7/24/09                                FY09 FOURTH quarter Editorial updates                 8900.1 CHG 0

Volume 2  Air operator and agency certification and application process

chapter 2  general information for air carrier certification and fractional ownership application

Section 6  Hazardous Materials or Dangerous Goods

2-246      BACKGROUND. This section provides guidance concerning Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR), on hazardous materials (hazmat) transportation. Principal inspectors (PI) should ensure that air agencies/carriers are aware of the 49 CFR regulations governing hazmat transportation by air. These regulations apply to the certificate holder’s shipment of hazmats. Air agencies/carriers should be made aware that as a hazmat employer, their compliance with the hazmat employee training requirements contained in 49 CFR part 172, subpart H, is mandatory. With rare exceptions, all air agencies are “hazmat employers.” The definitions of “hazmat employer” and “hazmat employee” can be found in 49 CFR part 171, § 171.8. Also, the certificate holders must develop and implement a system that will allow the air agency/carrier to remain current with the regulations that are updated and/or changed.

Note:   Operators that choose not to carry hazmat must have a hazmat recognition program.

2-247      RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCEPTANCE/APPROVAL, SURVEILLANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT OF HAZMAT PROGRAMS. The Office of Security and Hazardous Materials (ASH) through the regional Hazardous Materials Branch Managers (HMBM) has oversight responsibility for an air carrier’s hazmat program. The HMBM is the technical expert and must evaluate all hazmat programs. (See Table 2-7, Regional Hazardous Materials Branch Managers, for a list of HMBMs.) An operator’s hazmat program is contained in its hazmat manual and includes hazmat training.

A.     Certificate Responsibilities. PIs with certificate responsibilities for air agencies (Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 145), and PIs with certificate responsibilities for air carriers (14 CFR parts 121 and 135) that use aircraft components or consumable materials that contain hazmats should ensure that air agencies/carriers include in their manuals, and provide appropriate personnel training on, the following information:

·        Procedures and information to assist personnel (particularly maintenance, shipping, and storage personnel) to identify or recognize aircraft components and consumable materials that contain hazmats;

·        Procedures and information on how these aircraft components or consumable materials are to be moved, stored, or handled within the facilities of the air agency, air carrier, or other air agency with whom they may be contractors;

·        Procedures and information for determining the proper packaging, marking, labeling, and materials compatibility, including instructions for the safe movement, storage, and handling of aircraft components and consumable materials that contain hazmats while they are within their facilities including such materials as Chemical Oxygen Generators;

·        Information, guidance, and precautions on the specific hazards associated with aircraft components and consumable materials containing hazmats that are to be moved, stored, or handled within their facilities; and

·        Information, instructions, and detailed procedures for the proper disposal of unserviceable aircraft components and consumable materials containing hazmats.

B.     Procedures for Approval of Hazmat Training. When a principal operations inspector (POI) receives proposed or updated hazmat training from an operator, the POI should forward it to the HMBM. The HMBM evaluates the contents of the training and consults with the POI when necessary. The operator should coordinate with the HMBM as necessary to formulate satisfactory hazmat training. Once the HMBM is satisfied with the training, the HMBM will recommend it to the POI in writing for final approval. The POI then approves the implementation of the training in accordance with part 121, subpart Z or part 135, subpart K. Hazmat training is usually included in the air carrier’s hazmat manual. The initial approval of the training is usually done at the same time as the review and acceptance of the hazmat manual.

C.     Procedures for Approval of Hazmat Manuals. Like other manuals, the hazmat manual is required by part 121, § 121.135 and part 135, § 135.23 and must be accepted by the POI. However, POIs must not accept this manual until the HMBM has evaluated it and recommended it for acceptance. When a POI receives a hazmat manual for review from an air carrier, the POI should forward it to the HMBM. The HMBM will review the contents of the manual and consult with the POI when necessary. The operator should coordinate with the HMBM as necessary to formulate satisfactory hazmat manual. Once the HMBM is satisfied with the manual, the HMBM will recommend it to the POI in writing for acceptance. Only then may the POI accept the manual.

2-248      HAZMAT INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR OPERATORS NOT ACCEPTING HAZMAT. Operators who do not accept, handle, or store hazmat must provide procedures and instructions in the operator’s manual as follows:

·        Procedures and instructions so that all personnel responsible for accepting and handling any cargo or packaged materials receive adequate training on the recognition of items classified as hazmat (Adequate is defined in an operational sense to mean the demonstrated ability of required personnel to identify such items;)

·        Procedures and instructions so that no packages are accepted by the operator that contain a hazmat;

·        Procedures and instructions for reporting that damaged packages found to contain, or that are suspected of containing, hazmat or dangerous goods are reported in compliance with 49 CFR part 171, §§ 171.15, 171.16, and 175.31;

·        Procedures and instructions to see that all Company Material (COMAT) containing hazmat will be offered to a different mode of transportation (e.g., ground) and/or an air carrier that is authorized to transport hazmat; and

·        Procedures and instructions to see that any employee, agent, or contract employee of the air carrier who prepares and/or offers COMAT containing hazmat for shipment via any mode is fully trained as a hazmat shipper.

2-249      HAZMAT INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR OPERATORS ACCEPTING HAZMAT. Operators who transport hazmat must provide instruction and procedures on the following basic subjects. The following information is provided as background material for the aviation safety inspector (ASI) and is not intended to supplant nor provide guidance for an operator’s hazmat program. POIs may share this information when requested, but must see that the operator understands that the HMBM is the FAA authority that the operator must work with when developing, implementing, or changing a hazmat program.

Note:   See Table 2-5, Action to Obtain DOT Authority, for a list of applicable regulatory references.

A.     Procedures and Instructions on Acceptance of Hazmat for Air Shipment. The operator’s instructions should contain the following information:

1)      The material must be properly packaged in accordance with the packaging rules and it must be properly marked, labeled, and documented. The total quantity must be within the quantity limitations and the shipment must be accompanied by the proper shipping papers, Department of Transportation (DOT) exemptions, or competent authority certificates, as determined by the inspection requirements for accepting shipments in 49 CFR part 175.
2)      The package may not leak or be damaged, and must be an authorized package in accordance with the applicable regulations.
3)      The package must either be authorized for carriage in passenger-carrying aircraft or labeled for cargo-only aircraft if it is not acceptable for passenger-carrying aircraft.
4)      The material must be identified by the proper shipping name, hazard class or division, identification number, and packing group, when required, in accordance with 49 CFR part 172, or the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Technical Instructions.
5)      The package must be properly marked and labeled in accordance with 49 CFR or the ICAO Technical Instructions.
6)      Shipping papers must be reviewed to ensure that all necessary information is entered, including any additional information that may be required because of the commodity shipped, or because the method of transportation is related to air transportation.

B.     Storage of Hazmat. Operators should provide specific guidance on the storage of hazmat. This guidance should include instructions for Class 8 (corrosive), Class 7 (radioactive), and Class 6, Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials as discussed below:

1)      The storage of Class 8 (corrosive) materials next to, or in contact with, Class 4, Division 4.2 or 4.3 (flammable) solids or Class 5, Division 5.1 (oxidizing) materials must be prevented. The segregation prescribed in 49 CFR § 175.78 must be maintained for all packages containing hazmat that might react dangerously when stored in a position that causes or contributes to leakage.
2)      The storage of Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled yellow II and/or yellow III will not exceed a transport index (TI) of 50 in a single storage location. These materials are stored in an area that is isolated from people and does not permit pedestrian traffic or loitering. The minimum separation distances prescribed in 49 CFR § 175.703 should be maintained between radioactive materials labeled yellow II and yellow III and packages of undeveloped film.
3)      Packages bearing a Class 6, Division 6.1 poison label will not be stored in the same location as foodstuffs, feeds, or any edible materials intended for consumption by either humans or animals.
4)      Loading of Hazmat. The operator should provide specific guidance for loading hazmat. This guidance should include:

·         Loading of hazmat in aircraft in accordance with 49 CFR part 175, subpart B;

·         Loading and carriage of hazmat in cargo-only aircraft, when other means of transportation are not available or impracticable, in accordance with 49 CFR § 175.320;

·         Loading of radioactive materials in aircraft in accordance with 49 CFR § 175.700 to ensure that TI limitations are in accordance with the provision of 49 CFR § 175.75 and that radioactive packages are transported in accordance with 49 CFR §§ 175.701, 175.702, and 175.703;

·         Loading of hazmat in cargo compartments or freight containers within cargo compartments, in accordance with 49 CFR § 175.75; and

·         A prohibition against loading packages bearing a poison label in the same compartment that holds foodstuffs, feeds, or any edible materials intended for consumption by humans or animals unless both commodities are in separate, closed-unit load devices known as freight containers.

C.     Written Notification of Pilot In Command (PIC). Operators must establish procedures for notifying the PIC when hazmat are carried on board the aircraft in accordance with 49 CFR part 175, § 175.33.

D.    Reporting Hazmat Incidents. The hazmat information must include company procedures for reporting hazmat incidents, in compliance with 49 CFR §§ 171.15 and 171.16, and should include the procedures for reporting discrepancies, in compliance with 49 CFR § 175.31.

E.     Damage to Hazmat Packages. The operator must develop procedures for handling damaged packages in accordance with 49 CFR § 175.90, radioactive contamination in accordance with 49 CFR § 175.700, and substances in Class 6, Division 6.2 (infectious substances), as found in 49 CFR § 175.630. The information should include a list of telephone numbers and addresses of organizations that can provide technical advice on clean-up techniques and precautions to minimize the possibility of injury to employees and the general public. Appropriate organizations for such advice include the following:

·        CHEMTREC;

·        United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE);

·        A state public health department;

·        A Federal or state office of hazmat regulation; and

·        The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

2-250      COORDINATION. The POI may be required to act as a coordinator between the operator and the security and hazmat division. Table 2-7 lists FAA HMBMs by regional and geographic areas. These branch managers may be contacted regarding all aspects of the air transportation of hazmat.

2-251      EXEMPTIONS. When an operator applies for either an initial DOT exemption or the renewal of an exemption for the carriage of certain hazmat in air commerce, the POI and the principal maintenance inspector (PMI) may need to assist the security and hazmat division in reviewing the compliance history of the certificated operator. There are two types of exemptions: an exemption which is valid for 2 years and is obtained through the standard exemption process and an emergency exemption that is issued to the shipper who hires and provides the name of the operator in the exemption. The emergency exemption is normally issued exclusively for one‑time-only shipments.

2-252      VIOLATIONS AND INVESTIGATIONS. When an inspector becomes aware of a suspected hazmat violation, the inspector shall notify the appropriate HMBM and the appropriate POI. The hazmat special agents conduct inspections, surveillance, and investigations of the transportation of hazmat in air commerce operations.

2-253      SOURCES OF INFORMATION. The following regulations and publications pertaining to the safe transportation of hazmat are available electronically:

A.     National Sources. National sources of information pertaining to the safe transportation of hazmat are as follows:

1)      Title 14 CFR parts 91, 121, 125, and 135 are applicable to air carrier, air taxi operations, helicopter operations and defines the duties and responsibilities for conducting training programs and procedural manuals dealing with the air transportation of hazmat.
2)      Title 49 CFR parts 100-185 deal with the proper identification, classification, packaging, labeling, marking, and certification of hazmat transported in commerce.
3)      Department of Transportation Hazmat Web site: http://hazmat.dot.gov.
4)      FAA Hazmat Web site: http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_ offices/ash/ash_programs/hazmat/.

B.     ICAO Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air. These technical instructions amplify the basic provisions of Annex 18 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, and contain detailed instructions necessary for the safe international transport of dangerous goods by air. These instructions are issued in a 2-year edition on alternate Septembers, becoming effective the following January 1.

2-254      AMENDING AN AIR CARRIER’S MANUAL. The FAA’s authority for inspecting an air carrier or conducting routine surveillance to ensure compliance with the air carrier’s manual requirements is contained in part 119, § 119.59. FAA authority for an air carrier manual change is contained in part 121, §§ 121.131, 121.133(a), and 121.135(b)(24); and part 135, §§ 135.21(a) and 135.23(r), as appropriate.

Table 2-5,  Actions to Obtain DOT Authority

FAA Type of Operation

FAA Operating Rule

DOT Type of Operation and Required Authority

Operator

Responsibility

DOT

Responsibility

Airplanes with more than 9 seats or more than 7,500 pounds payload in scheduled passenger operations

Part 121 domestic or flag

41102 Certificate

• Airplanes with more than 60 seats or 18,000 pounds payload

• 41102 Certificate or Commuter Air Carrier Authorization (with Part 298 exemption)

• Airplanes with 60 seats or less and 18,000 pounds payload or less

41102 or Commuter Authorization

• Apply for fitness determination

• Submit requested info & proof of insurance

• Register with DOT (for Commuter only) (OST Form 4507)

41102 or Commuter

• Post application to docket for public viewing

• Conduct fitness determination

• Issue a show cause order inviting comments on why operation should not be authorized

• Issue final order with 41102 certificate or Commuter Authorization, the effectiveness of which is conditioned upon receipt of appropriate FAA authority

• Issue registration (for Commuter only)

Airplanes with more than 30 seats or 7,500 pounds payload (nonscheduled or all‑cargo)

Part 121 supplemental

41102 Certificate

• Airplanes with more than 60 seats or 18,000 pounds payload

 

 

 

 

41102 or 298 exemption/‌registration

• Airplanes with 60 seats or less or 18,000 pounds payload or less

41102 Certificate

• Apply for fitness determination

• Submit requested info & proof of insurance

 

298 exemption

• Register with AFS‑260 (OST Form 4507) & show proof of insurance (OST Form 6410)

 

41102 Certificate

• Post application to docket for public viewing

• Conduct fitness determination

• Issue a show cause order inviting comments on why operation should not be authorized

• Issue final order with 41102

certificate, the effectiveness of which is conditioned upon receipt of appropriate FAA authority

 

298 exemption

• Issue registration

NOTE: DOT certificates or registrations are written evidence of official economic authority issued by the DOT.

FAA Type of Operation

FAA Operating Rule

DOT Type of Operation and Required Authority

Operator

Responsibility

DOT

Responsibility

Airplanes with 9 seats or fewer or 7,500 pounds payload or less or rotorcraft in scheduled passenger operations (5 or more round trips a week in at least one market)

 

 

Part 135 commuter

41102 certificate or Commuter Air Carrier Authorization (with Part 298 Exemption for Scheduled Passenger Operations)

• Airplanes with 60 seats or fewer and 18,000 pounds payload or less

41102 or Commuter Authorization

• Apply for fitness determination

• Submit requested info & proof of insurance

• Register with DOT (for Commuter only) (OST Form 4507)

41102 or Commuter

• Post application to docket for public viewing

• Conduct fitness determination

• Issue a show cause order inviting comments on why operation should not be authorized

• Issue final order with 41102 certificate or Commuter Authorization, the effectiveness of which is conditioned upon receipt of appropriate FAA authority

• Issue registration (for Commuter only)

Airplanes with 30 seats or fewer and 7,500 pounds payload or less or rotorcraft in on‑demand passenger and/or cargo operations

Part 135 on‑demand

298 Exemption for Nonscheduled Operations

• Airplanes with 60 seats or fewer and 18,000 pounds payload or less

298 exemption

² Register with AFS‑260 (OST Form 4507) & show proof of insurance (OST Form 6410)

298 exemption

• Issue registration

 

Table 2-6,  Applicable Regulatory References

SUBJECTS

REGULATORY REFERENCES

*‡ Hazardous Materials and Classifications

49 CFR parts 171 and 172

‡ Shipping Paper and Certification Requirements

49 CFR part 172

*‡ Packaging, Marking, and Labeling

49 CFR parts 171, 172, 173, 175, and 178

* Exceptions to the Regulations

49 CFR § 75.10

Written Notification of PIC

49 CFR § 175.33

* Reporting Hazardous Materials Incidents/Discrepancies

49 CFR § 171.15

49 CFR § 171.16

49 CFR § 175.31

Loading, Unloading, and Handling

49 CFR part 175, subpart B

Specific Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material

49 CFR part 175, subpart C

* Operators that will not accept or transport hazardous materials or dangerous goods only have to train in these subjects.

‡ In accordance with 49 CFR § 171.11, the ICAO Technical Instructions can be used.

Table 2-7,  Regional Hazardous Materials Branch Managers

Branch

Branch Manager Contact Information

AAL

Refer to the Hazardous Materials Branch Manager in the Northwest Mountain Region, ANM‑740

ACE

NOTE: ASW-740 is responsible for ACE.

Send all inquiries for ACE to ASW-740.

Phone: (817) 222‑5720

24‑hour operation center: (816) 329‑3000

AEA

Hazardous Materials Branch Manager, AEA‑740

Eastern Region

1 Aviation Plaza

Jamaica, NY 11434

Phone: (718) 553‑2596

24‑hour operation center: (718) 553‑3100

AGL

Hazardous Materials Branch Manager, AGL‑740

Great Lakes Region

2300 East Devon Avenue, Rm 203

Des Plaines, IL 60018

Phone: (847) 294‑7414

24‑hour operation center: (847) 294‑8400

ANE

Hazardous Materials Branch Manager, ANE‑740

New England Region

12 New England Executive Park

Burlington, MA 01803

Phone: (781) 238‑7705

24‑hour operation center: (781) 238‑7001

ANM

Hazardous Materials Branch Manager, ANM‑740

Northwest Mountain Region

1601 Lind Avenue, S.W.

Renton, WA 98055‑4056

Phone: (425) 227‑2706

24‑hour operation center: (425) 227‑2000

ASO

Hazardous Materials Branch Manager, ASO‑740

Southern Region

1701 Columbia Avenue, Rm 420

College Park , GA 30337‑2745

Phone: (404) 305‑6831

24‑hour operation center: (404) 305‑5180

ASW

Hazardous Materials Branch Manager, ASW‑740

Southwest Region

2601 Meacham Boulevard

Fort Worth, TX 76193‑0740

(Fed Ex zip: 76137)

Phone: (817) 222‑5720

24‑hour operation center: (817) 222‑5006

AWP

Hazardous Materials Branch Manager, AWP‑740

Western Pacific Region

15000 Aviation Boulevard, Rm 6025

Lawndale, CA 90261

Phone: (310) 725‑3701

24‑hour operation center: (310) 725‑3300

WASHINGTON HEADQUARTERS

National Program Manager, ASH‑300

800 Independence Avenue, S.W.

Washington, DC 20591

Phone: (202) 267‑9864

 

RESERVED. Paragraphs 2-255 through 2-270.


7/24/09                                                                                                                             8900.1 CHG 0

Volume 2  Air operator and agency certification and application process

chapter 2  general information for air carrier certification and fractional ownership application

Section 7  International Civil Aviation Organization Company Designators and Telephony Designators (Call Signs)

2-271      GENERAL. This section contains information, direction, and guidance to be used by operations inspectors when obtaining International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) company designators and telephony designators (call signs) for those operators who request or are required to obtain designators. Designators are used by commercial, domestic and international operators for Air Traffic Control (ATC) operations. Designators are also used in the aeronautical fixed telecommunications network (AFTN) system for identification, communication, and billing purposes. The AFTN system is an integrated, international system of aeronautical fixed circuits. The AFTN system provides the exchange of messages and flight plans between aeronautical and fixed stations within the network. The designators are assigned when the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) determines that designators are advantageous and operationally appropriate to the United States (U.S.) ATC system. A company designator and a telephony designator are assigned as a unit. The four types of designators are entitled and described as follows:

·        The company designator (ICAO three-letter designator);

·        The telephony designator (call sign);

·        The special telephony designator (special handling); and

·        The local telephony designator (local visual flight rules (VFR) operations only).

A.     The Company Designator (ICAO Three-Letter Designator). The ICAO company designator is a three-letter designator. The flight number serves as the aircraft identification in the ATC system. The designator serves as the aircraft identification for the ATC system in several situations. The authorized three-letter designator and flight/trip number are used instead of the aircraft registration number and may be used for the international telecommunications service when its use is advantageous for ATC and operational purposes. The company designator may be used to expedite the exchange of written and computerized air carrier information in both the domestic and international ATC system to access the stored flight plan program and provide ATC with a quick and accurate means of visual recognition. A three-letter company designator may be assigned to aircraft operating agencies that operate 7 or more nonseasonal, scheduled international air operations each week or at least 15 nonseasonal, scheduled domestic round trip air operations each week, and generate appropriate flight plans and other related flight operations over the AFTN. The assignment of a company designator may be waived on an individual basis for aircraft operators that generate less than the prescribed international and/or domestic flight operations.

B.     The Telephony Designator (Call Sign). The telephony designator call sign is usually assigned at the same time as the ICAO three-letter designator, and the call sign becomes the aircraft identification for air and ground communications with air traffic personnel. Usually, the company name or a pronounceable abbreviation of the company name is used in combination with ATC facilities and operating services. An example is “American 411.” This designator replaces the standard “type/tail number” combination such as Cessna 398J. The telephony designator should be phonetically pronounceable in at least the English, French, or Spanish language. The name of the aircraft company, operating authority, or servicing organization should resemble the telephony designator, and the designator should not consist of more than two words and three syllables. An advantage of using telephony designators is the reduction of on line noise distractions that create similar sounding telephony designator confusion, expedite air and ground communication, provide easy auditory recognition, and reduce the potential for mistakes in verbal communication. A new or changed telephony designator must be included in the remarks section of the operator’s flight plans for at least 60 days following the new designator’s effective date.

C.     The Special Telephony Designator. A special telephony designator may be temporarily authorized by Headquarters, Flight Services Safety and Operations Support, in coordination with ICAO, only when its assignment will identify special handling by ATC. Headquarters, Flight Services Safety and Operations Support may authorize the special designator for a commemorative flight, for a large number of aircraft participating in an organized race, for aircraft operating during an emergency or disaster, or for aircraft that need special handling for test purposes.

D.    The Local Telephony Designator. A local telephony designator shall be used only for communication with local airport traffic control towers during VFR operations; they shall not be used for filing flightplans.

2-272      APPLICABILITY. Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) does not require that designators be obtained; however, designators may be required by the operator’s operations specifications (OpSpecs). The FAA may choose to assign a three-letter ICAO company and telephony designator for operations based on the number of scheduled flights. The final approval of the company designators and telephony designator is made by ICAO, who takes into consideration all designators approved throughout the world. The designator assignment is then administered by Headquarters, Flight Services Safety and Operations Support. The final approval of the special telephony designator and local telephony designator is made by Headquarters, Flight Services Safety and Operations Support after checking the requested area of operations for conflict.

2-273      PROCEDURES FOR ASSIGNMENT OF DESIGNATORS. All requests for designators are directly made by the company to the principal operations inspector (POI). The POI sends the request to the Regional Air Traffic Division. Final designator assignment is administered by Headquarters, Flight Services Safety and Operations Support. This office notifies the Federal Communications Commission that an assignment has been made.

A.     The Company Designator and the Telephony Designator. POIs must have the following information to determine eligibility for both the ICAO three-letter company designator and the telephony designator:

·        The name and address of the operator;

·        The type of aircraft operation or service provided (a list of the operators served is required for service operations);

·        The intended use of aeronautical fixed AFTN for international services or operations;

·        The number and type of AFTN messages handled daily;

·        A copy of the company or operator published flight schedule;

·        A copy of the FAA certificate which authorizes the company’s operations and states the 14 CFR part under which operations are to be conducted; and

·        Provision of at least five suggested three-letter designators and telephony designators, listed in their desired order.

B.     Special Telephony Designator. The following information must be submitted for the special telephony designator request:

·        Type of flight,

·        Type of handling required,

·        Type and number of aircraft, and

·        Routes and duration of operation.

C.     Local Telephony Designator. A letter of agreement that provides justification for obtaining the designator must be made between the local tower and the requesting company. The letter of agreement is reviewed by the regional air traffic division, which adds its recommendations to the letter and forwards the agreement and accompanying recommendations to Headquarters, Flight Services Safety and Operations Support. This office checks the area of operations for conflict and approves if there is no conflict of designators.

2-274      EFFECTIVE DATE AND PUBLICATION. The required administrative period for approval of a three-letter company and telephony designator is approximately 45 calendar-days. Headquarters, Flight Services Safety and Operations Support establishes an effective date for the designator and enters it into the stored flight plan program. Headquarters, Flight Services Safety and Operations Support advises the FAA facilities affected that the numbers will be published in FAA and ICAO documents (ICAO Document 8585, Designators for Aircraft Operating Agencies, Aeronautical Authorities, and Services and ATC Order JO 7340.2, Contractions Manual). Failure to submit the proper documentation may delay a designator assignment.

2-275      CHANGES IN COMPANY STATUS AND CANCELLATION. When an assigned three-letter company designator and/or telephony designator is no longer required, Headquarters, Flight Services Safety and Operations Support must be notified by the company, in writing. Any designator that is released shall not be reassigned within 45 calendar-days. Notification of change or release may be made for the following reasons:

·        Operations permanently suspended or canceled;

·        Change in the name, address, or physical location of the company; and

·        Mergers and acquisitions that change or combine any company name holding more than one designator.

2-276      OTHER INFORMATION SOURCES. Additional information on designators may be found in FAA Order 7340.2, ATC Order JO 7210.3, Facility Operation and Administration, and the current edition of AC 120-26, International Civil Aviation Organization Three Letter Designator and Telephony Designator, Federal Communications Commission Regulation 87.107 (Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations); and ICAO document 8585, Designator for Aircraft Operating Agencies, Aeronautical Authorities, and Services.

RESERVED. Paragraphs 2-277 through 2-295.


9/22/09                                                                                                                         8900.1 CHG 0

Volume 2  Air Operator AND AIR AGENCY Certification and ApplicATION PROCESS

chapter 11  CERTIFICATION OF A Title 14 CFR PART 145 REPAIR STATION

Section 4  Evaluate a Part 145 Repair Station Manual and Quality Control Manual or Revision

2-1291  PROGRAM TRACKING AND REPORTING SUBSYSTEM (PTRS) ACTIVITY CODES.

A.     Maintenance: 3230, 3371, 3372.

B.     Avionics: 5230, 5371, 5372.

2-1292       OBJECTIVE. This section provides guidance for evaluating, accepting, or rejecting all Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 145 Repair Station Manual (RSM) and/or Quality Control Manual (QCM) original submissions or revisions.

2-1293       GENERAL.

A.     Currency of a QCM. Before issuing an Air Agency Certificate, the applicant’s RSM and/or QCM must reflect the applicant’s current procedures and be acceptable to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

Note:   If the training program required by part 145, § 145.163 is included in either of these manuals, that portion must be FAA‑approved.

B.     Revision of an Existing Manual. When a certificate holder revises an existing manual, the FAA must also accept the revisions.

C.     Manual Content. The manuals submitted by a certificate holder or applicant may be separate or may be combined into a single manual. The format should be consistent and all regulatory requirements must be included. The aviation safety inspector (ASI) must ensure the procedures used in the performance of maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations are reflected accurately in the manuals. It is expected that, to fully describe the repair station’s inspection/quality system, there will be some procedures that may not be regulatory.

D.    Original Certification Versus Revision. When evaluating a manual as part of an original certification, each entire manual will be submitted prior to certification. If this task is performed as a revision, only the portion of the manual that is revised must be submitted.

E.     RSM and QCM. Each certificated repair station must maintain a current RSM and QCM.

F.      Accessibility of Manual. A certificated repair station’s current RSM/QCM must be accessible for use by repair station personnel. All repair station employees on all shifts must have access to the manual, regardless of the media used (electronic, CD‑ROM, etc.).

G.    Certificate‑Holding District Office (CHDO). A certificated repair station must provide to its CHDO the current RSM/QCM in a format acceptable to the FAA. If the manuals or manual submitted are in electronic media format, they must be compatible with FAA electronic capabilities and free of any programs that would adversely affect that capability.

H.    Recommendations for Manual Development. There are some recommendations included in this handbook referenced from Advisory Circular (AC) 145‑9, Guide for Developing and Evaluating Repair Station and Quality Control Manuals, current edition, which are not required by the regulations. They have been included to assist the inspector and certificate holder/applicant in developing a more complete description of the repair station’s overall functions, responsibilities, and quality control procedures.

I.       Maintenance and Alterations in Accordance With Air Carrier’s Manuals. For certificate holders under parts 121, 125, and 135, and for foreign air carriers or foreign persons operating a U.S.‑registered aircraft in common carriage under part 129, maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations must be performed in accordance with applicable sections of that air carrier’s manuals.

2-1294       PREREQUISITES AND COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS. This task may require coordination with other specialties, regions, or district offices.

2-1295       REFERENCES, FORMS, AND JOB AIDS.

A.     References (current editions):

·        Title 14 CFR parts 1, 39, 43, 65, 91, 121, 125, 129, 135, 145, and Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 36,

·        AC 145‑9, and

·        Volume 2, Chapter 11, Sections 2, 3, and 5.

B.     Forms. None.

C.     Job Aids. None.

2-1296       RSM PROCEDURES.

A.     Acceptable Formats. Receive the certificate holder or applicant’s manual or revision as required by §§ 145.51, 145.207, and 145.211(c).

B.     Manual or Revision Content. Review the submitted manual or revision to ensure that it meets the regulatory requirements of §§ 145.209 and 145.211. The manual or revision must include the following:

1)      An organizational chart that identifies:
a)      Each management position with authority to act on behalf of the repair station.

1.      The organizational chart required by § 145.209 may identify management positions by title only.

2.      Management includes, but is not limited to, the executive functions of planning, organizing, coordinating, directing, controlling, and supervising.

3.      This does not eliminate the requirement in § 145.51 for an applicant to submit the names and titles of its management and supervisory personnel at the time of application.

b)      The area of responsibility assigned to each management position, which is the area(s) in the repair station that the manager is directly accountable for and maintains decision authority over.
c)      The duties, responsibilities, and authority of each management position.
2)      Procedures for maintaining and revising the rosters required by § 145.161.

Note:   Within 5 business days of the revision, the rosters required by this section must reflect changes caused by termination, reassignment, change in duties, scope of assignment, or addition of personnel.

3)      A description of a repair station’s operations describing how the maintenance is to be performed, where it would start, and how it progresses through the entire repair cycle for approval for return to service. Also include:
a)      A description of the housing may include dimensions, construction method, heating and ventilation systems, lighting, door openings, and physical address.
b)      A description of the facilities that describes how the shop, hangar, or other work areas are laid out.
c)      A description of the equipment, tooling, and materials used to perform maintenance.

Note:   The “description of materials used to perform maintenance” should not be a physical description of the material, but rather an explanation of the repair station’s handling and storage of the materials. If materials require specific environmental controls or cannot be stored next to certain chemicals or solvents, these should be identified. For example, it would not be acceptable to store oxygen equipment near petroleum products.

1.      If the repair station does not own the equipment, procedures must be included in the manual that describe how the equipment will be obtained (lease, rentals, etc.). The manual must also include where the equipment will be used, how personnel will be trained to use the equipment, and how the repair station will ensure calibration issues, if any, are addressed after transporting the equipment.

2.      If the repair station chooses to use equipment, tools, or materials other than those recommended by the manufacturer, the manual must include a procedure used by the repair station to determine the equivalency of that equipment, tool, or material.

Note:   When the repair station is adding a rating, or an applicant has applied for certification, all required equipment for the rating it seeks must be in place for inspection by the FAA. This provides the ASI with the opportunity to evaluate its placement and use and to verify that repair station personnel are trained to operate it.

4)      Capability list procedures used to:
a)      Revise the capability list provided in § 145.215 and notify the CHDO of revisions to the list, including how often the CHDO will be notified of revisions; and
b)      Develop and perform the self‑evaluation required by § 145.215(c) for revising the capability list, including the methods and frequency of such evaluations and procedures for reporting the results to the appropriate manager for review and action.
5)      Procedures for revising the training program and submitting revisions to the CHDO for approval, which should include:

·         The title of the person authorized to make a training program revision;

·         The method of submitting a revision (electronic, hard copy, disk, etc.); and

·         A procedure for recording a revision and a method of identifying the revised material or text.

Note:   The training program does not go into effect until April 6, 2005. Manuals without the training program included must be accepted until guidance is issued and a revision to this section is completed.

6)      Procedures for accomplishing work performed at a location other than the repair station’s fixed location, which should contain the following:
a)      Title of the person responsible for determining the location is appropriate for the work performed.
b)      Title of the person responsible for initiating such work and assigning the personnel necessary to perform inspections and supervise the work.
c)      Procedures for communication between responsible repair station personnel at the fixed location and the maintenance personnel working away from the station. This should include the transfer of parts, supplies, tools/equipment, technical data, and trained personnel.
d)      Procedures that will be used away from the repair station if they deviate from established procedures used at the fixed location. The repair station must ensure that all work performed while exercising the privileges of its certificate is accomplished per the appropriate maintenance manual and its RSM or QCM. The determination for performing work at another location must meet the following requirements:

1.      The work is necessary due to a special circumstance, such as a one‑time occurrence, as determined by the FAA; or

2.      It is necessary to perform such work on a recurring, but not continuous, basis and the RSM includes the procedures for accomplishing maintenance, preventive maintenance, alterations, or specialized services at a place other than the repair station’s fixed location.

Note:   The FAA determination must be made prior to the performance of any maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations away from the repair station’s fixed location unless an acceptable procedure is included in the manual.

7)      Procedures for performing maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations for certificate holders under parts 121, 125, and 135 and for foreign air carriers or foreign persons operating a U.S.‑registered aircraft in common carriage under part 129.
a)      The FAA requires that maintenance under a Continuous Airworthiness Maintenance Program (CAMP) be performed in accordance with the operator’s manual. It is the operator’s responsibility to ensure the work performed on its behalf is done in accordance with the approved maintenance program.
b)      The certificated repair station that performs maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations for an air carrier or commercial operator that has a CAMP under part 121 or 135 must follow the air carrier or commercial operator’s maintenance program or applicable sections of its maintenance manual.
c)      A certificated repair station that performs inspections for a certificate holder conducting operations under part 125 must follow the operator’s FAA‑approved inspection program.
d)      A certificated repair station that performs maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations for a foreign air carrier or foreign operator operating a U.S.‑registered aircraft under part 129 must follow the operator’s FAA‑approved maintenance program.
e)      The FAA may authorize a certificated repair station to perform line maintenance on any aircraft of an air carrier certificated under part 121 or 135, or of a foreign air carrier or foreign operator operating a U.S.‑registered aircraft in common carriage under part 129, provided the certificated repair station:

·        Has the appropriate ratings to perform the maintenance or preventive maintenance on transport‑category aircraft;

·        Performs such line maintenance in accordance with the operator’s manual and approved maintenance program;

·        Has the necessary equipment, trained personnel and technical data to perform such line maintenance; and

·        Has operations specifications (OpSpecs) that include an authorization to perform line maintenance.

Note:   A repair station must be appropriately rated to perform line maintenance for an air carrier. This would normally require an airframe rating to accomplish scheduled checks, daily inspections, or servicing of articles. However, a repair station with the appropriate ratings may accomplish unscheduled maintenance and repairs. This could include avionics facilities limited to avionics functions such as troubleshooting electrical or electronic systems or replacing defective electronic articles.

8)      Procedures for maintaining and revising the contract maintenance information, including the submission of revisions to the CHDO for approval and how often the FAA will be notified of revisions.
a)      The FAA must approve the maintenance functions contracted to noncertificated providers.
b)      The repair station must maintain a list of each facility that it contracts maintenance functions with, including the type of certificate and ratings (if any) held by each facility.
c)      The maintenance function list need not be included in the manual, but the manual should include the location or office where the list is maintained.

Note:   Maintenance functions are a step or series of steps in the process of performing maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations which result in approving an article for return to service. It is not the intent of this rule to create “virtual repair stations” that provide only an approval for return to service. ASIs must evaluate the amount of work a repair station desires to contract out versus the work that is performed in‑house.

9)      A description of the recordkeeping system used by the repair station to obtain, store, and retrieve the records required by part 43. These records must be in English.
10)  Procedures for revising the RSM and notifying its CHDO of revisions to the manual, including how often the FAA will be notified of revisions. The procedure must include:

·         The title of the person authorized to make a revision;

·         The method of submitting a revision (electronic, hard copy, disk, etc.);

·         A procedure for recording a revision and a method of identifying the revised material or text; and

·         A description of the system used to identify and control sections of the RSM.

C.     Recommended Procedures and Reports. Although not required by §§ 145.209 or 145.211, it is recommended the manual include the following:

1)      Procedures for submitting reports, in a format acceptable to the FAA, of any serious failure, malfunction, or defect in accordance with § 145.221. A repair station must report to the FAA within 96 hours after it discovers any serious failure, malfunction, or defect of an article. If the repair station performs maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations for an air carrier, the manual should also contain procedures on how it will notify the operator when submitting reports.
2)      Procedures for detecting and reporting suspected unapproved parts.

2-1297       QCM PROCEDURES.

Note:   The QCM may be separate from the RSM or included in that manual as a separate section or volume.

A.     Documentation, Inspections, and Training. A certificated repair station must prepare and keep current a QCM in a format acceptable to the FAA. Depending upon the size, complexity, and rating(s) of the repair station, that manual should include a description of the system and procedures used for:

1)      Receiving and documenting articles, standard parts, and raw materials.
2)      Performing incoming inspections of raw materials and standard parts that check for:

·         Proper documentation, identification, and traceability;

·         Conformity to a specification and acceptable quality;

·         Shelf life;

·         Contamination;

·         Shipping damage; and

·         State of preservation.

3)      Performing preliminary inspection of all articles that are maintained or altered to check for:

·         Proper documentation, identification, and traceability;

·         Shipping damage and contamination;

·         State of preservation;

·         Life limits;

·         Airworthiness Directives (AD) and Service Bulletins;

·         Functional test or tear down inspections;

·         FAA approval of new articles; and

·         Determination of what repairs are necessary.

4)      Inspecting all articles that have been involved in an accident for hidden damage before maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alteration is performed. Ensure that items are disassembled as necessary and inspected for hidden damage in adjacent areas.
5)      Performing in‑progress inspections to ensure inspections, testing, and/or calibration is conducted at various stages while the work is in progress.
6)      Performing final inspections and approvals for return to service.
a)      Ensures the inspection, testing, and/or calibration of articles, including documentation, is accomplished at the completion of maintenance or alteration.
b)      The manual must include a procedure for approval for return to service.
7)      Ensuring continuity of inspection responsibility.
a)      Include procedures for ensuring that the responsibilities of any inspector are properly performed in their absence.
b)      If the repair station has multiple shifts, include procedures to ensure the continuing responsibility for maintenance in progress through the use of a status book, shift turnover log, or similar documents.
8)      Calibrating measuring and test equipment used in maintaining articles, including the intervals at which the equipment will be calibrated.
9)      Taking corrective action on deficiencies related to repair station operation.
a)      Section 145.211(c)(1)(ix) states that the QCM must include procedures used for taking corrective action on deficiencies. A corrective action is taken to remedy an undesirable situation. The correction of deficiencies is normally an integral part of a repair station’s improvement process, and could include revisions to procedures that were not working properly (reference AC 145‑9, paragraph 4‑13 for additional guidance).

Note:   The repair station is not required at this time to have an Internal Evaluation Program (IEP), quality assurance (QA) program, or a continuous improvement program.

b)      Corrective action requires that a fact‑based investigation determine the root cause or causes to eliminate them. Corrective action would be applicable in two situations: Before the article is approved for return for service and after the article has been approved for return to service.
c)      If a deficiency is found before the article is approved for return to service, the repair station should follow its procedures describing how rework will be accomplished. If the deficiency is noted after the article is approved for return to service, the repair station should follow its procedures to notify the CHDO and the owner/operator of any potential problems and recall any unairworthy parts or products. The objective of the investigation into the cause of the deficiency and the corrective actions taken is to eliminate any potential safety threats posed by unapproved or improperly maintained parts or products and to prevent a recurrence of the same or similar problems.

Note:   When the CHDO receives notification of a deficiency found after the article is approved for return to service, it shall be investigated for possible violations of part 43 and/or 145. The investigation should be conducted in accordance with the current revision of FAA Order 2150.3, FAA Compliance and Enforcement Program, current edition. If improper maintenance is found, the ASI shall complete the PTRS records using code 3776/5776 as applicable. If unapproved parts are found the ASI shall complete the PTRS records using code 3775/5775 as applicable. If the unapproved parts lead to an outside facility who manufactured the parts an FAA Form 8120‑11, Suspected Unapproved Parts Report, should be filed so an Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) investigation can be conducted. If the deficiency is found as a result of an inspection, audit or evaluation of a maintenance facility located outside of the region, the inspector should contact the region or FSDO responsible for the facility that completed the work. The investigating inspector completing the investigation on that facility shall complete the PTRS records using code 3776/5776 as applicable.

d)      The procedures in the QCM should include a system for documenting any deficiencies and the corrective actions taken to prevent a recurrence. The system should let employees track any open corrective action requests and the date the corrective action is due. The program should also be tracked to include audits of the corrective action(s) taken to ensure it was effective. These audits should also be tracked to ensure that they are completed in a timely fashion.
10)  Establishing and maintaining proficiency of inspection personnel.
a)      The procedure should ensure that inspection personnel are familiar with the applicable regulations and are proficient at inspecting the articles they are assigned to inspect.
b)      Testing, formal training, recurrent training, or a combination of these methods could be used to maintain the proficiency of inspection personnel.
11)  Establishing and maintaining current technical data for maintaining articles.
12)  Revising the repair station’s quality manual and notifying its CHDO of revisions to the manual, including how often the FAA will be notified of revisions. The procedure must include:

·         The title of the person authorized to make a revision;

·         The method of submitting revisions (electronic, hard copy, disk, etc.); and

·         A procedure for recording revisions and a system for identifying revised material or text.

13)  Qualifying and surveying noncertificated persons who perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations for the repair station. A certificated repair station may contract a maintenance function pertaining to an article to a noncertificated person, provided that:

·         The noncertificated person follows a quality control system equivalent to the system followed by the certificated repair station;

·         The certificated repair station remains directly in charge of the work performed by the noncertificated person;

·         The certificated repair station verifies, by testing and/or inspecting, that the work has been performed satisfactorily and that the article is airworthy before approving it for return to service; and

·         The noncertificated person’s contract allows the FAA to inspect or observe work being performed on any articles for the certificated repair station.

Note:   The ability to inspect a noncertificated person can only be accomplished while the contract is in force. This requirement does not give ASIs access to non‑FAA‑certificated facilities if there is no work being performed under contract for a certificated repair station.

B.     Manual References. Where applicable, the manual should contain references to the instructions for continued airworthiness, maintenance manuals, inspection standards, or other approved or accepted data specific to the article being maintained.

C.     Inspection and Maintenance Forms. A sample of each of the inspection and maintenance forms used in the performance of maintenance and the instructions for completing those forms.

Note:   These forms may be addressed in a separate accepted manual that is submitted to the CHDO and maintained in current condition by the repair station.

2-1298       TASK OUTCOMES.

A.     Complete PTRS Records.

B.     Complete the Task. Completion of this task will result in the following actions:

·        If no regulatory conflicts were found, the Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) may send a transmittal document acknowledging receipt of the manuals.

·        If conflicts with the rule are noted, the principal inspector (PI) will detail those discrepancies in writing to the certificate holder.

Note:   ASIs may inform the certificate holder that no deficiencies were noted. This should not be mistaken as an “acceptance” of the manuals.

Note:   Federal agencies can no longer refuse electronic versions of manuals, forms, record systems, etc. Federal law prohibits agencies from making the use of electronic media more difficult or from requiring additional steps or procedures for users of electronic media. Therefore, all repair station document submissions must be accompanied by a transmittal document that describes the submission and is signed by the appropriate manager. ASIs will accept or approve submissions with a transmittal document indicating the date; document, manual, or revision number; and an acceptance or approval statement. Additionally, ASIs will reject a certificate holder’s submission using a transmittal document that indicates the date; document, manual, or revision number; and includes a detailed explanation of the discrepancies or nonconformances noted. The acceptance or approval letter should remain with the manual or kept on file.

1)      Approving the training program, manual, or a revision to either document by sending the certificate holder a letter indicating the date; document, manual, or revision number; and an acceptance statement. The PI should sign the transmittal document.

Note:   A certificate holder using electronic media such as CD‑ROM disks, local area network (LAN)‑based manual systems, or internet‑based manual systems may scan the cover letters and insert them electronically into the applicable document if they do not wish to maintain a file of acceptance or approval letters.

C.     Use of Electronic Transmissions (E‑mail or Facsimile). E‑mail or fax responses are an acceptable alternative to the cover letter if the repair station is equipped to transmit and receive any necessary attachments. This may include the use of electronic signatures. This method should be addressed in the repair station’s procedures and found acceptable to the FAA.

D.    Rejection. Reject the manual(s) or revisions by doing the following:

1)      Initiate a cover letter indicating the date and document, manual, or revision number of the document or manual being rejected.
2)      Return all copies to the applicant with an explanation of discrepancies that must be corrected and instructions for resubmitting the documents in order to proceed with the certification or revision process.

E.     Acceptance. Once the applicant/certificate holder receives the acceptance of the RSM and/or QCM, or the approval of the training program and/or manual, copies of the manuals or disks must be provided to the CHDO. The PI will file a copy in the certificate holder/applicant’s office file along with a copy of the acceptance letter.

1)      In a paper revision, the ASI will remove the affected pages and insert the revised pages in the manuals or the training program. The ASI will update the manual control system and file the cover letters in the appropriate office file.
2)      In an electronic format, the ASI will replace the outdated disk with the current or initial manual or training submission. The ASI will place a copy of the acceptance letter in the certificate holder’s office file.

F.      Document the Task. File all supporting paperwork in the certificate holder/applicant’s office file.

2-1299       FUTURE ACTIVITIES. None.

RESERVED. Paragraphs 2‑1300 through 2‑1315.


7/20/09                                                                                                                         8900.1 CHG 0

Volume 3  GENERAL TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATION

chapter 13  LEASE AND INTERCHANGE AGREEMENTS

Section 1  Evaluate Aircraft Lease/Interchange Agreement

3-396      PROGRAM TRACKING AND REPORTING SUBSYSTEM (PTRS) ACTIVITY CODES.

A.     Maintenance: 3359.

B.     Avionics: 5359.

3-397      OBJECTIVE. This section provides guidance for evaluating aircraft leases and interchange agreements for U.S.‑certificated operators.

3-398      GENERAL.

A.     Definitions.

1)      Lease: Any agreement by a person (the lessor) to furnish an aircraft to another person (lessee) to be used for compensation or hire purposes. This does not include an agreement for the sale of an aircraft or a contract of conditional sale under Title 49 of the United States Code (49 U.S.C) § 44701 which is the primary authority for all air carrier Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR).
2)      Dry Lease: Any agreement in which a lessor, (which could be an air carrier, bank, or leasing company) leases an aircraft without flight crewmembers to an air carrier (the lessee), and in which the lessee maintains operational control.
3)      Wet Lease: Any agreement in which a lessor, (U.S. air carrier only), leases an aircraft, with at least one pilot flight crewmember, to either a U.S. air carrier, foreign air carrier, or a foreign person (the lessee).
4)      Interchange Agreement: Any agreement between operators (U.S. and foreign) in which the operational control of an aircraft is transferred for short periods of time from one operator to another. With this type agreement, the latter operator assumes responsibility for the operational control of the aircraft at the time of transfer.
5)      Operational Control: Operation of aircraft as defined in 49 U.S.C § 44701; also, “operate” as defined in 14 CFR part 1, § 1.1.
6)      Lessee: The party using the aircraft under the provisions of a lease.
7)      Lessor: The party furnishing the aircraft under a lease.

B.     Determining Operational Control of a Dry‑Leased Aircraft. Normally, operational control of any dry‑leased aircraft rests with the lessee. In most dry lease agreements, the lessor is a bank of either a leasing or a holding company. In neither case will the lessor have the operational expertise, the facilities, or the desire to assume responsibility and liability for controlling the day‑to‑day operations of the aircraft.

C.     Determining Operational Control of Wet‑Leased Aircraft. The fact that the Department of Transportation (DOT) characterizes a lease as a wet lease does not necessarily make the lessor responsible for operational control. When Regional Counsel determines who has operational control, the certificate‑holding district office (CHDO) must be advised by letter. The CHDO must make this letter a matter of record in the operator’s office file.

D.    Other Factors in Determining Operational Control of Leased Aircraft.

1)      Title 14 CFR parts 121 and 135 provide that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) shall determine if a person has operational control if that person exercised authority and responsibility for a specified number of operational functions. This could include scheduling flights and crewmembers, initiating flights, and terminating flights.
2)      In cases where there is doubt or controversy over who exercises operational control, the Regional Counsel may consider additional factors, such as who is responsible for maintenance, servicing, and crewmember training.

3-399      INTERCHANGE AGREEMENTS.

A.     An interchange agreement is a form of dry lease agreement. It allows an air carrier to dry lease aircraft to another air carrier for short periods of time. Parts 121 and 135 prohibit listing an aircraft on both private carriage operations specifications (OpSpecs) and common carriage OpSpecs.

B.     Occasionally, important details may be overlooked unless interchange conditions are closely monitored. Equipment variances can be potentially dangerous unless effective training or corrective action is taken before operations begin. For example, life rafts or an emergency radio might be improperly stowed during over‑water flights on aircraft that have no provisions for their stowage, thus creating a hazardous condition in turbulent weather.

3-400      FAA RESPONSIBILITIES.

A.     Determine District Office Responsibility. Approval of the OpSpecs is the responsibility of the Flight Standards District Office (FSDO), assigned to the operator exercising operational control of the aircraft. This determination must be made by reviewing the specific assignment of operational control listed on the lease/interchange agreement by the FAA Regional Counsel.

B.     Review the Lease. An aircraft lease/interchange agreement is reviewed to determine if all of the responsibilities of the lessor/lessee are described. The inspector must ensure that the lease/interchange contains all effective dates and provisions required by regulation. Those items not required by regulation must be reviewed to determine their applicability and compatibility with the regulatory requirements.

C.     The Lessor’s Operator’s Manual. The lessor’s manual must be reviewed for the following:

·        The Continuous Airworthiness Maintenance Program (CAMP), for the aircraft, engines, propellers (if applicable), and appliances,

·        The maintenance reliability program, if applicable,

·        A training program for the maintenance personnel on the aircraft,

·        Fueling procedures for the aircraft,

·        Provision for use of an approved minimum equipment list (MEL), and

·        Provisions for leasing the aircraft to the lessee.

D.    The Lessee’s Operator’s Manual. The lessee’s manual must be reviewed for the following:

·        To determine if the manuals provide adequate procedures and guidance for incorporating leased aircraft into its operating system,

·        Procedures for the use of the lessor’s CAMP, for the aircraft, engines, propellers (if applicable), and appliances,

·        Procedures for the use of the maintenance reliability program, if applicable,

·        Procedures in the maintenance training program that are adequate to provide for configuration differences, if the aircraft is maintained under the lessor’s maintenance program,

·        Fueling procedures for the aircraft, and

·        Provisions for use of an approved MEL.

E.     Aircraft Maintenance Records. The lessor will maintain the aircraft maintenance record and ensure that the items required to be inspected, repaired, or overhauled are addressed in those records.

F.      Aircraft Conformity Inspections. Aircraft conformity inspections are conducted to ensure that:

1)      Differences between aircraft already in a lessee’s fleet and aircraft being leased are noted. These differences must be addressed with:
2)      Amendments to the lessee’s OpSpecs,
3)      Revisions to the lessee’s maintenance manual, and
4)      Configuration of the aircraft meets the regulatory requirements of the intended operation.

3-401      COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS. This task requires coordination among maintenance, avionics, and operations aviation safety inspectors (ASI). Regional coordination will also be required.

3-402      REFERENCES, FORMS, AND JOB AIDS.

A.     References (current editions):

·        Volume 3, Chapter 31, Section 5, Evaluate Part 121/135.411(a)(2) Air Carrier’s Maintenance Recordkeeping System, and

·        Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 6, Parts D and E—Maintenance MSpecs/OpSpecs.

B.     Forms. FAA Form 8400.8, Operations Specifications.

C.     Job Aids. Automated OpSpecs checklists and worksheets.

3-403      PROCEDURES FOR LEASE AGREEMENTS.

A.     Determine if a Lease Agreement Has Occurred. Request a copy of the lease or lease memorandum.

1)      Determine which FSDO(s) should be involved in the evaluation of the lease agreements.
2)      Determine FSDO responsibility. If more than one FSDO is involved, determine which office will be responsible for approving the operations and maintenance portions of the OpSpecs.

B.     Review the Lease. Ensure that:

·        The lessor and lessee are properly identified on the lease,

·        The lease is signed by the appropriate personnel in both the lessor’s and the lessee’s organizations,

·        All strikeovers, erasures, and corrections are initialed by both the lessor and the lessee,

·        The aircraft subject to the lease agreement are identified by aircraft make and model, registration number, and serial number,

·        The effective dates of the lease are identified,

·        Operational control is specifically designated,

·        Responsibilities for performing maintenance are specifically designated,

·        Responsibilities for keeping aircraft maintenance records are specifically designated, and

·        Maintenance programs (lessee’s or lessor’s) that will be utilized are designated.

C.     Review the Lessee’s Manuals. Ensure that the manual includes the following:

·        Procedures adequate to incorporate the leased aircraft into his operating system (aircraft acceptance checks, etc.),

·        Provisions in the maintenance training program to account for any differences in the configuration of the leased aircraft from the existing fleet,

·        A program that is adequate to provide for configuration differences if the aircraft is to be maintained under the lessee’s maintenance program, and

·        A MEL that is applicable to the leased aircraft.

D.    Review the Aircraft Maintenance Records. (See Volume 3, Chapter 31, Section 5, Evaluate Part 121/135.411(a)(2) Air Carrier’s Maintenance Recordkeeping System.)

E.     Perform an Aircraft Conformity Inspection. After performing the inspection, review the results to ensure that the differences between the leased aircraft and the aircraft already in operation are identified and will be addressed in the OpSpecs and the lessee’s maintenance manual.

3-404      PROCEDURES FOR INTERCHANGE AGREEMENTS.

A.     Review the Agreement. Ensure that:

·        The operator submits a written agreement or memorandum of the interchange agreement,

·        The aircraft subject to the interchange agreement are identified by aircraft make and model, registration number, and serial number,

·        The effective dates/times of the interchange are identified,

·        Operational control is specifically designated,

·        Responsibilities for performing maintenance are specifically designated,

·        Responsibilities for keeping aircraft maintenance records are specifically designated,

·        The maintenance program to be utilized is designated,

·        All strikeovers, erasures, and corrections are initialed by both parties to the agreement, and

·        The interchange agreement or memorandum provides for all differences in aircraft configuration due to the operating or maintenance requirements of both operators.

B.     Review the Lessor’s Operator’s Manual. Review the following:

·        The CAMP, for the aircraft, engines, propellers (if applicable), and appliances,

·        The maintenance reliability program, if applicable,

·        A training program for the maintenance personnel on the aircraft,

·        Fueling procedures for the aircraft,

·        Provision for use of an approved MEL, and

·        Provisions for leasing the aircraft to the lessee.

C.     Review the Lessee’s Operator’s Manual. Review for the following:

·        To determine if the manuals provide adequate procedures and guidance for incorporating leased aircraft into its operating system,

·        Procedures for the use of the lessor’s CAMP, for the aircraft, engines, propellers (if applicable), and appliances,

·        Procedures for the use of the maintenance reliability program, if applicable,

·        Procedures in the maintenance training program that are adequate to provide for configuration differences, if the aircraft is maintained under the lessor’s maintenance program,

·        Fueling procedures for the aircraft, and

·        Provisions for use of an approved MEL.

D.    Analyze the Findings. Evaluate all deficiencies to determine what corrections will be required.

E.     Schedule a Meeting. If deficiencies are discovered during the evaluation, advise the operator/applicant. Schedule a meeting with the operator/applicant to discuss the problem areas, if necessary.

3-405      TASK OUTCOMES.

A.     Complete the PTRS Record.

B.     Complete the Task. Completion of this task will result in one of the following:

1)      Approval of the agreement by accomplishing the following:

·         Sending a letter to the operator indicating acceptance of the agreement,

·         Approval of OpSpecs in accordance with Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 6, and

·         Parts 121/135 OpSpecs.

2)      Disapproval of the agreement by sending a letter to the operator/applicant listing the reasons for disapproval.

C.     Document the Task. File all supporting paperwork in the operator/applicant’s office file.

3-406      FUTURE ACTIVITIES. Normal surveillance.

RESERVED. Paragraphs 3‑407 through 3‑420.


7/24/09                                                                                                                         8900.1 CHG 0

Volume 3  General Technical administration

chapter 19  training programs and airmen qualifications

Section 2  Training Approval Process

3-1096  GENERAL.

A.     Overview. Training curriculum approvals follow the five-phase general process for approval or acceptance described in Volume 3, Chapter 1, Section 1, The General Process for Approval or Acceptance. The basic steps of this process must be followed. Each phase, however, may be adjusted to accommodate existing circumstances. Depending on the complexity of the operator’s request and the availability of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) resources, the approval process may be accomplished in just a few days, or may last many months. The approval process applies to each operator requesting approval of a new curriculum or a revision to a currently- approved curriculum. Inherent in the approval process is the FAA’s responsibility to deny approval of any training which does not meet regulatory requirements or which has been found deficient. Training curriculums which have been granted approval and later found either to be in conflict with regulatory requirements or to be ineffective, must be appropriately modified by the operator, or FAA approval must be withdrawn. This section establishes procedures for granting approval or withdrawing approval of all or part of a training curriculum. When appropriate, job aids have been developed to assist inspectors in the approval process of curriculum segments. These job aids are discussed in subsequent sections of this chapter.

B.     Applicability. The training approval process discussed in this section applies only to Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 and part 135 operators. Part 121, subpart N training can be approved for only part 121 operators. Part 135, subpart N training can be approved for only part 135 operators. There are no regulatory provisions for part 121 or part 135 training to be conducted by training centers or aircraft manufacturers. Certain training centers and aircraft manufacturers, however, currently have FAA approval to train flight crewmembers in certain aircraft types used in part 121 and part 135 operations. As of the effective date of this revision, each inquiry received from a training center or an aircraft manufacturer concerning the authorization to conduct any part 121 or part 135 training, shall be referred to the Air Transportation Division (AFS-200). AFS-200 will determine whether it is appropriate for a particular training center or aircraft manufacturer to conduct part 121 or part 135 training.

3-1097  OPERATIONS CONDUCTED UNDER BOTH PARTS 121 AND 135.

A.     Differences Between Parts 121 and 135. There are only a few differences in the training required by parts 121 and 135. Part 121, however, generally contains more stringent requirements. To maintain the requisite level of safety without unnecessary restrictions and redundant training, certain considerations may be given to operators using crewmembers in operations conducted under both parts 121 and 135. All regulatory requirements applicable to the operation in which the crewmember is engaged must be met. Training which meets the same requirements of both parts 121 and 135, however, does not have to be repeated. Training curriculums may be combined if the training given clearly meets all applicable regulatory requirements. For example, with aircraft of similar types, such as the SD-360 and SD-330, if applicable, difference training is included in a combined curriculum, the part 121 training on the SD-360 meets the training requirements for the SD-330. For most aircraft, however, a combined curriculum may not be possible due to differences in the training requirements between parts 121 and 135.

B.     Parts 121 Subparts N and O. The FAA recognizes that the airman and crewmember training, checking, and qualification requirements of part 121 will always meet or exceed the requirements of part 135. This is consistent with the recognition that part 121 affords the highest standards of safety in civil flight operations. Therefore, as a matter of safety policy, the FAA will both permit and encourage compliance with subparts N and O of part 121, by operators who conduct part 135 operations. It is FAA policy that a training, checking, and qualification program submitted by a part 135 operator, which is found by the FAA to be in compliance with subparts N and O of part 121, will be considered as a program that exceeds the requirements of part 135 and will be approved by the FAA for use by that operator. Principal operations inspectors (POI) are authorized to approve curriculum segments (including qualification curriculum segments which permit training to be substituted for checking), provided the operator adopts all the training, checking, and qualification requirements of part 121, subparts N and O.

3-1098  INITIATING THE APPROVAL PROCESS—PHASE ONE.

A.     Approval Process Initiation. The training approval process can be initiated by either the operator or the FAA as follows:

1)      Operator Initiated. The operator informs the FAA that it is planning to establish a new training curriculum or to change an existing curriculum.
2)      FAA Initiated. The FAA informs an operator that revisions to its training program are required based on recently acquired information relative to training techniques, aviation technology, aircraft operational history, operator performance, or regulatory changes.

B.     Needed Information. When a proposal is initiated by the operator, one of the first steps the POI or certification project manager (CPM) should take is to obtain the following basic information:

·        Type of operation,

·        Type of equipment to be operated,

·        Geographic areas of operation,

·        Proposed training schedules,

·        Proposed date of revenue operations,

·        Proposed contract training, if any,

·        Type of simulator to be used, if any, and

·        Facilities to be used.

3-1099  FAA INVOLVEMENT IN PHASE ONE.

A.     POI Responsibilities. Early in the process, the FAA and the operator should establish, through discussion, a common understanding of both the regulatory training requirements and the direction and guidance provided in this handbook. The POI or CPM and the operator must examine the entire operation to ensure that any training necessitated by operational requirements, authorizations, or limitations (such as those in the operations specifications (OpSpecs), minimum equipment lists (MEL), deviations, and exemptions), is included in the operator’s training curriculums. The training program is the area most affected by operational changes. The POI should review all general requirements in the regulations and in this handbook that apply to the proposed operation. The POI should be aware of changes to the information initially provided by the operator. The POI should discuss with the operator the sequence and timing of events which occur in the development and the granting of initial and final approval of a training curriculum. If the operator’s proposal involves complex operations (such as long-range navigation or polar navigation operations), the POI must consult appropriate sections of this handbook and other relevant documents and be prepared to advise the operator during this phase. In such a case, the POI should also determine whether assistance from an FAA specialist is necessary.

B.     Advice and Guidance Given to the Operator. An FAA inspector should be prepared to provide advice to an operator during training curriculum development. During phase-one, the operator must be informed of the procedure for requesting initial approval and of the types of additional supporting information which the POI will require the operator to submit. An inspector should be prepared to provide advice and guidance to the operator on the following:

·        The general format and content of curriculums, curriculum segments, training modules, and flight maneuvers and procedures documents;

·        Courseware;

·        Facilities;

·        Qualifications of instructor personnel; and

·        Other areas of the operator’s proposed training program.

C.     Importance of Early Involvement. Early FAA involvement is also important for the following reasons:

·        FAA advice and guidance during development of training may provide a useful service to the operator. This advice may save the operator and the FAA from unnecessary use of resources. It may also prevent the operator from submitting a training curriculum proposal which would not be approved by the FAA;

·        The POI can become familiar with the material the operator intends to submit. This facilitates review of the proposal before the granting of initial approval; and

·        The POI can begin planning long-range needs, such as qualification of inspectors on the operator’s aircraft, and evaluation of the program’s overall effectiveness.

Note:   Early FAA inspector involvement in the development of training programs is appropriate. An FAA inspector, however, must act in an advisory capacity only. The inspector must avoid active participation in the actual training program development. The operator is responsible for the development of its own training program. The FAA inspector must not assume that responsibility.

D.    Additional Help. As the operator’s proposals solidify, any significant requirements which may affect office or regional inspector resources should be discussed with the district office manager. An FAA inspector may need training on an operator’s aircraft type. Requests for inspectors from outside the office or region to assist in the training approval process may be necessary.

E.     Potential Causes of Approval Delays. The operator should be aware of the potential for delays in approval. Such delays may be caused by any of the following reasons:

·        The applicant for a certificate not meeting the schedule of events;

·        The operator failing to expeditiously transmit information to the FAA;

·        A change in plans, for example, changing either the training locations or the type of aircraft;

·        Inadequate, insufficient, or unclear material submitted in phase two;

·        Deficiencies in the training discovered during phases two, three, or four;

·        Delays in obtaining equipment (such as simulators) or simulator approval; and

·        Higher priority work (such as accidents) assigned to the POI or other inspectors associated with the training approval process.

3-1100  REQUESTS FOR INITIAL APPROVAL—PHASE TWO.

A.     Overview. Phase two begins when the operator submits its training proposal in writing, for initial approval, to the FAA. The operator is required to submit to the FAA an outline of each curriculum or curriculum segment and any additional relevant supporting information requested by the POI. These outlines, any additional supporting information, and a letter must be submitted to the FAA. This letter should request FAA approval of the training curriculum. Two copies of each curriculum or curriculum segment outline should be forwarded along with the letter of request to the FAA.

B.     Required Information in Curriculums. Each operator must submit its own specific curriculum segment outlines appropriate for its type of aircraft and kinds of operations. These outlines may differ from one operator to another and from one category of training to another in terms of format, detail, and presentation. Each curriculum should be easy to revise and should contain a method for controlling revisions, such as a revision numbering system. Curriculums for different duty positions may be combined in one document, provided the positions are specifically identified and any differences in instruction are specified for each duty position. Each curriculum and curriculum segment outline must include the following information:

·        Operator’s name,

·        Type of aircraft,

·        Duty position,

·        Title of curriculum and/or curriculum segment including the category of training,

·        Consecutive page numbers, and

·        Page revision control dates and revision numbers.

C.     Required Curriculum Segment Items. Each curriculum and curriculum segment must also include the following items, as appropriate:

1)      Prerequisites prescribed by the 14 CFRs or required by the operator for enrollment in the curriculum;
2)      Statements of objectives of the entire curriculum and a statement of the objective of each curriculum segment;
3)      A list of each training device, mockup, system trainer, procedures trainer, simulator, and other training aids which require FAA approval (The curriculum may contain references to other documents in which the approved devices, simulators, and aids, are listed);
4)      Descriptions or pictorial displays of normal, abnormal, and emergency maneuvers and procedures which are intended for use in the curriculum, when appropriate (These descriptions or pictorial displays, when grouped together, are commonly referred to as the flight maneuvers and procedures document. The operator may choose to present detailed descriptions and pictorial displays of flight maneuvers and procedures in other manuals. For example, the flight maneuvers and procedures document may be described in an aircraft operating manual. However, as a required part of the training curriculum, it must either be submitted as part of the curriculum or be appropriately referenced in the curriculum);
5)      An outline of each training module within each curriculum segment (Each module should contain sufficient detail to ensure that the main features of the principal elements or events will be addressed during instruction);
6)      Training hours which will be applied to each curriculum segment and the total curriculum; and
7)      The checking and qualification modules of the qualification curriculum segment used to determine successful course completion, including any 14 CFR qualification requirements for crewmembers or dispatchers to serve in part 121 or part 135 operations (such as initial operating experience, line checks, operating familiarization).

3-1101  ADDITIONAL RELEVANT SUPPORTING INFORMATION—PHASE TWO. As specified in part 121, § 121.405(a)(2) and part 135, § 135.325(a)(2), an operator must submit any additional relevant supporting information requested by the POI. This information is that additional information the POI finds necessary for determining whether the proposed training program is feasible and adequately supported. It is information which would be difficult to include in a curriculum outline format. The type and amount of supporting information needed will vary depending on the type of training, aircraft types to be operated, and kinds of operations. The POI must determine the appropriate types of supporting information to be required. This should be limited to only that information critical to the determination of the proposed training program’s acceptability. The following list of types of relevant supporting information is not all‑inclusive, but includes information that is typical.

A.     Description of Facilities. A description of facilities is appropriate if the POI is unfamiliar with the facilities, or if the facilities are not readily available for examination.

B.     List of Ground and Flight Instructors and Qualifications. A list of ground and flight instructors and their qualifications may be requested. This information is particularly important if the operator intends to use contract instructors. The POI should determine whether the proposed instructors meet regulatory requirements and if they are qualified to conduct training.

C.     Description of Flight Simulator (SIM) and Training Device. A detailed description of each SIMand training device is appropriate when the simulator or training device is not readily available for the POI’s examination. This detailed description is particularly important when the operator intends to contract for a specific SIM or training device. This description should provide sufficiently detailed information to enable the POI to determine whether the training and checking to be conducted is appropriate for the level of the SIM or training device to be used.

D.    Description of Qualification and Enrollment Prerequisites. A detailed description of minimum student qualifications and enrollment prerequisites is appropriate when such prerequisites are not described in detail in the curriculum. Examples of these prerequisites which may need to be detailed as supporting information include: type of airman certificate, aircraft type qualifications, previous training programs, minimum flight hours, experience with other part 121 or part 135 operators, and recency of experience. This description may be useful to the POI when determining whether the proposed amount of detail outlined in training modules and the proposed training hours are adequate.

E.     Recordkeeping Requirements. Copies of training forms and records to be used for recording student progress and the completion of training may be required. This ensures the operator has planned for the 14 CFR recordkeeping requirements. This type of supporting information shall be required of applicants for an air operator certificate. It may also be required of operators with any significant revision to existing training programs. These forms, records, or computer transmittal worksheets must be designed so that attendance and course-completion information is recorded and retrievable for verifying regulatory compliance.

F.      Supporting Information. Supporting information may include samples of courseware, such as lesson plans and instructor guides. Descriptions of other types of courseware, such as home study, computer-based instruction, and Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) scenarios, should be in enough detail to provide an understanding of how the training will be administered and of the proposed instructional delivery method. This information should describe the instructor student-interaction and indicate methods for measuring student learning.

3-1102  INITIAL REVIEW OF REQUESTS FOR APPROVAL—PHASE TWO. In phase two the POI must review the submitted training curriculum and supporting information for completeness, general content, and overall quality. A detailed examination of the documents is not required during phase two. If after initial review, the submission appears to be complete and of acceptable quality, or if the deficiencies are immediately brought to the operator’s attention and can be quickly resolved, the POI may begin the phase three indepth review. If the submission is determined to be incomplete or obviously unacceptable, the approval process is terminated and the POI must immediately return the documents (preferably within five working days) with an explanation of the deficiencies. The documents must be immediately returned, so the operator will not erroneously assume the POI is continuing the process to the next phase. The approval process can be resumed when the revised training curriculum or curriculum segment is resubmitted.

3-1103  TRAINING CURRICULUMS SUBMITTED WITH AIR OPERATOR CERTIFICATE APPLICATIONS. An applicant for a certificate in the early stages of certification, may be unable to provide all information required for its training program. For example, the applicant may not yet know what training facilities or devices it intends to use. The lack of such information in the formal application does not necessarily indicate that the training curriculum attachment be returned. There should be an understanding between the applicant and the CPM that such portions are missing. The CPM may initiate the phase three in‑depth review without this type of information. Initial approval, however, of a curriculum segment must be withheld until all portions pertinent to the curriculum segment have been examined. For example, it may be appropriate to initially approve a ground training curriculum segment even though the simulator has not yet been evaluated and approved for flight training. However, effective evaluation of training curriculums can be hampered when an excessive number of incomplete curriculum segments are permitted. The CPM shall either delay initial approval of training curriculums or return them to the applicant when an excessive number of incomplete curriculum segments have been submitted with the formal application.

3-1104  IN-DEPTH REVIEW OF SUBMITTED CURRICULUMS—PHASE THREE.

A.     Specialists and or FAA Offices. Phase three is initiated when the FAA begins a detailed analysis and evaluation of a training curriculum or curriculum segment. The purpose of this phase is to determine the acceptability of training curriculums for initial approval. This phase ends either with the initial approval or with the rejection of all or part of the training curriculum. To complete an evaluation in a timely manner the POI may need to involve other FAA personnel early in this phase. Certain specialists or offices may be required to participate in the approval process as follows:

·        The principal security inspector (PSI) should be involved in security and hazardous materials training issues;

·        Various aviation safety inspector (ASI) specialists should be involved when appropriate. For example, navigation specialists should be involved with evaluating special navigation operations;

·        The POI may need to contact the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) and the Flight Operations Evaluation Board (FOEB) for information on training recommendations and minimum equipment list procedures. See Volume 8 for more information about FSBs and FOEBs;

·        The POI’s district office manager and certain regional headquarters (HQ) personnel may need to be involved with locating and directing additional FAA resources to accomplish the approval process; and

·        Washington HQs may be requested to provide assistance with obtaining training quotas for selected inspectors or with obtaining information concerning exemptions.

B.     Required Evaluations. Before granting initial approval for a specific curriculum or curriculum segment, the POI must ensure that the following evaluations are accomplished:

1)      A side-by-side examination of the curriculum outline with the appropriate regulations and with the direction provided in this handbook must be performed. This examination is to ensure that training will be given in at least the required subjects and in-flight training maneuvers. It should also ensure that appropriate training will be given on safe operating practices.
2)      An examination of the courseware developed or being developed by the operator must be performed. This review should include a sampling of available courseware such as lesson plans, audiovisual programs, flight maneuvers and procedures documents, and student handouts. The courseware must be consistent with each curriculum and curriculum segment outline. From this review, the POI should be able to determine whether the operator is capable of developing and producing effective training courseware.
3)      An inspection of training facilities, training devices, and instructional aids (which will be used to support the training) must be performed if the POI is not familiar with the operator’s training program capabilities.
4)      The training hours specified in each curriculum segment outline must be evaluated. An inspector should not attempt to measure the quality or sufficiency of training by the number of training hours alone. This can only be determined by direct observation of training and testing (or checking) in progress, or by examination of surveillance and investigation reports. The specified training hours must be realistic, however, in terms of the amount of time it will take to accomplish the training outlined in the curriculum segment so as to achieve the stated training objectives. During the examination of courseware, an inspector should note the times allotted by the operator for each training module. These times should be realistic in terms of the complexity of the individual training modules. The number of training hours for any particular curriculum segment depends upon many factors. Some of the primary factors are as follows:

·         The aircraft family in which the specific aircraft belongs;

·         Complexity of the specific aircraft;

·         Complexity of the type of operation;

·         Amount of detail that needs to be covered;

·         The experience and knowledge level of the students; and

·         Efficiency and sophistication of the operator’s entire training program (including items such as instructor proficiency, training aids, facilities, courseware, and the operator’s experience with the aircraft).

C.     Criteria for Approval. If after completing these evaluations, the POI determines that the curriculum or curriculum segment is satisfactory and adequately supported, and that the training hours are realistic, initial approval should be granted. Sometimes a portion of the submittal may appear to be satisfactory. However, if that portion is dependent upon another undeveloped portion or another unsatisfactory portion, initial approval must be withheld. For example, a PIC BE-100 initial equipment, flight training curriculum segment is satisfactory but related training modules within the initial equipment ground training curriculum segment are unsatisfactory. In such a case, it may be inappropriate to grant initial approval to the initial equipment flight training curriculum segment until the ground training curriculum segment is determined to be satisfactory.

D.    Establishment of Priorities. During phase three of the approval process, the POI must establish priorities to ensure that, if appropriate, the granting of initial approval, is not unnecessarily delayed. These priorities should assure that deficiencies are resolved so that initial approval can be granted before the operator’s planned starting date for training.

3-1105  EXPIRATION DATES FOR INITIAL APPROVALS. When the POI determines that a training curriculum or curriculum segment should be initially approved, the POI must also determine an appropriate expiration date for the initial approval. The expiration date is important throughout phase four of the approval process. Sections 121.401(a)(1) and 135.323(a)(1) require the operator to obtain final approval of training curriculums. The expiration date provides an incentive to the operator for refining all aspects of the program to assure that this regulatory requirement is met. The expiration date also provides the POI with a time frame with which to plan evaluation activities for determining the effectiveness of the training. The expiration date assigned to an initially approved training curriculum must not exceed 24 months from the date of initial approval. The expiration date of initial approval may be reduced by the POI if it is apparent that a 24-month time frame will unnecessarily delay final approval. The POI should be aware that shortening the initial approval expiration date will commit him to completing the final approval phase within the shorter time period. The POI may grant final approval any time before the expiration date. Except when unforeseen circumstances preclude an adequate evaluation of training effectiveness, an extension to the initial approval expiration date should not be permitted. A new expiration date, however, may be established for a curriculum segment when there are significant revisions to an initially approved curriculum segment.

3-1106  METHOD OF GRANTING INITIAL APPROVAL.

A.     Initial approval is granted by letter. Sample letters granting initial approval are included at the end of this paragraph (Figures 3-71, Letter of Initial Approval (Part 135) and 3‑72, Letter of Initial Approval (Part 121)). The initial approval letter must include at least the following information:

·        Specific identification of the curriculums and/or curriculum segments initially approved, including page numbers and revision control dates;

·        A statement that initial approval is granted, including the effective and expiration dates;

·        Any specific conditions affecting the initial approval, if applicable;

·        A request for advance notice of training schedules so that training may be evaluated in accordance with § 121.405 or § 135.325, as appropriate; and

·        If the POI is authorizing a reduction in the programmed hours specified by part 121, a statement concerning the basis for reduction.

B.     Other Acceptable Methods. An initial approval letter serves as the primary record of curriculum or curriculum segment pages that are currently effective. In the past, initial approval was stamped on each page of a curriculum. Although this method is no longer necessary, the POI and each operator may agree to use the method to account for revisions to training documents. If this method is used, the stamp must clearly indicate initial approval and the expiration date. Other acceptable methods include a list of effective curriculum or curriculum segment pages, or pages with a preprinted signature and date blocks.

C.     Return of Originals. The original pages of the curriculum or curriculum segment shall be returned to the operator with the transmittal letter. These documents should be retained by the operator as an official record. A copy of the training curriculum or curriculum segment, with a copy of the transmittal letter granting initial approval attached, shall be maintained on file in the certificate-holding district office (CHDO) by the POI during the period that the initial approval is valid. The POI shall also maintain on file with the curriculum all additional relevant supporting information.

Figure 3-71, Letter of Initial Approval (Part 135)

ABC Airlines

Director of Operations

1 Park Avenue

New York, NY 11001

 

Dear Mr. Smith:

 

Initial approval is granted to ABC Airlines SD-330 Pilot in Command and Second in Command Initial Equipment Flight Training, pages 1 through 10, dated March 11, 1988. This training curriculum is initially approved in accordance with the provisions of 14 CFR § 135.325(a), effective March 30, 1988.

Initial approval of this training curriculum shall remain in effect until March 31, 1990, or upon the granting of final approval, whichever occurs first. ABC Airlines is requested to notify this office at least 10 days in advance of any training to be conducted under this program so that the FAA may evaluate the effectiveness of the program, in accordance with 14 CFR § 135.325(b).

Principal Operations Inspector

Figure 3-72, Letter of Initial Approval (Part 121)

ABC Airlines

Director of Training

1 Park Avenue

New York, NY 11001

 

Dear Mr. Townsend:

 

This letter in reference to ABC Airline’s B-737 Pilot in Command and Second in Command Initial Equipment Ground Training curriculum, pages 100/1 through 100/15, dated April 14, 1988. This curriculum is granted initial approval, effective April 30, 1988. The approval is contingent upon a satisfactory evaluation of your advanced systems ground trainer scheduled for April 28 and 29, 1988.

 

The expiration date of this initial approval is April 30, 1990. This office requests ABC Airlines provide at least seven days advance notice of any training to be conducted under this curriculum to allow for evaluation of the training in accordance with 14 CFR § 121.405(b) and (c). Approval of the reduced training hours from the programmed hours required by 14 CFR § 121.419(b) to

75 hours is based on the improved training techniques available from your advanced systems ground trainer.

 

Principal Operations Inspector

3-1107  METHOD OF DENYING INITIAL APPROVAL. If the POI determines that initial approval of a proposed training curriculum or curriculum segment must be denied, the operator shall be notified in writing of the reasons for denial. This letter must contain an identification of the deficient areas of the training curriculum and a statement that initial approval is denied. It is not necessary that each minor deficiency which resulted in the denial be identified, however, the major deficiencies should be outlined in the letter. It is the operator’s responsibility to redevelop or correct the deficient area before resubmission to the FAA. A copy of the denial letter and a copy of the proposed training curriculum or curriculum segment shall be kept on file in the CHDO. Figure 3-73 is a sample letter of a denial of initial approval.

Figure 3-73, Letter of Denial of Initial Approval

ARK Airlines

Director of Operations

48 Turnover Place

Landover, MD 20765

 

Dear Mr. Townsend:

 

This letter is in response to your request for initial approval of Revision 2 to ARK Airline’s DC‑9 Pilot in Command and Second in Command Recurrent Ground Training curriculum, dated August 2, 1988. Your request for initial approval for revision 2 is denied for the following reason.

 

More than 70 percent of your scheduled operations occur in areas which during the winter months, are subject to cold weather, snow, ice, and sleet. Your pilot workforce must have adequate training in the safe operating practices associated with a cold weather environment, to enable them to cope effectively with such hazards. Revision 2 deletes training previously given on major aspects of cold weather operations and does not provide any identifiable instruction to your crews for operating flights in such conditions. Presently there is not another course of training for ARK Airline’s pilots containing adequate information on cold weather procedures.

 

Principal Operations Inspector

3-1108  EVALUATING INITIALLY APPROVED TRAINING CURRICULUMS—PHASE FOUR.

A.     Overview. Phase four begins when the operator starts training under the initially-approved curriculum. This phase should provide the operator with adequate time to test the program and the flexibility to adjust the program during FAA evaluation. The POI must require an operator to provide ongoing schedules of all training and checking to be accomplished under an initially-approved training curriculum. The POI must closely monitor training conducted under initial approval. Whenever possible, the first session of training conducted under initial approval should be monitored by the POI or a qualified operations inspector. An FAA inspector does not need to observe every training session. A sufficient sampling of the training sessions, however, should be observed as a basis for a realistic evaluation. Inspectors qualified in the type aircraft, and other individuals knowledgeable of the curriculum subject matter, should assist in evaluating the training. During training under initial approval, the operator is expected to evaluate and appropriately adjust training methods as needed. Often adjustments can be made by changing courseware and instructional delivery without (or with only minor) revisions to the initially approved curriculum. Conversely, it may be necessary for the operator to substantially change the curriculum which may require another initial approval action by the POI before the changes can be put into effect. Sometimes proposed revisions may be transmitted to the POI just before the initial approval expiration date. If the change is significant, the POI may need to establish a different expiration date for the curriculum segment, or for the revised portions, to allow adequate time for a proper evaluation.

B.     Identification and Correction of Curriculum Deficiencies. During phase four, the operator must demonstrate the ability to effectively train crewmembers and dispatchers. Each deficiency identified during the evaluation of training conducted under an initially-approved curriculum must be discussed with the operator. If the deficiencies are significant, they must be documented and kept on file. In most cases, when the cause of a deficiency has been accurately identified, the operator will make the necessary changes to correct the deficiency to obtain final approval. Each significant deficiency which has been accurately identified must be immediately corrected. If an operator does not take appropriate corrective action, the POI shall advise the operator in writing that initial approval is withdrawn. See paragraph 3-1113.

3-1109  ELEMENTS AVAILABLE FOR EVALUATING TRAINING—PHASE FOUR. The POI must develop a plan for systematically evaluating training given under the initially approved training curriculum. This plan should remain in effect throughout the initial approval period. There are five elements which can be evaluated when assessing the overall effectiveness of training programs. These five elements are: curriculum segment outlines, courseware, instructional delivery methods and training environment, testing and checking, and surveillance and investigation of operator activities. These elements are interrelated, however, each can be separately evaluated. See Table 3-38 for a summary of the five elements.

A.     Curriculum Segment Outlines. Before evaluating a training program, an inspector must become familiar with the contents of the curriculums or curriculum segments to be evaluated. This preparation is essential if an inspector is to determine whether an operator has developed an effective course of instruction from its initially approved training curriculum.

B.     Examination of Courseware. Direct examination of courseware includes reviewing materials such as lesson plans, workbooks, or flight instructor guides. The inspector must determine whether the courseware is consistent with the curriculum or curriculum segment and that it has been organized to facilitate effective instructional delivery. Courseware is usually the training program element which is most adaptable to revision or refinement. Inspectors must review at least a sampling of the courseware.

C.     Observation of Instructional Delivery Methods and Training Environments. Direct observation of instructional delivery includes surveillance of training methods, such as instructor lectures, computer-based instruction presentations, and in-flight instruction. Effective learning can only occur when an instructor is organized, prepared, and properly uses the courseware and various training aids. The inspector must determine that the instructional delivery is consistent with the courseware. For example, the inspector should note whether the instructor teaches the topics specified in the lesson plan. Training aids and devices should function as intended during the instructional delivery. In addition, during training, the inspector should be sensitive to the type of questions being asked by students and should identify the reasons for any excessive repetition. These conditions may indicate ineffective instructional delivery or courseware. The inspector must also determine if the instructional environment is conducive to learning. Distractions which adversely affect instructional delivery, such as excessive temperatures, extraneous noises, poor lighting, cramped classrooms or workspaces, are deficiencies because they interfere with learning.

D.    Observation of Testing and Checking. Direct observation of testing and checking is an effective method for determining whether learning has occurred. Examining the results of tests, such as oral or written tests or flight checks, provides a quantifiable method for measuring training effectiveness. The POI must examine and determine the causal factors of significant failure trends.

E.     Surveillance and Investigation of Training and Checking in Progress. Direct observation of training and checking in progress is an effective method of evaluating training. Sometimes the opportunity for direct observation, however, will be limited. In such cases, the POI will have to rely more on his evaluation of other sources of information such as reports of surveillance and investigations. Results of inspection reports, incident or accident reports, enforcement actions, and other relevant information about the operator’s performance should be reviewed by the POI for indications of training effectiveness. The POI must establish methods to evaluate these sources of information for trends which may develop while training is being conducted under initial approval. For example, repeated reports of deficiencies such as excessive taxi speed, navigation deviations, incomplete briefings, or incorrect use of the checklists, may be traceable to a lack of specific training or ineffective training. Such information may provide indications that revisions or refinements are needed for a curriculum segment and/or training modules.

Table 2-8,  Elements For Training Evaluation

 

ELEMENTS AVAILABLE FOR EVALUATING TRAINING

CURRICULUM SEGMENT OUTLINES

Curriculum segment outlines contain the specific training modules and the amount of time allocated for the curriculum segment. The modules must be consistent with regulatory requirements and safe operating practices. This element requires direct examination.

COURSEWARE

Courseware converts curriculum outline information into usable instructional material. Courseware must be consistent with the curriculum outline and be organized to permit effective instructional delivery. It is readily adaptable to adjustments and refinement by the operator. This element usually requires direct examination.

INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY METHODS AND TRAINING ENVIRONMENT

Instructional delivery methods are used to convey information to the student. Effective learning is maximized if the instructional delivery adheres to and properly uses the courseware. The training environment should be conductive to effective learning. This element requires direct observation.

TESTING AND CHECKING

Testing and checking is a method for determining whether learning has occurred. Testing and checking standards are used to determine that a desired level of knowledge and skill has been acquired. Testing and checking also measures the effectiveness of courseware and instructional delivery. This element requires direct observation. It can be supplemented by examining operator records of tests and checks.

SURVEILLANCE AND INVESTIGATION OF OPERATOR ACTIVITIES

Surveillance and investigations produce information about an operator’s overall performance. A high rate of satisfactory performance usually indicates a strong, effective training program. Repeated unsatisfactory performances can often be traced to deficiencies in a training program. This element requires the examination and analysis of surveillance and investigative reports.

3-1110  METHOD FOR GRANTING FINAL APPROVAL—PHASE FIVE. This phase involves the granting of final approval of an operator’s training curriculum. Based on the results of the evaluation, the POI must determine whether to grant or deny final approval of a training curriculum. This determination must be made before the expiration date of the initial approval. If the POI decides not to grant final approval, the procedures outlined in paragraph 3-1114 shall be followed. If the POI decides that final approval should be granted, the following procedures apply:

A.     Programs that Contain a List of Effective Pages. Although the method presently stated in this order may still be used in the approval process (that is, stamping each page), another procedure may also be used. Final approval of the training curriculum can be granted and documented by the POI on the List of Effective Pages. This means that the FAA has given final approval of every page of the operator’s training curriculum, as listed on that page, but only one FAA approval block must be completed and signed.

1)      The stamped page that documents final approval of the training curriculum and/or curriculum segment shall be stamped for approval, dated, and signed by the POI. The approval stamp that appears on the page should be a facsimile of the stamp that appears in this paragraph.
2)      The original curriculum and/or curriculum segment must contain the one page that documents FAA approval on the List of Effective Pages. The curriculum and/or curriculum segment must be transmitted to the operator with an approval letter signed by the POI in accordance with handbook guidance.

B.     Programs that do not Contain a List of Effective Pages. The original and a copy of each page of the training curriculum and/or curriculum segment shall be stamped for approval, dated, and signed by the POI. the approval stamp shall appear on each page and be facsimile of the following stamp:

C.     Original Stamped Curriculum. The original stamped curriculum or curriculum segment must be transmitted to the operator with an approval letter signed by the POI. This letter must specifically identify the curriculum or curriculum segment; contain a statement that final approval is granted; and provide the effective date of approval. This letter must also state that final approval shall remain in effect until otherwise notified by the FAA that a revision is necessary in accordance with § 121.405(e) or § 135.325(d), provided the operator continues to train in accordance with the approved curriculum. If the POI is authorizing a reduction in the programmed hours specified by part 121, the letter must contain a statement concerning the basis for reduction. A copy of the stamped curriculum or curriculum segment, and a copy of the approval letter must be kept on file in the CHDO. Figures 3-74 and 3-75 are sample letters of final approval.

Figure 3-74, Letter of Final Approval (Part 121)

ABC Airlines, Inc.

Director of Training

417 Oakton Boulevard

Enid, OK 78154

 

Dear Mr. Townsend:

 

Final approval is granted to ABC Airlines’ Flight Attendant Recurrent Ground Training curriculum, for pages 1 through 5, dated May 21, 1987, and for pages 6 through 7, dated
April 15, 1988.

 

The effective date of final approval is January 20, 1989. ABC Airlines may continue to train in accordance with this curriculum until a revision is required by the FAA under 14 CFR

§ 121.405(e) or, until ABC Airlines revises the curriculum.

 

Approval of the reduced training hours from the programmed hours required by 14 CFR

§ 121.427(c)(3) to 8 hours is based on continued use of the Rolex II cabin mockup.

 

Principal Operations Inspector

 

Figure 3-75, Letter Of Final Approval (Part 135)

ABC Airlines, Inc.

Director of Operations

Hoffman Building, Suite 306

1012 Perkin Lane

Motown, LA 58642

 

Dear Mr. Smith:

Final approval is granted to ABC Airlines, Inc. Beech 99 Pilot in Command Upgrade Ground Training curriculum, pages 1 through 6, dated December 10, 1986.

The effective date of this final approval is June 9, 1988. ABC Airline may continue to train in accordance with this curriculum until a revision is required by FAA under 14 CFR § 135.325(d) or, until ABC Airlines revises the curriculum.

Principal Operations Inspector

3-1111  REVISIONS TO TRAINING CURRICULUMS.

A.     Final Approval of Proposed Revisions. Revisions to initially-approved training curriculums shall be processed as described in paragraphs 3-1099 through 3-1109. To incorporate significant revisions into training curriculum with final approval usually requires the full training approval process. Final approval, however, may be directly granted to a proposed revision, if the revision involves any of the following situations:

·        Correction of administrative errors such as typographical or printing errors;

·        A reorganization of training or any changes in the sequence of training that does not affect the quality or quantity of training; and

·        An improvement to the quality, or an increase in the quantity, of training.

B.     Probable Causes of Revisions. Other proposed revisions, including any proposal to reduce the approved number of training hours, are subject to the training program approval process. Although each step in the process must be completed, the process may be abbreviated in proportion to the complexity and extent of the proposal. There are many factors that could require revisions to training curriculums. Such factors include the following:

·        The effects and interrelationships of changes in the kind of operations;

·        The size and complexity of an operation;

·        The type of aircraft being used;

·        Any special authorizations through operations specifications;

·        A revised MEL; and

·        Any exemptions or deviations.

3-1112  WITHDRAWING APPROVAL OF TRAINING CURRICULUMS. Before withdrawing approval of an operator’s training curriculum or curriculum segment, the POI shall make reasonable efforts to convince the operator to make the necessary revisions. It is important to understand that withdrawing approval could be detrimental to the operator’s business. The operator’s ability to continue to hold a certificate may be in question if a new curriculum is not submitted for initial approval within a reasonable period of time. A decision to withdraw approval must be based on sound judgment and justifiable safety reasons. When sufficient reasons are established, it is mandatory for the POI to take immediate action to remove FAA approval from an ineffective or noncompliant training curriculum. When an approval is withdrawn, the POI must ensure that the operator clearly understands that any further training conducted under an unapproved curriculum is contrary to 14 CFR requirements. Enforcement action must be taken if any company employee who received unapproved training is used in part 121 or part 135 operations. The three methods for withdrawing approval of a training curriculum are as follows:

·        Allowing an initially-approved training curriculum to expire without granting final approval (paragraph 345);

·        Withdrawing approval of an initially-approved training curriculum before the expiration date (paragraph 347); and

·        Withdrawing approval of a training curriculum which has already received final approval in accordance with § 121.405(e) or § 135.325(d) (paragraph 349).

3-1113  EXPIRED TRAINING CURRICULUMS. A training curriculum granted initial approval has an expiration date. Usually, this date shall not be later than 24 months after the initial approval date. If the POI does not grant final approval before the expiration date, training under that curriculum must terminate as of that date. Therefore, the POI shall not allow an initially-approved curriculum to expire due to the FAA’s inability to administratively grant final approval. Final approval may not be granted to an operator’s training curriculum for several reasons. One reason, for example, may be the operator’s inability to achieve an acceptable level of training effectiveness during phase four of the approval process. Another example of a reason for not granting final approval is the discontinued use of the initially-approved curriculum. When the POI decides not to grant final approval before the expiration date, he must notify the operator of this decision in writing, at least 30 days before the expiration date of the initially-approved curriculum. An operator not so notified may mistakenly assume that the initial approval will continue in effect until receipt of notification of either final approval or termination. The notification letter should contain the reasons for allowing the curriculum to expire and should state that any further training under the expired curriculum will not be in compliance with regulatory requirements. A POI who fails to provide this 30-day notification must establish a new expiration date so that appropriate notification can then be given to the operator.

3-1114  WITHDRAWAL OF INITIAL APPROVAL OF TRAINING CURRICULUMS. A POI may decide to withdraw initial approval any time during phase four of the approval process. This action may be necessary if the training is not in regulatory compliance, does not provide for safe operating practices, or is ineffective in meeting training objectives. An operator who has received a letter withdrawing approval must revise or refine the training curriculum and resubmit it for initial approval. The POI must ensure that the operator understands that it is his responsibility to correct each deficiency in the training program. The POI withdraws initial approval of training curriculums by letter. This letter must contain both a statement informing the operator that initial approval is withdrawn and the effective date of the withdrawal. This letter must include the reasons for withdrawal of approval and a precaution concerning the use of persons trained under a curriculum which is not FAA approved. A sample letter for withdrawing initial approval is in provided Figure 3-76.

Figure 3-76, Letter of Withdrawal of Initial Approval

ABC Airlines

Director of Training

49 Wheat Drive

Barley, Iowa 96496

 

Dear Mr. Roberts:

 

This letter notifies you that FAA initial approvals of the following training curriculum segments are withdrawn, effective April 1, 1988:

1. The emergency training segment for the DC-9 Second in Command Initial New-Hire Training curriculum, pages 9.1 through 9.3, dated 11/15/86.

 

2. The emergency training segment for the DC-9 Pilot in Command Upgrade Training curriculum, pages 9.31 through 9.33, dated 6/1/87.

 

The investigation of the inflight incident that occurred on ABC Airline’s Flight 943 on February 10, 1988, revealed that the flightcrew did not take positive action to isolate the source of smoke caused by malfunctioning cabin light ballast. During the FAA interview, the flightcrew displayed a lack of concern about the importance of taking immediate and positive action to control inflight fire and smoke. In addition, since this incident, inspectors from this office have been emphasizing fire and smoke-combating procedures during oral testing of DC-9 pilots taking the above listed training. These inspectors have observed that many of your DC-9 pilots have a serious lack of knowledge about fire and smoke control procedures and the use of fire-fighting equipment, particularly the type of extinguishers to be used in different classes of fire. We have discussed these deficiencies with your staff and they have effectively revised the Emergency Training curriculum segment for the DC-9 PIC/SIC Recurrent Training. Your staff, however, advises that they will not revise the training curriculums listed above. Therefore, FAA initial approval is withdrawn. Initial approval can be reobtained by revising the curriculum to require detailed instruction on fire and smoke control procedures and fire-fighting equipment. It is contrary to 14 CFR part 121 to use pilots who have not been trained in accordance with an approved training curriculum.

Principal Operations Inspector

3-1115  WITHDRAWAL OF FINAL APPROVAL OF TRAINING CURRICULUMS. Each operator is responsible for ensuring that its training curriculums, once they have been granted final approval, continue to provide training in accordance with the conditions under which final approval was granted. In accordance with §§ 121.405(e) and 135.325(d), whenever the FAA determines revisions to a curriculum that has been granted final approval are necessary, the operator shall, after notification, make the necessary changes to ensure the effectiveness and acceptability of its training. Such notification by the FAA effectively withdraws final approval. These regulations also provide the operator with certain appeal rights. Therefore, the following procedures will be applied when a decision is made to withdraw final approval of a training curriculum:

A.     Required Items of the Notification Letter. The CHDO shall inform the regional Flight Standards division (RFSD) of the impending action to withdraw final approval. The POI must notify the operator in writing that revisions are required in accordance with § 121.405(e) or § 135.325(d). See Figure 3-77 for a sample letter of a notification for withdrawing final approval. The notification letter must contain the following:

·        A statement that FAA approval of the training curriculum is withdrawn;

·        A list of the revisions which must be made;

·        A brief description of the reasons necessitating the revisions;

·        A precautionary statement concerning the use of personnel trained under a curriculum which is not FAA approved;

·        A statement that the actions specified in the letter may be appealed; and

·        Instructions on how to make an appeal.

B.     Revisions. If the operator chooses to revise the training program in response to the notification letter, the proposed revision will be processed in the same manner as a request for initial approval. The POI must reinitiate the five-phase approval process previously described.

C.     Appeal of Decision by Operator. If an operator decides to appeal the POI’s action, it must, within 30 days after receiving notification, petition the certificate holding district office manager for reconsideration of the withdrawal of final approval. The petition must be in writing and contain a detailed explanation on why the operator believes the revisions described in the withdrawal notice are unnecessary. If upon receipt of a petition, the district office manager believes that an emergency exists which directly impacts aviation safety, he must immediately inform the operator in writing, of his decision. The district office manager’s letter must include a statement that an emergency exists, a brief description of the revisions which must be made, and the reasons the revisions are necessary. In this case, the district office manager’s letter upholds the POI’s decision to withdraw final approval. The operator must revise its training program if FAA approval is to be obtained. If the district office manager does not believe an emergency exists, careful consideration must be given to both the operator’s petition and the POI’s reasons for withdrawal of approval. The operator’s petition stays the POI’s withdrawal of final approval and the operator may continue to train under the training curriculum, pending the district office manager’s decision. The district office manager may need to conduct additional evaluations of the operator’s training program. It may be appropriate for the district office manager to obtain additional facts from other sources. Consultation with the regional flight standards division and Washington HQ may be advisable. The district office manager must make a decision within 60 days after receipt of an operator’s petition. If the district office manager accepts the operator’s explanations, he will direct the POI to rescind the letter that withdrew final approval, either partially or fully. If the decision is to uphold the POI’s action, the district office manager must respond to the operator’s petition in writing. The letter denying the petition should indicate that careful consideration was given to the petition. The letter must also contain the reasons for denying the petition and a statement that confirms the withdrawal of final approval. The letter must also contain a statement that any training conducted under the unapproved training curriculum is contrary to the 14 CFRs.

Figure 3-77, Letter of Withdrawal of Final Approval (Part 135)

ABC Airlines, Inc.

Director of Training

49 Wheat Drive

Barley, Iowa

 

Dear Mr. Roberts:

 

This letter notifies you that, effective April 7, 1988, final approval of your Cessna 500 Pilot in Command Upgrade Training curriculum, dated March 1987, is withdrawn in accordance with 14 CFR § 135.325(d). This course of training must be revised as discussed below if FAA initial approval is to be reobtained.

 

The revised curriculum is required to have more detailed ground and inflight instruction on the performance, limitations, and proper operating procedures for the NST-410 area navigation systems. During the past two months, three of your Cessna 500 flights failed to maintain the assigned route flight specified by the air traffic control (ATC) clearance. Two of the flights required ATC radar assistance for reestablishing ATC clearance. All three pilots involved in these deviations were recently upgraded to pilots in command by completing the aforementioned training curriculum. The FAA has determined, through interviews with these pilots, that the training being given does not provide sufficient knowledge for the proper operation of the NST‑410 area navigation systems.

 

You may file a petition for reconsideration of this withdrawal of final approval within 30 days after receipt of this letter by writing to Mr. Belsole, Manager, Utica Flight Standards District Office. Your letter should contain a complete explanation of why you believe final approval of the Cessna 500 Pilot in Command Upgrade Training curriculum should not be withdrawn. It is contrary to part 135 to use pilots who have not been trained in accordance with an FAA‑approved training curriculum.

 

Principal Operations Inspector

3-1116  ORGANIZATION OF DISTRICT OFFICE TRAINING PROGRAM FILES. The POI shall maintain a separate training program file for each operator at the CHDO. Each operator’s training program file will be organized and maintained to keep each major curriculum type and any revisions together. Superseded training curriculum pages must be kept on file for two years. All correspondence and additional relevant supporting information associated with each training curriculum will be filed with the curriculum or curriculum segment, as appropriate.

RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-1117 through 3-1135.


8/31/09                                                                                                                       8900.1 CHG 42

Volume 3  General technical administration

chapter 19  TRAINING PROGRAMS AND AIRMAN QUALIFICATIONS

Section 6  Flight Training Curriculum Segments

3-1226  GENERAL. This section specifies the objectives of flight training. Both the structure and content of flight training curriculum segments are discussed. Also clarified are the differences between training objectives and qualification objectives. Flight training consists of certain required maneuvers and procedures which are referred to as “training events.” The training events which must be included in flight training curriculum segments to satisfy the requirements of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 121 and 135, are specified in the maneuvers and procedures tables (see Tables 3‑62 through 3‑68) in this section.

3-1227       FLIGHT TRAINING OBJECTIVES. Flight training, as used in this section, means the conduct of training events in an aircraft, flight simulator (SIM), or a flight training device (FTD) in accordance with an approved training curriculum. Flight training (except for windshear training) may be conducted entirely in an aircraft. Flight training may also be conducted using a combination of an aircraft with either a SIM and/or a FTD. In certain cases, flight training may be conducted entirely in an advanced SIM. In all cases, the primary objective of flight training is to provide an opportunity for flight crewmembers to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to perform to a desired standard. This opportunity provides for demonstration, instruction, and practice of the maneuvers and procedures (training events) pertinent to a particular aircraft and crewmember duty position. Successful completion of flight training is validated by appropriate testing and checking.

3-1228       QUALIFICATION OBJECTIVES. The objective of the qualification curriculum segment is to determine whether enough learning has occurred by comparing an individual’s performance in practical situations, to established standards. A person meeting the qualification objectives satisfactorily completes the curriculum. A person failing to meet these objectives must be returned to training status. After additional training, that person must retake and satisfactorily complete at least the previously unsatisfactory portions of the qualification curriculum segment.

3-1229       FLIGHT TRAINING MODULES OR EVENT OUTLINES.

A.     Curriculum Segment. A flight training curriculum segment may be outlined in a modular format or may be outlined as a series of events in which training must be accomplished. This curriculum segment must include as many training modules or events as necessary to provide appropriate training. Each training module or event outline should provide at least the following information:

·        A descriptive title of the training module;

·        A list of the training events that must be accomplished during flight training;

·        Any specific conditions applicable to a particular training event, such as the weather minimums to be used; and

·        Provisions for briefing before and after each training period.

B.     Training Outline. The operator may submit an outline containing training modules representing blocks of training events, or an outline listing all the elements and events to be accomplished during the flight training. Other forms of presenting the flight training curriculum segment may be acceptable. Regardless of the format used, inspectors should evaluate a proposed flight training curriculum by comparing it with the maneuvers and procedures tables in this section. During actual training, the order and rate of training event presentation may vary. An instructor may vary the events in a published curriculum segment, during any particular period, when a student’s progress indicates it is necessary. However, a required event must not be omitted from the curriculum segment. A principal operations inspector (POI) may need to review the operator’s flight training courseware, such as lesson plans or instructor guides, to assure that a plan exists in which all events will be appropriately accomplished. To further support that a plan exists, a POI may need to review the forms that will be used to record flight training. It is unnecessary for the POI to approve courseware or training record forms.

C.     Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). It is unnecessary to include detailed descriptions of how specific maneuvers or procedures will be accomplished in a flight training module outline or training event outline. However, detailed descriptions must be included in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)‑approved AFM, the operator’s aircraft operating manual, or in a separate maneuvers and procedures document. Detailed descriptions or pictorial displays are required for certain normal, abnormal, and emergency maneuvers, procedures, and functions which are performed in flight training. POIs may require operators to provide extremely detailed training outlines in any of the following situations:

·        When directed by the Air Transportation Division (AFS‑200);

·        When a new technology or procedure is addressed in the training module (examples include fly‑by‑wire aircraft control and helicopter instrument flight rules (IFR) flight slower than minimum speed (VMINI); and

·        When an operator has had approval of a curriculum segment withdrawn because of deficiencies, the POI may require any redeveloped flight curriculum segments to include highly detailed training module or training event outlines. (The level of detail should provide sufficient information for the POI to determine that previously identified deficiencies are corrected.)

D.    Regulatory Compliance. To ensure regulatory compliance, the training module or training event outlines must contain at least the training events listed in the appropriate maneuvers and procedures tables in this section. The interrelationship of training modules and/or training events in a curriculum segment should provide for an orderly and practical progression of training. For example, taxiing may be listed as a training event in the first module of a flight training curriculum segment but does not have to be listed in subsequent training modules, even though training on the taxiing maneuver will occur throughout flight training. Training event modules should be developed so that training events are presented in a logical sequence. For example, missed approach training should be conducted in conjunction with approach training.

E.     Interrelationship Example. The following example illustrates the interrelationship of a curriculum segment and training modules when a modular format is used:

Figure 3-78, Interrelationship of a Curriculum Segment and Training Modules—Modular Format

3-1230       TRAINING HOURS. Flight training curriculum segments must specify a planned number of training hours. The operator’s proposed number of training hours must realistically allow enough time for demonstration, instruction, and practice of the training events listed in the entire curriculum segment. A POI will not approve a proposed flight training curriculum segment unless the specified training hours realistically allow enough time to accomplish the required training events.

A.     Programmed Hours. Part 121, §§ 121.424 and 121.425 specify programmed hours of flight training for pilots and Flight Engineers (FE) enrolled in the initial new‑hire and initial equipment categories of training. It is national direction and guidance that the training hours specified for any part 121 pilot in command (PIC), second in command (SIC), or FE flight training curriculum segments shall not be less than the programmed hours specified by §§ 121.424(c) and 121.425(b). Table 3‑58 lists the part 121 programmed hours.

Table 2-9,  Title 14 CFR Part 121 Regulatory Programmed Hours by Category of Training

 

 

Initial New‑Hire

Initial Equipment

PIC

SIC

FE

PIC

SIC

FE

14 CFR Part 121 Airplane Groups

Group I (Reciprocating)

10

6

6

10

6

6

Group I (Turboprop)

15

7

7

15

7

7

Group II (Turbojet)

20

10

10

20

10

10

B.     Training Hours. Sections 121.427(d)(1) and (2) stipulate that programmed hours are not specified for pilot or FE recurrent flight training (RFT). However, if the flight training is conducted in an approved airplane SIM, § 121.409(b)(1) requires at least four hours of training at the pilot controls for PIC and SIC training. Four hours of training are required regardless of whether the training is conducted on the events listed in part 121 appendix F, or the training is conducted under an approved Line‑Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) program.

C.     Curriculum Segment Outlines. Part 121 does not specify programmed hours for the other categories of training. Part 135 does not specify programmed hours for any of the categories of training. The number of training hours must be specified, however, on all flight training curriculum segment outlines. Because of the various situations that can be encountered, it is difficult to provide guidance on acceptable training hours for flight training curriculum segments. POIs must thoroughly study an operator’s proposals. Based on experience with the operator, past experiences with other operators, as well as their own training experiences, POIs must use reasonable judgment when determining whether the training can be adequately accomplished within the training hours specified by the curriculum segment.

D.    Pilot Concurrent Training. When flight training is conducted in a SIM or training device, it is acceptable and preferable for the flight training curriculum segment to be developed so that two pilots can be trained during a single flight training session. This includes the training of a PIC and SIC, two PICs, or two SICs at the same time. During this type of training, one pilot (pilot A) manipulates the controls of the aircraft while the other pilot (pilot B) performs the duties of the “pilot‑not‑flying” (PNF) the aircraft. During the same training session, the pilots reverse roles. Pilot B manipulates the controls, and pilot A performs the duties of the PNF. The duties of the PNF are typically included in the operator’s aircraft operating manuals and/or in the maneuvers and procedures document. These duties include normal, abnormal, and emergency duties (that are performed by the PNF) and the crew participation activities (Crew Resource Management (CRM) concepts) used by the operator. Both pilots are receiving essential “crew‑concept” training throughout the training session. Therefore, the total training hours accomplished during the training session can be credited to each of the participating pilots. For example, if a PIC and an SIC participated in a four‑hour SIM session, both pilots would receive four hours of training credit. This method of crediting training hours is valid only when both student pilots manipulate the controls for approximately equal amounts of time. This method of crediting training hours is not valid when the instructor is providing instruction and is also occupying one of the pilot seats of the SIM, FTD, or aircraft.

E.     LOFT Training Session. Both recurrent and qualification LOFT training sessions should be based on at least four hours of total crewmember training activity. When the guidance contained in the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 120‑35, Line Operational Simulations: Line‑Oriented Flight Training, Special Purpose Operational Training, Line Operational Evaluation is followed, all crewmembers who participate in a LOFT training session are credited with four hours of training time, as follows:

1)      Two Trainees. Appropriate crew composition is central to the LOFT training concept. Acceptable scheduling practices and crew substitution allowances differ in recurrent LOFT and qualification LOFT. Refer to AC 120‑35 for specific differences. When the crew consists of two PIC trainees or two SIC trainees, both pilots should receive full credit (four hours), provided the following conditions are met:

·         The LOFT session conforms to the minimum four‑hour format described in AC 120‑35,

·         At least 2 1/2 hours are spent in the LOFT scenario, and

·         The pilots swap seats at approximately the midpoint in the LOFT flight segment.

2)      One Trainee. When only one trainee participates in qualification LOFT, that trainee should receive full credit (four hours), provided the following conditions are met:

·         The LOFT session conforms to the minimum four‑hour format described in AC 120‑35, and

·         At least 2 1/2 hours are spent in the LOFT scenario (including spot).

Note:   A two‑hour qualification LOFT session for one pilot does not meet the training requirements of part 121 appendix H. A qualification LOFT program consists of at least a four‑hour course of training for each flightcrew.

F.      National Norms. Tables 3‑60 and 3‑61 specify established national norms for flight training curriculum segments. These norms are based on the assumption that there is reasonable training support, such as proficient instructors and well-organized flight instructor guides. The national norms in Table 3‑60 are for flight training when most or all of the training is being conducted in a FTD or SIM, and when two pilots are being trained at the pilot controls during the same training session (see paragraph 3‑1230, subparagraph D). The national norms in Table 3‑61 are for flight training when only one pilot is being trained in a FTD or SIM, or when flight training is conducted entirely in an aircraft.

G.    Adequacy of Training Hours. When determining the adequacy of flight training hours, a POI should use these national norms as a point from which other factors shall be weighed. There may be many reasons why the training hours need to be greater than the national norm. The operator may need to specify more hours because of the complexity of the aircraft or types of operation. The POI may need to require more hours because of inadequate training support. Conversely, training hours fewer than the national norm may be fully acceptable due to the use of highly sophisticated, modern training methods, effective systems integration in aircraft ground training, less complex aircraft, or the conduct of a less complex type of operation. Some factors that would indicate a need for more training hours may be counterbalanced by other factors indicating that fewer training hours are necessary. The following diagram illustrates some of the factors that should be considered when determining the adequacy of flight training hours.

Table 2-10,  Factors of Flight Training Hours

Special Operations

No Special Operations

New Entrant Operator

Basic Servo/Mechanical Instruments

Complex Pilot Operation of Aircraft Systems, Engines, Propellers

Pilot Experience with Similar Aircraft

Critical Aircraft Performance

Modern Simulators and Training Devices

EFIS, FMS, Autoflight

Well Organized Flight Instructor Guides

Dissimilar Flightcrew Experience Levels

Basic Navigation System

Low Visibility Capabilities

Simple Flight Handling Characteristics

Complex Navigation Systems

Effective System Integration Training

More than National Norm

National Norm

Less than National Norm

Table 2-11,  Flight Training Hours (National Norms) Two Pilots—FTD and/or SIM

 

CATEGORY OF TRAINING

Family of Aircraft

Initial New‑Hire

Initial Equipment

Transition

Upgrade

Recurrent

Part 121 Group I (Reciprocating)

PIC ‑ 24 SIC ‑ 24 FE ‑ 20

PIC ‑ 20 SIC ‑ 20 FE ‑ 20

PIC ‑ 20 SIC ‑ 20 FE ‑ 20

SIC TO PIC 8 FE TO SIC 20

PIC – 4 SIC ‑ 4 FE ‑ 4

Part 121 Group I (Turboprop)

PIC ‑ 24 SIC ‑ 24 FE ‑ 20

PIC ‑ 20 SIC ‑ 20 FE ‑ 20

PIC ‑ 20 SIC ‑ 20 FE ‑ 20

SIC TO PIC 8 FE TO SIC 20

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4 FE ‑ 4

Part 121 Group II (Turbojet)

PIC ‑ 28 SIC ‑ 28 FE ‑ 20

PIC ‑ 24 SIC ‑ 24 FE ‑ 20

PIC ‑ 24 SIC ‑ 24 FE ‑ 20

SIC TO PIC 8 FE TO SIC 28

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4 FE ‑ 4

Part 135 Transport and Commuter Category

PIC ‑ 24 SIC ‑ 24

PIC ‑ 20 SIC ‑ 20

PIC ‑ 20 SIC ‑ 20

SIC TO PIC 8

PIC ‑ 4 SIC – 4

Part 135 IFR/VFR

PIC ‑ 16 SIC ‑ 16

PIC ‑ 12 SIC ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 8 SIC ‑ 8

SIC TO PIC 4

PIC ‑ 2 SIC ‑ 2

Part 135 VFR Only

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

SIC TO PIC 4

PIC ‑ 1 SIC ‑ 1

Part 135 IFR/VFR

PIC ‑ 8 SIC ‑ 8

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

SIC TO PIC 2

PIC ‑ 2 SIC ‑ 2

Part 135 VFR Only

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 2 SIC ‑ 4

SIC TO PIC 2

PIC ‑ 1 SIC ‑ 1

IFR/VFR

PIC ‑ 16 SIC ‑ 16

PIC ‑ 12 SIC ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 8 SIC ‑ 8

SIC TO PIC 4

PIC ‑ 2 SIC ‑ 2

VFR Only

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

SIC TO PIC 4

PIC ‑ 1 SIC ‑ 1

Table 2-12,  Flight Training Hours (National Norms) One Pilot—FTD and/or SIM or When All Training is Conducted in an Aircraft

 

CATEGORY OF TRAINING

Family of Aircraft

Initial New‑Hire

Initial Equipment

Transition

Upgrade

Recurrent

Part 121 Group I (Reciprocating)

PIC ‑ 14 SIC ‑ 14 FE ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 14 SIC ‑ 14 FE ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 12 SIC ‑ 12 FE ‑ 12

SIC TO PIC 6 FE TO SIC 14

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

FE ‑ 4

Part 121 Group I (Turboprop)

PIC ‑ 15 SIC 15 FE ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 15 SIC ‑ 15 FE ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 12 SIC ‑ 12 FE ‑ 12

SIC TO PIC 6 FE TO SIC 15

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

FE ‑ 4

Part 121 Group II (Turbojet)

PIC ‑ 20 SIC ‑ 16 FE ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 20 SIC ‑ 16 FE ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 12 SIC ‑ 12 FE ‑ 12

SIC TO PIC 6 FE TO SIC 16

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

FE ‑ 4

Part 135 Transport and Commuter Category

PIC ‑ 12 SIC ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 10 SIC ‑ 10

PIC ‑ 8 SIC ‑ 8

SIC TO PIC 6

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

Part 135 IFR/ VFR

PIC ‑ 8 SIC ‑ 8

PIC ‑ 6 SIC ‑ 6

PIC ‑ 6 SIC ‑ 6

SIC TO PIC 4

PIC ‑ 3 SIC ‑ 3

Part 135 VFR Only

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 3 SIC ‑ 3

PIC ‑ 3 SIC ‑ 3

SIC TO PIC 2

PIC ‑ 2 SIC ‑ 2

Part 135 IFR/VFR

PIC ‑ 6 SIC ‑ 6

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

SIC TO PIC 4

PIC ‑ 3 SIC ‑ 3

Part 135 VFR Only

PIC ‑ 3 SIC ‑ 2

PIC ‑ 2 SIC ‑ 1

PIC ‑ 2 SIC ‑ 1

SIC TO PIC 1

PIC ‑ 1 SIC ‑ 1

IFR/VFR

PIC ‑ 10 SIC ‑ 10

PIC ‑ 8 SIC ‑ 8

PIC ‑ 6 SIC ‑ 6

SIC TO PIC 4

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

VFR Only

PIC ‑ 4 SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 3 SIC ‑ 3

PIC ‑ 3 SIC ‑ 3

SIC TO PIC 2

PIC ‑ 2 SIC ‑ 2

3-1231       COURSE COMPLETION REQUIREMENTS.

A.     Failure to Meet Requirements. Ordinarily, a flight crewmember completes a flight training curriculum segment by successfully accomplishing each training event and the specified number of training hours. Flight crewmembers are then required to successfully meet the requirements specified in the qualification curriculum segment (see Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 7 for the qualification curriculum segment requirements). If a person fails to meet any of the qualification requirements because of a lack in flight proficiency, that person must be returned to training status. After retraining, an instructor recommendation is required for re‑accomplishing the unsatisfactory qualification requirement.

B.     Exceptions to Requirements. A flight crewmember may successfully complete a flight training curriculum segment without completing the specified number of training hours, provided all of the following conditions are met:

1)      The crewmember successfully completes all of the training events required by the curriculum segment.
2)      An instructor recommends the flight test be conducted before completion of the specified number of training hours. The recommendation must be suitably documented.
3)      The flight crewmember satisfactorily completes the qualification curriculum segment requirements. If a flight crewmember fails to meet the qualification curriculum segment requirements because of a lack in flight proficiency, he must be required to complete all the training hours specified in the flight training curriculum segment. The crewmember must then be recommended by an instructor before re‑accomplishing the failed qualification requirements.

3-1232       EVALUATION OF FLIGHT TRAINING CURRICULUM SEGMENT OUTLINES FOR INITIAL APPROVAL. When evaluating a flight training proposal for initial approval, an inspector must determine that the proposed curriculum segment meets the following requirements:

A.     Maneuvers and Procedures Table. The training events must be consistent with the maneuvers and procedures tables applicable to the specific category of training. An inspector must select the appropriate maneuvers and procedures table and make a side‑by‑side comparison of the table and the proposed flight training curriculum segment. The required training events and the appropriate level FTD, SIM, or aircraft to be used must be in the proposal. Omission of any required training event or inappropriate use of an FTD or SIM is sufficient reason to deny initial approval.

B.     Realistic Training Hours. The specified training hours are realistic, as discussed in paragraph 3‑1230.

C.     Examining Courseware. The training emphasizes specific areas applicable to the category of training. Since flight training curriculum outlines are not usually constructed in a manner that allows for a determination that appropriate areas are emphasized, an inspector must examine courseware (such as flight instructor guides and LOFT scenarios) to determine if appropriate areas will be emphasized and if the operator is capable of developing acceptable courseware. In the paragraphs preceding the applicable maneuvers and procedures tables in this section, training emphasis considerations for each category of flight training are discussed.

3-1233       EVALUATING THE OPERATOR’S MANEUVERS AND PROCEDURES DOCUMENT. The operator must provide a maneuvers and procedures document for approval by the FAA. An inspector must determine that this document provides detailed descriptions or pictorial displays for the normal, abnormal, and emergency maneuvers, including the procedures and functions that will be performed in flight training. Instructor guides or lesson plans which support the maneuvers and procedures document should specify the conditions (such as weather, aircraft weight, and other parameters) to be applied during training on a maneuver or procedure. The conditions specified in these guides or lesson plans should be equivalent to the types of operations authorized by the operations specifications, such as low visibility takeoffs or the use of Category I Approach (CAT I) or Category II Approach (CAT II) minimums. FAA policy requires detailed descriptions (or pictorial displays) of at least those training events identified with the symbol M in the appropriate maneuvers and procedures tables. Maneuvers and procedures documents must be evaluated in sufficient detail to ensure the following requirements are met:

·        The descriptions of applicable maneuvers or procedures must conform to recommendations made in the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report when appropriate;

·        The description of each maneuver or procedure must conform to the operating limitations and procedures in the FAA‑approved AFM/Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM) or the operator’s aircraft operating manual;

·        The description of each maneuver or procedure must conform to the certificate holder’s procedural instructions for cockpit checks, altitude awareness, required callouts, crew coordination, and cockpit resource management; and

·        The description of each maneuver or procedure must specify the operator’s procedures, such as altitudes, configuration airspeeds, and other parameters.

3-1234       AIRCRAFT FAMILIES. The four families of aircraft used in part 121 and part 135 operations are described in paragraph 3‑1073 of Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 1. The flight training requirements for flight crewmembers differ significantly between each family. Within each family, the flight training requirements are similar, even though individual aircraft may differ significantly in construction and appearance. The maneuvers and procedures tables have been tailored to account for similar flight crewmember knowledge, skill, and ability requirements common to aircraft of a particular family and specific to different kinds of operations within a family.

A.     Transport and Commuter Category Airplane Family. Airplanes in this family are similar in operational characteristics. Crewmembers of airplanes in this family are required to have similar knowledge, skills, and abilities regardless of the applicable operating regulation (part 121 or part 135). The maneuvers and procedures tables containing required training events for flight crewmembers operating airplanes in this family are in paragraphs 3‑1245 through 3‑1248 (see Tables 3‑62 through 3‑65).

B.     Multiengine General Purpose Airplane Family. Crewmembers of airplanes in this family are required to have similar knowledge, skills, and abilities when operating under part 135. The flight training events required for flight crewmembers operating airplanes in this family are identified in the maneuvers and procedures table in paragraph 3‑1249 (see Table 3‑66).

C.     Single‑Engine Airplane Family. Crewmembers of airplanes in this family are required to have similar knowledge, skills, and abilities to be operated under part 135. The flight training events required for the operation of single‑engine airplanes are identified in the maneuvers and procedures table in paragraph 3‑1250 (see Table 3‑67).

D.    Helicopter Family. Crewmembers operating helicopters under part 135 are required to have similar knowledge, skills, and abilities. The flight training events required for flight crewmembers operating helicopters are identified in the maneuvers and procedures table (see Table 3‑68).

3-1235       FTDs AND SIMS. Flight training equipment consists of seven levels of FTDs, four levels of SIMs, and the aircraft. The approved use of each item of flight training equipment is listed in the maneuvers and procedures tables. These devices and simulators are the only types of flight training equipment (other than aircraft) which may be approved for use in an FAA-approved flight training program. Before any level 1 through level 5 FTD can be used, it must be evaluated by the POI to determine that it meets the prescribed requirements for the appropriate level of FTD. Before a specific level 6 and 7 training device or any level SIM can be used, it must be evaluated and qualified by the National Simulator Program Manager (NSPM) and approved by the operator’s POI. The following paragraphs describe the FTDs and SIMs applicable to parts 121 and 135 flight training. The current editions of ACs 120‑40, Airplane Simulator Qualification and 120‑45, Airplane Flight Training Device Qualification provide the qualification policy, and criteria, as well as more detailed technical descriptions of SIMs and FTDs. The functional descriptions in the following paragraphs provide only a brief overview. Therefore, the appropriate ACs are the only authorized source documents and must be used for evaluation and approval of FTDs and SIMs.

Note:   The functional and technical descriptions for the first three levels of FTDs are presently under development and are not applicable to part 121 or part 135 flight training.

3-1236       LEVEL 4 FTD.

A.     Purpose. To permit learning, development, and the practice of skills and cockpit procedures necessary for understanding and operating the integrated systems of a specific aircraft.

B.     Functional Description. A level 4 training device has the following characteristics and components:

·        A replica of the flight deck panels, switches, controls, and instruments, in proper relationship, to represent the aircraft for which training is to be accomplished;

·        Systems indications which respond appropriately to switches and controls which are required to be installed for the training or checking to be accomplished; and

·        Air/ground logic (however, simulated aerodynamic capabilities are not required).

3-1237       LEVEL 5 FTD.

A.     Purpose. To permit learning, development, and the practice of skills, cockpit procedures, and instrument flight procedures necessary for understanding and operating the integrated systems of a specific aircraft in typical flight operations in real time.

B.     Functional Description. A level 5 training device has the following characteristics and components:

·        A replica of the flight deck panels, switches, controls, and instruments, in proper relationship, to represent the aircraft for which training is to be accomplished;

·        Systems indications which respond appropriately to switches and controls which are required to be installed for the training or checking to be accomplished;

·        Simulated aerodynamic capabilities representative of the aircraft group or class;

·        Functional flight and navigational controls, displays, and instrumentation; and

·        Control forces and control travel of sufficient precision for manually flying an instrument approach.

3-1238       LEVEL 6 FTD.

A.     Purpose.

1)      To permit learning, development, and the practice of skills in cockpit procedures, instrument flight procedures, certain symmetrical maneuvers and flight characteristics necessary for operating the integrated systems of a specific aircraft in typical flight operations.
2)      To permit the use of previously approved nonvisual simulators and the continued use of level 6 and 7 FTDs (formerly known as advanced training devices) for those part 135 operators approved to use them.

Note:   Nonvisual simulators are categorized with level 6 training devices and may continue to be used as previously approved, or as prescribed in part 61 appendix A and part 121 appendices E and F.

B.     Functional Description. A level 6 training device has the following characteristics and components:

·        Systems indications which respond appropriately to switches and controls which are required to be installed;

·        A replica of the cockpit of the aircraft for which training is to be accomplished;

·        Simulated aerodynamic capabilities which closely represent the specific aircraft in ground and flight operations;

·        Functional flight and navigational controls, displays, and instrumentation;

·        Control forces and control travel which correspond to the aircraft; and

·        Instructor controls.

3-1239       LEVEL 7 FTD.

A.     Purpose. To permit learning, development, and the practice of skills in cockpit procedures, instrument flight procedures and maneuvers, and flight characteristics necessary for operating the integrated systems of a specific aircraft in typical flight operations.

B.     Functional Description. A level 7 training device has the following characteristics and components:

·        Systems representations, switches, and controls which are required by the type design of the aircraft and by the approved training program;

·        Systems which respond appropriately and accurately to the switches and controls of the aircraft being simulated;

·        A full‑scale replica of the cockpit of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the aerodynamic and ground dynamic characteristics of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the effects of selected environmental conditions which the simulated aircraft might encounter;

·        Control forces, dynamics, and travel which correspond to the aircraft; and

·        Instructor controls and seat.

3-1240       LEVEL A SIM.

A.     Purpose. To permit development and practice of the necessary skills for accomplishing flight operational tasks, to a prescribed standard of airman competency, in a specific aircraft and duty position. Level A SIMs may be used for specified pilot recency of experience requirements and specified flight operational task training requirements in transition, upgrade, recurrent, and requalification training under parts 121 and 135. It may also be used for initial new‑hire and initial equipment training on specified events.

Note:   Level A SIMs comply with the technical standards specified for basic (visual) simulators in AC 120‑40.

B.     Functional Description. Level A SIMs have the following characteristics and components:

·        Systems representations, switches, and controls which are required by the type design of the aircraft and by the user’s approved training program;

·        Systems which respond appropriately and accurately to the switches and controls of the aircraft being simulated;

·        A full‑scale replica of the cockpit of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the effects of selected environmental conditions which the simulated aircraft might encounter;

·        Control forces and travel which correspond to the aircraft;

·        Instructor controls and seat;

·        At least a night visual system with the minimum of a 45 degree horizontal by 30 degree vertical field of view (FOV) for each pilot station; and

·        A motion system with at least three degrees of freedom.

3-1241       LEVEL B SIM.

A.     Purpose. To permit development and practice of the necessary skills for accomplishing flight operational tasks, to a prescribed standard of airman competency, in a specific aircraft and duty position. Level B SIMs may be used for pilot recency of experience requirements and for specified flight operational task training requirements in transition, upgrade, recurrent, and requalification training under parts 121 and 135. It may also be used for initial new‑hire and initial equipment training on specified events. Level B simulators may also be used to accomplish night takeoffs and landings and for landings in a proficiency check.

Note:   Level B SIMs comply with the technical standards specified for Phase I simulators in part 121 appendix H and AC 120‑40.

B.     Functional Description. Level B SIMs have the following characteristics and components:

·        Systems representations, switches, and controls which are required by the type design of the aircraft and by the user’s approved training program;

·        Systems which respond appropriately and accurately to the switches and controls of the aircraft being simulated;

·        A full‑scale replica of the cockpit of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the aerodynamic (including ground effect) and ground dynamic characteristics of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the effects of selected environmental conditions which the simulated aircraft might encounter;

·        Control forces and travel which correspond to the aircraft;

·        Instructor controls and seat;

·        At least a night visual system with a minimum of a 45 degree horizontal by
30 degree vertical FOV for each pilot station;

·        A motion system with at least three degrees of freedom.

3-1242       LEVEL C SIM.

A.     Purpose. To permit development and practice of the necessary skills for accomplishing flight operational tasks, to a prescribed standard of airman competency, in a specific aircraft and duty position. Level C SIMs may be used for pilot recency of experience requirements and for specified flight operational task training in transition, upgrade, recurrent, and requalification training under parts 121 and 135. It may also be used for initial new‑hire and initial equipment training for all events. All training events may be conducted in a level C SIM for persons who have previously qualified as PIC or SIC with that operator.

Note:   Level C SIMs comply with the technical standards specified for Phase II simulators in part 121 appendix H and AC 120‑40.

B.     Functional Description. Level C SIMs have at least the following characteristics and components:

·        Systems representations, switches, and controls which are required by the type design of the aircraft and by the user’s approved training program;

·        Systems which respond appropriately and accurately to the switches and controls of the aircraft being simulated;

·        A full‑scale replica of the cockpit of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the aerodynamic including ground effect, and ground dynamic characteristics of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the effects of selected environmental conditions which the simulated aircraft might encounter;

·        Control forces, dynamics, and travel which correspond to the aircraft;

·        Instructor controls and seat;

·        At least a night and dusk visual system with a minimum of a 75 degree horizontal by 30 degree vertical FOV for each pilot station; and

·        A motion system with at least six degrees of freedom.

3-1243       LEVEL D SIM.

A.     Purpose. To permit development and practice of the necessary skills for accomplishing flight operational tasks, to a prescribed standard of airman competency, in a specific aircraft and duty position. Level D SIMs may be used for parts 121 and 135 pilot currency and for all flight operational task training except for static aircraft training.

Note:   Level D SIMs comply with the technical standards specified for Phase III simulators in part 121 appendix H and AC 120‑40.

B.     Functional Description. Level D SIMs have the following characteristics and components:

·        Systems representations, switches, and controls which are required by the type design of the aircraft and by the user’s approved training program;

·        Systems which respond appropriately and accurately to the switches and controls of the aircraft being simulated;

·        A full‑scale replica of the cockpit of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the aerodynamic (including ground effect) and ground dynamic characteristics of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of selected environmentally affected aerodynamic and ground dynamic characteristics of the aircraft being simulated considering the full range of its flight envelope in all approved configurations;

·        Correct and realistic simulation of the effects of environmental conditions which the aircraft might encounter;

·        Control forces, dynamics, and travel which correspond to the aircraft;

·        Instructor controls and seat;

·        A daylight, dusk, and night visual system with the minimum of a 75 degree horizontal by 30 degree vertical FOV for each pilot station; and

·        A motion system with at least 6 degrees of freedom.

3-1244       MANEUVERS AND PROCEDURES TABLES.

A.     Compliance. The events which must be accomplished during flight training are listed in the maneuvers and procedures tables in this section. The requirements of parts 121 and 135 are included in these tables. These tables can be used as a single source document in the development and evaluation of flight training curriculum segment proposals. Compliance with the provisions of these tables automatically ensures that all requirements of both parts 121 and 135 are met. These tables also contain the acceptable flight training equipment (training devices, simulators, or aircraft) which may be used for any training event. An “X” indicates that the specified FTD or SIM has been qualified for that event without further consideration or approval. An “A” indicates that a lower level device or simulator may be used for procedural training if that device has the necessary systems representations and functions for training on the event. These systems representations and functions exceed the basic requirements for that level device or simulator; therefore, an “A” indicates that the device or simulator must be evaluated and approved for each particular event. Any maneuver or procedure permitted in a specific level of FTD or SIM may also be conducted in a higher level of FTD, SIM, or the aircraft itself (providing the event can safely be accomplished in the aircraft). Certain training events within the tables are preceded with a box ([ ]). If the operator is authorized (or required) to conduct these maneuvers by operations specifications (OpSpecs) (for example, a circling approach), a POI should check the appropriate box to indicate these events must be included in the training curriculum. Certain optional training events indicated by a pound sign (#) in the maneuvers and procedures tables are not specifically required by the regulations or OpSpecs. Many of these optional training events, however, are often included in an operator’s flight training curriculums and should be conducted in a properly qualified device or simulator.

Note:   See paragraph 3‑1233 for description of maneuvers marked with the letter (M).

B.     Windshear Training. Windshear training is a training event in each table. The tables indicate that windshear training may only be performed in a level 7 FTD or any level of SIM. Operators who do not use a level 7 FTD or SIM may perform their windshear/microburst training in accordance with the guidelines in the FAA document entitled, Windshear Training Aid.

C.     Requirements Paragraph. Preceding each maneuver and procedure table is a paragraph which states the required maneuvers and procedures for each crewmember and provides guidance on specific areas of emphasis which should be included in the training.

3-1245       PIC/SIC INITIAL NEW‑HIRE AND INITIAL EQUIPMENT FLIGHT TRAINING—TRANSPORT AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES.

A.     Required Maneuvers and Procedures. Training in the maneuvers and procedures in Table 3‑62 must be conducted for satisfactory completion of initial new‑hire and initial equipment flight training.

1)      PICs must complete training in each training event in this table.
2)      SICs must complete training in each training event in this table. SIC training in the following events does not require manipulation of the primary aircraft controls but should emphasize duties of the PNF:

·         Steep turns,

·         Approach and landing with pitch mis‑trim,

·         Approach and landing with 50 percent loss of power, and

·         Approach and landing with flap/slat malfunction.

B.     Training Emphasis Considerations. A POI should ensure that the operator’s flight training emphasizes appropriate areas for these categories of training:

1)      For initial new‑hire training, emphasis should be on specific company procedures and procedures for the particular aircraft.
2)      For initial equipment training, emphasis should be on company procedures specific to the aircraft.

Table 2-13,  Flight Training PIC/SIC Initial New‑Hire and Initial Equipment Flight Training—Transport and Commuter Category Airplanes

(FRONT SIDE)

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

LEVEL OF FLT TRNG DEVICE

 

LEVEL OF FLT SIM

ACFT

4

5

6

7

A

B

C

D

 

 

 

 

VIS

PH

I

PH

II

PH

III

PREPARATION

Visual Inspection (For aircraft with FE, use of pictorial display authorized)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

Prestart Procedures

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Performance Limitations

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

SURFACE OPERATION

Pushback

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] Powerback Taxi

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Starting

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Taxi/Runway Operations

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Pretakeoff Checks

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

TAKEOFF

Normal M

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

Crosswind

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

Rejected M

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Power Failure V1 M

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

Powerplant Failure During Second Segment #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] Lower than Standard Minimum

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

CLIMB

Normal

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

One‑engine Inoperative During Climb to En Route Altitude #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

EN ROUTE

Steep Turns PIC

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Approaches to Stalls: M (Takeoff Config.) (
En Route Config.) (Landing Config.) X* Only if stall warning/stall avoidance provides first stall indication

 

 

X*

X*

X

X

X

X

X

Inflight Powerplant Shutdown

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Inflight Powerplant Restart

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

High Speed Handling Characteristics

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

DESCENT

Normal

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Maximum Rate

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

APPROACHES

VFR Procedures M

Visual Approach

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

With 50 percent Loss of Power on One‑side PIC M (2-engines inoperative on 3‑engine airplanes) A* (May be accomplished in levels A, B, or C provided one-Engine inoperative training is conducted in level D or the aircraft)

 

 

 

 

A*

A*

A*

X

X

With Slat/Flap Malfunction PIC M

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

IFR Precision Approaches M

ILS/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

ILS/One‑Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

[ ] MLS/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

[ ] MLS/One‑Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

[ ] PAR/Normal

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] PAR/One‑Engine Inoperative #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

IFR Non‑precision Approaches M

NDB/Normal

 

 

A*

A*

X

X

X

X

X

VOR/Normal

A* At least one Non‑precision approach must be accomplished in a level A or higher simulator or the aircraft

 

 

A*

A*

X

X

X

X

X

Non‑precision Approach One‑Engine Inoperative #

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] LOC Backcourse Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] SDF/LDA Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] ASR Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] RNAV Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] LORAN C Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 (BACK SIDE)

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

LEVEL OF FLT TRNG DEVICE

 

LEVEL OF FLT SIM

ACFT

4

5

6

7

A

B

C

D

 

 

 

 

VIS

PH

I

PH

II

PH

III

APPROACHES (Cont’d)

[ ] Circling Approach M (Simulator must be qualified for training/checking on the circling maneuver)

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Missing Approaches M From Precision Approach

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

From Non‑precision Approach

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

With Powerplant Failure

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

NOTE: At least one MAP must be a complete approved procedure. At least one MAP must be with a powerplant failure

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LANDINGS

Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

With Pitch Mis‑trim PIC

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

From Precision Instrument Approach

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

From Precision Instrument Approach With Most Critical Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

With 50 percent Loss of Power on One Side PIC (2‑engines inoperative on 3‑engine airplanes) A*(May be accomplished in Levels A, B, or C provided one‑engine inoperative training is conducted in level D or the aircraft.)

 

 

 

 

A*

A*

A*

X

X

With Flap/Slat Malfunction

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

Crosswind

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

With Manual Reversion/Degraded Control Augmentation

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

AFTER LANDING

Parking #

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Emergency Evacuation #

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

OTHER FLIGHT PROCEDURES DURING ANY AIRBORNE PHASE

Holding

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Ice Accumulation on Airframe #

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

Air Hazard Avoidance #

 

 

 

 

A

A

X

X

X

Windshear/Microburst #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

SYSTEMS PROCEDURES TRAINING DURING ANY PHASE

 

 

 

 

‑Normal

 

‑Abnormal

 

‑Alternate

Pneumatic/Pressurization

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Air Conditioning

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Fuel and Oil

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Electrical

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Hydraulic

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flight Controls

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Anti‑icing and Deicing Systems

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Autopilot (AP)

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flight Management Guidance Systems and/or Automatic or Other Approach & Landing Aids

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Stall Warning Devices, Stall Avoidance Devices, and Stability Augmentation Systems

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Airborne Weather Radar

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flight Instrument System Malfunction

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Communications Equipment

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Navigation Systems

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

SYSTEMS PROCEDURES TRAINING DURING ANY PHASE

 

 

‑Emergency

Aircraft Fires

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Smoke Control

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Powerplant Malfunctions

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Fuel Jettison

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Electrical, Hydraulic, Pneumatic Systems

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flight Control Systems Malfunction

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Landing Gear and Flap Systems Malfunction

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

3-1246       PIC/SIC TRANSITION AND UPGRADE FLIGHT TRAINING—TRANSPORT AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES.

A.     Required Maneuvers and Procedures. Training in the maneuvers and procedures in Table 3‑63 must be conducted for satisfactory completion of transition or upgrade flight training.

1)      PIC Transition Training. PICs must complete training in each training event in this table.
2)      SIC Transition Training. SICs must complete training in each training event in this table. SIC training in the following events does not require manipulation of the primary flight controls but should emphasize the duties of the PNF:

·         Approach and landing with pitch mis‑trim,

·         Approach and landing with 50 percent loss of power,

·         Approach and landing with flap/slat malfunction, and

·         Steep turns.

3)      PIC Upgrade Training. An SIC upgrading to PIC must complete training in each training event in this table (including those marked “PIC”).
4)      Appendix H SIC‑to‑PIC Initial Equipment Training. Part 121 appendix H—Phase II, Training and Checking Permitted—permits certain SICs to be trained as PICs in a different aircraft of the same group, if the training is conducted in a level C simulator. Because of the experience levels required in appendix H for SICs in this type of training (which is actually initial equipment training) the training may be accomplished in the same manner as PIC upgrade training.
5)      SIC Upgrade Training. FEs upgrading to SIC must complete training in each training event in Table 3‑63. FEs upgrading to SIC are not required to manipulate the primary flight controls for the following events, but should receive training which emphasizes duties of the PNF. The training events are as follows:

·         Steep turns,

·         Approach and landing with pitch mis‑trim,

·         Approach and landing with 50 percent loss of power, and

·         Approach and landing with flap/slat malfunction.

B.     Training Emphasis Considerations. POIs should ensure that the operator’s transition and upgrade training emphasizes the appropriate areas for these categories of training:

1)      For transition training, emphasis should be on the handling characteristics and the maneuvers and procedures pertinent to the specific aircraft type.
2)      For upgrade training, emphasis should be on the specific duties and responsibilities pertinent to the crewmember position. Additionally, in the case of an FE upgrading to SIC, maneuver‑emphasis training (particularly in approaches and landings) should be included.

Table 2-14,  Flight Training PIC/SIC Transition and Upgrade Flight Training—Transport and Commuter Category Airplanes

(FRONT SIDE)

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

LEVEL OF FLT TRNG DEVICE

 

LEVEL OF FLT SIM

ACFT

4

5

6

7

A

B

C

D

 

 

 

 

VIS

PH

I

PH

II

PH

III

PREPARATION

Visual Inspection (For aircraft with FE, use of pictorial display authorized)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

Prestart Procedures

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Performance Limitations

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

SURFACE OPERATION

Pushback

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] Powerback Taxi

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Starting

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Taxi

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Pretakeoff Checks

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

TAKEOFF

Normal M

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

Crosswind

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

Rejected M

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Power Failure V1 M

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

Powerplant Failure During Second Segment #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] Lower than Standard Minimum

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

CLIMB

Normal

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

One‑engine Inoperative During Climb to En Route Altitude #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

EN ROUTE

Steep Turns PIC

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Approaches to Stalls: M (Takeoff Config.) (
En Route Config.) (Landing Config.) X* Only if stall warning/stall avoidance provides first stall indication

 

 

X*

X*

X

X

X

X

X

Inflight Powerplant Shutdown

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Inflight Powerplant Restart

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

High Speed Handling Characteristics

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

DESCENT

Normal

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Maximum Rate

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

APPROACHES

VFR Procedures M

Visual Approach

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

With 50 percent Loss of Power on One side PIC M (2‑engines inoperative on 3‑engine airplanes)

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

With Slat/Flap Malfunction PIC M

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

IFR Precision
Approaches M

ILS/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

ILS/One‑Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] MLS/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

[ ] MLS/One‑Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] PAR/Normal

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] PAR/One‑Engine Inoperative #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

IFR Non‑precision Approaches M

NDB/Normal

 

 

A*

A*

X

X

X

X

X

VOR/Normal

A* At least one Non‑precision approach must be accomplished in a level A or higher simulator or the aircraft

 

 

A*

A*

X

X

X

X

X

Non‑precision Approach One‑Engine Inoperative #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] LOC Backcourse Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] SDF/LDA Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] ASR Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] RNAV Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] LORAN C Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

(BACK SIDE)

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

LEVEL OF FLT TRNG DEVICE

 

LEVEL OF FLT SIM

ACFT

4

5

6

7

A

B

C

D

 

 

 

 

VIS

PH

I

PH

II

PH

III

APPROACHES (Cont’d)

Missing Approaches M

From Precision Approach

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

From Non­precision Approach

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

With Powerplant Failure

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

NOTE: At least one MAP must be a complete approved procedure. At least one MAP must be with a powerplant failure

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LANDINGS

Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

With Pitch Mis­trim PIC

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

From Precision Instrument Approach

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

From Precision Instrument Approach With Most Critical Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

With 50 percent Loss of Power on One Side PIC (2‑engines inoperative on 3‑engine airplanes)

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

With Flap/Slat Malfunction

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

Crosswind

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

With Manual Reversion/Degraded Control Augmentation

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

AFTER LANDING

Parking #

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Emergency Evacuation #

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

OTHER FLIGHT PROCEDURES DURING ANY AIRBORNE PHASE

Holding

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Ice Accumulation on Airframe #

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Air Hazard Avoidance #

 

 

 

A

A

X

X

X

X

Windshear/Microburst #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

SYSTEMS PROCEDURES TRAINING DURING ANY PHASE

 

 

‑Normal

‑Abnormal

‑Alternate

Pneumatic/Pressurization

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Air Conditioning

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Fuel and Oil

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Electrical

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Hydraulic

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flight Controls

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Anti‑icing and Deicing Systems

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Autopilot

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flight Management Guidance Systems and/or Automatic or Other Approach & Landing Aids

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Stall Warning Devices, Stall Avoidance Devices, and Stability Augmentation Systems

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Airborne Weather Radar

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flight Instrument System Malfunction

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Communications Equipment

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Navigation Systems

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

SYSTEMS PROCEDURES TRAINING DURING ANY PHASE

 

‑Emergency

Aircraft Fires

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Smoke Control

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Powerplant Malfunctions

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Fuel Jettison

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Electrical, Hydraulic, Pneumatic Systems

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flight Control Systems Malfunction

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Landing Gear and Flap Systems Malfunction

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

3-1247       PIC/SIC RFT —TRANSPORT AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES

A.     Required Maneuvers and Procedures. Training in the maneuvers and procedures in Table 3‑64, in accordance with the following paragraphs, must be conducted for the satisfactory completion of RFT.

1)      Part 135 RFT. Part 135 RFT must be conducted periodically for both PICs and SICs, at least once every 12 months. Part 135, § 135.351(c) specifies that RFT for pilots must include at least, “flight training in the maneuvers or procedures in this subpart, except that satisfactory completion of the check required by § 135.293 (the competency check)...may be substituted for RFT.” The competency check may include any of the maneuvers and procedures currently required for the original issuance of the particular pilot certificate, for the operations authorized, and appropriate to the category, class, and type of aircraft involved. The instrument proficiency check, as specified in § 135.293(c), may be substituted for the competency check. Additionally, there are no provisions in part 135 that allow recurrent training to substitute for required checks or tests. There are no training appendices in part 135 containing lists of the required maneuvers and procedures for flight training or checking. Training on the events in the applicable tables in this section meets the part 135 competency and instrument proficiency check requirements and therefore, the RFT requirements.

Note:   When training or evaluating the ability of a pilot to control an aircraft on instruments and to navigate without reference to outside cues, the inspector, check airman, or instructor must restrict the pilot’s vision to the aircraft’s instrument panel. This can only be ensured with the use of an appropriate view limiting device. When a SIM is not available for training or checking, the dilemma is how to safely perform these maneuvers under the “see and be seen” requirements of visual meteorological conditions (VMC) flight and still be able to accurately assess the pilot’s ability to control and navigate an aircraft without reference to outside cues. On one hand, the use of a view‑limiting device must not restrict the ability of the check airman or other observers to safely clear the area and conduct outside vigilance during all maneuvers. On the other hand, the check airman must be certain that the pilot is not using any outside references. In final analysis, the check or training should not be conducted if the requirements of safety and test integrity cannot be met (see also Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 4, paragraph 5‑887, Conduct of Flight Tests in an Airplane for ATP Applicants Engaged in Operations Under Title 14 CFR Part 121, 135, or 91 Subpart K).

2)      Part 121 RFT. Part 121 RFT is training that must be conducted for PICs once every 6 months and for SICs once every 12 months, and must include training on the maneuvers and procedures listed in appendix F of part 121. Levels B, C, and D SIMs qualify for “training and checking to proficiency” on all the maneuvers and procedures required for RFT by part 121. RFT can always be conducted in an airplane. A proficiency check (§ 121.441) may be substituted for RFT.
3)      Part 121 Level A RFT. Level A RFT is conducted in a visual simulator. Level A RFT is referenced in several different ways in part 121. The following are examples: “A course of training in an airplane simulator” (§ 121.409(b)); “flight training program approved by the administrator” (§ 121.427(d)(1)); and “the approved simulator course of training” (§§ 121.433(c)(2) and 121.441(a)). For the purpose of standardization and mutual understanding, the term “level A recurrent flight training” or “level A RFT” should be used in reference to this type of training when it is conducted entirely in a visual simulator. Level A SIMs are not qualified to be used for “training to proficiency” on certain maneuvers listed in appendix F (such as takeoffs and landings). However, level A SIMs can be used for training and practice on the procedures used to accomplish these maneuvers. These maneuvers are annotated by a “C” in the RFT maneuvers and procedures table (Table 3‑64). Level A RFT may be substituted for alternate periods of RFT (required by § 121.433(c)(2)) or for alternate proficiency checks (required by § 121.441(e)), provided the person being trained is evaluated by a check airman during the subsequent proficiency check (for PICs once each 12 months; for SICs once each 24 months). The proficiency check may be conducted in a level A (visual) simulator, provided the person being checked is evaluated during the conduct of two landings on the line (or other check) by a check airman (or, for SICs, by a line PIC). The entire proficiency check (without the landings on the line requirement) may be conducted in a level B, C, or D simulator.
4)      Part 121 Requalification Flight Training. Requalification flight training is conducted specifically to restore a previously line qualified crew member to line qualified status. To be eligible for this training, a crewmember must have previously been qualified in the specific aircraft type and duty position and have subsequently lost his/her qualification.

B.     Training Emphasis Considerations. Operators should develop RFT and level A RFT curriculum segments which serve to maximize training on certain maneuvers and procedures. An airman’s competency to function in his assigned duty position is evaluated during an annual proficiency check (or a competency check). During that check, at least the events required by part 121, appendix F (for part 121 operators) and any of the events required for the original issuance of the particular pilot certificate involved (for part 135 operators) must be accomplished. The RFT curriculum outline should address all the required training events listed in Table 3‑64. However, during RFT or level A RFT, specific training on every event is unnecessary unless it is needed for maintaining pilot proficiency on particular events. It is national direction and guidance that during periods of RFT or level A RFT that training emphasis should be on those events or other maneuvers or procedures not normally encountered during routine line operations, such as abnormal or emergency procedure training or windshear training. Additionally, training on new or revised maneuvers or procedures, new equipment, or other similar areas is ideally suited for periods of RFT or level A RFT. Time should be allotted to conduct training in maneuvers or procedures the airman wishes to practice, or in certain operational areas in which deficiencies have surfaced during proficiency or line checks, indicating a need for additional training.

Note:   Even though all of the maneuvers and procedures may not be accomplished during RFT or level A RFT, the RFT curriculum segment outline should address all of the required training events listed in Table 3‑64.

Table 2-15,  Flight Training PIC/SIC Recurrent and Requalification Flight Training—Transport and Commuter Category Airplanes

 (FRONT SIDE)

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

LEVEL OF FLT TRNG DEVICE

 

LEVEL OF FLT SIM

ACFT

4

5

6

7

A

B

C

D

 

 

 

 

VIS

PH

I

PH

II

PH

III

PREPARATION

Visual Inspection (Use of pictorial display authorized)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

Pretaxi Procedures

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Performance Limitations

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

SURFACE OPERATION

Pushback

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] Powerback Taxi

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

Starting

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Taxi

 

 

 

 

C

C

X

X

X

Pretakeoff Checks

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

TAKEOFF

Normal M

 

 

 

 

C

C

X

X

X

Crosswind

 

 

 

 

C

C

X

X

X

Rejected M

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Power Failure V1 M

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

Powerplant Failure During Second Segment #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] Lower than Standard Minimum

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

CLIMB

Normal

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

One‑engine Inoperative During Climb to En Route Altitude #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

EN ROUTE

Steep Turns PIC

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Approaches to Stalls: M (Takeoff Config.) (En Route Config.) (Landing Config.) X* Only if stall warning/stall avoidance provides first stall indication

 

 

X*

X*

X

X

X

X

X

Inflight Powerplant Shutdown

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Inflight Powerplant Restart

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

High Speed Handling Characteristics

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

DESCENT

Normal

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Maximum Rate

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

APPROACHES

VFR Procedures M

Visual Approach

 

 

 

 

C

X

X

X

X

With 50 percent Loss of Power on One side PIC M (2‑engines inoperative on 3‑engine airplanes)

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

With Slat/Flap Malfunction PIC M

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

IFR Precision

Approaches M

ILS/Normal

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

ILS/One‑Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

C

X

X

X

X

[ ] MLS/Normal

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] MLS/One‑Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

C

X

X

X

X

[ ] PAR/Normal

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] PAR/One‑Engine Inoperative #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

IFR Non‑precision Approaches M

NDB/Normal

 

 

A*

A*

X

X

X

X

X

VOR/Normal

A* At least one Non‑precision approach must be accomplished in a level A or higher simulator or the aircraft

 

 

A*

A*

X

X

X

X

X

Non‑precision Approach One‑Engine Inoperative #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] LOC Backcourse Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] SDF/LDA Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] ASR Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] RNAV Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] LORAN C Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] Circling Approach M

(Simulator must be qualified for training/checking on the circling maneuver)

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

(BACK SIDE)

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

LEVEL OF FLT TRNG DEVICE

 

LEVEL OF FLT SIM

ACFT

4

5

6

7

A

B

C

D

 

 

 

 

VIS

PH

I

PH

II

PH

III

APPROACHES (Cont’d)

Missing Approaches M

From Precision Approach

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

From Non‑precision Approach

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

With Powerplant Failure

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

LANDINGS

Normal

 

 

 

 

C

X

X

X

X

With Pitch Mis‑trim PIC

 

 

 

 

C

X

X

X

X

From Precision Instrument Approach

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

From Precision Instrument Approach With Most Critical Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

With 50 percent Loss of Power on One Side PIC (2‑engines inoperative on 3‑engine airplanes)

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

Crosswind

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

X

X

AFTER LANDING

Parking #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

Emergency Evacuation #

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

OTHER FLIGHT PROCEDURES DURING ANY AIRBORNE PHASE

Holding

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Ice Accumulation on Airframe #

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

Air Hazard Avoidance #

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

X

X

Windshear/Microburst #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

SYSTEMS PROCEDURES TRAINING DURING ANY PHASE

 

 

 

 

‑Normal

 

‑Abnormal

 

‑Alternate

Pneumatic/Pressurization

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Air Conditioning

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Fuel and Oil

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Electrical

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Hydraulic

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flight Controls

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Anti‑icing and Deicing Systems

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Autopilot

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flight Management Guidance Systems and/or Automatic or Other Approach & Landing Aids

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Stall Warning Devices, Stall Avoidance Devices, and Stability Augmentation Systems

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Airborne Weather Radar

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flight Instrument System Malfunction

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Communications Equipment

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Navigation Systems

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

SYSTEMS PROCEDURES TRAINING DURING ANY PHASE

 

‑Emergency

Aircraft Fires

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Smoke Control

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Powerplant Malfunctions

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Fuel Jettison

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Electrical, Hydraulic, Pneumatic Systems

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flight Control Systems Malfunction

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Landing Gear and Flap Systems Malfunction

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

3-1248       FE INITIAL EQUIPMENT, INITIAL NEW‑HIRE, TRANSITION, AND RFT—TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES.

A.     Training Required for Initial Issuance of an FE Certificate. All applicants for an FE certificate with the initial class rating must satisfy one of the seven aeronautical experience and or training requirements specified in 14 CFR part 63, § 63.37.

1)      Section 63.37(b)(1), (2), (3), and (4) require, in addition to other specific requirements, that an applicant receive five hours of flight training in the duties of an FE. This training must be accomplished in an airplane, in flight. There are no provisions for the substitution of simulators or FTD for any part of these five hours of flight training. These five hours of flight training may not be acquired during revenue operations conducted under part 121.
2)      Section 63.37(b)(5), (6), and (7) are alternative methods for satisfying the aeronautical experience and/or training requirements of part 63. An applicant who meets the aeronautical experience requirements in subparagraphs (b)(5) or (b)(6) is eligible for an initial FE certification check without any flight training (including the 5‑hour airplane training requirement). Section 63.37(b)(7) allows the successful completion of an approved FE ground and flight course of instruction as provided in part 63 appendix C, to satisfy the aeronautical experience requirements. If a student for initial issuance of an FE certificate uses the training received from a part 121 operator to meet the aeronautical experience requirements of § 63.37, that operator’s FE training course must be approved under § 63.43, and §§ 121.419 and 121.425.

Note:   When an operator’s FE training curriculum meets the requirements of this handbook and is approved under part 121, it also meets the requirements of part 63. The operator may obtain approval of that curriculum under § 63.43 by submitting a letter requesting approval in accordance with the provisions of that regulation. A POI must approve or deny the request by letter.

3)      Training under part 63 appendix C includes at least ten hours of flight instruction. Appendix C is the only section in part 63 that permits the use of FTDs and SIMs. In accordance with part 63 appendix C (a)(3)(iv), an operator may reduce the flight training requirement to five hours of actual airplane time by substituting time in SIMs and/or FTDs for a total of at least ten hours of flight training. It is important, however, to note that simulators may be substituted on a two to one basis, and training devices on a three to one basis, for actual airplane time. For example, for an operator to be permitted a reduction to five hours of airplane training, that operator must provide at least ten hours of simulator time (two to one) or 15 hours of training device time (three to one), or any other combination thereof which, when added to the five hours of airplane training, meets the ten hour appendix C flight training requirement.
4)      Part 63 appendix C (a)(iv)(b) permits an FE student holding at least a commercial pilot certificate with an instrument rating to substitute either SIM time or a combination of SIM and FTD time for up to the full ten hours of required airplane flight time. The two to one and three to one provisions still apply with an additional restriction that a maximum of 15 hours FTD time may be substituted. For example, an operator may substitute 20 hours of SIM time (2:1 = 10 hours of airplane flight training) for the total ten hour appendix C airplane flight training requirement. Another example is an operator may substitute ten hours of simulator time (2:1 = 5 hours of airplane flight training) plus a maximum of 15 hours of training device time (3:1 = 5 hours of airplane flight training for meeting the total ten‑hour appendix C airplane flight training requirement. The purpose of the 15 hour training device limitation is to ensure a certain amount of the flight training will include a full crew complement. It is important to note that substitution of simulator and/or training devices for airplane training is only permitted under a part 63 appendix C program (as discussed paragraph 3‑1248, subparagraphs A 3) and 4)). This provision should not be confused with § 63.37(b)(4) which permits a student holding a commercial pilot certificate with an instrument rating and who has received at least five hours of airplane flight training (no simulator/training device substitution permitted), to qualify for an FE check. Therefore, if an applicant with a commercial pilot certificate and instrument rating attends a part 63 appendix C school, the applicant can use § 63.37(b)(7) to satisfy the experience requirement, and can take advantage of the simulator and training device substitution provisions.

B.     FE Transition Flight Training. An FE employed by a part 121 operator who transitions from one airplane to another must complete a transition flight training curriculum segment approved under part 121. This training is not approved or conducted within the context of part 63. The use of FTDs, SIMs, or aircraft, for accomplishing training events must be proposed by the operator and approved by the POI.

Note:   FE applicants who qualify under the Air