Volume 12 International Aviation
Chapter 2 Foreign Air Carriers Operating To the united states and
foreign operators of u.S.-Registered aircraft engaged in common carriage outside
the united states
Section 5 Part
129 Part C Operations Specifications—Airplane Terminal Instrument Procedures
and Airport Authorizations and Limitations
12-214 PART C OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS (OPSPECS). The Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA) issues Part C OpSpecs to foreign air carriers
who conduct airplane operations under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations
(14 CFR) part
129. The FAA does not issue Part C OpSpecs to foreign air carriers who conduct
only helicopter operations. Instrument flight rules (IFR) helicopter operators
are issued Part H OpSpecs. The FAA does not usually issue Part C OpSpecs to
129 on-demand operators who are restricted to visual flight rules (VFR)-only
OPSPEC C048. ENHANCED FLIGHT VISION SYSTEM (EFVS) USE ON STRAIGHT-IN
INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES OTHER THAN CATEGORY II OR CATEGORY III.
A. Authorization. The C048 authorization is issued
to foreign air carriers conducting airplane operations under 14 CFR part
129. C048 authorizes a certified enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) to
be used to descend below Decision Altitude (DA) or minimum descent altitude
(MDA) on straight in instrument approach procedures (IAP), other than Category
(CAT) II or CAT III, in accordance with applicable U.S. regulations.
B. EFVS Use. Title 14 CFR part
91.175(l) and (m) authorize an EFVS to be used to descend below DA or MDA
on straight-in IAP, other than CAT II or CAT III. These regulations require
that the EFVS have an FAA type design approval (type certificate (TC) or Supplemental
Type Certificate (STC)) or, for foreign-registered aircraft, that the EFVS complies
with all of the EFVS requirements of the U.S. regulations. An EFVS uses imaging
sensor technologies to provide a real-time enhanced image of the forward external
visual scene to the pilot. An EFVS is used by the pilot to determine that the
enhanced flight visibility is not less than the visibility prescribed in the
IAP to be flown and that the required visual references for descending below
DA or MDA down to 100 feet (ft) above the touchdown zone elevation (TDZE) are
distinctly visible and identifiable using the sensor image when the runway environment
is not visible using the pilot’s natural vision. An EFVS also helps to verify
proper runway alignment at night and in low visibility conditions.
NOTE: The authorization associated with this OpSpec is
in keeping with the intent of §
91.175(l) and (m) and does not authorize an EFVS to be used to satisfy the
91.175(e)(2) requirement that an identifiable part of the airport be distinctly
visible to the pilot during a circling maneuver at or above MDA or while descending
below MDA. An EFVS is permitted to be used to identify the required visual references
in order to descend below DA or MDA on straight-in IAP only. An instrument approach
with a circle-to-land maneuver is not a straight-in IAP and does not have straight-in
minima. While the regulations do not prohibit EFVS from being used during any
phase of flight, they do prohibit it from being used for operational credit
on anything but a straight-in IAP. An EFVS may be used during a circle-to-land
maneuver provided the visual references required at or above MDA and throughout
the circling maneuver are distinctly visible using natural vision. Use of EFVS
during a circling maneuver may enable a pilot to see much more of the external
scene at night and in low visibility conditions than would be possible using
natural vision, thereby enhancing situational awareness (SA).
C. Visual References. In order to descend below
DA or MDA, the following visual references for the runway of intended landing
must be distinctly visible and identifiable to the pilot using the EFVS:
1) The Approach Light System (ALS) (if installed);
2) The following visual references in both
subparagraphs a) and b) below:
a) The runway threshold, identified by at least one of
1. The beginning of the
runway landing surface;
2. The threshold lights;
3. The runway end identifier
b) The touchdown zone (TDZ), identified by at least one
of the following:
1. The runway TDZ landing
2. The TDZ lights;
3. The TDZ markings; or
4. The runway lights.
D. Natural Vision. To descend below 100 ft above
the TDZE of the runway of intended landing, the pilot must be able to see the
visual references required by §
91.175(l)(4) using natural vision, without relying on the EFVS. That is,
the enhanced flight visibility observed by use of an EFVS is no longer applicable.
At this point, the flight visibility only has to be sufficient for the pilot
to distinctly see and identify the lights or markings of the threshold or the
lights or markings of the TDZ using natural vision before continuing to a landing.
E. Using Natural Vision. The visual references
required by §
91.175(l) using EFVS to descend below DA or MDA are different from those
required by §
91.175(c) using natural vision. Table 12-4A, Required Visual References,
91.175(c) and (l), provides a comparison of visual reference requirements
for both natural vision and EFVS. Generally, the visual reference requirements
for EFVS are more stringent than those for natural vision. For example, §
91.175(c) allows descent below DA or MDA using natural vision when only
one of the visual references listed can be seen. For EFVS, §
91.175(l) requires that a pilot either see the ALS or at least one visual
reference listed for the threshold environment and one visual reference listed
for the TDZ environment. When natural vision is used, the Visual Approach Slope
Indicator (VASI) is permitted to be used as a required visual reference for
descent below DA or MDA. Under §
91.175(l) using EFVS, however, the VASI cannot be used as a visual reference
for descent below DA or MDA using EFVS because the EFVS display is monochromatic.
For descent below 100 ft above TDZE using natural vision, §
91.175(c)(3) permits the approach lights to be used as a reference only
if the red terminating bars or the red side row bars are visible and identifiable.
For EFVS operations below 100 ft above TDZE, the approach lights with red side
row bars are not permitted to be used as a visual reference, even though the
pilot is required to rely only on natural vision to descend below 100 ft above
TDZE. The only visual references permitted to be used for EFVS operations below
100 ft above TDZE are the lights or markings of the threshold or the lights
or markings of the TDZ.
For operation below Decision Altitude (DA)
or minimum descent altitude (MDA):
At least one of the following visual references:
Approach Light System
Runway end identifier lights (REIL).
Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI).
Touchdown zone (TDZ).
For operation below DA or MDA:
The following references, using the EFVS:
BOTH paragraphs A and B:
A. The runway threshold,
identified by at least one of the following:
of the runway landing surface,
B. The touchdown zone, identified by at least
one of the following:
TDZ landing surface,
Descent below 100 ft height above TDZE:
At least one of the following visual references:
ALS, as long as the red terminating bars or
red side row bars are also distinctly visible and identifiable.
Descent below 100 ft height above TDZE:
The following references, using natural vision:
The lights or markings of the threshold,
The lights or markings of the TDZ.
F. Conditions of Approval.
Before issuing C048 based on aircraft equipment and operation, inspectors shall
ensure that the foreign air carrier meets the following conditions:
1) Aircraft and Associated Aircraft Systems. The
authorized aircraft must be equipped with an EFVS certified for conducting operations
91.175(l) and (m) and must either have an FAA type design approval (TC or
STC) or, for a foreign-registered aircraft, the EFVS must comply with all of
the EFVS requirements of the U.S. regulations. Furthermore, the foreign air
carrier must be approved by the State of Operator to use an EFVS on straight‑in
IAPs, other than CAT II or CAT III, and a copy of that approval must be provided
to the FAA. Field approvals for EFVS installations are not authorized. An EFVS
is an installed airborne system and must include:
a) A head-up display (HUD) or equivalent display.
1. The EFVS sensor imagery and
aircraft flight symbology must be presented so that they are clearly visible
to the Pilot Flying (PF) in his normal position, line of vision, and looking
forward along the flightpath.
2. The EFVS display must be
conformal. That is, the sensor imagery, aircraft flight symbology, and other
cues that are referenced to the imagery and external scene must be aligned with
and scaled to the external view.
b) Sensors that provide a real-time image of the forward
external scene topography.
c) Computers and power supplies.
d) Indications and controls.
e) Aircraft flight symbology that includes at least the
2. Vertical speed,
3. Aircraft attitude,
6. Command guidance as appropriate
for the approach to be flown,
7. Path deviation indications,
8. Flight Path Vector (FPV)
9. Flight Path Angle (FPA) reference
cue. The FPA reference cue must be displayed with the pitch scale and must be
selectable by the pilot for the appropriate approach descent angle.
NOTE: An EFVS must not be confused with an Enhanced Vision
System (EVS). An EVS is an electronic means to provide the flightcrew with a
sensor-derived or enhanced image of the external scene (e.g., millimeter wave
radar, Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR)). Unlike an EFVS, an EVS does not necessarily
provide the additional flight information/symbology required by §
91.175(m). An EVS might not use a HUD, and might not be able to present
the image and flight symbology in the same scale and alignment as the outside
view. This system can provide SA to the pilot, but does not meet the regulatory
requirements of §
91.175(m). As such, an EVS cannot be used as a means to determine enhanced
flight visibility and to descend below the DA or MDA.
2) Flightcrew Procedures. The pilot can continue
the approach below DA or MDA to 100 ft above the TDZE if he or she determines
that the enhanced flight visibility observed by the use of a certified EFVS
is not less than the minimum visibility prescribed in the straight-in IAP being
flown, and the pilot acquires the required visual references prescribed in §
91.175(l)(3. The pilot uses the EFVS to visually acquire the runway environment,
confirm lateral alignment, maneuver to the extended runway centerline (RCL),
and continue a normal descent from the DA or MDA to 100 ft above the TDZ.
a) A pilot may continue the approach below 100 ft above
the TDZE as long as the flight visibility, using natural vision, is sufficient
for therequired visual references to be seen. In addition, the aircraft must
be continuously in position from which a descent to landing can be made on the
intended runway, at a normal rate of descent using normal maneuvers, and at
a descent rate that allows touchdown to occur within the TDZ.
b) It should be noted that the rule does not require the
EFVS to be turned off or the sensor image to be removed from the HUD in order
to continue to a landing without reliance on the EFVS sensor image. In keeping
with the requirements of the regulations, however, the decision to continue
descending below 100 ft above the TDZE must be based on seeing the visual references
required by the rule through the HUD by means of natural vision. An operator
may not continue to descend beyond this point by relying on the sensor image
displayed on the HUD.
c) EFVS equipage may vary. Some aircraft may be equipped
with a single EFVS display. Others may have an EFVS display and a separate repeater
display located in or very near the primary field of view (FOV) of the nonflying
pilot. Still others may be equipped with dual EFVS displays. The regulations
do not require a repeater display or a separate EFVS for the nonflying pilot,
but neither do they preclude it. Procedures for EFVS operations should be developed
that are appropriate to the equipment installed and the operation to be conducted.
In establishing these procedures, both normal and abnormal or failure modes
must be addressed for the various phases of the approach (e.g., prior to final
approach fix (FAF), FAF to DA or MDA, and after reaching DA or MDA).
d) Procedures should support appropriate levels of crew
coordination with special emphasis on the transition to and reliance on natural
vision. Each EFVS has a specified limit to the FOV. An offset final approach
or crosswinds may affect use of the EFVS, as well as when the decision is made
to rely on natural vision for the primary reference. Also, specific pilot/crew
decisionmaking and coordination must be addressed in the segment from FAF to
DA or MDA (or point that a decision to rely on natural vision is made) and the
EFVS segment (from DA or MDA down to 100 ft height above TDZE). The transition
from enhanced vision to natural vision for landing is an especially important
segment. Foreign air carriers should describe how common SA will be achieved—either
procedurally when a single EFVS is used or through a combination of procedures
and equipment when a repeater display or dual EFVSs are used.
3) Flightcrew Qualification and EFVS Training Program.
The flightcrew must be trained in the use of EFVS and demonstrate proficiency
conducting straight-in IAPs, other than CAT II or CAT III (e.g., CAT I instrument
landing system (ILS), nonprecision, approach procedures with vertical guidance
(APV), etc.). Part
129 operators must have approved training programs. Part
129 operators must have approved training programs approved by the State
of Operator. These programs should include the following items:
a) Pilots should demonstrate knowledge of the regulatory
requirements for EFVS operations contained in §
91.175 for approach to straight-in landing operations below DA or MDA.
b) Pilots operating an EFVS should be able to demonstrate
knowledge and proficiency in the use of this equipment through training and
checking as required by the type of operation. As a minimum, pilots should be
knowledgeable and proficient in the following areas:
1. The specific sensor technology
to include limitations that impact enhanced vision under various environmental
conditions (weather, system resolution, external interference, thermal characteristics,
variability, and unpredictability of sensor performance, etc.).
2. EFVS operational considerations:
a. Use of HUD symbology.
b. Preflight and warmup requirements,
c. Controls, modes, adjustments, and
alignment of the EFVS/HUD.
d. Importance of the Design Eye Position
(DEP) in acquiring the proper EFVS image.
e. System limitations,
normal, and abnormal procedures, including visual anomalies such as noise, blooming,
and thermal crossover.
f. Use of EFVS on precision, non-precision,
and APV approaches.
g. Use of caged and uncaged modes of
the EFVS, if applicable, in crosswind conditions.
3. Impact of EFVS on other aircraft
systems, such as autopilot minimum use height limitations.
4. Runway lighting systems and
5. Crew briefings, callouts,
and crew coordination procedures.
6. Visual references required
91.175(l)(3) and (4).
7. Transition from EFVS imagery
to natural vision and recognition of the required visual references.
8. Obstacle clearance requirements
for approach and missed approach:
a. Flight planning for obstacle clearance
on a missed approach (e.g., go-around or balked landing) below DA or MDA.
b. Use and significance of a published
vertical descent angle (VDA) on IAPs.
c. Vertical Path (VPATH), Vertical
Approach Slope Indicator (VASI), precision approach path indicator (PAPI), published
visual descent points (VDP), calculated VDPs, etc.
d. Use of the FPA reference cue and
9. Missed approach requirements—loss
of required equipment, enhanced flight visibility, or required visual references
for various phases of the approach (e.g., FAF to DA or MDA, and after passing
DA or MDA).
c) The flightcrew shall not conduct any operations authorized
by this paragraph unless they are trained and qualified in the equipment and
special procedures to be used. For foreign air carriers operating under part
129, no pilot in command (PIC) or second in command (SIC) shall conduct
EFVS operations in any airplane until that pilot has successfully completed
the foreign air carrier’s approved EFVS training program and has been certified
as being qualified for EFVS operations by one of the foreign air carrier’s check
airmen properly qualified for EFVS operations or a civil aviation authority
(CAA) inspector from the State of Operator. EFVS training is required in accordance
with the Standards established in International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO) Annex 6, Part 1. It should be noted that foreign EFVS regulatory requirements,
operational concepts, operational authorizations, airworthiness criteria, and
equipment requirements may differ from those specified in §
91.175(l) and (m). Where there are differences, it is important to ensure
that the foreign air carrier’s approved training program addresses those differences
and that operations are not authorized without appropriate training. European
Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) regulations for EFVS operations can be found in
OPS 1: Commercial air transportation (aeroplanes), Annex III of Council Regulation
(EEC) No 3922/91 (EU Ops) Subpart E, appendix 1 to OPS 1.430(h). It should be
noted that EASA uses the term EVS to describe a system that has the same elements,
features, and characteristics as an EFVS certified by the FAA for use in the
4) Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) Provisions. Foreign-registered
aircraft used by a foreign air carrier for EFVS operations within the United
States must have AFM provisions reflecting an appropriate level of EFVS capability
that meets the display, features, and characteristics required by §
91.175. The approved AFM for the aircraft must contain EFVS provisions appropriate
to the EFVS operation authorized. For foreign persons or foreign air carriers
operating U.S.-registered aircraft, the approved AFM must contain EFVS provisions
appropriate to the EFVS operation authorized.
5) Minimum Equipment List (MEL). For foreign air
carriers operating foreign-registered aircraft within the United States, the
MEL for the aircraft, including EFVS provisions, if MEL relief for EFVS is sought,
must be approved by the State of Operator CAA. For foreign persons or foreign
air carriers operating U. S.-registered aircraft, the MEL for the aircraft,
including EFVS provisions, if MEL relief for EFVS is sought, must be approved
by the FAA and the State of Operator when operations issues are involved.
6) Approved Maintenance Program. For foreign air
carriers operating foreign registered aircraft within the United States, the
maintenance program must be approved by the State of Operator CAA. Foreign persons
or foreign air carriers operating U. S.-registered aircraft, within or outside
the United States in common carriage, shall in accordance with part
129.14, “ensure that each aircraft is maintained in accordance with a program
approved by the Administrator.” This maintenance program should also address
issues unique to the EFVS.
OPSPEC C050. SPECIAL PILOT-IN-COMMAND QUALIFICATION AIRPORTS (required
for all foreign air carriers conducting IFR operations into special airports
requiring special qualification by the pilot in command, as designated by the
A. The Intent of OpSpec C050. This OpSpec is issued
to authorize the foreign air carrier to operate to U.S. special airports, designated
as Special Pilot-In-Command (PIC) Qualification Airports by the FAA. Additionally,
this paragraph imposes the same requirements regarding Special PIC Qualification
Airports that would be imposed on a U.S. carrier for operations in accordance
with 14 CFR part
121.445, in an attempt to ensure an equivalent level of safety. This OpSpecs
1) Scheduled operations conducted using turbojet-powered
airplanes or airplanes having a passenger‑seat configuration of more than nine
passenger seats, excluding each crewmember seat.
2) Any operation with large aircraft as defined
in OpSpec A002 of the air carrier’s OpSpecs.
B. Representing a New Process. This OpSpec and
associated guidance also represent part of a new process for updating and maintaining
a current Special PIC Qualification Airport List and notification to the foreign
air carrier. Advisory circular (AC) 121.445-1D, Pilot-In-Command Qualifications
for Special Area/Routes and Airports, dated June 20, 1990, was cancelled and
OpSpec C050 was put into place.
C. The Special PIC Qualification Airports List.
The current Special PIC Qualification Airports list is maintained on the Flight
Standards Information Management System (FSIMS). The list is also maintained
in the automated Operations Safety System (OPSS) guidance subsystem in association
with OpSpec C050 for those carriers that have access to the OPSS through the
Industry Operations Specifications Subsystem (IOPSS).
D. Special PIC Qualifications Airports. The FAA
has designated certain airports in the United States as Special PIC Qualification
Airports due to items such as surrounding terrain, obstructions, or complex
approach or departure procedures (DPs). The foreign air carrier is only authorized
to conduct instrument flight rules (IFR) operations into U.S. airports listed
as Special PIC Qualification Airports with large aircraft as defined in OpSpec
A002, turbojet‑powered airplanes, or airplanes having a passenger seat configuration
of more than nine passenger seats, excluding each crewmember seat, in accordance
with the following provisions:
1) The foreign air carrier may not use any
person, nor may any person serve, as PIC to or from a U.S. airport determined
to require special airport qualifications, as indicated in the FAA’s list of
Special PIC Qualification Airports, unless:
a) The PIC or second in command (SIC) has made an entry
to that airport using an aircraft or the entry is simulated using a level D
simulator or better in accordance with a qualification program approved/accepted
by their Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), including takeoff and landing, while
serving as a pilot flightcrew member within the preceding 12 calendar-months,
b) The PIC has qualified by using a pictorial means approved/accepted
by the foreign air carrier’s CAA for that airport.
c) The PIC or SIC has made an entry to that airport while
occupying the flight deck observer’s seat, they are qualified on the aircraft
type and monitor radio communications during the entry, and the procedure is
included in the carrier’s manual, which has been approved/accepted by the State
of Operator CAA.
d) The restrictions of subparagraph D1) do not apply when
an entry (including a takeoff or a landing) to that airport is being made if
the ceiling at that airport is at least 1,000 feet (ft) above the lowest minimum
en route altitude (MEA) or minimum obstruction clearance altitude (MOCA), or
the initial approach altitude prescribed for the instrument approach procedure
(IAP) for that airport, and the visibility at that airport is at least 3 miles.
2) In reference to subparagraph D1)a), the
PIC or SIC would receive equally valuable familiarization with the Special PIC
Qualification Airports whether they are the Pilot Flying (PF) or the pilot-not-flying
(PNF) during the entry. There is no requirement for a pilot to act as PF during
takeoff or landing in order for the entry to count towards the requirements
of OpSpec C050.
3) In reference to subparagraph D1)c), in
order for the pilot to receive a familiarization benefit equal to a pilot who
qualifies in a simulator or using pictorial means, in order for the foreign
air carrier to use the provision of subparagraph D1)c), the foreign air carrier’s
manual needs to clearly spell out the procedures used by a pilot occupying the
flight deck for the purposes of qualification at U.S. Special PIC Qualification
Airports. The foreign air carrier shall provide their responsible Flight Standards
District Office (FSDO)/International Field Office (IFO)/International Field
Unit (IFU) with a copy of this procedure and evidence of approval/acceptance
by the State of Operator CAA, subparagraph c3) in OpSpec C050, which specifies
this provision, is a selectable subparagraph that must be selected if applicable
from the dropdown in subparagraph c during paragraph preparation.
E. Applicability. This OpSpec is issued to all
foreign air carriers conducting IFR operations into the United States and establishes
provisions the foreign air carrier must comply with to operate to Special PIC
OPSPEC C051. TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES (required for all air
carriers conducting IFR operations).
A. Purpose. The FAA issues OpSpec C051 to all foreign
air carriers who operate airplanes and conduct any flight operations under instrument
flight rules (IFR). This paragraph provides direction and guidance on acceptance
of U.S. Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS). This OpSpec also provides additional
guidance to the foreign air carrier for converting any takeoff and landing minimum
expressed in the metric linear measurement system to the U.S. standard linear
B. No Inspector Input Required. This paragraph
requires no inspector input. Additional information concerning TERPS is contained
Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 1.
OPSPEC C052. STRAIGHT-IN NON-PRECISION, APV, AND CATEGORY I PRECISION
APPROACH AND LANDING MINIMA—ALL AIRPORTS (required for all carriers conducting
A. Applicability. OpSpec C052 specifies the types
of instrument approaches the foreign air carrier is authorized to conduct, prohibits
the use of other types of instrument approaches, and authorizes the lowest straight-in
non-precision, approach procedures with vertical guidance (APV), and Category
(CAT) I precision approach and landing minima. Before authorizing a type of
instrument approach procedure (IAP), the principal operations inspector (POI)
must ensure the foreign air carrier has established the aircraft system eligibility
and that its manual, which the State of Operator must have approved/accepted,
includes both flightcrew training and procedures, as applicable, for the types
of approaches authorized. All of the approaches authorized by OpSpec C052 must
be published in accordance with 14 CFR part
NOTE: Questions regarding the issuance of OpSpec/management
specification (MSpec)/letter of authorization (LOA) C052 should be directed
to the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS‑400) at 202-385-4623
or the International Programs and Policy Division (AFS-50) at 202‑385‑8070.
B. Types of Instrument Approaches Authorized. In
paragraph C052, Table 1 specifies the types of instrument approaches the operator
is authorized to conduct under instrument flight rules (IFR) and prohibits the
use of other types of instrument approaches. In the Web-based Operations Safety
System (WebOPSS), the POI will select the approaches that apply to the operator.
Refer to the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) for a detailed description
of each approach.
Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 1 for information on required training for
various types of approaches.
2) All the approaches approved by OpSpec/MSpec/LOA
C052 must be published in accordance with part
3) If the foreign air carrier is authorized
to conduct Global Positioning System (GPS) procedures as listed in Table 1 of
OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052, the aircraft and equipment must be listed in Table 1
of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA B034.
4) Required Navigation Performance Approaches
(RNP APCH)—Area Navigation (RNAV) (RNP) approaches are different from RNAV (GPS)
approaches in that a specific performance requirement is defined for the navigation
system, and onboard performance monitoring and alerting is required. An RNP
APCH typically addresses only the requirement for the lateral navigation aspect
(2D navigation) along straight segments. RNP approaches that contain a curved
segment (RF leg), Final Approach Segments (FAS) specifying less that 0.3 nm
accuracy, or a Missed Approach Segment (MAS) that specifies less than 1.0 nm
accuracy, require more rigorous equipment qualification and training so special
authorization is required. These are referred to as RNAV RNP IAP with Authorization
Required (AR) or RNP AR approaches. C052 does not authorize RNP AR operations.
Authorization for RNAV RNP AR approaches is through nonstandard OpSpec C384.
(Refer to the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC)
90-101, Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures with AR.)
5) Three groups of IAPs may be authorized
in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052:
a) Column one specifies the Nonprecision Approaches (NPA)
without vertical guidance that are authorized by OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. Operators
must ensure the aircraft will not go below the minimum descent altitude (MDA)
without the required visual references specified in 14 CFR part
1. The International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO) term for an airport surveillance radar (ASR) approach is
surveillance radar approach (SRA).
2. Belgium labels these approaches
as “SRE.” Select “ASR/SRA/SRE” in column one to authorize these approaches.
b) Column two of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 provides for the
authorization of APV. These approaches provide vertical guidance, but do not
meet the same standards as precision approach systems (e.g., instrument landing
systems (ILS), microwave landing systems (MLS), and Ground Based Augmentation
System (GBAS)). These APVs are trained using an approved method that allows
descent to a published decision altitude (DA).
1. APV approaches may contain
Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) minima requiring wide area
augmentation system (WAAS) and lateral navigation (LNAV)/vertical navigation
(VNAV) minima which may be flown with either barometric vertical navigation
(baro-VNAV) or WAAS-based VNAV and are authorized in column two of Table 1 of
OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. (See subparagraph C to determine applicable lines of
minima.) The AIM and the approach chart legend also have this information.
2. Aircraft accomplishing RNP
approaches (RNAV (GPS) or RNAV Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)) are
required to monitor lateral and, if approved for operational credit, vertical
guidance deviations. For baro-VNAV approach operations on an RNP approach using
the LNAV/VNAV minimums, the current vertical deviation limits are +100/-50 feet.
Aircraft qualified using the current edition of AC
20-138, Airworthiness Approval of Positioning and Navigation Systems, deviation
display requirements for navigation, may use a vertical deviation limit of ±75
feet (or a smaller value). This information must be published in the Airplane
Flight Manual (AFM), a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) or verified by the
Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG).
3. To authorize RNAV APVs, select
“RNAV (GPS)” (for part
97 approaches) or “RNAV Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)” (for
foreign approaches) from the selectable menu for column two of the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA
C052 template Table 1.
c) Column three of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 provides for
the authorization of CAT I precision IAPs from an electronic glideslope (ILS,
MLS, or GPS Landing System (GLS)).
1. “*RNAV/ILS” in column three
may only be selected in C052 if the operator meets the requirements in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA
2. For pilot qualifications,
the initial qualification segment of the certificate holder’s approved ILS precision
runway monitor (PRM) training program must be successfully completed prior to
conducting ILS PRM approach and landing operations. Initial training materials
must include published ILS PRM approach chart materials, the AIM, related Notices
to Airmen (NOTAM), and the latest available FAA-produced and -approved ILS PRM
video entitled “ILS PRM & SOIA Approaches Information for Air Carrier Pilots”
that each pilot must view, and which appears on the FAA Web site at
3. Pilots trained in PRM operations
under previous guidance are not required to retrain using the new version of
the video. However, pilots are required to know the change in operations of
Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) during PRM operations, as
well as the required actions in response to a controller instruction. Testing
of knowledge objectives is required as part of initial and recurrent qualification
training. See subparagraph K.
Figure 12-3A. Sample OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 Table 1
LDA w/ glideslope
AZI/DME Back Course
LDA PRM DME
SDF w/ glideslope
LOC BC w/ glideslope
RNAV (GPS) PRM
C. GPS Authorization.
Volume 4, Chapter 1, Section 2 provides more extensive guidance on GPS and
GPS WAAS equipment. The applicant must show that it has the ability to safely
conduct GPS operations.
1) Background. GPS approach procedures have evolved
from overlays of existing conventional approaches to standalone GPS approaches.
(Overlay approaches are predicated upon the design criteria of the ground‑based
Navigational Aid (NAVAID) used as the basis of the approach and do not adhere
to the design criteria for standalone GPS approaches.) Due to this transition,
the FAA has revised the titles of the approach procedures to reflect these upgrades.
The titles of all remaining GPS overlay procedures have been revised on the
approach charts to read “…or GPS” (e.g., “VOR or GPS RWY 24”). Therefore, all
the approaches that can be used by GPS now contain “GPS” in the title (e.g.,
“VOR or GPS RWY 24,” “GPS RWY 24,” or “RNAV (GPS) RWY 24”). During these GPS
approaches, underlying ground-based NAVAIDs are not required to be operational
and associated aircraft avionics need not be installed, operational, turned
on, or monitored (although monitoring of the underlying approach is suggested
when equipment is available and operational). Existing overlay approaches may
be requested using the GPS title. For example, request “GPS RWY 24” to fly the
VOR or GPS RWY 24 approach.
NOTE: VOR/DME RNAV approaches will continue to be identified
as VOR/DME RNAV RWY (Number) (e.g., VOR/DME RNAV RWY 24). VOR/DME RNAV procedures
which can be flown by GPS will be annotated with “or GPS” (e.g., VOR/DME RNAV
or GPS RWY 24).
2) WAAS. As the satellite navigation evolution
continues, the WAAS has been developed to improve the accuracy, integrity, and
availability of GPS signals. WAAS receivers support all basic GPS approach functions
and will provide additional capabilities. One of the major improvements provided
by the WAAS is the ability to generate an electronic glidepath, independent
of ground equipment or barometric aiding. There are differences in the capabilities
of the WAAS receivers. Some approach-certified receivers will only support a
glidepath with performance similar to Baro-VNAV, and are authorized to fly the
LNAV/VNAV line of minima on the RNAV (GPS) approach charts. Receivers with additional
capability such as update rate and integrity limits are authorized to fly the
LPV or Localizer Performance (LP) line of minima. WAAS approach procedures may
provide LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LP, and LNAV minimums and are charted as RNAV (GPS)
RWY (Number) (e.g., RNAV (GPS) RWY 24). For further guidance, please see the
AIM or contact AFS-400 at FAA HQ.
NOTE: Some WAAS installations do not support approaches
at all, while some do not support LPV or LP lines of minima.
3) Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS). An additional
augmentation system, the LAAS has been developed to provide precision approaches
similar to ILS at airfields. These precise approaches are based on GPS signals
augmented by ground equipment. The international term for LAAS is GBAS and the
approaches which use the equipment are referred to as GBAS Landing System (GLS)
or Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Landing System (GLS) approaches.
LAAS equipment consists of a GBAS Ground Facility (GFF) supported by a minimum
of four accurately surveyed reference stations and an uplink antenna called
the very high frequency (VHF) Data Broadcast (VDB) antenna, as well as an aircraft
LAAS receiver. The GGF can support multiple runway ends or landing areas served
by procedures that are within the service coverage.
a) Similar to LPV and ILS approaches, GLS provides lateral
and vertical guidance. By design, LAAS was developed as an “ILS look-alike”
system from the pilot perspective. Unlike WAAS, LAAS may support approaches
to CAT III minimums in the future due to its nearly identical performance standards
to ILS in terms of accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity. Portions
of the GLS approach prior to and after the FAS may be based on RNAV or RNP segments.
Therefore, a switch transition between RNAV or RNP and GLS modes may be required.
In the future, the GGF may be able to support portions of the procedure outside
b) There are also a few differences from LPV, GLS, and
ILS approaches in terms of charting, procedure selection, and identification.
The LAAS procedure is titled “GLS RWY XX” on the approach chart. In the aircraft,
pilots will select a five-digit GBAS channel number or associated approach within
the flight management system (FMS) menu. Selection of the GBAS channel number
by pilot or FMS also tunes the VDB. The VDB provides information to the airborne
receiver where the guidance is synthesized. The LAAS procedure is identified
by a four alpha-numeric character field referred to as the Reference Path Indicator
(RPI) or approach ID. This identifier is analogous with the IDENT feature of
the ILS. The RPI is charted. Following procedure selection, confirmation that
the correct LAAS procedure is loaded can be accomplished by cross-checking the
charted RPI with the cockpit-displayed RPI or audio identification of the RPI
with Morse code (for some systems). Once selected and identified, the pilot
will fly the GLS approach using the same techniques as an ILS.
D. Authorized Criteria for Approved IAPs. For operations
to all U.S. airports, operators are authorized to execute instrument approach
operations on IAPs that have been published:
1) Under part
2) Under the criteria in the current edition of
8260.3, United Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS).
3) Under any other criteria authorized by AFS-400.
4) By the U.S. military agency operating the U.S.
5) All published Standard Instrument Approach Procedures
(SIAP) in the United States meet this requirement.
E. Runway Visual Range (RVR). Touchdown zone (TDZ)
RVR is controlling for all operations authorized in paragraph C052. All other
RVR reports are advisory. A mid-field RVR report may substitute for an inoperative
TDZ RVR report, except for Special Authorization (SA) CAT I operations as described
in subparagraph I below.
F. Continuous Descent Final Approach (CDFA) Technique.
A CDFA is a specific technique for flying the FAS of an IAP as a continuous
descent, without level-off, from an altitude at or above the final approach
fix (FAF) altitude, typically to a point approximately 50 feet (ft) above the
runway threshold or the point where the flare will begin. For approaches that
do not use LNAV/VNAV, LPV, or an ILS/MLS/GLS glidepath, a CDFA technique is
recommended. When electronic or a pre-stored computed vertical guidance is not
used, Vertical Speed (VS) or FPA may be used to achieve a CDFA profile. Compared
to the “step down” descent approach technique, where the aircraft descends step-by-step
prior to the next minimum altitude, a CDFA technique has safety and operational
advantages, such as standardization of procedures, simplification of the decision
process (one technique and one decision at one point), and use of a stable flightpath.
However, precision approach (ILS, MLS, GLS) obstacle penetration is not provided.
The continuous descent approach technique can be flown on almost any published
approach when VNAV or ILS/MLS/GLS is not available.
1) When using a CDFA technique, the decision point
to determine if the flightcrew has the required visual references in sight to
continue below the MDA may only be treated like a DA in reference to approach
profiles and procedures. The operator must add an altitude increment to the
MDA (e.g., 50 ft) to determine the altitude at which the missed approach must
be initiated in order to prevent descent below the MDA or flight beyond the
2) The operator should ensure that, prior to conducting
a CDFA, each flightcrew member intending to fly CDFA profiles undertakes training
appropriate to the aircraft, equipment, and IAPs to be flown.
G. Reduced Precision CAT I Landing Minima. Paragraph
C052 specifies the equipment usage requirements and part
97 SIAP depiction required for reduced CAT I landing minima. Credit is given
for flight director (FD), autopilot, and head-up display (HUD) usage. The POI
should allow the use of 1800 RVR minima to runways without centerline (CL) lighting
or TDZ lighting, provided the SIAP contains a straight-in ILS minimum with the
chart note, “RVR 1800 Authorized with use of FD or autopilot or HUD to DA.”
Additionally, the foreign air carrier issued C052 is allowed to continue to
use 1800 RVR line of minima on SIAPs without the above procedural note when
the TDZ and/or CL lights are inoperative, if the approach is conducted in accordance
with the equipment requirements outlined in paragraph C052. This is also reflected
in the published inoperative components table for IAPs.
1) FAA Approval. Operators may continue to use
the standard CAT I minima based solely on ground lighting systems without alteration
of current authorizations or procedures. Operators can utilize reduced CAT I
landing minima, provided the SIAP contains a straight-in ILS minimum with the
chart note, “RVR 1800 Authorized with use of FD or autopilot or HUD to DA.”
2) Conditions of Approval. Before issuing the C052
authorization to use CAT I minima based on aircraft equipment and operation,
inspectors shall ensure that each operator meets the following conditions:
a) Aircraft and Associated Aircraft Systems. The authorized
aircraft must be equipped with an FD, or autopilot, or HUD that provides guidance
to DA. The FD, autopilot, or HUD must be used in approach mode (e.g., tracking
the localizer and the glideslope). Inspectors must establish that the FD, autopilot,
or HUD are certified for use down to an altitude of 200 ft above ground level
(AGL) or lower.
b) Flightcrew Procedures. The flightcrew must use the
FD, or autopilot, or HUD to DA or to the initiation of a missed approach, unless
visual references with the runway environment are established, thus allowing
safe continuation to a landing.
1. If the FD, autopilot, or
HUD malfunctions or becomes disconnected, the flightcrew must execute a missed
approach unless the runway environment is in sight.
2. Single pilot operators are
prohibited from using the FD to reduced landing minima without accompanying
use of an autopilot or HUD.
c) Flightcrew Qualification. Each member of the flightcrew
must have demonstrated proficiency using the FD, autopilot, or HUD, (as appropriate)
in the foreign air carrier’s training program approved by their Civil Aviation
H. SA CAT I. OpSpec C052 contains selectable text
which authorizes SA CAT I ILS approaches to runways without TDZ or RCL lights
with a radio altimeter (RA) DH as low as 150 ft and a visibility minimum as
low as RVR 1400 when using a HUD to DH. The operator must meet all of
the following requirements:
1) Eligibility Requirements. Before authorizing
SA CAT I, the POI must ensure that the foreign air carrier has established the
aircraft system eligibility and that its manual, which the State of Operator
must have approved/accepted, includes both flightcrew training and procedures,
2) Aircraft Requirements. To be approved for SA
CAT I, each airplane must be authorized and maintained for CAT II operations.
Those airplanes and equipment must be listed in Table 2 of OpSpec C059. The
authorized airplane(s) must be equipped with a HUD which is approved for CAT
II or CAT III operations.
3) Training Requirements. The flightcrew must be
current and qualified for CAT II operations. Each member of the flightcrew must
have demonstrated proficiency using the HUD in the foreign air carrier’s training
program approved by their CAA. This requirement applies both to initial eligibility
for SA CAT I as well as recurrent training.
4) Operational Requirements:
a) The flightcrew must use the HUD to DH in a mode used
for CAT II or CAT III operations. This mode provides greater lateral and vertical
flightpath accuracy and more sensitive alarm limits.
b) The flightcrew must use the HUD to DH, or to the initiation
of missed approach, unless adequate visual references with the runway environment
are established that allow safe continuation to a landing. Should the HUD malfunction
during the approach, the flightcrew must execute a missed approach unless visual
reference to the runway environment has been established.
c) The crosswind component on the landing runway must
be 15 knots or less, unless the AFM’s crosswind limitations are more restrictive.
d) The part
97 SIAP must have a published SA CAT I minimum. The first procedures with
these minimums will be published in 2010.
e) Unlike the other approaches authorized in C052, the
mid-RVR report may not be substituted for the TDZ RVR report when using
SA CAT I minima.
I. PRM. The FAA began the Multiple Parallel Approach
Program (MPAP) to research whether simultaneous ILS approaches to parallel runways
would improve capacity. The objective was to achieve improvements in airport
arrival rates through the conduct of simultaneous closely-spaced parallel approaches.
That objective is being met using PRM.
1) ILS PRM, LDA PRM and RNAV (GPS) PRM Approaches with
Vertical Guidance. Where parallel RCLs are less than 4,300 feet apart, but
not less than 3,000 feet apart, simultaneous ILS PRM approaches may be conducted.
Similarly, where parallel RCLs are less than 3,000 feet apart, but no less than
750 feet, simultaneous offset instrument approaches (SOIA) may be conducted
using an ILS and an LDA approach with glideslope. Those approaches are labeled
“ILS PRM” and “LDA PRM,” respectively, on instrument approach charts. Air traffic
control (ATC) provides one PRM monitor controller for each runway to provide
intrusion protection for the No Transgression Zone (NTZ), located between the
two final approach courses. Whenever the runway spacing (or in the case of SOIA
the approach course spacing) is less than 3,600 feet and at least 3,000 feet,
NTZ monitoring is accomplished using a special PRM radar. Utilization of vertical
guidance is required for all PRM approaches. RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches may be
substituted for the ILS PRM and/or the LDA PRM approach. Pilots must have completed
PRM training prior to conducting any PRM approach. An ILS PRM and its overlayed
RNAV (GPS) PRM approach are procedurally equivalent. LDA PRM and its overlayed
RNAV (GPS) PRM approach are procedurally equivalent. Pilots may request the
RNAV (GPS) PRM approach in lieu of the ILS PRM or LDA PRM approach; however,
they may only conduct the approach when specifically cleared to do so by ATC.
2) The Breakout Maneuver. Working with industry,
the FAA conducted extensive analysis of simulation data and determined that
the implementation of PRM and SOIA approach operations to closely-spaced parallel
runways requires additional crew training. The primary focus of this training
is to raise each pilot’s situational awareness in ILS PRM, LDA PRM and RNAV
(GPS) PRM operations. The breakout maneuver must be flown manually.
a) Traffic Alert. One important element of the additional
training is the pilot understands the difference between a normal missed approach
initiated by a pilot and a breakout initiated by a PRM final monitor controller.
It must be clear to flightcrews that when the final monitor controller uses
the words “Traffic Alert,” the controller will then give critical instructions
that the pilot must act on promptly to preserve adequate separation from an
airplane straying into the adjoining approach path.
b) ATC Breakout Maneuver Command to Turn and/or Descend,
Climb, or Maintain Altitude. The flightcrew must immediately follow the final
monitor controller’s vertical (climb/descend/maintain altitude) and horizontal
(turn) commands. If the flightcrew is operating the TCAS in the traffic advisory
(TA)/Resolution Advisory (RA) mode and receives a TCAS RA at any time while
following the final monitor controller’s command, the flightcrew will simultaneously
continue to turn to the controller’s assigned heading and follow the vertical
guidance provided by the TCAS RA.
c) Time-to-Turn Standard. Regardless of airplane type,
tests and data analysis revealed that pilots normally passed through an angle
of bank of at least 3 degrees while rolling into a breakout turn within 10 seconds
of receiving a breakout command. (Bank angles of between 20 and 30 degrees were
normally achieved during the breakout.) The operator must show that its CAA
has determined that pilots can readily meet this time-to-initiate-turn standard
prior to the POI authorizing ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches in
OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. Flightcrews are required to manually fly the breakout
maneuver unless otherwise approved. The air carrier should demonstrate its ability
to meet this standard by having representative pilots perform the breakout maneuver
while the POI or the POI’s designated representative observes. The demonstration
should conform to procedures contained in the air carrier’s approved operating
manual for its flightcrews. The commercial operator should submit procedures
to its POI for this authorization.
NOTE: In a breakout, ATC will never command
a descent below the applicable minimum vector altitude (MVA), thus assuring
that no flight will be commanded to descend below 1,000 ft above the highest
obstacle during a breakout.
3) ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM, RNAV (GPS) PRM and the Use of
TCAS. TCAS may be operated in TA/RA mode while executing ILS PRM, LDA PRM
or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches. However, when conducting these operations, pilots
must understand that the final monitor controller’s instruction to turn is the
primary means for ensuring safe separation from another airplane. Pilots must
bear in mind that the TCAS does not provide separation in the horizontal plane;
the TCAS accomplishes separation by commands solely in the vertical plane. Therefore,
during final approach, only the final monitor controller has the capability
to command a turn for lateral separation. Flightcrews are expected to follow
any ATC instruction to turn.
a) ATC Command to Turn with TCAS RA. In the unlikely event
that a flightcrew should simultaneously receive a final monitor controller’s
command to turn and a TCAS RA, the flightcrew must follow both the final monitor
controller’s turn command and the TCAS RA’s climb or descent command.
b) TCAS RA Alone. In the extremely unlikely event that
an RA occurs without a concurrent breakout instruction from the final monitor
controller, the pilot should follow the RA and advise the controller of the
action taken as soon as possible. In this instance, it is likely that a breakout
command would follow.
c) TCAS Not Required. An operator does not need an operative
TCAS to conduct ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches.
4) Required and Recommended Training for ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM,
and RNAV (GPS) PRM Approaches. A foreign air carrier must include required
training in its training program and the State of Operator must approve that
training before the FAA may authorize either or both PRM approaches in OpSpec
C052. Flightcrews must accomplish required ground training before conducting
ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches.
a) Initial ground training—required.
1. This training must include
all elements of the “Attention All Users Page” of an ILS/PRM or an LDA/PRM or
an RNAV (GPS) PRM as authorized, along with viewing the latest version of the
PRM video. (Contact FAA Flight Standards at 202-267-8166 for the most current
NOTE: The FAA does not require flightcrews trained previously
in PRM operations under earlier guidance to requalify with each new version
of the PRM video.
2. The ground portion of the
training program must support the following knowledge objectives. Each flightcrew
a. Describe the PRM system to include
the meaning of “no transgression zones.”
b. Know that an airplane on an adjacent
approach path may be less than 4,300 ft away and may be flying at a different
c. Know that the automated terminal
information service (ATIS) broadcasts a pilot advisory when ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM
or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches are in progress.
d. Identify the differences between
PRM approach charts and normal approach charts, including the special instruction
pages for PRM.
e. Explain the unique communication
requirements (equipment and procedures) for ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM, and RNAV (GPS)
f. Know that an unpublished missed
approach instruction that ATC may issue prior to published MAPs is called a
g. Know that a breakout may include
instructions to descend and that the descent will be to no lower than the MVA
for the sector. The MVA guarantees 1,000 ft above the highest obstruction in
that sector. The rate of descent that controllers expect is not more than 1,000
ft per minute.
h. Know that a pilot must initiate
a breakout maneuver manually and immediately upon hearing the “Traffic Alert”
command from ATC, and that adequate separation requires that the pilot establish
a 3‑degree‑per‑second rate of turn within 8 seconds.
i. Know that the three areas (ATIS,
Dual VHF Comm. Required, and All “Breakouts”) in the “Attention All Users Page”
must be briefed (in flight) prior to conducting an ILS/PRM or an LDA/PRM or
an RNAV (GPS) PRM approach.
j. Know that flightcrews may operate
the TCAS in the TA/RA mode when conducting PRM approaches, including the following
When an RA occurs with a concurrent ATC breakout command—follow the turn required
in the ATC instructions; follow the climb or descent in the RA command (split
When an RA occurs without a concurrent ATC breakout command—follow the RA and
contact ATC as soon as practical;
TCAS provides only vertical resolution to aircraft conflicts; and
An operative TCAS is not required for PRM operations.
k. Know procedures for SOIAs, including
the following points:
A visual segment of the LDA/PRM or the offset RNAV (GPS) PRM approach is established
prior to the MAP to permit;
Visual acquisition of the traffic to the parallel runway and advising ATC;
Visual acquisition of the runway environment;
LDA PRM or the offset RNAV (GPS) PRM course is maintained until the MAP. At
the MAP, the pilot must have the parallel traffic in sight and the runway environment
in sight, or fly the missed approach;
At the MAP with the parallel traffic and the runway in sight, the pilot may
continue to a landing;
Maneuver to align with the RCL;
Stabilize on glidepath no lower than 500 ft above TDZ; and
Avoid wake turbulence from the parallel runway traffic.
3. Testing of these knowledge
objectives is recommended.
b) Initial flight training—required.
c) Breakout maneuver—required.
NOTE: Initial breakout flight training must focus on the
NOTE: Air carriers who currently hold OpSpec approval
to conduct PRM approaches have 12 months from the effective date of HBAT 03-03
(05/29/03) to initiate breakout flight training, and must complete training
by the end of the next full training cycle.
NOTE: Air carriers applying for initial approval to conduct
PRM approaches must complete breakout flight training by the end of the next
full training cycle after receiving OpSpec approval.
NOTE: The FAA may authorize air carriers to conduct ILS/PRM,
LDA/PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches. The FAA does not require duplicative flight
training in the breakout maneuver (i.e., a breakout covered in flight training
for ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM satisfies the requirement).
NOTE: All air carriers who provide breakout training to
flightcrews prior to the effective date of HBAT 03-03 (5/29/03) are not required
NOTE: LDA/PRM approach. Recommended: ILS/PRM approach
(if authorized on OpSpecs).
d) Recurrent ground training—required: Review of the ground
training elements and the video in subparagraph E4)a) above and testing in those
e) Recurrent flight training.
1. Required: None.
LDA/PRM approach, and
5) Authorizing ILS/PRM Approaches, LDA/PRM Approaches,
and RNAV (GPS) PRM Approaches for 14 CFR Part
129 Foreign Air Carriers. A part
129 foreign air carrier operating in the United States may be authorized
in OpSpec C052 to conduct ILS/PRM approaches, LDA/PRM approaches, and/or RNAV(GPS)
PRM approaches if:
a) That foreign air carrier meets the ground and flight
training requirements contained in subparagraphs J4)a) through c) above;
b) The CAA for the foreign air carrier authorizes these
type approaches; and
c) The air carrier’s POI determines that a point of contact
(POC) for the foreign air carrier’s CAA has been established in the foreign
air carrier’s OpSpec A006(c).
NOTE: A definition of RNAV (GPS) PRM has been added to
the A002 template.
OPSPEC C053 and C054. RESERVED.
OPSPEC C055. ALTERNATE AIRPORT IFR WEATHER MINIMUMS (OPTIONAL).
A. Applicability. Paragraph C055 is an optional
authorization available to all operators conducting airplane operations under
14 CFR part
129. The OpSpec is approved by the Administrator as an alternative method
of calculating alternate minima to that specified in 14 CFR part
91.169(c). The OpSpec may be issued if the State of Operator has approved
the foreign air carrier for this alternative method. The OpSpec must not be
issued if the State of Operator has not approved the foreign air carrier for
this alternative method. Without OpSpec C055, the foreign air carrier must comply
with the highest minima of the State of Operator authorized method and §
91.169(c). The relevant International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
Annex 6 Part I, International Commercial Air Transport – Aeroplanes, standards
are 4.3.4 and 4.3.5 with additional guidance in ICAO DOC 9976, Flight Planning
and Fuel Management Manual. Paragraph C055 provides a two‑part table from which
he operator, during the initial dispatch or flight release planning segment
of a flight, derives alternate airport IFR weather minimums in those cases where
it has been determined that an alternate airport is required.
NOTE: Questions regarding the
issuance of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C055 should be directed to the Flight Technologies
and Procedures Division (AFS‑400) or the International Programs and Policy Division
(AFS‑50). If the PI directs questions to AFS-50, the PI should copy AFS-400
and vice versa.
B. Airports With At Least One Operational Navigation
Facility. The first part of the table is for airports with at least 1 operational
navigational facility providing a straight‑in Nonprecision Approach (NPA) procedure,
or a straight‑in precision approach procedure, or, when applicable, a circling
maneuver from an instrument approach procedure (IAP). The required ceiling and
visibility is obtained by adding 400 feet (ft) to the minimum descent altitude/height
(MDA/H) or, when applicable, the authorized decision altitude/height (DA/H)
and by adding 1 statute mile (mi) or 1,600 meters (m) to the authorized landing
C. Airports With At Least Two Operational Navigation
Facilities. The second part of the table is for airports with at least two
operational navigational facilities, each providing a straight‑in NPA procedure
or a straight‑in precision approach procedure to different suitable runways.
The required ceiling and visibility is obtained by adding 200 ft to the higher
MDA/H or DA/H of the two approaches used and by adding 1/2 mi or 800 m visibility
to the higher authorized landing minimum of the two approaches used.
D. Higher Alternate Minimums When Using Two Operational
Navigation Facilities. In some cases, it is possible to have higher alternate
minimums when using two operational navigational facilities than when using
one. For example, an airport with one straight‑in NPA procedure with a MDA/H
of 400 ft and 1 mi visibility would have alternate minimums of 800 ft and 2
mi visibility (400 ft + 400 ft and 1 mi + 1 mi). On the other hand, an airport
with two straight‑in approaches, one which is a straight‑in precision approach
with a DA/H of 200 ft and 1/2 mi visibility and the other a straight‑in NPA
with a MDA/H of 700 ft and 1 mi visibility, would have alternate minimums of
900 ft and 1 1/2 mi visibility (200 ft + 700 ft and 1/2 mi + 1 mi). Since the
OpSpecs require that the operator use the higher ceiling and visibility, the
minimums for the airport with two straight‑in approaches are higher than for
the airport with only one straight‑in approach. When this situation exists,
the operator may elect to consider the airport as having only one straight‑in
approach procedure and may add the higher buffer requirement (400 ft and 1 mi)
to whichever straight‑in approach procedure provides for the lowest possible
ceiling and visibility minimums.
E. Using Two Different Runways. Two different runways
may be the different ends of the same physical runway surface (such as, runway
4 and runway 22 are two different runways). When determining the suitability
of a runway, wind plus gust must be forecast to be within operating limits,
including reduced visibility and runway contamination limits, and should be
within the manufacturer’s maximum demonstrated crosswind. The operator should
also take into account any other potential runway limitations, such as Notices
to Airmen (NOTAM) that may affect the landing at the estimated time of arrival
F. Credit for Alternate Minimums. OpSpec C055 allows
credit for alternate minimums for airports with a published Category (CAT) II
or CAT III approach based on engine inoperative CAT II or CAT III capability.
(See subparagraph I below for additional details.) Flightcrews having that capability
may take credit for engine inoperative CAT II/III qualified aircraft and adjust
minimums accordingly. The alternate minimums are based on CAT III engine inoperative
requirements. The ceiling and visibility required for CAT II procedures is a
ceiling of at least 300 ft and a visibility of at least RVR 4000, or for CAT
III procedures, a ceiling of at least 200 ft height above touchdown (HAT), and
a visibility of at least RVR 1800. Foreign air carriers having that capability
may take credit for CAT II/III‑qualified aircraft and adjust minimums accordingly.
The alternate minimums are based on CAT III engine inoperative requirements.
1) The following are some but not all of those
requirements. See the criteria in the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC)
120‑28, Criteria for Approval of Category III Weather Minima for Takeoff,
Landing, and Rollout—engine inoperative, for further requirements.
a) The aircraft is capable of engine inoperative CAT III.
b) The carrier has established appropriate procedures.
c) Performance and obstruction clearance information has
been provided to the flightcrew.
d) Appropriate aircraft configuration, wind limits, and
other appropriate information is provided to the flightcrew.
2) Before authorizing the additional selectable
row(s) in Table 1 of the OpSpec, the principal operations inspector (POI) shall
ensure through documentation that the foreign air carrier has provided that
subparagraphs F1)a) through d) above are met and the air carrier’s Civil Aviation
Authority (CAA) authorizes it for CAT II/III alternate minimum. If the foreign
air carrier does not meet the preceding conditions or equivalent conditions
acceptable to the FAA, the PI must ensure that the issued OpSpec does not contain
any additional rows in Table 1 (should only have two rows).
NOTE: The ICAO equivalent to AC
120‑28 is ICAO DOC 9365/AN910, Manual of All‑Weather Operations.
G. Definition of “Two Operational Facilities.”
Question: “Does the FAA consider an ILS facility that contains a single transmitter
frequency for an ILS, but with two different ILS identifications (depending
on which runway is being used) as one or two navigational facilities?”
1) The words “two operational facilities” have
always meant that in the event there is a single failure of one facility, the
other would be operational. In the situation where both instrument landing system
(ILS) facilities share a single transmitter, it would be considered “one operational
navigational facility,” because both ILSs would become inoperative in the event
of a single transmitter failure.
2) The two ILS identifiers would have to be different
even though the ILS transmitter frequency is the same for both. The charts should
tell pilots whether there is one frequency or two. Thus, one or two navigational
H. Use of Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning
System (GPS) Minima at a Destination Alternate. Pilots may plan to use any
instrument approach authorized for use with wide area augmentation system (WAAS)
avionics at a required alternate if the aircraft is suitably equipped with GPS
WAAS equipment and the foreign air carrier is authorized to conduct Localizer
Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) and/or Localizer Performance (LP) approach
and landing operations by the State of Operator. When using WAAS at an alternate
airport, flight planning must be based on flying the RNAV (GPS) lateral navigation
(LNAV) minimums line, or minimums on a GPS approach procedure, or conventional
approach procedure with “or GPS” in the title. Also, RNAV (GPS) (or RNAV Global
Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)) are based on a single navigational facility
when determining the approach facility configuration in Table 1 of the OpSpec,
even if there are two or more RNAV (GPS) approaches to different suitable runways.
Upon arrival at an alternate, when the WAAS navigation system indicates that
LNAV/vertical navigation (VNAV) or LPV service is available, vertical guidance
may be used to complete the approach using the displayed level of service. The
FAA has begun removing the NA (alternate minimums not authorized) symbol from
select RNAV (GPS) and GPS approach procedures so they may be used by approach
approved WAAS receivers at alternate airports. Some approach procedures will
still require the NA for other reasons (e.g., no weather reporting); therefore,
it cannot be removed from all procedures. Because every procedure must be individually
evaluated, removal of NA from RNAV (GPS) and GPS procedures will take some time.
I. Selectable Text and Table 1. There are two selectable
rows which can be loaded into Table 1 of the OpSpec (Alternate Airport IFR Weather
Minimums) and three selectable text options for additional limitation and provisions
(subparagraph b(5) of the OpSpec).
1) Table 1. The two selectable rows in Table 1
authorize lower alternate minimums when planning to use either a CAT II or CAT
III approach at the alternate airport. If a CAT II or CAT III credit is authorized,
the first selectable text paragraph must be loaded as well.
2) Selectable Text Options. Selectable text options
for additional limitation and provisions (subparagraph b(5) of the OpSpec):
The first selectable text option states requirements for CAT II and CAT III
credit applicable to alternate airport flight planning, and must be loaded if
the operator is authorized the CAT II or CAT III credit described in subparagraph
I1) above. The second selectable text option authorizes operators equipped with
WAAS to use GPS approaches when determining an alternate, and lists the restrictions
associated with using GPS approaches in alternate planning. The third selectable
text option authorizes both (the air carrier is authorized CAT II or III and
GPS/WAAS alternate minimums.)
NOTE: Prior to issuing C055 to
the foreign air carrier, principal inspectors (PI) must ensure that the appropriate
selectable text option is selected, if applicable. If none of the selectable
text options apply, the PI must ensure that none of the selectable text options
OPSPEC C056. IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS – AIRPLANES (OPTIONAL).
A. General. The FAA issues OpSpec C056 to foreign
air carriers who conduct operations under IFR with airplanes to the United States.
This OpSpec contains guidance regarding pilots, aircraft, and airports when
lower minimums than those defined in 14 CFR part
91.175(f), hereinafter referred to as standard takeoff minimums, are used.
OpSpec C056 lists the lowest Runway Visual Range (RVR) in feet based on the
authorized airplane type.
B. Inspector Action/Web-based Operations Safety System
(WebOPSS) Entry. When issuing OpSpec C056, the principal operations inspector
(POI) must select in the table in subparagraph b of the OpSpec the following:
1) No lower than the lowest State of the Operator
Authorized RVR for each airplane type to be used to fly to the U.S.
NOTE: Regardless of the particular authorizations of a
foreign carrier the POI may not authorize minima lower than RVR 300/300/300.
2) The free text box to manually enter the appropriate
Head Up Display (HUD) for each type of aircraft to be used to fly to the U.S.
or select N/A if HUD is not authorized by the State of the Operator.
3) Any additional limitations and provisions not
specified in the OpSpec and applicable to the lowest RVR for the type of aircraft
to be used.
4) Additionally, the POI must select:
a) The static text in subparagraphs c(3) and e of the
OpSpec if the foreign air carrier is operating airplanes with a seating configuration
of 30 seats or less or a maximum payload capacity of 7,500 pounds or less.
b) The radio button specifying the limitations and requirements
applicable to the lowest RVR value selected in the table in subparagraph b)
of the OpSpec. (For a summary see Table 12-4B below).
Table 12-4B. Runway Equipment Requirements for Takeoff Minima
or RVR (TDZ/Mid/Rollout)]
Adequate visual reference,
Any one of the following:
Centerline (CL) lighting
High Intensity Runway Light (HIRL)
Runway centerline marking (RCLM)
RVR not available;
1/4 mile (mi) (500 meters (m)); or
RVR 1600 feet (ft) (500 m)/Not Required/Not
Required. (Mid-point can substitute for an unavailable touchdown).
Note: Below RVR 1600, two operating
RVR sensors are required. All operating RVR sensors are controlling
(except per the note below for far-end sensors). Extremely long
runways (e.g., Denver International Airport (DEN) 16R) utilize four
RVR sensors (i.e., TDZ, mid, rollout, and far-end). When a fourth
far-end RVR value is reported, it is not controlling and is not
to be used as one of the two required operative RVR sensors. Visual
aids (CL lighting, RCLM) must be visible (for example not obstructed
Day: CL lighting or HIRL or RCLM
Night: CL lighting or HIRL
RVR 1200 ft (350 m)/1200 ft
(350 m)/1000 ft (300 m)
RCLM and HIRL, or CL lighting
RVR 1000 ft/1000 ft/1000 ft
HIRL and CL lighting
RVR 600 ft/600 ft/600 ft (175 m) or
RVR 500 ft/500 ft/500 ft (150 m)
With an approved HUD takeoff guidance system,
HIRL, and CL lighting
RVR 300 ft/300 ft/300 ft (75 m)
Note: Additionally, RVR 300 ft/300
ft/300 ft (75 m) takeoff is conducted on a runway with a published
landing minimum of RVR 300 and localizer front course guidance displayed
on the HUD.
OPSPEC C057. DECOMMISSIONED.
OPSPEC C059. CATEGORY II INSTRUMENT APPROACH
AND LANDING OPERATIONS(OPTIONAL).
A. Conditions for Approval. Category (CAT) II operations
are approved by issuance of OpSpec C059 to foreign air carriers for 14 CFR part
29 operations. Before the FAA issues OpSpec C059, each foreign air carrier
and each airplane type used by that foreign air carrier require approval by
the State of Operator.
B. Evaluation. CAT II operations are evaluated
for approval in accordance with the following:
1) The current edition of advisory circular (AC)
120-29, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minima
2) Volume 4, Chapter 2.
3) For foreign-registered airplanes, a Lower Landing
Minimums (LLM) maintenance program approved by the State of Operator and for
U.S.-registered airplanes, an LLM maintenance program approved by the FAA in
Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 11, in coordination with the principal avionics
inspectors (PAI) and principal maintenance inspectors (PMI).
4) Approval of the State of Operator is also required
before amending OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 to include an airplane make, model, and
series (M/M/S) new to the foreign air carrier.
C. Approved Airplanes. Each airplane type (M/M/S)
used in CAT II operations must be listed in Table 1 of C059 (see Table 12-5,
Example Category II Approach and Landing Minimums, for example) and have an
acceptable LLM maintenance program approved by the State of Operator and, in
the case of U.S.-registered airplanes, it must be approved by the FAA in accordance
129.14. The lowest decision height (DH) and lowest Runway Visual Range (RVR)
authorized for each airplane type must also be specified. The example in Table
3-17 illustrates the method for authorizing each airplane in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA
DOUG DC9 31
BOEING 727 217
AIRBUS 300 A300B4103
LKHEED 1011 385114
D. Required CAT II Airborne
Equipment. The equipment required to conduct manually flown or automatically
flown CAT II operations is specified in Table 2 of OpSpec C059 (see Table 12-6,
Example of CAT II Items of Equipment (Sample Table 2)) for each airplane M/M/S.
The equipment required is established in accordance with the applicable regulations,
the approved Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) (if applicable), and AC
120-29. There are two acceptable methods of demonstrating that an airplane
is airworthy for CAT II operations. These acceptable methods are “type design
approval,” obtained by a manufacturer or Special Type Certification (STC) holder,
or an “operational demonstration,” conducted by the foreign air carrier.
1) Type Design Approval. The approved AFM (or flight
manual supplement), for airplanes that have CAT II type design approval, contains
a statement that the airborne systems have demonstrated the reliability and
redundancy necessary for CAT II operations in accordance with AC
120-29. AFMs also specify that certain equipment is required for airworthiness
approval of the various kinds of CAT II operations. Some AFMs also indicate
that acceptable CAT II performance was demonstrated both with, and without,
certain equipment (e.g., “autothrottles with or without”). AC
120‑29 also specifies that certain types of equipment are required for operational
approval of the various kinds of CAT II operations (manual/autopilot). Therefore,
both the approved AFM and AC
120-29 must be considered in determining if the additional equipment requirement
must be listed (specified) in Table 2 of OpSpec C059. The illustration below
shows how the additional or required equipment should be listed in Table 2 of
a) Equipment that is explicitly required by the airplane
certification regulations (14 CFR parts
25, or the foreign equivalent), the operating regulations (14 CFR parts
129) and/or the approved AFM should not be listed in Table 2. The standard
text of C059 requires this equipment to be functional. Therefore, the additional
equipment or operational requirement that must be listed (specified) in OpSpec
C059 is determined by cross‑checking the type of equipment required by AC
120-29 for the kinds of CAT II operations proposed against the equipment
required by regulations and the approved AFM.
b) Enter into Table 12-6 the additional equipment for
the M/M/S and kind(s) of CAT II operations authorized. Do not include equipment
explicitly required by regulations and/or the AFM (e.g., autoland for B-747
operations below RVR 1600). Do include additional equipment required in any
of the following: AC
120-29, an STC, an Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS), the current
edition of Order
8400.13, Procedures for the Evaluation and Approval of Facilities for Special
Authorization Category I Operations and All Category II and III Operations.rocedures
for the Evaluation and Approval of Facilities for Special Authorization Category
I Operations and All Category II and III Operations.
c) When the AFM indicates acceptable performance either
with or without certain items of equipment (which are not explicitly required
120-29), it must be determined how the foreign air carrier intends to conduct
CAT II operations and train flightcrews with those items of equipment. If the
foreign air carrier proposes to conduct operations either with or without certain
items of equipment (such as autothrottle, autopilot), flightcrews must be trained
for both situations and the item of equipment does not need to be listed in
Table 2 of OpSpec C059.
2) Operational Demonstration. This method is used
when equipment eligibility is not stated in the AFM, the AFMS, or the Flight
Standardization Board (FSB) report. The operational demonstration method is
only appropriate for airplanes and equipment that do not have CAT II type design
approval. The operational demonstration must be conducted in accordance with
120-29. A part
129 foreign air carrier should request that its responsible Flight Standards
District Office (FSDO)/International Field Office (IFO)/International Field
Unit (IFU) provide assistance in the eligibility assessment.
a) The foreign air carrier should provide the responsible
FSDO/IFO/IFU with the aircraft make, model, and serial number, any evidence
of instrument flight rules (IFR) approach approval, and pertinent information
from flightcrew operating procedures.
b) For U.S.-registered aircraft, if the responsible FSDO/IFO/IFU
is unable to determine equipment eligibility from the approved documentation,
it should forward the request and supporting data through its FAA regional Flight
Standards division (RFSD) to the appropriate Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG).
The AEG will verify that the aircraft and its landing system meet the criteria
for CAT II operations, and that the system can safely fly the CAT II approach
procedures. The AEG will provide written documentation (e.g., amended FSB report
or other official documentation) to verify the eligibility of that equipment.
c) For foreign-registered aircraft, the foreign air carrier
should forward the request and supporting data to the appropriate State Civil
Aviation Authority (CAA) to verify eligibility of equipment.
E. Table 2 Guidelines. The kind of CAT II operation
(manual head-up display (HUD), and/or autopilot) must be specified for each
item of equipment listed in Table 2 of OpSpec C059. The following guidelines
should be followed for filling out Table 2:
1) CAT II equipment required by the regulations
or the approved AFM should not be listed.
2) The required airborne equipment table combines
the manual HUD and autopilot columns into one column for programming purposes.
The POI will select the appropriate phrase: manual HUD, or autopilot.
3) If an item of equipment is applicable to a specific
airplane’s M/M/S for both manual HUD and autopilot CAT II operations, both manual
HUD and autopilot can be highlighted and selected for insertion into the column.
4) The equipment required for RVR 1000 CAT II authorization
is to be listed in the “Additional Equipment” column.
5) See Table 12-6 below for examples of how the
items of equipment should be specified for the kind of CAT II operation.
Boeing 767 219
1. Approach coupler and flight director (FD)
must be operative.
1. An independent FD and display for each
pilot (L and R or C and R).
None- Approved Flight Manual (AFM) guidance.
Manual Head-Up-Guidance System (HGS) or
NIHON YSII A200
Approved Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS) dated
F. Airplane Maintenance.
For CAT II authorization, the foreign air carrier must have an acceptable LLM
1) For U.S.-registered airplanes, this LLM maintenance
program shall be in accordance with
Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 3, and must be approved by the FAA in accordance
129.14. This LLM maintenance program should be coordinated with the principal
Airworthiness inspectors and PAIs.
2) For foreign-registered airplanes, this LLM maintenance
program shall be approved by the State of Operator.
G. Flightcrew Qualifications. Flightcrews are trained
and checked in accordance with the foreign air carrier’s approved training program
for CAT II operations authorized with a DH of 100 ft and RVR 1,000 ft (300 m),
and these minimums are approved by the State of Operator. If the flightcrew
is currently authorized CAT III operations, no further training is required
for this authorization in C059.
H. Authorized CAT II Approach and Landing Minimums.
To determine the applicable minima for an approach, the pilot must first compare
the DH shown on the 14 CFR part
97 approach chart with the foreign air carrier’s lowest authorized DH for
the airplane being flown. The higher number is used. Then, the RVR to be used
for the approach is the highest RVR value shown in the approach chart, Table
1 of the OpSpec or subparagraph g. of the OpSpec, considering RVR sensor reports
I. Authorized CAT II Approaches, Airports, and Runways.
1) If the airport and runways are approved for
CAT II operations in part
97, they should not be routinely listed in OpSpec C059 unless the POI determines
there is a need to specify a special limitation for foreign air carriers at
a particular airport.
a) Standard CAT II approaches are published in the National
Aeronautical Charting Office (NACO) instrument approach procedures (IAP) flight
information publication as CAT II procedures. They are identified by the procedure
name “ILS RWY 16C (CAT II)” and by the note in the minima section stating “CATEGORY
II ILS – SPECIAL AIRCREW & AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION REQUIRED.”
b) Reduced lighting CAT II approaches are published by
NACO with the same identifiers as standard CAT II approaches, but they also
have a note in the Procedure Notes section stating, “Procedure does not meet
ICAO standard for Approach Lighting System With ALSF/TDZ/CL lighting systems.
Requires specific OPSPEC, MSPEC or LOA approval. Requires Autoland or HUD to
2) Standard CAT II. The foreign air carriers may
be authorized up to three different minima for use with published 14 CFR part
97 approaches, 1600 RVR,1200 RVR, and 1000 RVR. Allowable minima depend
on availability of RVR sensors and availability and use of required airplane
a) 1600 RVR (touchdown zone (TDZ) RVR only) and 1200 RVR
(TDZ and one other RVR) minima require the flightcrew to use an approach coupler
or to fly under manual control using a HUD for flight guidance at least to DH.
A manually flown landing is assumed and need not be specified.
b) 1000 RVR (TDZ RVR and one other RVR) minima requires
the flightcrew to use autoland or to fly under manual control using a HUD to
1. For operations to touchdown,
the airplane and its automatic flight control guidance system (AFCGS), or manually
flown guidance system, are approved for approach and landing operations as specified
2. For manual control using
a HUD to touchdown, the HUD must be flown in a CAT III mode.
c) Foreign air carriers authorized reduced lighting CAT
II as described in subparagraph I.3) below may also be authorized to conduct
approaches to standard CAT II facilities when the TDZ and/or centerline (CL)
lights are inoperative. They must comply with all requirements in subparagraph
I.2), using minima appropriate to the RVR available and using autoland or manual
HUD to touchdown.
3) Reduced Lighting CAT II. In addition to the
standard CAT II operations authorized by OpSpec C059, reduced lighting CAT II
operations can be authorized to qualifying runways that do not meet the performance
or equipment requirements normally associated with a compliant CAT II operation
(e.g., TDZ lighting, CL lighting, or Approach Lighting System With Sequenced
Flashing Lights (ALSF)-1 & 2).
a) Approval criteria for reduced lighting CAT II approaches
are given in FAA Order
they are described as CAT II Approach Operations on Type I ILS facilities. These
Type I facilities are CAT I ILS installations that meet the glideslope (GS)
and localizer signal quality requirements of CAT II facilities. The reduced
lighting requirements are mitigated by the required increase in aircraft capabilities
(i.e., HUD and/or autoland).here they are described as CAT II Approach Operations
on Type I ILS facilities. These Type I facilities are CAT I ILS installations
that meet the glideslope (GS) and localizer signal quality requirements of CAT
II facilities. The reduced lighting requirements are mitigated by the required
increase in aircraft capabilities (i.e., HUD and/or autoland).
b) RVR requirements and available minima are the same
as standard CAT II, 1600 RVR (TDZ RVR only) and 1200 RVR (TDZ and one other
RVR), but these minima require the flightcrew to use autoland or to fly under
manual control using a HUD to touchdown.
c) Aircraft operational approval, HUD usage and flightcrew
training requirements are the same as for standard CAT II to 1000 RVR.
J. Missed Approach Requirements. The missed approach
decision point has been changed from 1,000 feet (ft) above touchdown to the
final approach fix (FAF). After passing the FAF, if the required visual landing
references are not acquired, and any failure of required equipment occurs, or
if the primary guidance system in use (autopilot or HUD) is disengaged for any
reason, the flightcrew must execute the missed approach. The exception to this
requirement is that if both guidance systems are properly briefed and engaged
before reaching the FAF and one system is disengaged or fails after the FAF,
the remaining guidance system is considered the primary and the approach may
K. CAT II Runway Restrictions. The requirement
to conduct automatic landings in reduced lighting and 1000 RVR operations implies
that autoland restrictions imposed by pre-threshold terrain must be considered.
Approaches that have pre-threshold terrain problems will have a note on the
approach chart requiring a special autoland evaluation. Approved runways will
be on the AFS-410 Web site.
OPSPEC C060. CATEGORY III INSTRUMENT APPROACH AND LANDING OPERATIONS
(OPTIONAL). The FAA evaluates Category (CAT) III operations in accordance
with the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC)
120-28, Criteria for Approval of CAT III Landing Weather Minima for Takeoff,
Landing, and Rollout, equivalent European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) criteria,
or the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) DOC 9365/AN910, Manual
of All Weather Operations. The FAA authorizes CAT III operations by issuing
OpSpec C060. Each airplane type make, model, and serial (M/M/S) used in CAT
III operations must be listed in OpSpec C060 subparagraph a along with the Decision
Height (DH)/Alert Height (AH), lowest Runway Visual Range (RVR) authorized,
and runway field length factor for the type of CAT III operation authorized.
Foreign air carriers requesting authorization for CAT III at U.S. airports should
meet the following criteria.
A. Acceptable Criteria. Criteria acceptable for
use for assessment of foreign air carrier’s applications for CAT III at U.S.
airports include AC
120-28, equivalent EASA criteria, or the ICAO Manual of All Weather Operations
DOC 9365/AN910. Foreign air carriers previously approved by the FAA in accordance
with earlier criteria may continue to apply those earlier criteria. Foreign
air carriers seeking credit for operations addressed only by the current edition
120-28 (e.g., CAT III head-up display (HUD) operations) must meet the criteria
of this AC, or equivalent criteria acceptable to the FAA, for those applicable
B. Foreign Air Carrier Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM)
Provisions. Unless the FAA authorizes otherwise, aircraft used by foreign
air carriers for CAT III within the United States should have AFM provisions
reflecting an appropriate level of CAT III capability as demonstrated to or
authorized by the FAA, or demonstrated to or authorized by a civil aviation
authority (CAA) recognized by the FAA, as having acceptable equivalent CAT III
airworthiness criteria (e.g., EASA, Canada Minister of Transportation (MOT),
C. Foreign Air Carrier CAT III Demonstrations.
Foreign air carriers meeting FAA criteria, or criteria acceptable to the FAA
(e.g., EASA, ICAO criteria including Doc. 9365/AN910), and having more than
6 months experience in the use of CAT III operations with the applicable aircraft
type may be approved for CAT III in accordance with the provisions of their
own CAA, or in accordance with the standard provisions of OpSpec C060, whichever
is the more restrictive. The FAA does not require a separate demonstration period
if the foreign air carrier’s CAA does not require it. However, foreign air carriers
authorized in accordance with this provision may nonetheless be subject to additional
FAA demonstration for special situations, such as at airports with irregular
underlying terrain (see subparagraph D below), or for aircraft types not having
flown to U.S. facilities having CAT III procedures. For foreign air carriers
having current U.S. CAT III authorization, the CAT III demonstration period
may be reduced or waived for the addition of a new type aircraft to the existing
CAT III authority. The demonstration period may be reduced or waived to the
extent that the FAA has accepted a successful demonstration for that aircraft
type for any other U.S. or foreign air carrier. Foreign air carriers not meeting
the above provisions may be subject to the demonstration described in paragraphs
10.5.2 and 10.9 of the current edition of AC
120-28 (equivalent to those necessary for U.S. operators) as the FAA determines
D. Issuance of 14 CFR Part
129 OpSpecs. If a foreign air carrier operating to U.S. airports meets
the above applicable provisions, the FAA authorizes that air carrier for CAT
III by issuing OpSpec C060. Air Carriers intending CAT III operations at U.S.-designated
irregular terrain airports, or airports otherwise requiring special assessments,
mustsuccessfully complete those assessments before using those facilities.
E. Use of Certain Restricted U.S. Facilities.
1) Foreign air carriers typically use CAT III procedures
in the United States that are available as unrestricted public use procedures.
However, the FAA may also authorize certain restricted public use procedures
and special CAT III approach procedures for non-U.S. operators. Typically, these
procedures require special airborne equipment capability, special training,
or nonstandard facility and obstacle assessments. The CAT II/III status checklist
identifies these special procedures. They are not usually published as a 14
97 CAT III Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP). Foreign air carriers
may be eligible to use certain of these procedures if they meet the same special
criteria as would apply to a U.S. operator, and if their own CAA approves them
specifically for the use of the procedure. Some procedures may not be eligible
for foreign air carriers because of other applicable restrictions such as a
restriction placed on private facility use. Special or restricted procedures
require both FAA authorization and specific authorization from the foreign air
carrier’s CAA for each procedure. This is to ensure that both the operator and
foreign CAA are aware of the special provisions needed, and to ensure equivalent
safety to use of standard ICAO criteria. Each foreign air carrier seeking CAT
III procedure authorization at a facility not published as a standard and unrestricted
CAT III SIAP, or at any other facilities that the FAA CAT II/III status checklist
identifies as special or restricted, and that carrier’s CAA must:
a) Be aware of the restrictions applicable to the procedure
(e.g., facility status),
b) Provide evidence to FAA of the CAA’s approval of the
foreign air carrier for each special procedure requested, and
c) Must have the applicable limitations and conditions
included in that air carrier’s OpSpecs for each procedure to be used.
2) Foreign air carriers shall not normally be authorized
special CAT III operations to minima lower than those specified in part
97 CAT III SIAPs consistent with ICAO criteria. If special instrument approach
procedures (IAP) other than those specified in part
97 are authorized, paragraph C381 shall also be issued.
F. Type of CAT III Operation. The type of CAT III
landing system and rollout control system (fail-passive and/or fail-operational)
must be specified for each airplane type in OpSpec C060, Table 1. This is accomplished
by selecting the type of operation from the select data screen in the automated
Operations Safety System (OPSS). Selections available are NA=Not applicable;
FP=Fail Passive, or FO=Fail Operational.
G. DH/AH and Lowest RVR. In Table 1, enter the
DH/AH and lowest authorized RVR that the State of Operator has authorized for
each airplane M/M/S and type of CAT III operation.
H. Field Length Factor Required. Runway field length
factor is used in determining the required runway field length for CAT III operations
and is multiplied times the runway field length required by State of Operator
performance regulations or ICAO Annex 6 performance requirements, whichever
are more restrictive.
1) OpSpec C060 Table 1 must specify the runway
field length factor required for the various kinds of CAT III operations for
each airplane. For operations with a controlling RVR at or above 600 feet (ft)
the required field length is 1.15 times the field length required by the previously
cited regulations, or AFM as appropriate.
2) For a precision instrument approach and landing
with a controlling RVR below 600 ft, the required field length is either 1.15
or 1.3 times the field length required by the previously cited regulations depending
on the operational procedures and/or additional equipment the operator uses
or AFM, as appropriate.
I. Special Operational Equipment and Limitations.
OpSpec C060 subparagraph a Table 1 should not list equipment that the airplane
certification regulations (14 CFR parts
25 or foreign equivalent if foreign-registered), the operating regulations
of 14 CFR, and/or the approved AFM explicitly require. The “Special Operational
Equipment and Limitations” column is provided for equipment that is in addition
to that required by regulation and not included in the AFM. For example, additional
equipment may be required if a field length factor of 1.15 is used in operations
below RVR 600 where a procedural means alone is not acceptable (see AC
120-28). For foreign air carriers that have CAT III approval, copy the airplane
M/M/S, rollout control system (e.g., FP or FO), the DH/AH, and lowest authorized
RVR for each rollout control system into Table 1. Determine the field length
factor as described above (e.g., 1.3 or 1.15) and copy special operational equipment
and limitations noted in the air carrier’s current OpSpec C060, if any, and
insert that information into Table 1 of the new OpSpec. If the operator does
not need special operational equipment, put “NA” under the appropriate column.
Do not delete or leave any cells blank.
NOTE: Only include that equipment which is not explicitly
required by the regulations and/or the Airplane Flight Manual.
J. Authorized CAT III Airports and Runways.
1) All airports and runways to which a foreign
air carrier is authorized to conduct CAT III instrument approach and landing
operations need to be entered in Table 2, along with any required limitations.
2) CAT II/III status lists. The lists contain information
concerning U.S. airports/runways approved for CAT II and CAT III instrument
landing system (ILS) operations. The CAT II/III status list will be published
semi‑annually on January 31 and July 31. The CAT III lists in Sections 3, 4,
and 7 replace the information in FAA Order
8400.8, Procedures for the Approval of Facilities for FAR Part
121 and Part
135 Cat III Operations, appendix 4.
OPSPEC C064. DECOMMISSIONED.
OPSPEC C065. POWERBACK OPERATIONS WITH AIRPLANES (OPTIONAL).
OpSpec C065 authorizes the use of powerplant reversing systems for rearward
taxi operations. Before issuing OpSpec C065, the foreign air carrier must provide
documentation to enable the principal operations inspector (POI) to determine
whether the carrier has established procedures for powerback operations that
its civil aviation authority (CAA) has accepted/approved. Airplane types make,
model, and series (M/M/S) authorized for powerback operations must be listed
in OpSpec C065. Airports where powerback operations are authorized must also
be listed. If the POI and/or foreign air carrier determine that restrictions
to powerback operations are required at certain gates or ramp areas, the restrictions
must be described (adjacent to the airport name) in the “Restrictions and Limitations”
OPSPEC C067. SPECIAL AUTHORIZATIONS, PROVISIONS, AND LIMITATIONS
FOR CERTAIN AIRPORTS (required for all foreign air carriers).
A. General. OpSpec C067 authorizes and limits the
foreign air carrier’s operation of airplanes into certain airports. These authorizations
and limitations include the following types of operations:
Foreign air carriers conducting certain passenger-carrying operations into uncertificated
airports (see subparagraph C),
Foreign air carriers conducting operations at airports that require curfew limitations
for flights into or out of specific airports (see subparagraph D),
Foreign air carriers conducting operations into airports that because of operational
considerations may require special aircraft performance charts and equipment,
special lighting (flare pots, etc.), or unpaved runways (see subparagraph D),and
Foreign air carriers conducting operations using the Reginald Bennett International
(RBI) Runway Reflectorization System in Alaska (see subparagraph D2).
B. Authorizations Where Other OpSpecs Are Applicable.
1) OpSpec C050 for “special PIC qualification airports”
is applicable for the airport if contained on the List of Special Pilot In Command
Qualifications Airports at the Flight Standards Information Management System
Publications, Operations Safety System (OPSS) Documents, Operations Safety System
(OPSS) Guidance. Do not list those airports in OpSpec C067 unless one of the
items in subparagraph A also applies.
2) Use OpSpec C381 for listing the airports/runways
where the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400) has approved
specific “special” instrument procedures for a foreign air carrier.
3) OpSpec C064 and C080 are applicable for authorizing
a foreign air carrier to conduct airplane operations in airport terminal areas
in Class G airspace or at airports without an operating control tower.
C. Uncertificated Airports. Title 49 of the United
States Code (49 U.S.C.) § 44706, and 14 CFR part
121.590 impose restrictions on U.S. carriers operating certain types of
passenger-carrying operations into U.S. land airports that are not certified
under 14 CFR part
139 and allow for authorization for such operations by the FAA. OpSpec C067
imposes the same restrictions for foreign air carriers operating to U.S. land
airports under 14 CFR part
129 and makes allowances for certain authorizations.
1) Limitations on the use of uncertificated U.S.
land airports by passenger-carrying airplanes in OpSpec C067 are designed to
mirror the requirements of §
2) In accordance with the requirements of OpSpec
C067, a foreign air carrier may be authorized to conduct passenger-carrying
airplane operations into an airport (military and nonmilitary) operated by the
U.S. Government that is not certificated under part
139 if those airports to be used meet:
The equivalent safety standards for airports certificated under part
The equivalent airport classification requirements under part
139 to serve the type of airplanes to be operated and the type of operations
to be conducted.
3) Inspectors may grant authorization to serve
such airports by entering the location/identifier of each airport, and the make,
model, and series (M/M/S) of the airplanes to be operated in Table 1, provided
the State of Operator civil aviation authority (CAA) has also approved/accepted
4) Operators should obtain permission from the
airport manager of nonmilitary airports and the base commander of military airports
to operate at these airports before starting operations.
5) This permission is not needed for operations
at joint-use civil and military airports.
D. Other Special Authorizations.
1) Other special authorizations, limitations, and
provisions include those operations that would require special operational considerations
and special flightcrew member training if operations were conducted by a U.S.
carrier. (See guidance in
Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5.) Each of these operations must also be approved/accepted
by the State of Operator CAA. These may include but are not limited to:
Operations into airports with special runway markings, such as flare pots or
High altitude airports with special airplane performance requirements; and
Airports with unpaved runways or runways constructed on frozen lakes and rivers.
2) Special authorization for conducting operations
at airports in Alaska. For authorization to conduct airplane operations using
the RBI Runway Reflectorization System in Alaska:
a) The air carrier must provide a station agent at the
airport trained to give wind information to the flightcrew, and
b) The air carrier must train its flightcrews on this
specific system in accordance with an approved training program. The training
program must be approved in accordance with the following criteria:
1. Each pilot must receive initial
and recurrent training in accordance with their company’s training program approved
by the State of Operator’s CAA.
2. Each person must complete
initial training (both ground and flight personnel) prior to his or her participation
with this authorization.
3. Recurrent training must be
completed within each subsequent 12 calendar-months.
4. Whenever a person who is
required to take this recurrent training completes the training in the calendar-month
before or the calendar-month after the month in which this recurrent training
is required, that person is considered to have completed it in the calendar-month
in which it was required.
5. The sample Table 1 (Table
12-7, Sample of Table 1 Airports and Special Provisions) shows how to provide
authorization for conducting operations after curfew hours at specific airports
or use of the RBI Runway Reflectorization system at specific airports in Table
1 of OpSpec C067.
3) Foreign air carrier turbojet operations on unpaved
runways. Airports with unpaved runways shall be required to have special operational
procedures and flightcrew member training approved/accepted as appropriate by
the State of Operator CAA. For authorization of operations at an airport with
unpaved runways, the principal operations inspector (POI) must identify the
airport and reference the appropriate section of the foreign air carrier’s manuals
in Table 1 of OpSpec C067.
4) Foreign air carrier operations to U.S. airports
that do not have an available alternate in accordance with Annex 6, Part I,
Paragraph 184.108.40.206 (b) that are dispatched in accordance with the required fuel
reserves set forth in Annex 6, Part I, Paragraph 220.127.116.11.2 (b), shall be listed
along with any special provisions or limitations, including those imposed by
the foreign CAA.
5) Although the FAA does not encourage operators
to list in their OpSpecs aircraft limitations at certain airports during curfew
hours, if an airport authority requires operators to list these limitations
in their OpSpecs, then operators may list them in Table 1 of OpSpec C067. A
sample of Table 1 (Table 12-7) below shows an example of limitations for air
carrier operations into specific airports during curfew hours.
PKEK, Ekwok, Alaska
A station agent is required to give wind information
to the flightcrews and the flightcrew must have completed the required
approved training on the Reginald Bennett International (RBI) Runway
DCA, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport
Limitations during the curfew hours.
Boeing 737-800—Max Takeoff—159,000 pounds
Max Landing—137,600 pounds.
OPSPECC068. NOISE ABATEMENT DEPARTURE
A. The Intent of OpSpec C068. OpSpec C068 authorizes
foreign air carriers to conduct Noise Abatement Departure Profile (NADP) operations
in accordance with the provisions of OpSpec C068 and the procedures in the foreign
air carrier’s manuals that its civil aviation authority (CAA) has accepted/approved.
The foreign air carrier shall use the approved NADPs for its turbojet airplanes,
having a maximum certificated gross takeoff weight (GTOW)of more than 75,000
pounds, operating from a noise-sensitive airport within the United States. The
foreign air carrier shall conduct each NADP in accordance with the restrictions
and limitations specified in OpSpec C068 and shall not conduct any other noise
abatement departure profile operations.
1) For the purpose of these OpSpecs, the NADPs
for any airplane type at any one time shall be limited to a maximum of two profiles:
Close-In NADP operations, and/or
Distant NADP operations.
2) Only one NADP can be designated for each runway
at each airport. The foreign air carrier’s NADPs must meet the following criteria:
a) For each NADP, the foreign air carrier shall specify
the altitude above field elevation (AFE) at which flightcrews will initiate
thrust reduction from takeoff thrust (close-in profile) or airplane configuration
change (distant profile), excluding gear retraction.
b) Close-In NADP. The foreign air carrier shall use the
following NADP criteria for individual airplane types intended to provide noise
reduction for noise-sensitive areas located in close proximity to the departure
end of the runway:
1. Initiate thrust cutback at
an altitude of no less than 800 feet (ft) AFE and prior to initiation of flaps
or slats retraction.
2. The thrust cutback may be
made by manual throttle reduction or by approved automatic means. Flightcrews
may arm the automatic means before takeoff for cutback at or above 800 ft AFE
or may be pilot initiated at or above 800 ft AFE.
airplanes without an operational automatic thrust restoration system, achieve
and maintain no less than the thrust level necessary after thrust reduction
to maintain, for the flaps/slats configuration of the airplane, the takeoff
path engine-inoperative climb gradients specified in 14 CFR part
25.111(c)(3) in the event of an engine failure.
4. For airplanes with an operational
automatic thrust restoration system, achieve and maintain no less than the thrust
level necessary after thrust reduction to maintain, for the flaps/slats configuration
of the airplane, a takeoff path engine-inoperative climb gradient of zero percent,
provided that the automatic thrust restoration system will, at a minimum, restore
sufficient thrust to maintain the takeoff path engine-inoperative climb gradients
25.111(c)(3) specifies in the event of an engine failure.
5. During the thrust reduction,
coordinate the pitchover rate and thrust reduction to provide a decrease in
pitch consistent with allowing indicated airspeed to decay to no more than 5
knots below the all-engine target climb speed, and in no case to less than takeoff
safety speed (multi) (V2) for the airplane configuration. For automated
throttle systems, acceptable speed tolerances can be found in the current edition
of Advisory Circular (AC)
25-15, Approval of Flight Management Systems in Transport Category Airplanes.
6. Maintain the speed and thrust
criteria as described in steps A2)b)3 through A2)b)5 to 3,000
ft AFE or above, or until the airplane has been fully transitioned to the en
route climb configuration (whichever occurs first), then transition to normal
en route climb procedures.
c) Distant NADP. The foreign air carrier shall use the
following NADP criteria for individual airplane types intended to provide noise
reduction for all other noise sensitive areas.
1. Initiate flaps/slats retraction
prior to thrust cutback initiation. Flightcrews should initiate thrust cutback
at an altitude no less than 800 ft AFE.
2. Flightcrews may make the
thrust cutback by manual throttle reduction or by approved automatic means.
Flightcrews may arm the automatic means prior to takeoff for cutback at or above
800 ft AFE or the flightcrew may initiate it at or above 800 ft AFE.
3. For airplanes without an
operational automatic thrust restoration system, achieve and maintain no less
than the thrust level necessary after thrust reduction to maintain, for the
flaps/slats configuration of the airplane, the takeoff path engine-inoperative
climb gradients specified in §
25.111(c)(3) in the event of an engine failure.
4. For airplanes with an operational
automatic thrust restoration system, achieve and maintain no less than the thrust
level necessary after thrust reduction to maintain, for the flaps/slats configuration
of the airplane, a takeoff path engine-inoperative climb gradient of zero percent,
provided that the automatic thrust restoration system will, at a minimum, restore
sufficient thrust to maintain the takeoff path engine-inoperative climb gradients
specified in §
25.111(c)(3) in the event of an engine failure.
5. During the thrust reduction,
coordinate the pitchover rate and thrust reduction to provide a decrease in
pitch consistent with allowing indicated airspeed to decay to no more than five
knots below the all-engine target climb speed, and in no case to less than V2
for the airplane configuration. For automatic throttle systems, acceptable speed
tolerances can be found in AC
6. Maintain the speed and thrust
criteria as described in steps A2)c)3 through A2)c)5 to 3,000
ft AFE or above, or until the airplane has been fully transitioned to the en
route climb configuration (whichever occurs first), then transition to normal
en route climb procedures.
B. Airplane Vertical Departure Profiles. Before
authorizing this paragraph, the POI must ensure that all airplane vertical departure
profiles described in the certificate holder’s operations and/or training manuals
comply with the above criteria before authorizing OpSpec C068 for the foreign
NOTE: Configuration changes necessary to meet regulatory
performance or operations requirements shall not be affected by this procedure.
For those airplanes that have a performance requirement to reduce takeoff flaps
to an intermediate takeoff flap setting at 400 ft AFE or above, the next flap/slats
retraction should be initiated at an altitude of no less than 800 ft AFE.
OPSPEC C069-C074. RESERVED.
OPSPEC C075. CIRCLING MANEUVERS AND/OR CONTACT APPROACHES AT U.S.
A. Issuing OpSpec C075. The FAA issues OpSpec C075
to foreign air carriers with fixed-wing airplanes who conduct either circling
maneuvers, contact approaches, or both (circling maneuvers and contact approaches).
OpSpec C075 specifies the lowest minimums that can be used.
NOTE: Do not issue OpSpec C075 if the foreign air carrier
is not authorized for either the circling maneuver or contact approach.
B. Before Issuing OpSpec C075. The foreign air
carrier must submit documentation showing that their crewmember training program
approved by their Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) provides the appropriate training
and checking, and that the CAA authorized the maneuver and/or approach.
C. Drafting OpSpec C075. Within the OpSpec there
are two sets of selectable static text for circling maneuvers and contact approaches
(one for each when authorized, and one for each when not authorized). The inspector
must select the appropriate text based on what the air carrier is authorized.
For example, if the air carrier is authorized for circling maneuvers and not
for contact approaches, then select the text that states the limitations of
circling maneuvers and the “not authorized” text for contact approaches.
D. Circling Maneuvers Terminology. In any weather
condition, a foreign air carrier that permits its pilots to accept a “circle
to land” or a “circle to runway (runway number)” clearance from air traffic
control (ATC) conducts circle‑to-land maneuvers. The term “circle-to-land maneuver”
includes the maneuver that is referenced in various regulations, publications,
and documents as “circle-to-land maneuver,” “circling,” “circling maneuver,”
“circle,” “circling approach,” and “circling approach maneuver.” With regard
to pilots, conducting a circle-to-land maneuver means to act as the Pilot Flying
(PF) when a circle-to-land maneuver is being conducted.
E. Aircraft Operating Under Instrument Flight Rules
(IFR) During All Circle-To-Land Maneuvers. Aircraft operating under IFR
during all circle-to-land maneuvers are required to remain clear of clouds.
If a flightcrew loses visual reference to the airport while conducting a circle-to-land
maneuver, they must follow the missed approach procedure specified for the applicable
instrument approach, unless ATC specifies an alternate missed approach procedure.
F. Circling Landing Maneuver. When the ceiling
is less than 1,000 feet and visibility is less than 3 statute miles, then the
foreign air carrier shall not use any circling landing minimum lower than that
prescribed for the applicable published instrument approach to be used.
NOTE: This does not authorize the pilots to go below the
lowest minimum authorized by the State of Operator.
G. Pilots Restricted to Circling in Visual Conditions.
Any pilot who possesses a pilot certificate restricting circling approaches
to visual meteorological conditions (VMC) is not eligible to conduct circle-to-land
maneuvers except as provided below:
1) He or she must use the higher of the minimum
descent altitude (MDA) of 1,000 feet height above airport (HAA) or the MDA of
the published circling landing minimums for the instrument approach to be used.
2) He or she remains under an IFR clearance and
must comply with the procedures otherwise required for circle-to-land maneuvers.
The foreign air carrier may conduct a circle-to-land maneuver when the reported
ceiling is at least 1,000 feet and the visibility is at least 3 miles, or the
reported weather is at least equal to the published circling landing minimums
for the instrument approach to be used, whichever is higher.
NOTE: Foreign air carriers conducting circle to land maneuvers
without training and checking are subject to the same provisions as pilots restricted
to circling in visual conditions.
H. Contact Approach Criteria. The Aeronautical
Information Publication (AIP) of the United States provides further guidance
on foreign operators operating contact approaches in the United States. See
Part 2—En Route (ENR), ENR 1.1, paragraph 42.3 and ENR 1.5, paragraph 23 of
the AIP of the United States, located at the following Web site: http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/atpubs/AIP/aip.pdf.
OPSPEC C076. DECOMMISSIONED.
OPSPEC C077. TERMINAL FLIGHT RULES LIMITATIONS AND PROVISIONS (required
for all carriers conducting IFR operations).
A. To Whom OpSpec C077 is Issued. The FAA issues
OpSpec C077 to all foreign air carriers operating turbojet and large airplanes
to the United States. Except as provided within OpSpec C077, it restricts all
operations to those conducted to instrument flight rules (IFR) except in accordance
with the provisions of 14 CFR part
93, Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 50-2, SFAR 71, or OpSpec
B051, if issued. OpSpec C077 allows the foreign air carrier to conduct the following
operations in the terminal area with the restrictions and limitations listed
1) Terminal arrival IFR—visual approach or a charted
visual flight procedure (CVFP).
2) Terminal arrival visual flight rules (VFR).
3) Terminal departures VFR.
4) Terminal departures IFR.
B. CVFP. For a foreign air carrier conducting a
CVFP, the weather minimums of 14 CFR part
91 prevail except that the carrier shall not use minimums lower than those
established in the CVFP.
C. OpSpec C077 Subparagraph b(2)(b)—Uncontrolled Airports.
Uncontrolled airports may be in Class G airspace. In order for the foreign air
carrier to exercise this provision, OpSpecs C064 and/or C080 must also be issued
allowing operation at airports without an operating control tower and/or operation
in Class G airspace.
D. OpSpec C077 Subparagraph b(3). In lieu of a
CVFP, a charted visual procedure that the air carrier’s civil aviation authority
(CAA) approved is highly recommended for all terminal VFR departures/arrivals
that fall under this OpSpec. The proximity of obstacles to the departure flightpath,
the seeing conditions, the accuracy of the guidance and control systems, the
pilot’s proficiency, and the foreign air carrier’s training should determine
the size of the area in which obstacle clearance or avoidance must be considered.
E. OpSpec C077 Subparagraph c(3). This subparagraph
contains a requirement to obtain an IFR clearance no farther than 50 nautical
miles (NM) from the departure airport. However, it is recognized that this procedure
may not be practical in all situations. If a greater distance is necessary,
the foreign air carrier may apply for a nonstandard paragraph. If OpSpec B051
is issued for VFR en route operations, then for propeller-driven aircraft, except
for certain en route VFR provisions in part
93, SFAR 50-2, or SFAR 71, the flightcrew may depart VFR under the provision
of OpSpec C077 subparagraph c, and the requirement to obtain an IFR clearance
en route does not apply.
F. Terminal Departure IFR Requirements in Subparagraph
d. If air traffic control (ATC) clears the flight, it is acceptable to execute
a visual meteorological conditions (VMC) takeoff and climb to a specified point
in the clearance as part of an IFR clearance. However, the foreign air carrier
must ensure that the obstacle performance requirements are met. Further, the
flight must not depart on a VFR flight plan if the capability to go on an IFR
flight plan is evident.
G. Subparagraph e. Subparagraph e provides special
limitations and provisions for all VFR operations. This subparagraph is applicable
to all the provisions and limitations of OpSpec C077.
1) Subparagraph e(1). In order for the foreign
air carrier to conduct VFR operations under OpSpec C077, they must have in place
either a procedure or program that can identify obstacles and the airport obstacle
data. Further, they must ensure that the flightcrew use that information. The
POI shall request documentation from the foreign air carrier that this program
is in place and that the air carrier’s CAA has approved VFR terminal operations.
2) OpSpec C077, Subparagraph e(2). Although each
subparagraph has specific details and minimums regarding VFR, the requirement
for sufficient seeing conditions to identify and avoid obstacles is required
for all VFR operations.
OPSPEC C078. RESERVED.
OPSPEC C080. TERMINAL AREA IFR OPERATIONS IN CLASS G AIRSPACE AND
AT AIRPORTS WITHOUT AN OPERATING CONTROL TOWER (OPTIONAL). The FAA issues
OpSpec C080 to authorize a foreign air carrier to conduct terminal area airplane
instrument flight rules (IFR) operations in Class G airspace or at airports
without an operating control tower.
A. Before Authorizing OpSpec C080. Before authorizing
OpSpec C080, the principal operations inspector (POI) must determine that the
foreign air carrier’s civil aviation authority (CAA) has authorized/approved
it for these types of operations. The foreign air carrier must provide documentation
to the POI showing that they have the required methods or procedures and arrangements
in place for obtaining and disseminating necessary operational information and
that their CAA has accepted/approved them. This operational information must
include the following:
1) That the airport is served by an authorized
instrument approach procedure (IAP) (and departure procedure, when applicable).
2) Applicable charts for crewmember use.
3) Operational weather data from an approved source
for control of flight movements and crewmember use. (For a list of examples,
Volume 3, Chapter 26, Section 4. Note that the examples contained therein
are not all inclusive.)
4) Status of airport services and facilities at
the time of the operation.
5) Suitable means for pilots to obtain traffic
6) Sources of traffic and airport advisories.
7) Scheduled passenger operations. The POI must
select the optional text for scheduled operations. The optional text specifies
the following additional requirement: would it not have been for weather, or
mechanical or air traffic control (ATC) delays, the flight would have arrived
at the scheduled time and the airspace would have been Class D.
B. Sources of Traffic and Airport Advisories. Foreign
air carriers may be authorized to use any two-way radio source of air TA information
listed in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) (for operations in U.S.
airspace) or equivalent Aeronautical Information Publications (AIP).
1) These sources include common traffic advisory
frequencies (CTAF), Aeronautical Advisory Stations (UNICOM), Multicom, and Flight
Service Stations (FSS).
2) In those cases where two sources are listed
at the same airport, inspectors must ensure that the foreign air carrier’s manuals
have procedures that require pilots to continuously monitor and use the TA frequency
when operating within 10 nautical miles (NM) of the airport. The procedures
should require communication concerning airport services and facilities to be
completed while more than 10 NM from the airport.
3) At some airports, no public use frequencies
may be available. In those cases, a foreign air carrier must arrange for radio
communication of essential information, including surveillance of local or transient
aircraft operations by ground personnel. Ground personnel who provide airport
status and TA reports using a company radio must be able to view airspace around
OPSPEC C381. RESERVED.
OPSPEC C083. IASA CATEGORY 2 SPECIAL OPERATIONAL RESTRICTIONS—SCHEDULED
AND NON-SCHEDULED OPERATIONS, ADDITIONAL AIRCRAFT AND SPECIAL AUTHORIZATIONS
(required for all carriers from International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA)
CAT II countries).
A. General. OpSpec C083 shall be issued to any
foreign air carrier conducting operations to the United States under 14 CFR
129, when the FAA determines under the international aviation safety assessment
program (IASA) that the State of Operator does not oversee civil aviation safety
in accordance with minimum international standards. Such countries are placed
in IASA Category 2. Foreign air carriers with existing operations to the United
States will be permitted to continue operations at current levels under heightened
FAA surveillance. The FAA does not permit expansion or changes in services to
the United States by such carriers while their home country is in Category 2
status. The FAA will permit new services only if operated using aircraft wet-leased
from a duly authorized and properly supervised U.S. carrier or a foreign air
carrier from a Category 1 country that is authorized to serve the United States
using its own aircraft under part
129. Those operations are not restricted by this OpSpec. Issuance of OpSpec
C083 shall be coordinated with the International Programs and Policy Division
(AFS-50). If no operations were conducted to the United States in the 6 calendar-months
prior to the month in which their home country was determined to be Category
2, the responsible FSDO/IFO/IFU should begin the process of withdrawing the
129 OpSpecs instead of issuing this paragraph. That process should only
begin after consultation with AFS-50.
B. Scheduled Operations. In order to maintain operations
at current levels for these carriers, each foreign airport from which the foreign
air carrier provides scheduled service to the United States shall be listed
in OpSpec C083 subparagraph a. The foreign air carrier must have provided scheduled
service to the listed city pairs either at the time their home country was determined
to be Category 2, or during the 6 calendar-months prior to the month their home
country was determined to be Category 2. The foreign air carrier shall also
be limited to the frequency operated to those city pairs during the 6 calendar-months
prior to the CAT 2 determination. OpSpec C083 limits the foreign air carrier’s
scheduled operations to the United States to those city pairs and frequency.
If the carrier’s home country once again obtains IASA Category 1 status, this
OpSpec will be withdrawn.
C. Nonscheduled Operations. When a foreign air
carrier’s home country is determined to be in IASA Category 2, the FAA restricts
the foreign air carrier’s nonscheduled operations to the geographic areas to
which operations were conducted and frequency of operation during the 6 calendar-months
prior to the Category 2 determination. Each U.S. geographic area to which the
foreign air carrier provides nonscheduled service to the United States and the
frequency of that nonscheduled service over the preceding 6 months shall be
listed in the table in subparagraph b. If the carrier’s home country once again
obtains IASA Category 1 status, this OpSpec will be withdrawn. The applicable
geographic areas are only those that also are listed in OpSpec A001. To list
the areas of geographic authorization, accomplish the following:
1) First, obtain the “list of areas of en route
operation.” The Web-based Operations Safety System (WebOPSS) guidance subsystem
contains detailed information on geographical areas. The areas authorized for
issuance to a foreign air carrier in 129 OpSpecs are:
USA—The 48 Contiguous United States and the District of Columbia,
USA—The State of Alaska,
USA—The State of Alaska; the Following Islands [insert],
USA—The State of Hawaii,
USA—The State of Hawaii; the Following Islands [insert],
USA—The States of [insert], and
USA—The Territory of [insert].
2) Then select the individual areas of en route
operations to be authorized.
a) Certain selections have blank spaces, which when selected
must be completed. These selections should normally be used only when the operation
is to be limited to certain states, or islands within a larger geographic area.
For example, a foreign air carrier may have its nonscheduled operations limited
to Hawaii and other specific island(s) and territories within the region of
the South Pacific Ocean, such as Guam and Samoa, if that carrier provided nonscheduled
service to the area during the prior 6 months. While these types of selections
provide two or three blank spaces, as many states or islands as appropriate
can be entered.
b) If the standard phraseology for a particular selection
is not appropriate, the principal operations inspector (POI) may develop an
appropriate description of the area to be authorized. In these cases, the POI)
can delete the standard phraseology and insert the nonstandard description of
the geographic area.
Figure 12-3. Example Listing of Restrictions
for a Foreign Air Carrier
A. Scheduled Operations. The
foreign air carrier shall only conduct scheduled operations to and
from the United States between the specific city pairs listed in
PANC Anchorage, Alaska
XXXX anywhere city
Twice per week
Operations. The foreign air carrier’s nonscheduled operations
to and from the United States is restricted to the U.S. geographic
area and frequency listed in this paragraph.
USA—The 48 Contiguous United States
and the District of Columbia
6 flights per year
D. Additional Aircraft. On or after the date their
home country was determined to be CAT 2, no additional aircraft (including substitution
of aircraft) may be added to the carrier’s OpSpecs, except through the issuance
of OpSpec A028 allowing aircraft wet-leased from a duly authorized and properly
supervised U.S. carrier or foreign air carrier from a CAT 1 country that is
authorized to serve the United States using its own aircraft.
E. Special Authorizations. On or after the date
their home country was determined to be CAT 2, no additional special authorizations
such as Category (CAT) II/III, instrument landing system (ILS)/precision runway
monitor (PRM), land-and-hold-short operations (LAHSO), Reduced Vertical Separation
Minimum (RVSM), etc., that require approval, acceptance or authorization by
the foreign air carrier’s Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), shall be authorized
in these OpSpecs, unless such authorizations are necessary in the interest of
safety, and shall be issued only with the concurrence, in writing, of AFS-50.
Any existing special authorizations such as CAT II/III, ILS/PRM, LAHSO, RVSM,
etc., that require an initial approval, acceptance, or authorization and continuing
oversight by the foreign air carrier’s CAA, shall be reviewed to determine that
adequate oversight by the foreign air carrier’s CAA is occurring on a continuous
basis. If it is determined that such adequate oversight by the foreign air carrier’s
CAA is not occurring on a continuous basis, the responsible FSDO/IFO/IFU should
consider withdrawing those special authorizations from the foreign air carrier’s
OpSpecs. That withdrawal process should be initiated only after consultation
with and clearance by AFS-50.
NOTE: Additional information on the FAA’s IASA program,
including a country’s IASA category, can be obtained on the FAA Web site at
OPSPEC C084-C090. RESERVED.
OPSPEC C381. SPECIAL NON-14 CFR PART
97 INSTRUMENT APPROACH OR DEPARTURE PROCEDURES (OPTIONAL).
NOTE: To obtain the nonstandard authorization C381, the
operator is required to use the nonstandard request process. See
Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 2, paragraphs 3-712 to 3-713, for the nonstandard
request process. For foreign air carriers conducting operations under 14 CFR
129, submit the formal request to the Flight Technologies and Procedures
A. Applicability. OpSpec C381 is applicable to
all foreign air carriers conducting airplane operations under part
129. OpSpec C381 authorizes foreign air carriers to conduct special (non-14
97) instrument approach procedures (IAP) or departure procedures (DPs).
OpSpec C381 is an optional authorization for foreign air carriers conducting
operations under part
B. Authorization. The foreign air carrier’s training
program must provide training in the equipment and special procedures to be
used, and the foreign air carrier’s civil aviation authority (CAA) must approve
the use of these special procedures. The carrier must be from an international
aviation safety assessment program (IASA) Category 1 State. OpSpec C381 can
be issued once the inspector determines that the foreign air carrier is able
to obtain the operational status of the non-part
97 instrument approach or departure operations.
1) All airports and all special IAPs and DPs must
be listed in Table 1 of OpSpec C381. The full name of the procedure (e.g., “ILS
or LOC/DME RWY 23, Amdt 2”) must be included in the table. Include any limitations
or provisions relevant to a specific procedure in the third column of Table
2) When submitting the formal request to AFS-400
in accordance with the nonstandard request process, include the draft OpSpec
and the approval documentation from the foreign air carrier’s CAA. AFS-400 will
review the technical content, and forward the request to AFS-50 for approval.
C. Special Terminal IAPs or DPs. For more information
on special instrument procedures, see
Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 10, or contact your regional AXX-220 branch
for more information.
OPSPEC C384. AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV) REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE
(RNP) INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES WITH SPECIAL AIRCRAFT AND AIRCREW AUTHORIZATION
A. General. OpSpec C384 is used to authorize foreign
air carriers to conduct Area Navigation (RNAV) Required Navigation Performance
(RNP) instrument approach procedures (IAP), which require special aircraft and
aircrew authorization required (SAAAR). These approaches have been published
in accordance with 14 CFR part
97 and are charted as “RNAV (RNP) RWY XX,” hereinafter referred to as RNP
B. Alternative Method. The current edition of FAA
advisory circular (AC)
90-101, Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures with Special Aircraft and Aircrew
Authorization Required (SAAAR), provides an acceptable method of compliance
with public RNP SAAAR IAP requirements. In lieu of following this method without
deviation, foreign air carriers may elect to follow an alternative method, provided
the alternative method is also found to be acceptable to the FAA.
C. RNP Approaches. RNP approaches provide an opportunity
to improve safety, efficiency, and capacity. Safety is improved when RNP approaches
replace visual or Nonprecision Approaches (NPA), and efficiency is improved
through more repeatable and optimum flightpaths. Capacity can be improved by
de-conflicting traffic during instrument conditions.
1) RNP SAAAR approaches provide an unprecedented
flexibility in construction of approach procedures. These operations are RNAV
procedures with a specified level of performance and capability. RNP SAAAR approach
procedures build upon the performance-based National Airspace System (NAS) concept.
The performance requirements to conduct an approach are defined, and aircraft
are qualified against these performance requirements. Obstacle evaluation areas
for approaches using conventional navigation aids are based on a predefined
aircraft capability and navigation system. RNP SAAAR criteria for obstacle evaluation
are flexible and designed to adapt to unique operational environments. This
allows approach-specific performance requirements as necessary for that approach
procedure. The operational requirement can include avoiding terrain or obstacles,
deconflicting airspace, or resolving environmental constraints.
2) RNP approaches include unique capabilities that
require special aircraft and aircrew authorization similar to Category (CAT)
II/III instrument landing system (ILS) operations. All RNP SAAAR approaches
have reduced lateral obstacle evaluation areas and vertical obstacle clearance
surfaces predicated on the aircraft and aircrew performance requirements of
90-101. In addition, there are two characteristics used for selected procedures,
as necessary. Foreign air carriers can be authorized for any subset of these
Aircraft ability to fly a published arc (also referred to as a radius to a fix
(RF) leg); and
Reduced lateral obstacle evaluation area on the missed approach (also referred
to as a missed approach requiring RNP less than 1.0).
3) When conducting an RNP SAAAR approach using
a line of minima less than RNP 0.3 and/or a missed approach that requires RNP
less than 1.0, you must comply with AC
90-101, appendix 2, paragraph 5 and/or 6.
4) The defining components of RNP capability is
the ability of the aircraft navigation system to monitor its achieved navigation
performance and to identify, display, and alert the pilot when the operational
requirement is not being met during an operation.
1) Overview. Any foreign air carrier with an appropriate
operational authorization (e.g., OpSpecs) may conduct specified RNP SAAAR IAPs,
with a process similar to when foreign air carriers with the proper authorization
may conduct CAT II and CAT III ILS operations. Subparagraph D3)b) (Figure 12-4,
RNP SAAAR Authorization Checklist—(Refer to AC
90-101 for current edition)) contains a checklist and a list of the documents
foreign air carriers must submit to their assigned principal inspectors (PI)
when seeking FAA authorization for these operations. Foreign air carriers should
comply with the requirements in AC
90-101, appendices 2 through 6. Before application, foreign air carriers
and manufacturers should review all performance requirements. Installation of
equipment by itself does not guarantee final approval for use.
2) Aircraft Qualification and Initial Acceptance of
Recommended Operational Documentation.
a) Aircraft Qualification Documentation. Aircraft manufacturers
should develop aircraft qualification documentation showing compliance with
90-101, appendix 2. This documentation identifies the optional capabilities
(e.g., RF legs and RNP missed approaches), the RNP capability of each aircraft
configuration, and the characteristics that may alleviate the need for operational
mitigations. This documentation should also define the recommended RNP maintenance
b) RNP SAAAR Operational Documentation. The FAA recommends
that the aircraft manufacturer develop RNP SAAAR operational documentation.
The operational documentation consists of a recommended navigation data validation
program (Refer to AC
90-101, appendix 3) and operational considerations (Refer to AC
90‑101, appendix 4), training programs (Refer to AC
90-101, appendix 5), and RNP monitoring programs (Refer to AC
90-101, appendix 6).
c) FAA Acceptance.
1. For new aircraft, the aircraft
qualification documentation can be approved as part of an aircraft certification
project and reflected in the Approved Flight Manual (AFM) and related documents.
The RNP SAAAR operational documentation can be accepted by the Aircraft Evaluation
Group (AEG) in coordination with the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division
2. For existing aircraft, the
aircraft manufacturer should submit the aircraft qualification and RNP SAAAR
operational documentation to AFS-400. AFS-400 will coordinate with other FAA
offices and may accept the package as appropriate for RNP SAAAR operations.
Acceptance will be documented in a letter to the aircraft manufacturer.
3) Operator Authorization.
a) Procedures. Foreign air carriers must present a package
of documentary evidence to their PIs at their responsible Flight Standards District
Office (FSDO)/International Field Office (IFO)/International Field Unit (IFU)
showing compliance with the requirements below, in accordance with AC
90-101, appendices 2 through 6, which is specific to the aircraft, equipment,
and their procedures. Once the principal operations inspector (POI) has made
a determination in cooperation with the principal avionics inspector (PAI) and
principal maintenance inspector (PMI) that the package is satisfactory and complete,
the package shall be forwarded to AFS-400 for review and concurrence. Once AFS-400
concurrence has been obtained that the operator has satisfied the requirements
contained in AC
90‑101, or equivalent, the POI issues OpSpec C384, authorizing RNP SAAAR
IAPs. An RNP SAAAR authorization checklist has been provided on the following
pages for use.
b) RNP SAAAR Application Package Contents. The operator
submits documentation of its proposed operation to its responsible FSDO/IFO/IFU.
The package should include, as a minimum, the following:
1. Aircraft qualification documentation.
Documentation from the aircraft manufacturer showing that the proposed aircraft
equipment meets the requirements as outlined in AC
90-101, appendix 2. This documentation should contain any specific hardware
or software equipment requirements, procedural requirements, and limitations.
2. Type of aircraft and description
of aircraft equipment to be used. Provide a configuration list that details
pertinent components and equipment to be used for the operation. The list should
include each make, model, and version of flight management system (FMS) software
3. Operating procedures and
practices. Company manuals and checklists must adequately address the special
characteristics of a proposed area of operation and the operational (navigation)
practices and procedures identified in AC
90-101, appendix 4. These procedures shall be included as part of the manual
required by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 6, Part I,
paragraph 4.2.3, which is approved/accepted by the State of Operator Civil Aviation
4. Navigation data validation
program. The foreign air carrier must provide the specifics of the navigation
data validation program as described in AC
90-101, appendix 3. The program will be included in the manual required
by ICAO Annex 6, Part I, paragraph 4.2 that is approved/accepted by the State
of Operator CAA.
and flight operations officer/flight dispatcher training programs. Foreign air
carriers must submit training syllabi and other appropriate material to show
that RNP SAAAR operations are incorporated into their programs. Training programs
must adequately address the special characteristics of a proposed area of operation
and the operational (navigation) practices and procedures identified in AC
90-101, appendix 5. The training and qualification program must be approved
by the State of Operator CAA.
6. Maintenance program. The
operator should submit maintenance program procedures that include instructions
for airworthiness/maintenance of the equipment/systems to be used in the operation
and required training for maintenance personnel. The foreign air carrier must
provide a procedure for removing the aircraft from and returning the aircraft
to RNP SAAAR operational capability. The program must be approved by the State
of Operator CAA. Additionally, for each U.S.-registered aircraft, the FAA must
approve the maintenance program in accordance with 14 CFR part
7. RNP SAAAR approach monitoring
program. The foreign air carrier must submit a program that collects data on
RNP SAAAR procedures conducted. Each operation should be recorded; unsuccessful
attempts should include the factors that prevented successful completion of
8. Minimum equipment list (MEL).
The operator must revise its MEL as necessary for the conduct of the operation
in accordance with AC
90-101, appendix 4, paragraph 2a and submit the foreign CAA-approved revision.
Additionally, for U.S.-registered aircraft, the foreign air carrier must submit
the MEL revision for approval to the FAA in accordance with §
The foreign air carrier must submit documentary evidence that the State of Operator
CAA has approved/accepted its U.S. RNP SAAAR IAP operations in accordance with
the criteria in AC
90-101 without deviation, including validation testing. If the foreign air
carrier’s RNP SAAAR IAP operations have been approved/accepted using other criteria,
the criteria used must be submitted to the FAA POI. When the foreign air carriers
use an alternative method other than strict compliance with the requirements
90-101, the foreign air carrier’s package will be forwarded to AFS-400 for
review and concurrence before authorization is granted. Validation testing should
Demonstration of the aircraft capability to perform RNP procedures with AR,
The carrier’s operational and dispatch procedures,
The effectiveness of the carrier’s training,
The effectiveness of the equipment maintenance procedures, and
NOTE: Validation testing should take advantage of ground
training devices (GTD), simulators, and aircraft demonstrations. If the demonstration
will be conducted in an aircraft, it must be completed in day visual meteorological
NOTE: Demonstration may be required in each make, model,
and version of FMS software installed.
Figure 12-4. RNP SAAAR Authorization Checklist—(Refer
90-101 for Current Version)
Date Application Submitted:
Navigation Data Validation Program
Established Maintenance Procedures
Training (e.g., flightcrew/dispatch)
Minimum equipment list (MEL) Revision (as required)
Operational Procedures Requirements
Required Navigation Performance (RNP) monitoring program
Conditions or Limitations for approval
Dispatch/flight following procedures
Validation successfully completed (as required)
Interim RNP special aircraft and aircrew authorization
required (SAAAR) Approval (issue 14 CFR part
Final RNP SAAAR Approval (issue part
RNP SAAAR Disapproval
Reason for Disapproval:
c) Interim Authorization. For
the first 90 days and at least 100 SAAAR approaches in each aircraft type, the
foreign air carrier will be authorized to conduct RNP approaches with SAAAR
using minima associated with RNP 0.3. For approach procedures with no line of
minima associated with RNP 0.3, the procedure must be flown in VMC. The interim
authorization will be removed after completion of the applicable time period
and number of approaches and upon FAA review of the reports from the RNP SAAAR
NOTE: RNP SAAAR foreign air carrier with experience of
equivalent RNP approaches may receive credit toward the interim authorization
NOTE: Experienced RNP SAAAR foreign air carriers operating
new or upgraded aircraft types/systems, derivative types, or different aircraft
types with identical crew interface and procedures, may use reduced interim
authorization periods (e.g., fewer than 90 days and 100 approaches) as determined
by the POI with written concurrence from AFS-400.
NOTE: In unique situations where the completion of 100
successful approaches could take an unreasonably long period of time due to
factors such as a small number of aircraft in the fleet, limited opportunity
to use runways having appropriate procedures, and where or when equivalent reliability
can be achieved, a reduction in the required number of approaches may be considered
on a case-by-case basis by the POI with written concurrence from AFS-400.
d) Final Authorization. The responsible FSDO/IFO/IFU will
issue OpSpec C384, authorizing use of lowest applicable minima after the foreign
air carrier satisfactorily complete their initial 90-day/100-RNP SAAAR approach
e) Aircraft Modification. If any aircraft system required
for RNP SAAAR is modified (e.g., software or hardware change), the aircraft
modification must be evaluated. The foreign air carrier must obtain a new FAA
authorization, supported by the manufacturer’s updated aircraft qualification
and operational documentation.
E. Inspector Action to Complete OpSpec C384.
1) OpSpec C384 identifies each make, model, and
series (M/M/S) of aircraft, equipment, limitations, and lowest authorized RNP
the foreign air carrier is authorized to use when conducting RNP SAAAR IAP operations
within the United States.
2) All aircraft information must be first entered
into the Web-based automated Operations Safety System (WebOPSS) in the left
navigation area, under CHDO > Maintain Operator Data > Aircraft.
a) From the dropdown in Table 1 of the OpSpec, under the
column “Aircraft M/M/S” select an aircraft M/M/S. Use the “+” symbol to add
additional rows. Repeat for each authorized aircraft.
b) Enter navigation system make/model and software version.
The specific make and model of navigation equipment including the current software
version installed on each associate aircraft M/M/S must be entered in the column
labeled “Enter Navigation System M/M/S and Software Version” of Table 1.
c) Enter limitations in the column labeled “Limitations.”
If there are no limitations, then select “None” from the dropdown; do not leave
blank. Enter all applicable limitations as follows:
“Not authorized to use temperature compensation system. Enter
this limitation unless the aircraft has temperature compensation in accordance
90-101, appendix 2, paragraph 3a(7), and the foreign air carrier provides
pilot training on the use of the temperature compensation function.
“Not authorized procedures requiring radius to fix RF. Enter
this limitation if the aircraft/navigation system does not have RF leg capability.
“Not authorized procedures with missed approaches requiring
RNP less than 1.0. Enter this limitation when the aircraft/navigation system
does not meet AC
90-101, Appendix 2 criteria—Approaches with a Missed Approach less than
d) Enter autopilot or flight director (FD) requirement.
RNP SAAAR procedures with RNP values less than RNP 0.3 or with RF legs require
the use of autopilot or FD driven by the RNAV system in all cases. Select in
Table 1, in the column labeled “Autopilot Coupled or Flight Director Required,”
one of the following in accordance with the aircraft/navigation system qualification:
“Autopilot coupled with Flight Director”
“Flight Director Only”
e) Enter Lowest Authorized RNP Value in Table 1 of the
OpSpec, in the column labeled “Lowest RNP.” These values will vary depending
on the M/M/S and navigation system combination.
Note: Many aircraft will have different RNP values associated
with “Autopilot coupled with Flight Director” or “Flight Director Only” operations.
F. Interim Authorization. For interim authorization
during the first 90 days and at least 100 SAAAR approaches in each aircraft
type, in accordance with subparagraph D3)c). On the select data screen, text
tab, the POI should select “load subparagraph g. For interim authorization text”
and click on “load data,” then draft the paragraph.
RESERVED. Paragraphs 12-215 through 12-268.