required
by ICAO Annex 6, Part I, paragraph 4.2 that is approved/accepted
by the State of Operator CAA.
5. Flightcrew and flight
operations officer/flight dispatcher training programs. Foreign air carriers
must submit training syllabi and other appropriate material to show that RNP
SAAAR operations are incorporated into their programs. Training programs must
adequately address the special characteristics of a proposed area of operation
and the operational (navigation) practices and procedures identified in
AC 90-101, appendix 5. The training and qualification program must
be approved by the State of Operator CAA.
6. Maintenance program.
The operator should submit maintenance program procedures that include instructions
for airworthiness/maintenance of the equipment/systems to be used in the operation
and required training for maintenance personnel. The foreign air carrier must
provide a procedure for removing the aircraft from and returning the aircraft
to RNP SAAAR operational capability. The program must be approved by the State
of Operator CAA. Additionally, for each U.S.‑registered aircraft, the
FAA must approve the maintenance program in accordance with part 14
CFR part 129, § 129.14.
7. RNP SAAAR approach
monitoring program. The foreign air carrier must submit a program that collects
data on RNP SAAAR procedures conducted. Each operation should be recorded; unsuccessful
attempts should include the factors that prevented successful completion of
8. Minimum equipment list
(MEL). The operator must revise its MEL as necessary for the conduct of the
operation in accordance with
AC 90-101, appendix 4, paragraph 2a and submit the foreign CAA‑approved
revision. Additionally, for U.S.‑registered aircraft, the foreign air
carrier must submit the MEL revision for approval to the FAA in accordance with
9. Validation. The foreign
air carrier must submit documentary evidence that the State of Operator CAA
has approved/accepted its U.S. RNP SAAAR IAP operations in accordance with the
AC 90-101 without deviation, including validation testing. If the foreign
air carrier’s RNP SAAAR IAP operations have been approved/accepted using other
criteria, the criteria used must be submitted to the FAA POI. When the foreign
air carriers use an alternative method other than strict compliance with the
AC 90-101, the foreign air carrier’s package will be forwarded to AFS400
for review and concurrence before authorization is granted. Validation testing
of the aircraft capability to perform rnp procedures with AR,
carrier’s operational and dispatch procedures,
effectiveness of the carrier’s training,
effectiveness of the equipment maintenance procedures, and
NOTE: Validation testing should take advantage of
ground training devices (GTD), simulators, and aircraft demonstrations. if the
demonstration will be conducted in an aircraft, it must be completed in day
visual meteorological conditions (VMC).
NOTE: Demonstration may be required in each make,
model, and version of FMS software installed.
Figure 12-4. RNP SAAAR Authorization Checklist(Refer
AC 90-101 for Current Version)
RNP SAAAR Authorization CHECKLIST
Navigation Data Validation Program
Established Maintenance Procedures
Training (e.g., flightcrew/dispatch)
Minimum equipment list (MEL) Revision (as required)
Operational Procedures Requirements
Required Navigation Performance (RNP) monitoring program
Conditions or Limitations for approval
Dispatch/flight following procedures
Validation successfully completed (as required)
Interim RNP special aircraft and aircrew authorization required
(SAAAR) Approval (issue 14 CFR part 129
Final RNP SAAAR Approval (issue part 129
RNP SAAAR Disapproval
Reason for Disapproval:
c) Interim Authorization. For the first 90 days
and at least 100 SAAAR approaches in each aircraft type, the foreign air
carrier will be authorized to conduct RNP approaches with SAAAR using minima
associated with RNP 0.3. For approach procedures with no line of minima
associated with RNP 0.3, the procedure must be flown in VMC. The interim
authorization will be removed after completion of the applicable time period
and number of approaches and upon FAA review of the reports from the RNP SAAAR
NOTE: RNP SAAAR foreign air carrier with experience
of equivalent RNP approaches may receive credit toward the interim authorization
NOTE: Experienced RNP SAAAR foreign air carriers
operating new or upgraded aircraft types/systems, derivative types, or different
aircraft types with identical crew interface and procedures, may use reduced
interim authorization periods (e.g., fewer than 90 days and 100 approaches)
as determined by the POI with written concurrence from AFS400.
NOTE: In unique situations where the completion of
100 successful approaches could take an unreasonably long period of time
due to factors such as a small number of aircraft in the fleet, limited opportunity
to use runways having appropriate procedures, and where or when equivalent reliability
can be achieved, a reduction in the required number of approaches may be considered
on a case‑by‑case basis by the POI with written concurrence from
d) Final Authorization. The responsible FSDO/IFO/IFU
will issue OpSpec C384, authorizing use of lowest applicable minima
after the foreign air carrier satisfactorily complete their initial 90-day/100-RNP
SAAAR approach demonstration period.
e) Aircraft Modification. If any aircraft system
required for RNP SAAAR is modified (e.g., software or hardware change),
the aircraft modification must be evaluated. The foreign air carrier must obtain
a new FAA authorization, supported by the manufacturer’s updated aircraft qualification
and operational documentation.
E. Inspector Action to Complete OpSpec C384.
1) OpSpec C384 identifies each make, model,
and series (M/M/S) of aircraft, equipment, limitations, and lowest authorized
RNP the foreign air carrier is authorized to use when conducting RNP SAAAR IAP
operations within the United States.
2) All aircraft information must be first
entered into the Web-based automated Operations Safety System (WebOPSS) in the
left navigation area, under CHDO > Maintain Operator Data > Aircraft.
a) From the dropdown in Table 1 of the OpSpec,
under the column “Aircraft M/M/S” select an aircraft M/M/S. Use the “+” symbol
to add additional rows. Repeat for each authorized aircraft.
b) Enter navigation system make/model and software
version. The specific make and model of navigation equipment including the current
software version installed on each associate aircraft M/M/S must be entered
in the column labeled “Enter Navigation System M/M/S and Software Version” of
c) Enter limitations in the column labeled “Limitations.”
If there are no limitations, then select “None” from the dropdown; do not leave
blank. Enter all applicable limitations as follows:
“Not authorized to use temperature compensation system. Enter
this limitation unless the aircraft has temperature compensation in accordance
AC 90-101, appendix 2, paragraph 3a(7), and the foreign air
carrier provides pilot training on the use of the temperature compensation function.
“Not authorized procedures requiring radius to fix RF. Enter
this limitation if the aircraft/navigation system does not have RF leg capability.
“Not authorized procedures with missed approaches requiring
RNP less than 1.0. Enter this limitation when the aircraft/navigation system
does not meet
AC 90-101, appendix 2 criteriaApproaches with a Missed Approach
less than RNP 1.0.”
d) Enter autopilot or flight director (FD) requirement.
RNP SAAAR procedures with RNP values less than RNP 0.3 or with RF legs
require the use of autopilot or FD driven by the RNAV system in all cases. Select
in Table 1, in the column labeled “Autopilot Coupled or Flight Director
Required,” one of the following in accordance with the aircraft/navigation system
“Autopilot coupled with Flight Director”
“Flight Director Only”
e) Enter Lowest Authorized RNP Value in Table 1
of the OpSpec, in the column labeled “Lowest RNP.” These values will vary depending
on the M/M/S and navigation system combination.
NOTE: Many aircraft will have different RNP values
associated with “autopilot coupled with flight director” or “flight director
F. Interim Authorization . For interim authorization
during the first 90 days and at least 100 SAAAR approaches in each
aircraft type, in accordance with subparagraph D3)c). On the select data
screen, text tab, the POI should select “load subparagraph g. For interim
authorization text” and click on “load data,” then draft the paragraph.
RESERVED. Paragraphs 12-215 through 12-268.