3/3/11                                                                                                                       8900.1 CHG 102

Volume 2 Air Operator AND AIR AGENCY Certification and ApplicATION PROCESS

chapter 11 CERTIFICATION OF A Title 14 CFR PART 145 REPAIR STATION

Section 4  Evaluate a Part 145 Repair Station Manual and Quality Control Manual or Revision

2-1291       PROGRAM TRACKING AND REPORTING SUBSYSTEM (PTRS) ACTIVITY CODES.

A.     Maintenance: 3230, 3371, 3372.

B.     Avionics: 5230, 5371, 5372.

2-1292       OBJECTIVE. This section provides guidance for evaluating, accepting, or rejecting all Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 145 Repair Station Manual (RSM) and/or Quality Control Manual (QCM) original submissions or revisions.

2-1293       GENERAL.

A.     Currency of a QCM. Before issuing an Air Agency Certificate, the applicant’s RSM and/or QCM must reflect the applicant’s current procedures and be acceptable to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

Note:       If the training program required by part 145, § 145.163 is included in either of these manuals, that portion must be FAA‑approved.

B.     Revision of an Existing Manual. When a certificate holder revises an existing manual, the FAA must also accept the revisions.

C.     Manual Content. The manuals submitted by a certificate holder or applicant may be separate or may be combined into a single manual. The format should be consistent and all regulatory requirements must be included. The aviation safety inspector (ASI) must ensure the procedures used in the performance of maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations are reflected accurately in the manuals. It is expected that, to fully describe the repair station’s inspection/quality system, there will be some procedures that may not be regulatory.

D.    Original Certification Versus Revision. When evaluating a manual as part of an original certification, each entire manual will be submitted prior to certification. If this task is performed as a revision, only the portion of the manual that is revised must be submitted.

E.     RSM and QCM. Each certificated repair station must maintain a current RSM and QCM.

F.      Accessibility of Manual. A certificated repair station’s current RSM/QCM must be accessible for use by repair station personnel. All repair station employees on all shifts must have access to the manual, regardless of the media used (electronic, CD‑ROM, etc.).

G.    Certificate‑Holding District Office (CHDO). A certificated repair station must provide to its CHDO the current RSM/QCM in a format acceptable to the FAA. If the manuals or manual submitted are in electronic media format, they must be compatible with FAA electronic capabilities and free of any programs that would adversely affect that capability.

H.    Recommendations for Manual Development. There are some recommendations included in this handbook referenced from the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 145‑9, Guide for Developing and Evaluating Repair Station and Quality Control Manuals, which are not required by the regulations. They have been included to assist the inspector and certificate holder/applicant in developing a more complete description of the repair station’s overall functions, responsibilities, and quality control procedures.

I.       Maintenance and Alterations in Accordance With Air Carrier’s Manuals. For certificate holders under 14 CFR parts 121, 125, and 135, and for foreign air carriers or foreign persons operating a U.S.‑registered aircraft in common carriage under 14 CFR part 129, maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations must be performed in accordance with applicable sections of that air carrier’s manuals.

2-1294       REPAIR STATION AUTHORIZATION TO MAINTAIN CANADIAN AIRCRAFT.

A.     Maintenance, Preventative Maintenance, and Modifications. The repair station may perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and modifications to aircraft certificated in Canada. To perform this work, the repair station must continue to comply with part 145 and special conditions imposed by the Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA) Maintenance Implementation Procedures (MIP).

B.     Implementing Required Procedures. The MIP agreement requires U.S. air agencies and Canadian Approved Maintenance Organizations (AMO) to develop and implement stringent controls and procedures at their repair stations. These procedures must become a part of the RSM or a supplement to the manual. The requirements for the supplement are contained in the current United States—Canadian BASA/MIPs.

C.     Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) Inspections. The repair station must allow TCCA, or the FAA on behalf of TCCA, to inspect it for continued compliance with part 145 and MIP special conditions. The repair station must make its manual and the required supplement available for inspection.

Note:       Investigations and enforcement by the TCCA may be undertaken in accordance with TCCA rules and directives. The repair station must cooperate with any investigation or enforcement action.

2-1295       PREREQUISITES AND COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS. This task may require coordination with other specialties, regions, or district offices.

2-1296       REFERENCES, FORMS, AND JOB AIDS.

A.     References (current editions):

·        Title 14 CFR parts 1, 39, 43, 65, 91, 121, 125, 129, 135, 145, and Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 36;

·        Canadian Aviation Regulations (CAR) parts IV and VII;

·        AC 145‑9, Guide for Developing and Evaluating Repair Station and Quality Control Manuals;

·        AC 43‑10, United States—Canadian BASA/MIP Maintenance;

·        United States—Canadian BASA/MIPs; and

·        Volume 2, Chapter 11, Sections 2, 3, and 5.

B.     Forms. None.

C.     Job Aids. None.

2-1297       RSM PROCEDURES.

A.     Acceptable Formats. Receive the certificate holder or applicant’s manual or revision as required by §§ 145.51, 145.207, and 145.211(c).

B.     Manual or Revision Content. Review the submitted manual or revision to ensure that it meets the regulatory requirements of §§ 145.209 and 145.211. The manual or revision must include the following:

1)      An organizational chart that identifies:
a)      Each management position with authority to act on behalf of the repair station.

1.      The organizational chart required by § 145.209 may identify management positions by title only.

2.      Management includes, but is not limited to, the executive functions of planning, organizing, coordinating, directing, controlling, and supervising.

3.      This does not eliminate the requirement in § 145.51 for an applicant to submit the names and titles of its management and supervisory personnel at the time of application.

b)      The area of responsibility assigned to each management position, which is the area(s) in the repair station that the manager is directly accountable for and maintains decision authority over.
c)      The duties, responsibilities, and authority of each management position.
2)      Procedures for maintaining and revising the rosters required by § 145.161.

Note:       Within 5 business days of the revision, the rosters required by this section must reflect changes caused by termination, reassignment, change in duties, scope of assignment, or addition of personnel.

3)      A description of a repair station’s operations describing how the maintenance is to be performed, where it would start, and how it progresses through the entire repair cycle for approval for return to service. Also include:
a)      A description of the housing; may include dimensions, construction method, heating and ventilation systems, lighting, door openings, and physical address.
b)      A description of the facilities that describes how the shop, hangar, or other work areas are laid out.
c)      A description of the equipment, tooling, and materials used to perform maintenance.

Note:       The “description of materials used to perform maintenance” should not be a physical description of the material, but rather an explanation of the repair station’s handling and storage of the materials. If materials require specific environmental controls or cannot be stored next to certain chemicals or solvents, these should be identified. For example, it would not be acceptable to store oxygen equipment near petroleum products.

1.      If the repair station does not own the equipment, procedures must be included in the manual that describe how the equipment will be obtained (lease, rentals, etc.). The manual must also include where the equipment will be used, how personnel will be trained to use the equipment, and how the repair station will ensure calibration issues, if any, are addressed after transporting the equipment.

2.      If the repair station chooses to use equipment, tools, or materials other than those recommended by the manufacturer, the manual must include a procedure used by the repair station to determine the equivalency of that equipment, tool, or material.

Note:       When the repair station is adding a rating, or an applicant has applied for certification, all required equipment for the rating it seeks must be in place for inspection by the FAA. This provides the ASI with the opportunity to evaluate its placement and use and to verify that repair station personnel are trained to operate it.

4)      Capability list procedures used to:
a)      Revise the capability list provided in § 145.215 and notify the CHDO of revisions to the list, including how often the CHDO will be notified of revisions; and
b)      Develop and perform the self‑evaluation required by § 145.215(c) for revising the capability list, including the methods and frequency of such evaluations and procedures for reporting the results to the appropriate manager for review and action.
5)      Procedures for revising the training program and submitting revisions to the CHDO for approval, which should include:

·        The title of the person authorized to make a training program revision;

·        The method of submitting a revision (electronic, hard copy, disk, etc.); and

·        A procedure for recording a revision and a method of identifying the revised material or text.

Note:       The training program does not go into effect until April 6, 2005. Manuals without the training program included must be accepted until guidance is issued and a revision to this section is completed.

6)      Procedures for accomplishing work performed at a location other than the repair station’s fixed location, which should contain the following:
a)      Title of the person responsible for determining the location is appropriate for the work performed.
b)      Title of the person responsible for initiating such work and assigning the personnel necessary to perform inspections and supervise the work.
c)      Procedures for communication between responsible repair station personnel at the fixed location and the maintenance personnel working away from the station. This should include the transfer of parts, supplies, tools/equipment, technical data, and trained personnel.
d)      Procedures that will be used away from the repair station if they deviate from established procedures used at the fixed location. The repair station must ensure that all work performed while exercising the privileges of its certificate is accomplished per the appropriate maintenance manual and its RSM or QCM. The determination for performing work at another location must meet the following requirements:

1.      The work is necessary due to a special circumstance, such as a one‑time occurrence, as determined by the FAA; or

2.      It is necessary to perform such work on a recurring, but not continuous, basis and the RSM includes the procedures for accomplishing maintenance, preventive maintenance, alterations, or specialized services at a place other than the repair station’s fixed location.

Note:       The FAA determination must be made prior to the performance of any maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations away from the repair station’s fixed location unless an acceptable procedure is included in the manual.

7)      Procedures for performing maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations for certificate holders under parts 121, 125, and 135 and for foreign air carriers or foreign persons operating a U.S.‑registered aircraft in common carriage under part 129.
a)      The FAA requires that maintenance under a Continuous Airworthiness Maintenance Program (CAMP) be performed in accordance with the operator’s manual. It is the operator’s responsibility to ensure the work performed on its behalf is done in accordance with the approved maintenance program.
b)      The certificated repair station that performs maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations for an air carrier or commercial operator that has a CAMP under part 121 or 135 must follow the air carrier or commercial operator’s maintenance program or applicable sections of its maintenance manual.
c)      A certificated repair station that performs inspections for a certificate holder conducting operations under part 125 must follow the operator’s FAA‑approved inspection program.
d)      A certificated repair station that performs maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations for a foreign air carrier or foreign operator operating a U.S.‑registered aircraft under part 129 must follow the operator’s FAA‑approved maintenance program.
e)      The FAA may authorize a certificated repair station to perform line maintenance on any aircraft of an air carrier certificated under part 121 or 135, or of a foreign air carrier or foreign operator operating a U.S.‑registered aircraft in common carriage under part 129, provided the certificated repair station:

·        Has the appropriate ratings to perform the maintenance or preventive maintenance on transport‑category aircraft;

·        Performs such line maintenance in accordance with the operator’s manual and approved maintenance program;

·        Has the necessary equipment, trained personnel, and technical data to perform such line maintenance; and

·        Has operations specifications (OpSpecs) that include an authorization to perform line maintenance.

Note:       A repair station must be appropriately rated to perform line maintenance for an air carrier. This would normally require an airframe rating to accomplish scheduled checks, daily inspections, or servicing of articles. However, a repair station with the appropriate ratings may accomplish unscheduled maintenance and repairs. This could include avionics facilities limited to avionics functions, such as troubleshooting electrical or electronic systems, or replacing defective electronic articles.

8)      Procedures for performing maintenance, preventive maintenance, and modifications on Canadian aeronautical products.
a)      An FAA‑certificated repair station may perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and modifications (with the exception of annual inspections) on a civil aeronautical product under the regulatory control of TCCA. The repair station may approve that product for return to service if the repair station complies with the special conditions stated in the BASA/MIPs between the United States and Canada.
b)      In addition to the other requirements specified in the MIPs, a repair station performing maintenance, preventive maintenance, or modifications on aircraft operating in commercial air service under TCCA CAR part IV or VII must include in its manual a supplement describing the procedures listed in AC 43-10, or explain where in the RSM those procedures are described. These procedures must be approved by the FAA.
9)      Procedures for maintaining and revising the contract maintenance information, including the submission of revisions to the CHDO for approval and how often the FAA will be notified of revisions.
a)      The FAA must approve the maintenance functions to be contracted.
b)      The repair station must maintain a list of each facility that it contracts maintenance functions with, including the type of certificate and ratings (if any) held by each facility.
c)      The maintenance function list need not be included in the manual, but the manual should include the location or office where the list is maintained.

Note:       Maintenance functions are a step or series of steps in the process of performing maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations which result in approving an article for return to service. It is not the intent of this rule to create “virtual repair stations” that provide only an approval for return to service. ASIs must evaluate the amount of work a repair station desires to contract out versus the work that is performed in‑house.

10)  A description of the recordkeeping system used by the repair station to obtain, store, and retrieve the records required by part 43. These records must be in English.
11)  Procedures for revising the RSM and notifying its CHDO of revisions to the manual, including how often the FAA will be notified of revisions. The procedure must include:

·        The title of the person authorized to make a revision;

·        The method of submitting a revision (electronic, hard copy, disk, etc.);

·        A procedure for recording a revision and a method of identifying the revised material or text; and

·        A description of the system used to identify and control sections of the RSM.

C.     Recommended Procedures and Reports. Although not required by §§ 145.209 or 145.211, it is recommended the manual include the following:

1)      Procedures for submitting reports, in a format acceptable to the FAA, of any serious failure, malfunction, or defect in accordance with § 145.221. A repair station must report to the FAA within 96 hours after it discovers any serious failure, malfunction, or defect of an article. If the repair station performs maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations for an air carrier, the manual should also contain procedures on how it will notify the operator when submitting reports.
2)      Procedures for detecting and reporting suspected unapproved parts.

2-1298       QCM PROCEDURES.

Note:       The QCM may be separate from the RSM or included in that manual as a separate section or volume.

A.     Documentation, Inspections, and Training. A certificated repair station must prepare and keep current a QCM in a format acceptable to the FAA. Depending upon the size, complexity, and rating(s) of the repair station, that manual should include a description of the system and procedures used for:

1)      Receiving and documenting articles, standard parts, and raw materials.
2)      Performing incoming inspections of raw materials and standard parts that check for:

·        Proper documentation, identification, and traceability;

·        Conformity to a specification and acceptable quality;

·        Shelf life;

·        Contamination;

·        Shipping damage; and

·        State of preservation.

3)      Performing preliminary inspection of all articles that are maintained or altered to check for:

·        Proper documentation, identification, and traceability;

·        Shipping damage and contamination;

·        State of preservation;

·        Life limits;

·        Airworthiness Directives (AD) and Service Bulletins (SB);

·        Functional test or tear down inspections;

·        FAA approval of new articles; and

·        Determination of what repairs are necessary.

4)      Inspecting all articles that have been involved in an accident for hidden damage before maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alteration is performed. Ensure that items are disassembled as necessary and inspected for hidden damage in adjacent areas.
5)      Performing in‑progress inspections to ensure inspections, testing, and/or calibration is conducted at various stages while the work is in progress.
6)      Performing final inspections and approvals for return to service.
a)      Ensures the inspection, testing, and/or calibration of articles, including documentation, is accomplished at the completion of maintenance or alteration.
b)      The manual must include a procedure for approval for return to service.
7)      Ensuring continuity of inspection responsibility.
a)      Include procedures for ensuring that the responsibilities of any inspector are properly performed in their absence.
b)      If the repair station has multiple shifts, include procedures to ensure the continuing responsibility for maintenance in progress through the use of a status book, shift turnover log, or similar documents.
8)      Calibrating measuring and test equipment used in maintaining articles, including the intervals at which the equipment will be calibrated.
9)      Taking corrective action on deficiencies related to repair station operation.
a)      Section 145.211(c)(1)(ix) states that the QCM must include procedures used for taking corrective action on deficiencies. A corrective action is taken to remedy an undesirable situation. The correction of deficiencies is normally an integral part of a repair station’s improvement process, and could include revisions to procedures that were not working properly (reference AC 145‑9, paragraph 4‑13 for additional guidance).

Note:       The repair station is not required at this time to have an Internal Evaluation Program (IEP), quality assurance (QA) program, or a continuous improvement program.

b)      Corrective action requires that a fact‑based investigation determine the root cause or causes to eliminate them. Corrective action would be applicable in two situations: Before the article is approved for return for service and after the article has been approved for return to service.
c)      If a deficiency is found before the article is approved for return to service, the repair station should follow its procedures describing how rework will be accomplished. If the deficiency is noted after the article is approved for return to service, the repair station should follow its procedures to notify the CHDO and the owner/operator of any potential problems and recall any unairworthy parts or products. The objective of the investigation into the cause of the deficiency and the corrective actions taken is to eliminate any potential safety threats posed by unapproved or improperly maintained parts or products, and to prevent a recurrence of the same or similar problems.

Note:       When the CHDO receives notification of a deficiency found after the article is approved for return to service, it shall be investigated for possible violations of part 43 and/or 145. The investigation should be conducted in accordance with the current edition of FAA Order 2150.3, FAA Compliance and Enforcement Program. If improper maintenance is found, the ASI shall complete the PTRS records using code 3776/5776 as applicable. If unapproved parts are found the ASI shall complete the PTRS records using code 3775/5775 as applicable. If the unapproved parts lead to an outside facility who manufactured the parts, FAA Form 8120‑11, Suspected Unapproved Parts Report, should be filed so an Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) investigation can be conducted. If the deficiency is found as a result of an inspection, audit, or evaluation of a maintenance facility located outside of the region, the inspector should contact the CHDO responsible for the facility that completed the work. The investigating inspector completing the investigation on that facility shall complete the PTRS records using code 3776/5776 as applicable.

d)      The procedures in the QCM should include a system for documenting any deficiencies and the corrective actions taken to prevent a recurrence. The system should let employees track any open corrective action requests and the date the corrective action is due. The program should also be tracked to include audits of the corrective action(s) taken to ensure it was effective. These audits should also be tracked to ensure that they are completed in a timely fashion.
10)  Establishing and maintaining proficiency of inspection personnel.
a)      The procedure should ensure that inspection personnel are familiar with the applicable regulations and are proficient at inspecting the articles they are assigned to inspect.
b)      Testing, formal training, recurrent training, or a combination of these methods could be used to maintain the proficiency of inspection personnel.
11)  Establishing and maintaining current technical data for maintaining articles.
12)  Revising the repair station’s quality manual and notifying its CHDO of revisions to the manual, including how often the FAA will be notified of revisions. The procedure must include:

·        The title of the person authorized to make a revision;

·        The method of submitting revisions (electronic, hard copy, disk, etc.); and

·        A procedure for recording revisions and a system for identifying revised material or text.

13)  Qualifying and surveying noncertificated persons who perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations for the repair station. A certificated repair station may contract a maintenance function pertaining to an article to a noncertificated person, provided that:

·        The noncertificated person follows a quality control system equivalent to the system followed by the certificated repair station;

·        The certificated repair station remains directly in charge of the work performed by the noncertificated person;

·        The certificated repair station verifies, by testing and/or inspecting, that the work has been performed satisfactorily and that the article is airworthy before approving it for return to service; and

·        The noncertificated person’s contract allows the FAA to inspect or observe work being performed on any articles for the certificated repair station.

Note:       The ability to inspect a noncertificated person can only be accomplished while the contract is in force. This requirement does not give ASIs access to non‑FAA‑certificated facilities if there is no work being performed under contract for a certificated repair station.

B.     Manual References. Where applicable, the manual should contain references to the instructions for continued airworthiness (ICA), maintenance manuals, inspection standards, or other approved or accepted data specific to the article being maintained.

C.     Inspection and Maintenance Forms. A sample of each of the inspection and maintenance forms used in the performance of maintenance, and the instructions for completing those forms.

Note:       These forms may be addressed in a separate accepted manual that is submitted to the CHDO and maintained in current condition by the repair station.

2-1299       TASK OUTCOMES.

A.     Complete the PTRS Record.

B.     Complete the Task. Completion of this task will result in the following actions:

·        If no regulatory conflicts were found, the CHDO may send a transmittal document acknowledging receipt of the manuals.

·        If conflicts with the rule are noted, the principal inspector (PI) will detail those discrepancies in writing to the certificate holder.

Note:       ASIs may inform the certificate holder that no deficiencies were noted. This should not be mistaken as an “acceptance” of the manuals.

Note:       Federal agencies can no longer refuse electronic versions of manuals, forms, record systems, etc. Federal law prohibits agencies from making the use of electronic media more difficult or from requiring additional steps or procedures for users of electronic media. Therefore, all repair station document submissions must be accompanied by a transmittal document that describes the submission and is signed by the appropriate manager. ASIs will accept or approve submissions with a transmittal document indicating the date; document, manual, or revision number; and an acceptance or approval statement. Additionally, ASIs will reject a certificate holder’s submission using a transmittal document that indicates the date; document, manual, or revision number; and includes a detailed explanation of the discrepancies or nonconformances noted. The acceptance or approval letter should remain with the manual or kept on file.

1)      Approve the training program, manual, or a revision to either document by sending the certificate holder a letter indicating the date; document, manual, or revision number; and an acceptance statement. The PI should sign the transmittal document.
2)      Accept the Canadian supplement or revision to the appropriate manual sections by sending the certificate holder a letter indicating the date; document, manual, or revision number; and an acceptance statement. The ASI should sign the transmittal document. If the repair station elects to imbed their Canadian MIP requirements in their manual, the acceptance conveyance letter must quote each section of the manual where the Canadian requirements are found. The ASI is only accepting the Canadian requirements of the manual.

Note:       A certificate holder using electronic media such as CD‑ROM disks, local area network (LAN)‑based manual systems, or internet‑based manual systems may scan the cover letters and insert them electronically into the applicable document if they do not wish to maintain a file of acceptance or approval letters.

C.     Use of Electronic Transmissions (E‑mail or Facsimile). E‑mail or fax responses are an acceptable alternative to the cover letter if the repair station is equipped to transmit and receive any necessary attachments. This may include the use of electronic signatures. This method should be addressed in the repair station’s procedures and found acceptable to the FAA.

D.    Rejection. Reject the manual(s) or revisions by doing the following:

1)      Initiate a cover letter indicating the date and document, manual, or revision number of the document or manual being rejected.
2)      Return all copies to the applicant with an explanation of discrepancies that must be corrected and instructions for resubmitting the documents in order to proceed with the certification or revision process.

E.     Acceptance. Once the applicant/certificate holder receives the acceptance of the RSM and/or QCM, or the approval of the training program and/or manual, copies of the manuals or disks must be provided to the CHDO. The PI will file a copy in the certificate holder/applicant’s office file along with a copy of the acceptance letter.

1)      In a paper revision, the ASI will remove the affected pages and insert the revised pages in the manuals or the training program. The ASI will update the manual control system and file the cover letters in the appropriate office file.
2)      In an electronic format, the ASI will replace the outdated disk with the current or initial manual or training submission. The ASI will place a copy of the acceptance letter in the certificate holder’s office file.

F.      Document the Task. File all supporting paperwork in the certificate holder/applicant’s office file.

2-1300       FUTURE ACTIVITIES. None.

RESERVED. Paragraphs 2‑1301 through 2‑1315.


3/30/11                                                                                                                         8900.1 CHG 0

Volume 3 GENERAL TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATION

chapter 14  public aircraft

Section 2  Public Aircraft Operations and Surveillance Government Aircraft Operations Versus Civil Aircraft Operations

3-556           PROGRAM TRACKING AND REPORTING SUBSYSTEM (PTRS) ACTIVITY CODES.

A.     Maintenance: 3690.

B.     Avionics: 5690.

3-557           change barOBJECTIVE. This chapter contains guidance and information for aviation safety inspectors (ASI) assigned to or working with Government‑owned aircraft, or public aircraft, as defined in Title 49 of the United States Code (49 U.S.C.) § 40102(a)(41).

3-558      GENERAL. On October 25, 1994, the President signed the Independent Safety Board Act Amendments, which contained a major change in the definition of public aircraft. Public aircraft are exempt from many types of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations. The current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 00‑1.1, Government Aircraft Operations, includes the FAA’s interpretation of key statutory terms in reference to the new definition. The AC will assist operators of Government‑owned aircraft in determining whether their aircraft operations are public aircraft operations under the definition. It is important for ASIs to obtain the AC and understand its contents.

3-559      STATUTORY PROVISIONS. Under the statute, which became effective April 23, 1995, many former public aircraft operations may now be subject to the regulations applicable to civil aircraft operations. For example, aircraft used to transport passengers will, in some circumstances, no longer be considered public aircraft. Unless they receive an exemption from the Administrator, the operators of such aircraft will need to meet civil aircraft requirements such as those pertaining to certification, maintenance, and training.

A.     Aircraft owned and operated by the Armed Forces and the intelligence agencies of the United States will retain their public aircraft status unless operated for commercial purposes.

B.     Except as provided in AC 00‑1.1, chapter 1, subparagraph 2g through i, Government‑owned aircraft operators transporting passengers or transporting property for commercial purposes will now be required to operate in accordance with the applicable regulations.

C.     It is still considered a public aircraft operation when Government‑owned aircraft operators transport (for other than commercial purposes) crewmembers or other persons aboard the aircraft whose presence is required to perform, or whose presence is associated with the performance of, a governmental function such as firefighting, search and rescue, law enforcement, aeronautical research, or biological or geological resource management. It is not sufficient to show that the passengers are being transported to perform one of the governmental functions; the use of the aircraft must be necessary for the performance of the mission.

3-560      EXEMPTIONS. Field office personnel have no authority to allow government operators to conduct operations that do not comply with the regulations. A government agency may, in appropriate circumstances, seek either a regulatory or statutory exemption. An applicant for an exemption should be directed to follow the exemption process set forth in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 11. Agencies that apply for statutory exemptions are required to show that they have an acceptable aviation safety program (ASP) to ensure safe operations. The ASP should be submitted with the petition for exemption by following the procedures outlined in part 11. The Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) has jurisdiction over the applicant’s operation and will be asked to review the safety program and give an opinion on whether the program meets the requirements for issuing the exemption. The FSDO will be expected to provide written justification for its recommendations.

3-561      ASSISTANCE. Regional coordinators have been selected to assist in answering questions concerning this issue and may be contacted through the ASI’s Regional Office (RO). Until further notice, questions concerning enforcement and legal interpretations will be forwarded to the Washington headquarters (HQ). Regional coordinators will forward questions to either the Aircraft Maintenance Division (AFS-300) or the General Aviation and Commercial Division (AFS‑800).

3-562      TYPE CERTIFICATION INQUIRIES. Questions concerning type certification, including Supplemental Type Certificates (STC), should be directed to the appropriate Aircraft Certification Office (ACO) identified in AC 20‑126, Aircraft Certification Service Field Office Listing (current edition).

3-563      AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION. Any requests for airworthiness certification should be handled in accordance with the guidance provided in the current edition of FAA Order 8130.2, Airworthiness Certification of Aircraft and Related Products. Original airworthiness certification requests should be directed to the appropriate Manufacturing Inspection District Office (MIDO) for handling. If the MIDO cannot support the request, the FSDO may accomplish the certification after a letter of delegation has been received from the MIDO as described in FAA Order 8130.2.

3-564      AIRCRAFT USED FOR DUAL PURPOSES. Government agencies may conduct both public and civil aircraft operations with the same aircraft. However, the operator will be required to maintain the aircraft in accordance with the appropriate regulations applicable to civil aircraft operations. Aircraft that hold airworthiness certificates should be handled as follows:

A.     If the operation is a public aircraft operation and no modifications are made to the aircraft, the airworthiness certificate may be displayed in the aircraft as required by 14 CFR part 91, § 91.203(b).

B.     When the public aircraft operation involves altering the aircraft temporarily, it is not necessary for the operator to surrender the airworthiness certificate or remove it from the aircraft. However, an inspection and logbook entry will be required prior to the aircraft operating as a civil aircraft. For example, when the public aircraft operation requires the removal of a door during the public aircraft operation, an authorized individual must perform the door installation and return to service before the aircraft is operated as a civil aircraft.

C.     When the modification is substantial and involves more than the simple removal and/or installation of equipment, the operator should obtain the required FAA approval before conducting civil aircraft operations. Where the modification is such that it permanently invalidates the airworthiness certificate of the aircraft, the FSDO should seek the voluntary surrender of the certificate. If the aircraft owner refuses to surrender the certificate, the FSDO should follow the procedures in FAA Order 2150.3, FAA Compliance and Enforcement Program (current edition).

D.    The FAA has allowed a certificate holder that also conducts public aircraft operations to retain the aircraft on its operations specifications (OpSpecs) when certain requirements have been met. Generally, those requirements necessitate that the FAA approves permanent installations and modifications. Temporary alterations must be corrected and the appropriate inspection and maintenance entries must be made before the aircraft is returned to service.

3-565      SURVEILLANCE.

A.     Government‑owned aircraft operators holding any type of FAA certification will be included in the normal surveillance activities such as spot inspections of the aircraft and aircraft records. This includes any aircraft exclusively leased to the Federal Government. Any aircraft or operation certificated by the FAA is subject to this surveillance regardless of whether they are operating as public or civil. For example, if an operation is considered public and the operator holds an airworthiness certificate, its maintenance records are eligible for review. If an ASI encounters an operator that states it is operating under public status and the ASI has questions concerning that operation, contact the regional public aircraft coordinator for assistance.

B.     Government‑owned aircraft operators that are conducting public aircraft operations should be included in the FSDO’s annual planned surveillance activities to ensure that the operator’s status remains unchanged.

3-566      GOVERNMENTAL FUNCTIONS. Not all activities conducted by government agencies are considered governmental functions within the meaning of the new definition. The accepted functions include “firefighting, search and rescue, law enforcement, aeronautical research, or biological or geological resource management,” or other comparable functions. In each instance, the use of an aircraft must be necessary to perform the function. In some cases, training flights may be considered acceptable where the training is being performed aboard aircraft that is necessary for the performance of the training. AC 00‑1.1 provides examples of situations that may be encountered by the field ASI. If an ASI has any questions regarding other functions comparable to those listed above or the nature of an operation, the ASI should seek assistance from the regional coordinator.

3-567      PREREQUISITES AND COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS.

A.     Prerequisites. Successful completion of the appropriate Airworthiness Indoctrination course(s).

B.     Coordination. This task may require coordination between maintenance, avionics, and Operations ASIs.

3-568      REFERENCES, FORMS, AND JOB AIDS.

A.     References (current editions):

·        AC 00‑1.1, Government Aircraft Operations.

·        change barTitle 49 U.S.C. §§ 40102(a)(41) and 40125.

B.     Forms. None.

C.     Job Aids. None.

3-569      PROCEDURES.

A.     FSDO managers should ensure that a site visit is held with each government agency in their geographic area. This visit is necessary to determine whether the agency conducts operations that are subject to the regulations applicable to civil aircraft operations. Upon determining that a government agency will be required to conduct its aircraft operations as civil aircraft, the FSDO should assist the government agency in meeting the requirements of the 14 CFR. Additionally, the FSDOs should provide the maximum assistance and advice to agencies that desire to operate in accordance with the 14 CFR while conducting public aircraft operations.

B.     Any Government‑owned aircraft that is not operated as a public aircraft will need to comply with all the appropriate certification, maintenance, and operating rules that apply to civil aircraft operations. For example, if the aircraft does not have a current inspection as required by § 91.409, it may not operate until the required inspection is accomplished.

3-570      PTRS. Each responsible field office will verify that all PTRS entries associated with Government‑owned aircraft include either the word “public” (exclusively used in public operations) or the word “civil” (civil operations) as the first characters in the National Use field. If the operator has both public and civil operations, enter “civil” in the National Use field. The PTRS activity codes for Government‑owned aircraft will be the same as those entries for identical activities involving civil aircraft. For example, if a government agency operating a SD3‑30 contacts the FSDO and it is determined that the operator should be operating under 14 CFR part 135, then the ASI would open the PTRS using either activity code 3207 or 1213 and enter “civil” in the National Use field.

A.     To monitor compliance with the rule, PTRS entries should be recorded for every contact with operators of Government‑owned aircraft.

B.     After determining that a Government‑owned aircraft operator must meet the requirements for civil aircraft operations, standard PTRS codes should be used for the type of activity or surveillance being conducted. When accomplishing site visits on public operators who remain public, the inspector may use PTRS codes 1470, 3470, and 5470. These codes have been changed and do not require a 14 CFR entry. All other activities in association with public operators should use the same activity codes (1470, 3470, and 5470) and then enter the applicable PTRS activity code in the tracking block.

C.     Using the Civil Aviation Registry to monitor the implementation of this change, it is critical to enter the “N” number into the Aircraft Registration Number block. The “N” number for each aircraft operated by the government agency should be entered into the initial PTRS action for that agency. If more than one aircraft is operated, enter the additional registration numbers in the comment section using opinion code “I” and comment code “816.”

D.    Government operators who are operating their aircraft under part 91 are to have a 14 CFR part 125 deviation designator assigned to them by the Aviation Data Systems Branch (AFS‑620) and tracked in the Vital Information Subsystem (VIS) in this manner. The assignment of a part 125 deviation designator is for tracking purposes only; they are not deviation holders.

3-571      TASK OUTCOMES. Complete the PTRS record.

3-572      FUTURE ACTIVITIES. None.

RESERVED. Paragraphs 3‑573 through 3‑590.


2/17/11                                                                                                                     8900.1 CHG 118

Volume 3 GENERAL TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATION

CHAPTER 18 OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS

Section 5  Part C Operations Specifications—Airplane Terminal Instrument Procedures and Airport Authorizations and Limitations

3-871           Indicates change to text.GENERAL. Part C is issued to operators who conduct Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, 91 subpart K (part 91K), 121, 125, 125 subpart M, or 135 operations with fixed‑wing airplanes. It is not issued to part 135 operators who only conduct helicopter operations. Instrument flight rules (IFR) helicopter operators are issued Part H. Part C is not usually issued to part 135 on‑demand operators who are restricted to visual flight rules (VFR)‑only operations. In rare situations, operations specification (OpSpec) C070 of part C is issued to part 135 VFR‑only operators who are authorized to conduct commuter operations.

Note:      All 300-series OpSpecs/management specifications (MSpecs)/training specifications (TSpec)/letters of authorization (LOA) (Parts A, B, C, D, E, and H) require approval by the appropriate headquarters (HQ) policy division. Title 14 CFR parts 91K, 125, 125M, 133, 137, and 141 operators’ nonstandard operational requests must be approved by the General Aviation and Commercial Division (AFS‑800); 14 CFR parts 121, 135, and 142 nonstandard operational requests must be approved for issuance by the Air Transportation Division (AFS‑200); 14 CFR part 145 repair station and all airworthiness nonstandard requests must be approved by the Aircraft Maintenance Division (AFS‑300); and All Weather Operations (AWO) relating to instrument procedures must be approved by the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS‑400). Any additional provisions and/or authority added to an OpSpec/MSpec/TSpec paragraph or LOA through the use of nonstandard text entered in the nonstandard text block (sometimes referred to as “Text 99”) must also be approved by the appropriate HQ policy division. For detailed guidance on the process for obtaining HQ approval for nonstandard authorizations, principal inspectors (PI) must read the guidance contained in Volume 3, Chapter 3, Section 2.

OPSPEC/MANAGEMENT SPECIFICATION (MSPEC)/LETTER OF AUTHORIZATION (LOA) C048, ENHANCED FLIGHT VISION SYSTEM (EFVS) USE ON STRAIGHT-IN INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES OTHER THAN CATEGORY II OR CATEGORY III.

A.     Authorization. The C048 authorization is optional for certificate holders/operators/program managers conducting airplane operations under 14 CFR parts 91 subpart K (part 91K), 121, 125 (including the Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) 125 operators), and 135. C048 authorizes approach to straight-in landing operations below Decision Altitude (DA) or minimum descent altitude (MDA) using a certified enhanced flight vision system (EFVS). C048 is applicable to certificate holders/operators/program managers conducting straight-in instrument approach procedures (IAP) other than Category II Approach (CAT II) or Category III Approach (CAT III), as follows:

1)      OpSpec C048 is required to be issued to air carriers conducting operations under parts 121, 135, and 121/135 split certificates using the provisions specified in C048.
2)      OpSpec C048 is required to be issued to certificated operators that operate under part 125 using the provisions specified in C048.
3)      LOA C048 is required to be issued to operators conducting operations under part 125 that are issued a deviation from the certificate and OpSpec requirements of part 125 (125M) and who will use the provisions specified in C048.
4)      MSpec MC048 is required to be issued to those program managers conducting operations under part 91K who will use the provisions specified in C048.
5)      An LOA is not required to be issued to part 91 operators (except for part 91K operators who must be issued an MSpec). Part 91 operators are authorized by the regulations to conduct EFVS operations without being issued an LOA.

B.     Regulations. Part 91, § 91.175(l) and (m) authorize an EFVS to be used to descend below DA or MDA on straight-in IAPs, other than CAT II or CAT III. These regulations require that the EFVS have a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) type design approval (type certificate (TC) or Supplemental Type Certificate (STC)), or for foreign‑registered aircraft, that the EFVS complies with all of the EFVS requirements of the U.S. regulations. An EFVS uses imaging sensor technologies to provide a real-time enhanced image of the forward external visual scene to the pilot. An EFVS is used by the pilot to determine that the enhanced flight visibility is not less than the visibility prescribed in the IAP to be flown and that the required visual references for descending below DA or MDA down to 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation (TDZE) are distinctly visible and identifiable using the sensor image when the runway environment is not visible using the pilot’s natural vision. EFVS also helps to verify proper runway alignment at night and in low visibility conditions.

Note:      The authorization associated with this OpSpec, MSpec, or LOA is in keeping with the intent of § 91.175(l) and (m) and does not authorize EFVS to be used to satisfy the § 91.175(e)(2) requirement that an identifiable part of the airport be distinctly visible to the pilot during a circling maneuver at or above MDA, or while descending below MDA. EFVS is permitted to be used to identify the required visual references in order to descend below DA or MDA on straight‑in IAPs only. An instrument approach with a circle‑to‑land maneuver is not a straight-in IAP and does not have straight-in minima. While the regulations do not prohibit EFVS from being used during any phase of flight, they do prohibit it from being used for operational credit on anything but a straight-in IAP. EFVS may be used during a circle-to-land maneuver provided the visual references required at or above MDA and throughout the circling maneuver are distinctly visible using natural vision. Use of EFVS during a circling maneuver may enable a pilot to see much more of the external scene at night and in low visibility conditions than would be possible using natural vision, thereby enhancing situational awareness (SA).

C.     Descending Below DA or MDA. In order to descend below DA or MDA, the following visual references for the runway of intended landing must be distinctly visible and identifiable to the pilot using the EFVS:

1)      The Approach Light System (ALS) (if installed); or
2)      The following visual references in both subparagraphs C2)a) and b) below:
a)      The runway threshold, identified by at least one of the following:

1.      The beginning of the runway landing surface,

2.      The threshold lights, or

3.      The runway end identification lights (REIL).

b)      The touchdown zone (TDZ), identified by at least one of the following:

1.      The runway TDZ landing surface,

2.      The TDZ lights,

3.      The TDZ markings, or

4.      The runway lights.

3)      To descend below 100 feet above the TDZE of the runway of intended landing, the pilot must be able to see the visual references required by § 91.175(l)(4) with his or her natural vision without relying on the EFVS. That is, the enhanced flight visibility observed by use of an EFVS is no longer applicable. At this point, the flight visibility only has to be sufficient for the pilot to distinctly see and identify the lights or markings of the threshold or the lights or markings of the TDZ using natural vision before continuing to a landing.

D.    Required Visual References. The required visual references in § 91.175(l) using EFVS to descend below DA or MDA are different from those required by § 91.175(c) using natural vision. Table 3-15A, Required Visual References, Part 91, § 91.175(c) and (l), provides a comparison of visual reference requirements for both natural vision and EFVS. Generally, the visual reference requirements for EFVS are more stringent than those for natural vision. For example, § 91.175(c) allows descent below DA or MDA using natural vision when only one of the visual references listed can be seen. For EFVS, § 91.175(l) requires that a pilot either see the ALS or at least one visual reference listed for the threshold environment and one visual reference listed for the TDZ environment. When natural vision is used, the Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) is permitted to be used as a required visual reference for descent below DA or MDA. Under § 91.175(l) using EFVS, however, the VASI cannot be used as a visual reference for descent below DA or MDA using EFVS because the EFVS display is monochromatic. For descent below 100 feet above TDZE using natural vision, § 91.175(c)(3) permits the approach lights to be used as a reference only if the red terminating bars or the red side row bars are visible and identifiable. For EFVS operations below 100 feet above TDZE, the approach lights with red side row bars are not permitted to be used as a visual reference, even though the pilot is required to rely only on natural vision to descend below 100 feet above TDZE. The only visual references permitted to be used for EFVS operations below 100 feet above TDZE are the lights or markings of the threshold or the lights or markings of the TDZ.

Table 3-15A, Required Visual References, Part 91, § 91.175(c) and (l)

Required Visual References Using

Natural Vision

(14 CFR 91.175(c))

Required Visual References Using an

Enhanced Flight Vision System

(14 CFR 91.175(l))

For operation below DA or MDA:

At least one of the following visual references:

Approach light system

Threshold

Threshold markings

Threshold lights

Runway end identifier lights

Visual approach slope indicator

Touchdown zone

Touchdown zone markings

Touchdown zone lights

Runway

Runway markings

Runway lights

For operation below DA or MDA:

The following references, using the EFVS:

Approach light system

OR

BOTH paragraphs A and B --

A. The runway threshold, identified by at least one of the following –

§ beginning of the runway landing surface,

§ threshold lights, or

§ runway end identifier lights

AND

B. The touchdown zone, identified by at least one of the following –

§ runway touchdown zone landing surface,

§ touchdown zone lights,

§ touchdown zone markings, or

§ runway lights.

 

 

Descent below 100 feet height above TDZE:

At least one of the following visual references:

Approach light system, as long as the red terminating bars or red side row bars are also distinctly visible and identifiable

Threshold

Threshold markings

Threshold lights

Runway end identifier lights

Visual approach slope indicator

Touchdown zone

Touchdown zone markings

Touchdown zone lights

Runway

Runway markings

Runway lights

Descent below 100 feet height above TDZE:

The following references, using natural vision:

The lights or markings of the threshold

OR

The lights or markings of the touchdown zone

E.     Conditions of Approval. Before issuing C048 based on aircraft equipment and operation, inspectors shall ensure that each certificate holder/operator/program manager meets the following conditions:

1)      The authorized aircraft must be equipped with an EFVS certified for conducting operations under § 91.175(l) and (m) and must either have an FAA type design approval (TC or STC) or, for a foreign-registered aircraft, the EFVS must comply with all of the EFVS requirements of the U.S. regulations. Field approvals for EFVS installations are not authorized. An EFVS is an installed airborne system and must include:
a)      A head-up display (HUD) or equivalent display.

1.      EFVS sensor imagery and aircraft flight symbology must be presented so that they are clearly visible to the Pilot Flying (PF) in his normal position, line of vision, and looking forward along the flightpath.

2.      The EFVS display must be conformal. That is, the sensor imagery, aircraft flight symbology, and other cues that are referenced to the imagery and external scene must be aligned with and scaled to the external view.

b)      Sensors that provide a real-time image of the forward external scene topography.
c)      Computers and power supplies.
d)      Indications and controls.
e)      Aircraft flight symbology that includes at least the following:

1.      Airspeed,

2.      Vertical Speed (VS),

3.      Aircraft attitude,

4.      Heading,

5.      Altitude,

6.      Command guidance as appropriate for the approach to be flown,

7.      Path deviation indications,

8.      Flight Path Vector (FPV) cue, and

9.      Flight Path Angle (FPA) reference cue.

Note:      The FPA reference cue must be displayed with the pitch scale and must be selectable by the pilot for the appropriate approach descent angle.

Note:      An EFVS must not be confused with an Enhanced Vision System (EVS). An EVS is an electronic means to provide the flightcrew with a sensor‑derived or enhanced image of the external scene (e.g., millimeter wave radar, Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR)). Unlike an EFVS, an EVS does not necessarily provide the additional flight information/symbology required by § 91.175(m). An EVS might not use an HUD and might not be able to present the image and flight symbology in the same scale and alignment as the outside view. This system can provide SA to the pilot, but does not meet the regulatory requirements of § 91.175(m). As such, an EVS cannot be used as a means to determine enhanced flight visibility and descend below the DA or MDA.

2)      The pilot can continue the approach below DA or MDA to 100 feet above the TDZE if he or she determines that the enhanced flight visibility observed by the use of a certified EFVS is not less than the minimum visibility prescribed in the straight-in IAP being flown, and the pilot acquires the required visual references prescribed in § 91.175(l)(3). The pilot uses the EFVS to visually acquire the runway environment, confirm lateral alignment, maneuver to the extended runway centerline (RCL), and continue a normal descent from the DA or MDA to 100 feet above the TDZ.
a)      A pilot may continue the approach below 100 feet above the TDZE as long as the flight visibility, using natural vision, is sufficient for the required visual references to be seen. In addition, the aircraft must be continuously in a position from which a descent to landing can be made on the intended runway, at a normal rate of descent using normal maneuvers, and for part 121 and 135 certificate holders, at a descent rate that allows touchdown to occur within the TDZ.
b)      It should be noted that the rule does not require the EFVS to be turned off or the sensor image to be removed from the HUD in order to continue to a landing without reliance on the EFVS sensor image. In keeping with the requirements of the regulations, however, the decision to continue descending below 100 feet above the TDZE must be based on seeing the visual references required by the rule through the HUD by means of natural vision. An operator may not continue to descend beyond this point by relying on the sensor image displayed on the HUD.
c)      EFVS equipage may vary. Some aircraft may be equipped with a single EFVS display. Others may have an EFVS display and a separate repeater display located in or very near the primary field of view (FOV) of the non-flying pilot. Still others may be equipped with dual EFVS displays. The regulations do not require a repeater display or a separate EFVS for the non‑flying pilot, but neither do they preclude it. Certificate holders, operators, or program managers should develop procedures for EFVS operations appropriate to the equipment installed and the operation to be conducted. In establishing these procedures, both normal and abnormal or failure modes must be addressed for the various phases of the approach (e.g., before final approach fix (FAF), FAF to DA or MDA, and after reaching DA or MDA).
d)      Procedures should support appropriate levels of crew coordination with special emphasis on the transition to and reliance on natural vision. Each EFVS has a specified limit to the FOV. An offset final approach or crosswinds may affect use of the EFVS as well as when the decision is made to rely on natural vision for the primary reference. Also, specific pilot/crew decisionmaking and coordination must be addressed in the segment from FAF to DA or MDA (or point that a decision to rely on natural vision is made) and the EFVS segment (from DA or MDA down to 100 feet height above TDZE). The transition from enhanced vision to natural vision for landing is an especially important segment. Certificate holders, operators, or program managers should describe how common SA will be achieved—either procedurally when a single EFVS is used or through a combination of procedures and equipment when a repeater display or dual EFVSs are used.
3)      Training requirements with respect to aircraft type (make, model, and series (M/M/S)) and EFVS model/version shall be accomplished in accordance with the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report for the aircraft and EFVS equipment to be used. If an FSB report was not issued for a specific aircraft type and EFVS model/version, initial EFVS training shall be accomplished in the aircraft type and EFVS model/version to be used, and additional training shall be accomplished when a different EFVS model/version is used on the same aircraft type or when the same EFVS model/version is used on a different make aircraft. It should be noted that the sensor image, fidelity, characteristics, and symbology may differ, necessitating additional training. The flightcrew must be trained in the use of EFVS and demonstrate proficiency conducting straight-in IAPs, other than CAT II or CAT III (e.g., Category I Approach (CAT I) instrument landing system (ILS), nonprecision, approach procedures with vertical guidance (APV), etc.). Part 91K, 121, and 135 operators must have approved training programs. Part 125 operators are not required to have an approved training program. However, pilots of part 125 operators must complete an EFVS training program and must be qualified for EFVS operations by a check airman or an FAA inspector.
a)      Pilots should demonstrate knowledge of the regulatory requirements of § 91.175 and part 121, § 121.651, part 125, § 125.381, or part 135, § 135.225, as appropriate, for approach to straight-in landing operations below DA or MDA using an EFVS.
b)      Pilots operating an EFVS should be able to demonstrate knowledge and proficiency in the use of this equipment through training and checking as required by the type of operation. As a minimum, pilots should be knowledgeable and proficient in the following areas:

1.      The specific sensor technology to include limitations that impact enhanced vision under various environmental conditions (weather, system resolution, external interference, thermal characteristics, variability and unpredictability of sensor performance, etc.).

2.      EFVS operational considerations:

·        Use of HUD symbology.

·        Preflight and warmup requirements, as applicable.

·        Controls, modes, adjustments, and alignment of the EFVS/HUD.

·        Importance of the Design Eye Position (DEP) in acquiring the proper EFVS image.

·        System limitations and normal and abnormal procedures, including visual anomalies such as noise, blooming, and thermal crossover.

·        Use of EFVS on precision, nonprecision, and APV approaches.

·        Use of caged and uncaged modes of the EFVS, if applicable, in crosswind conditions.

3.      Impact of EFVS on other aircraft systems, such as autopilot minimum use height limitations.

4.      Runway lightning systems and ALS.

5.      Crew briefings, callouts, and crew coordination procedures.

6.      Visual references required by § 91.175(l)(3) and (4).

7.      Transition from EFVS imagery to natural vision and recognition of the required visual references.

8.      Obstacle clearance requirements for approach and missed approach:

·        Flight planning for obstacle clearance on a missed approach (e.g., go‑around or balked landing) below DA or MDA;

·        Use and significance of a published vertical descent angle (VDA) on IAPs;

·        Vertical Path (VPATH), VASI, precision approach path indicator (PAPI), published visual descent points (VDP), calculated VDPs; and

·        Use of the FPA reference cue and FPV cue.

9.      Missed approach requirements include: loss of required equipment, enhanced flight visibility, or required visual references for various phases of the approach (e.g., FAF to DA or MDA, and after passing DA or MDA).

c)      The flightcrew shall not conduct any operations authorized by this paragraph unless they are trained and qualified in the equipment and special procedures to be used. Each pilot in command (PIC) and second in command (SIC) must successfully complete an approved EFVS training program for parts 91K, 121, and 135 operators or a training program for part 125 operators, and must be certified as being qualified for EFVS operations by one of the certificate holder’s/operator’s/program manager’s check airmen who is properly qualified for EFVS operations or an FAA inspector.
4)      The Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) must contain EFVS provisions appropriate to the EFVS operation authorized.
5)      The minimum equipment list (MEL) should include EFVS provisions, if MEL relief for EFVS is sought.
6)      Part 121 and 135 operators must incorporate into their maintenance program the EFVS manufacturer’s requirements for maintenance and instructions for continued airworthiness. Part 91K and 125 operators must maintain the installed EFVS equipment in accordance with the aircraft manufacturer’s or the equipment manufacturer’s maintenance instructions.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C049, DESTINATION AIRPORT ANALYSIS.

A.     General. OpSpec C049 is an optional authorization for 14 CFR part 135 certificate holders that have been issued OpSpec A057 as an eligible on‑demand operator for reducing effective runway length requirements for turbine‑engine powered, large transport‑category airplanes that must be met before a flight’s release, provided certain requirements are met by the operator. MSpec C049 is an optional authorization for 14 CFR part 91 subpart K (part 91K) fractional ownership operations program managers to reduce effective runway length requirements for turbine‑engine powered, large transport‑category airplanes that must be met before a flight’s release, provided the program manager meets certain requirements.

B.     Destination Airport Analysis. FAA regulations governing operations under parts 91K and 135 provide for reducing effective runway length requirements for turbine‑engine powered, large transport‑category airplanes that must be met before a flight’s release, provided the operator meets certain requirements. For destination airports, normal landing distance requirements for part 91K and 135 operations are 60 percent of the available runway length. For alternate airport landing distance requirements, part 91K remains at 60 percent, while part 135 allows for 70 percent of the effective runway length. If an operator desires to reduce such requirements below 60 percent of the available runway length, that operator must meet regulatory requirements in two areas:

1)      Part 135 eligible on‑demand operator (OpSpec A057 must be issued) or part 91K program experience; and
2)      FAA-approved Destination Airport Analysis Program (DAAP). The DAAP must address specific regulatory requirements and be approved for use through that operator’s MSpecs or OpSpecs, as applicable.

C.     Experience Requirements. An eligible on‑demand operator is defined in part 135, § 135.4. Fractional ownership programs must meet the same requirements and are identified in part 91, §§ 91.1053 and 91.1055. The requirements include an on‑demand or fractional ownership program operation that meets the following requirements:

1)      Two‑Pilot Crew. The flightcrew must consist of at least two qualified pilots employed or contracted by the certificate holder.
2)      Flightcrew Experience. The crewmembers must have met the applicable requirements of 14 CFR part 61 and have the following experience and ratings:
a)      Total flight time for all pilots:

·        Pilot in command (PIC)—A minimum of 1,500 hours.

·        Second in command (SIC)—A minimum of 500 hours.

b)      For multiengine, turbine‑powered fixed‑wing, and powered‑lift aircraft, the following FAA certification and ratings requirements:

·        PIC—Airline transport pilot (ATP) and applicable type ratings.

·        SIC—Commercial pilot and instrument ratings.

c)      For all other aircraft, the following FAA certification and rating requirements:

·        PIC—Commercial pilot and instrument ratings.

·        SIC—Commercial pilot and instrument ratings.

3)      Pilot Operating Limitations. If the SIC of a fixed‑wing aircraft has fewer than 100 hours of flight time as SIC flying in the aircraft make and model, a type rating is required in the type of aircraft being flown, and the PIC is not an appropriately qualified check pilot, the PIC will make all takeoffs and landings in any of the following situations:
a)      Landings at the destination airport when a Destination Airport Analysis is required by part 135, § 135.385(f); and
b)      In any of the following conditions:

·        The prevailing visibility for the airport is at or below three‑quarters of a mile;

·        The Runway Visual Range (RVR) for the runway to be used is at or below 4,000 feet;

·        The runway to be used has water, snow, slush, ice, or similar contamination that may adversely affect aircraft performance;

·        The braking action on the runway to be used is reported to be less than “good”;

·        The crosswind component for the runway to be used is in excess of 15 knots;

·        Wind shear is reported in the vicinity of the airport; and

·        Any other condition in which the PIC determines it to be prudent to exercise the PIC’s authority.

4)      Crew Pairing. Either the PIC or the SIC must have at least 75 hours of flight time in that aircraft make or model and, if a type rating is required for that type aircraft, either as PIC or SIC.

D.    Deviations. The Administrator may authorize deviations from the total flight time requirements of § 91.1053(a)(1) or crew pairing requirements of § 91.1055(b) if the FAA office that issued the OpSpecs or MSpecs, as applicable, finds that the crewmember has comparable experience and can effectively perform the functions associated with the position in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. The Administrator may, at any time, terminate any grant of deviation authority issued under this provision. Grants of deviation may be authorized after consideration of the size and scope of the operation, the qualifications of the intended operating pilots, and the following circumstances:

1)      A newly authorized certificate holder does not employ any pilots who meet the minimum requirements of § 91.1055(b).
2)      An existing certificate holder adds to its fleet a new category and class aircraft not used before in its operation.
3)      An existing certificate holder establishes a new base to which it assigns pilots who will be required to become qualified on the aircraft operated from that base.

E.     DAAP Requirements. DAAP requirements are found in §§ 91.1025 and 135.23. Specifically, if required by § 91.1037(c) or § 135.385, as applicable, the Destination Airport Analysis establishing runway safety margins must include the following elements, supported by aircraft performance data supplied by the aircraft manufacturer for the appropriate runway conditions at the airport(s) to be used, if a reduction below 60 percent of the available runway length is planned:

1)      Pilot Qualifications and Experience. The operator is responsible for including all applicable regulatory requirements to establish a pilot’s eligibility to reduce effective runway planning requirements below 60 percent of the available runway length. Experience requirements address pilots with less than 100 hours of flight time in type (high minimum), total flight time, and crew pairing limitations (less than 75 hours in type).
2)      Aircraft Performance Data to Include Normal, Abnormal, and Emergency Procedures as Supplied by the Aircraft Manufacturer. Landing distance calculations should be completed using FAA-approved procedures and data. Consideration must be given to abnormal and emergency procedures, as some of these procedures may increase approach speeds and consequently, landing distance requirements. Additionally, planned takeoff weight for the departure from that airport should be evaluated before operating into that airport.
3)      Airport Facilities and Topography. Consider what services are available at the airport. Services such as communications, maintenance, and fueling may have an impact on operations to and from that airport. Terrain features may figure prominently in or near a particular airport. High, fast‑rising terrain may require special approach or DPs, which may impact performance requirements. For example, an aircraft certification criterion uses a 3.5 degree glideslope angle in computing landing distance data. glideslope angles of 2.5 to 3 degrees are common and have the effect of lengthening actual landing distance. Airports that sit on top of hilly terrain or downwind of mountainous terrain may occasionally experience conditions that include gusty conditions or winds shifting from a headwind to a tailwind. Such conditions are an important consideration during the landing maneuver, particularly during the flare, and increase landing distance requirements.
4)      Runway Conditions (including contamination). Runway features, such as slope and surface composition, can cause the actual landing distance to be longer than the calculated landing distance. Wet or slippery runways may preclude reductions from being taken and, in fact, require 115 percent of the distance derived from calculations, whether a reduction was used or not. This distance is calculated by increasing the distance required under dry conditions by an additional 15 percent (i.e., if Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) data show the actual landing distance will be 2,000 feet, the effective runway length required is 3,334 feet using 60 percent in this example; if the runway is expected to be wet or slippery upon arrival, the effective runway length required is 3,834 feet). Braking action always impacts the landing distance required as it deteriorates. Always consider the most current braking action report and the likelihood of an update before the flight’s arrival at a particular airport.
5)      Airport or Area Weather Reporting. Some airports may not have current weather reports and forecasts available for flight planning. Others may have automated observations for operational use. Still others may depend on a nearby airport’s forecast for operations. Area forecasts are also very valuable in evaluating weather conditions for a particular operation. Comparing forecasted conditions to current conditions will lend insight to changes taking place as weather systems move and forecasts are updated. Longer flight segments may lean more heavily on the forecast for the estimated time of arrival (ETA), as current conditions may change significantly as weather systems move. For example, if a flight is planned for 5 hours en route, the current conditions may not provide as much insight as a forecast for the arrival time if a cold front is expected to pass through the area while the flight is en route.
6)      Appropriate Additional Runway Safety Margins, If Required. Displaced thresholds, airport construction, and temporary obstacles (such as cranes and drawbridges) may impact runway length available for landing. Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) must be consulted before conducting a flight and are a good source of information on items such as these.
7)      Airplane Inoperative Equipment. Thrust reversers, on airplanes so equipped, provide some effect of reducing landing rollout distance. However, they are not considered in landing distance performance requirements and data provided by airplane manufacturers during certification. Rather, they provide an added margin of safety when used. If thrust reversers are inoperable or not installed, that additional safety margin does not exist. Also, their effectiveness is directly related to many factors, including pilot technique, reverser deployment rates, engine speeds, and environmental conditions (e.g., wet or contaminated runways in conjunction with crosswinds). Their actual effectiveness varies greatly. Other airplane systems that directly impact landing distance requirements include antiskid and ground spoilers (if installed), brake and tire condition, and landing flap selection, to name a few.
8)      Environmental Conditions. Many environmental conditions directly and indirectly affect actual landing distance requirements. Frontal passage usually causes winds to shift, sometimes causing a tailwind component. Tailwinds generally have a significantly greater impact on landing distance than headwinds. Thunderstorms in the vicinity of airports can introduce wind gusts from different directions, including wind shear, to varying degrees that are difficult to predict in advance or during the actual landing maneuver itself. Density and pressure altitudes also directly impact landing distance requirements. Landing distance tables may take these factors into account. However, variations from planned conditions and actual conditions at time of landing can vary and impact actual landing distance requirements. Stronger‑than‑forecasted tailwinds en route can cause the airplane to weigh more than projected, causing the actual landing distance to be longer than planned. If icing conditions were encountered while en route and temperatures above freezing are not reached before landing, any ice remaining behind removal devices or on areas that are not protected add additional weight and drag to the airplane, which in turn requires higher airspeeds and longer landing distances.
9)      Other Criteria That Affect Aircraft Performance. Many other variables affect landing distance. Approach speed, flap configuration, airplane weight, tire and brake condition, airplane equipment, and environmental conditions, to name a few, all directly impact required landing distance. With these and many other factors considered, it is the pilot who must apply them through the use of procedures and technique, the latter being highly variable. While specific additives are provided by manufacturer’s landing data, a pilot usually applies techniques acquired through experience in dealing with similar circumstances. Pilots may opt for an especially smooth landing on longer runways by “floating” in ground effect, before touchdown. While possibly yielding a smooth landing, this technique will add to the landing distance requirement, as landing data provided by manufacturer’s data through the certification process assumes a touchdown rate of descent of 8 feet per second. The following tables provide additional insight into factors that affect landing distance requirements and policies and procedures addressing them should be included in the operator’s FAA‑approved DAAP.

Table 3-16, Reduction of Landing Distance Planning Requirements

GENERAL OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

Certification Criteria

Operational Consideration

Effect on Safety Margin

3.5 degree glideslope angle

2.5 to 3 degrees typical.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

8 ft/s touchdown rate of descent

2 to 4 ft/s typical.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

Assumes all approach speed additives bled off before reaching the 50 ft height

5 to 10 knots exceedances not uncommon.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

Longer flare distance (“float”).

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Less-than-full braking effort.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Delays in obtaining full braking configuration.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Higher temperatures not accounted for (temperature accountability not required).

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Downhill runway slope not accounted for (runway slope accountability not required).

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Icy, slippery, or contaminated runway surface.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Airplane heavier at time of landing than predicted at time of dispatch.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Airplane higher than 50 ft over the threshold.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Airport pressure altitude higher than predicted at time of dispatch.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

OTHER VARIABLE CONSIDERATIONS

Steady‑State Variables

Non Steady‑State Variables

Actual Operations vs. Flight Test

Actual vs. Forecast Conditions

Runway slope

Wind gusts/turbulence

Flare technique

Runway or direction (affecting slope)

Temperature

Flightpath deviations

Time to activate deceleration devices

Airplane weight

Runway surface condition (dry, wet, icy, texture)

 

Flightpath angle

Approach speed

Brake/tire condition

 

Rate of descent at touch down

Environmental conditions (for example, temperature, wind, pressure altitude)

Speed additives

 

Approach/touchdown speed

Engine failure

Crosswinds

 

Height at threshold

 

 

 

Speed control

 

F.      Operator Responsibility. Operators are responsible for preparing their DAAP if they desire to reduce landing distance planning requirements below 60 percent of the effective runway length. Operators must ensure that their policies and procedures reflect at least minimum regulatory requirements and adequate policies and procedures before submitting their program to the FAA for approval.

G.    Checklist. The checklist is available electronically in the guidance subsystem of the automated Operations Safety System (OPSS) in association with OpSpec/MSpec C049. The checklist should be used to ensure that the operator and its DAAP meet minimum regulatory requirements. This checklist should be completed by the operator and be provided to the FAA office having approval authority, along with the DAAP and request for approval and issuance of OpSpec C049 or MSpec C049, as applicable.

OPSPEC C050, SPECIAL PILOT IN COMMAND AIRPORT QUALIFICATIONS.

A.     General. OpSpec C050 is used to authorize 14 CFR part 121 air carrier certificate holders to conduct instrument flight rules (IFR) operations into special airports requiring special airport qualification in accordance with the provisions and limitations of the OpSpec and part 121, § 121.445. For detailed information refer to Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5, paragraph 4‑602.

B.     Operations into Special Pilot in Command (PIC) Qualification Airports. Air carriers conducting domestic, flag, and supplemental operations require the PIC to be qualified for operations into special PIC qualification airports. These PICs must be qualified in accordance with § 121.445.

1)      OpSpec C050 is used to authorize special PIC qualification airports for domestic, flag, and supplemental part 121 air carriers.
2)      The list of special qualification airports can be found in the automated Operations Safety System (OPSS) guidance subsystem in association with OpSpec C050 and at http://fsims.faa.gov/PICResults.aspx?mode=Publication&doctype=OPSS Guidance.

C.     PIC Requirements. If both the ceiling and the visibility minimums are not satisfied as detailed in § 121.445(c), then the qualification requirements of § 121.445(b) apply. Section 121.445(b) specifies that for a pilot to serve as PIC on a flight to a special qualification airport, the PIC must have the benefit of one of the following:

1)      The PIC, within the preceding 12 calendar‑months, has made a takeoff and landing at that airport while serving as a pilot flightcrew member;
2)      The second in command (SIC), within the preceding 12 calendar-months, has made a takeoff and landing at that airport while serving as a pilot flightcrew member; or
3)      Within the preceding 12 calendar‑months, the PIC has qualified by using pictorial means acceptable to the Administrator for that airport.

D.    Operator Assessment of Airport Factors. The operator assesses the nature and complexity of certain factors associated with the airport (e.g., high altitude, foreign airport, specific terrain features, unique weather patterns may be present singly or in combination). This assessment determines whether the airport should be included in the air carrier’s airport listing in OpSpec  C067 or the provisions of OpSpec C050 apply. For instance, an airport with an approved IFR and or visual flight rules (VFR) approach/departure procedure and an unusual characteristic, such as a nearby politically sensitive international boundary or high terrain, may require designation as a special PIC qualification airport. In this case, the airport would need to be listed in OpSpec C067 and the provisions of OpSpec C050 also apply. Refer to Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5, paragraph 4‑602, and OpSpec C067.

E.     Addition and Removal From the Special Airport Qualification List. The air carriers, in conjunction with the Air Transportation Division (AFS‑200), will determine any airport additions or deletions from the special airport qualification list. These changes will be made on a quarterly basis.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C051, TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES. C051 is issued to all airplane operators who conduct any flight operations under instrument flight rules (IFR). FAA Order 8260.31, Foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures, current edition, provides direction and guidance on acceptance of foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS). Additional information concerning TERPS is in Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 3. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec H101.

OPSPEC/MSPEC/LOA C052, Straight‑in Non‑Precision, APV, and Category I Precision Approach and Landing Minima—ALL AIRPORTS.

A.     Applicability. Paragraph C052 is applicable to all operators conducting airplane operations under 14 CFR parts 91 subpart K (part 91K), 121, 125 (including the Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) 125 operators), and 135. Paragraph C052 specifies the types of instrument approaches the operator is authorized to conduct under instrument flight rules (IFR) and prohibits the use of other types of instrument approaches, and authorizes the lowest straight‑in, non-precision approach procedures with vertical guidance (APV), and Category I Approach (CAT I) precision approach and landing minima. Paragraph C052 is applicable to operators as follows:

1)      OpSpec C052 is required to be issued to operators conducting operations under part 121 or 125; OpSpec C052 is required to be issued to operators using turbojets in operations under part 135; and OpSpec C052 is optional for operators conducting operations under part 135 with all other aircraft.
2)      LOA C052 is required for operators conducting operations under part 125 that are issued a deviation from the certificate and OpSpec requirements of part 125 (125M).
3)      MSpec C052 is required to be issued to those program managers conducting operations under part 91K.
4)      For helicopter authorization, see OpSpecs H101, H103, and H117.

Note:      Questions regarding the issuance of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 should be directed to the Air Transportation Division (AFS‑200) at 202‑267‑8166, the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400) at 202‑385‑4623, or the General Aviation and Commercial Division (AFS-800) at 202‑267‑8212.

B.     Types of Instrument Approaches Authorized. In paragraph C052, Table 1 specifies the types of instrument approaches the operator is authorized to conduct under IFR and prohibits the use of other types of instrument approaches. In the automated Operations Safety System (OPSS), the principal operations inspector (POI) will select the approaches that apply to the operator. Reference the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) for a detailed description of each approach.

1)      Before authorizing a type of instrument approach procedure (IAP), the POI, principal maintenance inspector (PMI), and principal avionics inspector (PAI) must ensure that the operator has revised the training and operations manuals, established that flightcrew training and checking requirements have been met, and that the equipment and systems are appropriate for the types of approaches to be authorized.
2)      Refer to Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 1 for information on required training for various types of approaches.
3)      All the approaches approved by OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 must be published in accordance with 14 CFR part 97 or the foreign State authority.
4)      If the certificate holder/program manager/operator is authorized to conduct Global Positioning System (GPS) procedures as listed in Table 1 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052, the aircraft and equipment must be listed in Table 1 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA B034.
5)      Required Navigation Performance (RNP) approaches.
a)      Area Navigation (RNAV) (RNP) approaches are different from RNAV (GPS) approaches. Due to the equipment qualification and the associated procedures and training for the lower minima of the RNAV (RNP) approaches, they are labeled as “special aircraft and aircrew authorization required (SAAAR).” C052 does not authorize RNP SAAAR operations. Authorization for RNAV (RNP) approaches is through nonstandard OpSpecs (300‑series OpSpecs, which requires FAA headquarters (HQ) approval), such as OpSpec C384. (Refer to Advisory Circular (AC) 90-101, Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures with SAAAR (current edition).)
b)      Foreign RNP-like procedures not designed to U.S. RNP SAAAR criteria are authorized with a  nonstandard C358 authorization. This is a nonstandard OpSpec paragraph, that requires FAA HQ approval.
6)      Three groups of IAPs may be authorized in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052:
a)      Column one of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 provides for the authorization of nonprecision IAPs without vertical guidance. Nonprecision Approaches (NPA) must be trained and conducted in accordance with an approved procedure that ensures descent will not go below minimum descent altitude (MDA) unless the required visual references for continuing the approach, as specified in part 91, § 91.175, are present.

1.      The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) term for an airport surveillance radar (ASR) approach is surveillance radar approach (SRA). Belgium labels these approaches as “SRE.” Select “ASR/SRA/SRE” in column one to authorize these approaches.

2.      Part 97 very high frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR), very high frequency (VHF) omni‑directional range station/distance measuring equipment (VOR/DME), non-directional radio beacon (NDB), RNAV and GPS (lateral navigation (LNAV) or “S” straight-in minima), Localizer (LOC), localizer back-course, localizer-type directional aid (LDA), or Simplified Directional Facility (SDF) approaches may not be conducted using vertical navigation (VNAV) and decision altitude/height (DA/H) in lieu of minimum descent altitude/height (MDA/H) unless authorized in paragraph C073.

b)      Column two of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 provides for the authorization of APV. These approaches provide vertical guidance, but do not meet the same standards as precision approach systems (e.g., instrument landing system (ILS), microwave landing system (MLS), and GPS Landing System (GLS)). These APVs are trained using an approved method that allows descent to a published Decision Altitude (DA).

1.      APV approaches may contain localizer performance with vertical guidance (LPV) minima requiring wide area augmentation system (WAAS) and LNAV/VNAV minima that may be flown with either barometric vertical navigation (baro-VNAV) or WAAS‑based VNAV. These are authorized in column two of Table 1 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. See section C below to determine applicable lines of minima. The AIM and the approach chart legend also has this information.

2.      To authorize RNAV APVs, select “RNAV (GPS)” (for part 97 approaches) or “RNAV Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)” (for foreign approaches) from the selectable menu for column two of the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 template Table 1.

c)      Column three of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 provides for the authorization of CAT I precision IAPs from an electronic glideslope (ILS, MLS, or GLS).

1.      “*RNAV/ILS” in column three may only be selected in C052 if the operator meets the requirements in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063. For example, the United Arab Emirates publishes approach plates for Dubai titled, “RNAV ILS” or “ILS RNAV.” The RNAV portion of the approach constitutes an RNAV Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR).

2.      For pilot qualifications, the initial qualification segment of the certificate holder’s approved ILS precision runway monitor (PRM) training program must be successfully completed prior to conducting ILS PRM approach and landing operations. Initial training materials must include published ILS PRM approach chart materials, the AIM, related Notices to Airmen (NOTAM), and the latest available FAA-produced and -approved ILS PRM video entitled “ILS PRM Approaches Information for Pilots” that each pilot must view, and which appears on the FAA Web site at http://www.faa.gov/pilots/training and http://www.faa.gov/education_research/training/prm. Pilots trained in PRM operations under previous guidance are not required to retrain using the new version of the video. However, pilots are required to know the change in operations of Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) during PRM operations, as well as the required actions in response to a controller instruction. Testing of knowledge objectives is required as part of initial and recurrent qualification training. See subparagraph K.

Figure 3-66E, Sample OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 Table 1

Table 1—Authorized Instrument Approach Procedures

Nonprecision Approaches Without Vertical Guidance

Approaches With Vertical Guidance

(APV)

Precision Approach Procedures

(ILS, MLS, & GLS)

 

 

 

ASR/SRA/SRE

LDA w/glideslope

ILS

AZI

RNAV (GPS)

ILS/PRM

AZI/DME

RNAV (GNSS)

MLS

AZI/DME Back Course

LDA PRM

PAR

GPS

LDA PRM DME

ILS/DME

LDA

SDF w/glideslope

*RNAV/ILS

LDA/DME

LOC BC w/glideslope

GLS

LOC

 

 

LOC BC

 

 

LOC/DME

 

 

NDB

 

 

NDB/DME

 

 

RNAV (GPS)

 

 

VOR/DME RNAV

 

 

SDF

 

 

TACAN

 

 

VOR

 

 

VOR/DME

 

 

LOC/BC/DME

 

 

C.     GPS Authorization. Volume 4, Chapter 1, Section 2 provides more extensive guidance on GPS and GPS WAAS equipment. The applicant must show that it has the ability to safely conduct GPS operations.

1)      Background. GPS approach procedures have evolved from overlays of existing conventional approaches to stand-alone GPS approaches. (Overlay approaches are predicated upon the design criteria of the ground-based Navigational Aid (NAVAID) used as the basis of the approach and do not adhere to the design criteria for stand-alone GPS approaches.) Due to this transition, the FAA has revised the titles of the approach procedures to reflect these upgrades. The titles of all remaining GPS overlay procedures have been revised on the approach charts to read “… or GPS” (e.g., VOR or GPS RWY 24). Therefore, all the approaches that can be used by GPS now contain “GPS” in the title (e.g., “VOR or GPS RWY 24,” “GPS RWY 24,” or “RNAV (GPS) RWY 24”). During these GPS approaches, underlying ground-based NAVAIDs are not required to be operational and associated aircraft avionics need not be installed, operational, turned on, or monitored (although monitoring of the underlying approach is suggested when equipment is available and operational). Existing overlay approaches may be requested using the GPS title. For example, request “GPS RWY 24” to fly the VOR or GPS RWY 24 approach.

Note:      VOR/DME RNAV approaches will continue to be identified as VOR/DME RNAV RWY (Number) (e.g., VOR/DME RNAV RWY 24). VOR/DME RNAV procedures which can be flown by GPS will be annotated with “or GPS” (e.g., VOR/DME RNAV or GPS RWY 24).

2)      WAAS. As the satellite navigation evolution continues, WAAS has been developed to improve the accuracy, integrity and availability of GPS signals. WAAS receivers support all basic GPS approach functions and will provide additional capabilities. One of the major improvements provided by WAAS is the ability to generate an electronic glidepath, independent of ground equipment or barometric aiding. There are differences in the capabilities of the WAAS receivers. Some approach certified receivers will only support a glidepath with performance similar to baro-VNAV, and are authorized to fly the LNAV/VNAV line of minima on the RNAV (GPS) approach charts. Receivers with additional capability such as update rate and integrity limits are authorized to fly the LPV or localizer performance (LP) line of minima. WAAS approach procedures may provide LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LP, and LNAV minimums, and are charted as RNAV (GPS) RWY (Number) (e.g., RNAV (GPS) RWY 24). For further guidance, please see the AIM or contact AFS-400 at FAA HQ.

Note:        Some WAAS installations do not support approaches at all, while some do not support LPV or LP lines of minima.

3)      Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS). An additional augmentation system, LAAS has been developed to provide precision approaches similar to ILS at airfields. These precise approaches are based on GPS signals augmented by ground equipment. The international term for LAAS is Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) and the approaches that use the equipment are referred to as GBAS Landing System (GLS) or GNSS Landing System approaches. LAAS equipment consists of a GBAS Ground Facility (GGF) supported by a minimum of four accurately surveyed reference stations and an uplink antenna called the VHF Data Broadcast (VDB) antenna, as well as an aircraft LAAS receiver. The GGF can support multiple runway ends or landing areas served by procedures that are within the service coverage.
a)      Similar to LPV and ILS approaches, GLS provides lateral and vertical guidance. By design, LAAS was developed as an “ILS look-alike” system from the pilot perspective. Unlike WAAS, LAAS may support approaches to Category III Approach (CAT III) minimums in the future due to its nearly identical performance standards to ILS in terms of accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity. Portions of the GLS approach prior to and after the Final Approach Segment (FAS) may be based on RNAV or RNP segments. Therefore, a switch transition between RNAV or RNP and GLS modes may be required. In the future, the GGF may be able to support portions of the procedure outside the FAS.
b)      There are also a few differences from LPV, GLS, and ILS approaches in terms of charting, procedure selection, and identification. The LAAS procedure is titled “GLS Rwy XX” on the approach chart. In the aircraft, pilots will select a five-digit GBAS channel number or associated approach within the flight management system (FMS) menu. Selection of the GBAS channel number by pilot or FMS also tunes the VDB. The VDB provides information to the airborne receiver where the guidance is synthesized. The LAAS procedure is identified by a four alpha-numeric character field referred to as the Reference Path Indicator (RPI) or approach ID. This identifier is analogous with the IDENT feature of the ILS. The RPI is charted. Following procedure selection, confirmation that the correct LAAS procedure is loaded can be accomplished by cross‑checking the charted RPI with the cockpit displayed RPI or audio identification of the RPI with Morse code (for some systems). Once selected and identified, the pilot will fly the GLS approach using the same techniques as an ILS.
c)      Additional training may be required to authorized GLS approach and landing operations for commercial operators. If the operator is authorized to fly GLS approaches, flightcrews must be able to tune, identify, and conduct all stages of a GLS approach, including different types of missed approaches. However, some or all of these requirements may be demonstrated when conducting other operations, and may require little or no additional training. For example, an RNAV Missed Approach Segment (MAS) on a GLS may be demonstrated on another required approach, and the actions required to tune and identify GLS may require nearly identical actions on the part of the crew, based on the type of avionics used. Inspector guidance will be updated as GLS policy and procedures continue to evolve. If you have any questions on GLS training issues, contact AFS-400 at 202‑385‑4586.

D.    Crew Training and Qualification. Crew training and qualification for all authorized instrument approach operations should meet the requirements in Volume 3, Chapter 19; AC 120‑53, Guidance for Conducting and Use of Flight Standardization Board Evaluations (current edition); 14 CFR parts 61, 91, 121, 125, and 135; and Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) requirements, if applicable.

E.     Authorized Criteria for Approved IAPs. For operations to all U.S. airports, operators are authorized to execute instrument approach operations on IAPs that have been published:

1)      Under part 97.
2)      Under criteria in the current edition of Order 8260.3, United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS).
3)      Under any other criteria authorized by AFS-400.
4)      By the U.S. military agency operating the U.S. military airport.

Note:      All published Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) in the United States meet this requirement.

F.      Runway Visual Range (RVR). Touchdown zone (TDZ) RVR is controlling for all operations authorized in paragraph C052. All other RVR reports are advisory. A mid-field RVR report may substitute for an inoperative TDZ RVR report, except for Special Authorization (SA) CAT I operations as described in subparagraph J.

G.    Continuous Descent Final Approach (CDFA) Technique. CDFA is a specific technique for flying the FAS of an IAP as a continuous descent, without level‑off, from an altitude at or above the final approach fix (FAF) altitude, typically to a point approximately 50 feet above the runway threshold or the point where the flare will begin. For approaches that do not use LNAV/VNAV, LPV, or an ILS/MLS/GLS glidepath, a CDFA technique is recommended. When electronic or a prestored computed vertical guidance is not used, Vertical Speed (VS) or Flight Path Angle (FPA) may be used to achieve a CDFA profile. Compared to the “step down” descent approach technique, where the aircraft descends step‑by‑step prior to the next minimum altitude, a CDFA technique has safety and operational advantages, such as standardization of procedures, simplification of the decision process (one technique and one decision at one point), and use of a stable flightpath. However, precision approach (ILS, MLS, GLS) obstacle penetration is not provided. The continuous descent approach technique can be flown on almost any published approach when VNAV or ILS/MLS/GLS is not available.

1)      When using a CDFA technique, the decision point to determine if the flightcrew has the required visual references in sight to continue below the MDA may only be treated like a DA in reference to approach profiles and procedures. The operator must add an altitude increment to the MDA (e.g., 50 feet) to determine the altitude at which the missed approach must be initiated in order to prevent descent below the MDA or flight beyond the missed approach point (MAP).
2)      The operator should ensure that, prior to conducting CDFA, each flightcrew member intending to fly CDFA profiles undertakes training appropriate to the aircraft, equipment, and the different kinds of IAPs to be flown.

H.    Reduced Precision CAT I Landing Minima. Paragraph C052 specifies the equipment usage requirements and part 97 SIAP depiction required for reduced CAT I landing minima. Credit is given for flight director (FD), autopilot, and head-up display (HUD) usage. The POI should allow the use of 1800 RVR minima to runways without centerline (CL) lighting, or TDZ lighting, provided the SIAP contains a straight-in ILS minimum with the chart note, “RVR 1800 Authorized with use of FD or AP or HUD to DA.” Additionally, the operator issued C052 is allowed to continue to use 1800 RVR line of minima on SIAPs without the above procedural note when the TDZ and/or CL lights are inoperative, if the approach is conducted in accordance with the equipment requirements outlined in paragraph C052. This is also reflected in the published inoperative components table for IAPs.

1)      FAA Approval. Operators may continue to use the standard CAT I minima based solely on ground lighting systems without alteration of current authorizations or procedures. Operators can utilize reduced CAT I landing minima provided the SIAP contains a straight-in ILS minimum with the chart note, “RVR 1800 Authorized with use of FD or AP or HUD to DA.”
2)      Conditions of Approval. Before issuing the C052 authorization to use reduced CAT I minima based on aircraft equipment and operation, inspectors shall ensure that each operator meets the following conditions:
a)      Aircraft and Associated Aircraft Systems. The authorized aircraft must be equipped with an FD, autopilot, or HUD that provides guidance to DA. The FD, autopilot, or HUD must be used in approach mode (e.g., tracking the Localizer (LOC) and glideslope). Inspectors must establish that the FD, autopilot, or HUD are certified for use down to an altitude of 200 feet above ground level (AGL) or lower.
b)      Flightcrew Procedures. The flightcrew must use the FD, autopilot, or HUD to DA or to the initiation of a missed approach, unless visual references with the runway environment are established, thus allowing safe continuation to a landing.

1.      If the FD, autopilot, or HUD malfunctions or becomes disconnected, the flightcrew must execute a missed approach unless the runway environment is in sight.

2.      Single‑pilot operators are prohibited from using the FD to reduced landing minima without the accompanying use of an autopilot or HUD.

c)      Flightcrew Qualification. Each member of the flightcrew must have demonstrated proficiency using the FD, autopilot, or HUD (as appropriate) on the most recent instrument proficiency check (IPC) required in Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 4, paragraph 4‑259C and part 61, §§ 61.57(e)(2) and 61.58, § 91.1069, part 121, § 121.441, part 125, § 125.291, and part 135, § 135.297 (as applicable), or in an approved AQP.

I.       SA CAT I. Paragraph C052 contains selectable text which authorizes SA CAT I ILS approaches to runways without TDZ or runway centerline (RCL) lights with a radar altimeter decision height (DH) as low as 150 feet and a visibility minimum as low as RVR 1400 when using an HUD to DH. The operator must meet all of the following requirements:

1)      Aircraft Requirements. To be approved for SA CAT I, each airplane must be certified and maintained for Category II Approach (CAT II) operations. Those airplanes and equipment must be listed in Table 2 of OpSpec C059. The authorized airplane(s) must be equipped with an HUD that is approved for CAT II or CAT III operations.
2)      Training Requirements. The flightcrew must be current and qualified for CAT II operations. The flightcrew must demonstrate proficiency in ILS approaches and landings to this minimum or to a lower minimum using the HUD prior to commencing any SA CAT I operations. This requirement applies both to initial eligibility for SA CAT I as well as recurrent training.
3)      Operational Requirements:
a)      The flightcrew must use the HUD to DH in a mode used for CAT II or CAT III operations. This mode provides greater lateral and vertical flightpath accuracy and more sensitive alarm limits.
b)      The flightcrew must use the HUD to DH, or to the initiation of missed approach, unless adequate visual references with the runway environment are established that allow safe continuation to a landing. Should the HUD malfunction during the approach, the flightcrew must execute a missed approach unless visual reference to the runway environment has been established.
c)      The crosswind component on the landing runway must be 15 knots or less, unless the airplane flight manual’s crosswind limitations are more restrictive.
d)      The part 97 SIAP must have a published SA CAT I minimum. The first procedures with these minimums will be published in 2010.
e)      Unlike the other approaches authorized in C052, the mid RVR report may not be substituted for the TDZ RVR report when using SA CAT I minima.
f)        Single‑pilot operators are prohibited from using SA CAT I landing minima.

J.      Instrument Approach Operations at Foreign Airports. Paragraph C052 specifies the requirements for non-precision, APV, and precision approach criteria at foreign airports.

1)      The procedure must be constructed by the foreign state using criteria that is derived from (or based on) U.S. Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) or ICAO Doc 8168, Procedures for Air Navigation Services—Aircraft Operations (PANS-OPS), or it must be based on other criteria approved by AFS-400.
2)      Visibility minima must be based on U.S. criteria, European Union (EU) or European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) criteria, or the criteria in ICAO DOC 9365, Manual of All Weather Operations.
3)      The MDA/H or DA/H must be at least 200 feet height above touchdown (HAT) or height above threshold (HATh) unless otherwise authorized by an OpSpec/MSpec/LOA.
4)      Sequenced flashing lights are not required when determining if the Approach Light System (ALS) is equivalent to U.S. standards.
5)      This section also specifies the requirements for determining DA/MDA when an Obstacle Clearance Limit (OCL) or Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OCA) is specified.

K.    PRM. The FAA began the Multiple Parallel Approach Program to research whether ILS approaches to parallel runways would improve capacity. The objective was to achieve improvements in airport arrival rates through the conduct of simultaneous, closely spaced parallel approaches. That objective is being met using PRM.

1)      ILS/PRM and LDA/PRM Approaches. Where parallel RCLs are 4,300 feet apart or less, but no less than 3,000 feet, simultaneous ILS approaches may be conducted. Similarly, where parallel RCLs are 3,000 feet apart or less, but no less than 750 feet, simultaneous offset instrument approaches (SOIA) may be conducted with ILS approaches. Those approaches are labeled “ILS/PRM” and “LDA/PRM,” respectively, on instrument approach charts. Air traffic control (ATC) provides an air traffic controller using special PRM radar during these approaches. That controller is known as the final monitor controller.
2)      The Breakout Maneuver. Working with industry, the FAA conducted extensive analyses of simulation data and determined that the implementation of PRM and SOIA approach operations to closely spaced parallel runways requires additional crew training. The primary focus of this training is to raise each pilot’s situational awareness in ILS/PRM and LDA/PRM operations. The breakout maneuver must be flown manually.
a)      Traffic Alert. One important element of the additional training is the pilot’s understanding of the difference between a normal missed approach initiated by a pilot, and a breakout initiated by a PRM final monitor controller. It must be clear to flightcrews that the words “Traffic Alert,” when used by the final monitor controller, signal critical instructions that the pilot must act on promptly to preserve adequate separation from an airplane straying into the adjoining approach path.
b)      ATC Breakout Maneuver Command to Turn and/or Descend, Climb, or Maintain Altitude. The flightcrew must immediately follow the final monitor controller’s vertical (climb/descend/maintain altitude) and horizontal (turn) commands. If the flightcrew is operating the TCAS in the traffic advisory (TA)/Resolution Advisory (RA) mode and receives a TCAS RA at any time while following the final monitor controller’s command, the flightcrew will simultaneously continue to turn to the controller’s assigned heading and follow the vertical guidance provided by the TCAS RA.
c)      Time-to-Turn Standard. Regardless of airplane type, tests and data analysis revealed that pilots normally passed through an angle of bank of at least 3 degrees while rolling into a breakout turn within 10 seconds of receiving a breakout command. (Bank angles of between 20 and 30 degrees were normally achieved during the breakout.) The operator must show that its pilots can readily meet this time-to-initiate-turn standard prior to the POI authorizing ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM approaches in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. Flightcrews are required to manually fly the breakout maneuver unless otherwise approved by AFS‑200 or AFS‑800 as appropriate (AFS‑200 and AFS-800 must have concurrence from AFS‑400 to approve breakout in auto modes). The air carrier should demonstrate its ability to meet this standard by having representative pilots perform the breakout maneuver while the POI or the POI’s designated representative observes. The demonstration should conform to procedures contained in the air carrier’s approved operating manual for its flightcrews. The commercial operator should submit procedures to its POI for this authorization.

Note:      In a breakout, ATC will never command a descent below the applicable minimum vector altitude (MVA), thus assuring that no flight will be commanded to descend below 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle during a breakout.

3)      ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM, and the Use of TCAS. TCAS may be operated in TA/RA mode while executing ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM approaches. However, when conducting these operations, pilots must understand that the final monitor controller’s instruction to turn is the primary means for ensuring safe separation from another airplane. Pilots must bear in mind that TCAS does not provide separation in the horizontal plane; TCAS accomplishes separation by commands solely in the vertical plane. Therefore, during final approach only the final monitor controller has the capability to command a turn for lateral separation. Flightcrews are expected to follow any ATC instruction to turn.
a)      ATC Command to Turn with TCAS RA. In the unlikely event that a flightcrew should simultaneously receive a final monitor controller’s command to turn and a TCAS RA, the flightcrew must follow both the final monitor controller’s turn command and the TCAS RA’s climb or descent command.
b)      TCAS RA Alone. In the extremely unlikely event that an RA occurs without a concurrent breakout instruction from the final monitor controller, the pilot should follow the RA and advise the controller of the action taken as soon as possible. In this instance, it is likely that a breakout command would follow.
c)      TCAS Not Required. An operative TCAS is not required to conduct ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM approaches.
4)      Pilot Training. Refer to Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 5 for information on pilot training required prior to authorizing PRM approaches.
5)      ILS/PRM and LDA/PRM Authorizations. Operators will be authorized ILS/PRM and/or LDA/PRM approaches in the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 templates. Definitions of ILS/PRM and LDA/PRM have been added to the A002 template.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C054, SPECIAL LIMITATIONS AND PROVISIONS FOR INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES AND IFR LANDING MINIMUMS.

A.     General. C054 is issued to all operators conducting operations under 14 CFR part 121. It is also issued to operators who conduct turbine‑powered airplane operations under 14 CFR parts 91 subpart K (part 91K) and 135. It is not issued to part 135 operators who do not operate turbine‑powered airplanes unless that operator also conducts operations under part 121. C054 specifies the Runway Visual Range (RVR) landing minimum equivalent to the published RVR landing minimum that must be used by high‑minimum pilots (less than 100 hours in aircraft type). It also specifies that before a pilot in command (PIC) of a turbojet can conduct an instrument approach with visibility conditions reported to be below three‑quarters of a mile or RVR 4,000 (basic turbojet landing minimums), the pilot must be specifically qualified and authorized to use standard landing minimums. See Volume 4, Chapter 2 for information on the qualification and authorization requirements to use the standard landing minimums.

B.     RVR 3,000 and RVR 5,000 for High‑Minimum Pilots. RVR 3,000 and its correlation of RVR 5,000 for high minimum pilots was added to the RVR landing minimum table to recognize the medium intensity approach lighting system (MALS) with runway alignment indicator lights (RAIL)/simplified short approach lighting system (SSALS) visibility credit given in C053.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C055, ALTERNATE AIRPORT IFR WEATHER MINIMUMS.

A.     Applicability. OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C055 is an optional authorization available to all operators conducting airplane operations under 14 CFR parts 91 subpart K (part 91K), 121, 125 (including the Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) 125 operators), and 135. C055 provides a table from which the operator, during the initial dispatch or flight release planning segment of a flight, derives alternate airport instrument flight rules (IFR) weather minimums in those cases that require an alternate airport.

Note:      Direct questions regarding the issuance of C055 to the Air Transportation Division (AFS‑200) at 202‑267‑8166, the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400) at 202‑385‑4625, or the General Aviation and Commercial Division (AFS‑800) at 202‑267‑8212.

B.     Airports With At Least One Operational Navigation Facility. The first part of the table is for airports with at least one operational navigation facility providing a straight‑in Nonprecision Approach (NPA) procedure, a Category (CAT) I precision approach, or, when applicable, a circling maneuver from an instrument approach procedure (IAP). Operators obtain the required ceiling and visibility by adding 400 feet to the minimum descent altitude/height (MDA/H) or, when applicable, the authorized decision altitude/height (DA/H) and by adding 1 statute mile or 1,600 meters to the authorized landing minimum. Additives are applied only to the height value to determine the required ceiling.

C.      Airports With at Least Two Operational Navigation Facilities. The second part of the table is for airports with at least two operational navigation facilities, each providing a straight‑in NPA procedure or a straight‑in CAT I precision approach procedure to different suitable runways. Operators obtain the required ceiling and visibility by adding 200 feet to the higher MDA/H or DA/H of the two approaches used and by adding one‑half statute mile or 800 meters of visibility to the higher authorized landing minimum of the two approaches used. Additives are applied only to the height value to determine the required ceiling.

D.    Higher Alternate Minimums When Using Two Operational Navigation Facilities. In some cases, it is possible to have higher alternate minimums when using two operational navigation facilities than when using one.

1)      For example, an airport with one straight‑in NPA procedure with an MDA/H of 400 feet and 1 statute mile visibility would have alternate minimums of 800 feet and 2 statute mile visibility (400 feet + 400 feet and 1 statute mile + 1 statute mile).
2)      On the other hand, an airport with two straight‑in approaches, one a straight‑in precision approach with a DA/H of 200 feet and one‑half statute mile visibility, and the other a straight‑in NPA with an MDA/H of 700 feet and 1 statute mile visibility would have alternate minimums of 900 feet and 1 1/2 statute mile visibility (200 feet + 700 feet and one‑half statute mile + 1 statute mile).
3)      Since the OpSpecs require that operators use the higher ceiling and visibility, the minimums for the airport with two straight‑in approaches are higher than for the airport with only one straight‑in approach. When this situation exists, the operator may elect to consider the airport as having only one straight‑in approach procedure and may add the higher buffer requirement (400 feet and 1 statute mile) to whichever straight‑in approach procedure provides for the lowest possible ceiling and visibility minimums.

E.     Using Two Different Runways. Two different runways may be the different ends of the same physical runway surface (for example, runway 4 and runway 22 are two different runways). When determining the suitability of a runway, wind, including gust, must be forecast to be within operating limits, including reduced visibility limits, and should be within the manufacturer’s maximum demonstrated crosswind. All conditional forecast elements below the lowest applicable operating minima must be taken into account. The operator should also take into account any other potential runway limitations, such as Notices to Airmen (NOTAM), which may affect the landing at the estimated time of arrival (ETA).

F.      Credit for Alternate Minimums. OpSpec/MSpec C055 (see revision history in the automated Operations Safety System (OPSS) guidance subsystem) now allows credit for alternate minimums based on engine inoperative CAT II or CAT III capability. This change is in the third row of the Alternate Airport Table. Flightcrews having that capability may take credit for engine inoperative CAT II/III qualified aircraft and adjust minimums accordingly. The alternate minimums are based on CAT III engine inoperative requirements. The following are some, but not all, of those requirements. See criteria in the current edition of AC 120‑28, Criteria for Approval of Category III Weather Minima for Takeoff, Landing, and Rollout, for further engine inoperative requirements.

1)      Aircraft receives approval for engine inoperative CAT III.
2)      Operators establish appropriate procedures.
3)      The flightcrew receives performance and obstruction clearance information.
4)      The flightcrew receives appropriate aircraft configuration information, wind limits, and other appropriate information.

G.    Use of Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Minima at a Destination Alternate. Pilots may plan to use any instrument approach authorized for use with wide area augmentation system (WAAS) avionics at a required alternate if the aircraft has GPS WAAS equipment certified in accordance with Technical Standard Order (TSO) C145a, Airborne Navigation Sensors Using The Global Positioning System (GPS) Augmented By The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), TSO/C146a, Stand-Alone Airborne Navigation Equipment Using The Global Positioning System (GPS) Augmented By The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), or a later revision that meets or exceeds the accuracy of this TSO/revision, as approved by the Administrator. When using WAAS at an alternate airport, flight planning must be based on flying the RNAV (GPS) lateral navigation (LNAV) minimums line, minimums on a GPS approach procedure, or a conventional approach procedure with “or GPS” in the title. Also, RNAV (GPS)—or RNAV Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)— is based on a single navigational facility when determining the approach facility configuration in Table 1, even if there are two or more RNAV (GPS) approaches to different suitable runways. Upon arrival at an alternate, when the WAAS navigation system indicates that LNAV/vertical navigation (VNAV) or localizer performance with vertical guidance (LPV) service is available, operators may use vertical guidance to complete the approach using the displayed level of service. The FAA is removing the NA (alternate minimums not authorized) symbol from select RNAV (GPS) and GPS approach procedures so that operators with approach‑approved WAAS receivers may use them at alternate airports. Some approach procedures will still require the NA symbol for other reasons (e.g., no weather reporting); therefore, the FAA cannot remove it from all procedures. Because every procedure must receive individual evaluations, removal of NA from RNAV (GPS) and GPS procedures will take some time.

H.    Definition of “Two Operational Facilities.” Question: “Does the FAA consider an ILS facility that contains a single transmitter frequency for an ILS, but with two different ILS identifications (depending on which runway is used), as one or two navigational facilities?”

1)      The words “two operational facilities” mean that in the event there is a single failure of one facility, the other would be operational. In the situation where both instrument landing system (ILS) facilities share a single transmitter, they are “one operational navigational facility” because both ILSs would become inoperative in the event of a single transmitter failure.
2)      The two ILS identifiers would have to be different even though the ILS transmitter frequency is the same for both. The instrument approach charts indicate to the pilot whether there is one frequency or two. Thus, one or two navigational facilities.

I.       Selectable Text and Tables. There are two selectable rows that can be loaded into Table 1 and the two paragraphs of selectable text in C055:

1)      The two selectable rows in Table 1 authorize lower alternate minimums when planning to use either a CAT II or CAT III approach at the alternate airport. If a CAT II or CAT III credit is authorized, the first selectable text paragraph must be loaded as well.
2)      The first selectable text paragraph states requirements for CAT II and CAT III credit applicable to alternate airport flight planning, and must be loaded if the operator has the CAT II or CAT III credit authorization described in subparagraph I1).
3)      The second selectable text paragraph authorizes operators equipped with WAAS to use GPS approaches when determining an alternate, and lists the restrictions associated with using GPS approaches in alternate planning.
4)      There are three selectable text options:
a)      “1(a). Load this text if the operator is authorized CAT II or III alternate mins; OR”
b)      “1(b). Load this text if the operator is authorized GPS/WAAS alternate mins; OR”
c)      “1(c). Load this text if the operator is authorized CAT II or III AND GPS/WAAS alternate mins.”

J.      Helicopter Authorizations. For helicopter authorizations, see OpSpec/MSpec H105.

OPSPEC C056, IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS, PART 121 OPERATIONS—ALL AIRPORTS. C056 is issued to all operators who conduct operations under 14 CFR part 121.

A.     General. C056 did not change in policy but was split into two paragraphs for programming purposes in the new automated Operations Safety System (OPSS): C056 and C078/C079.

B.     Using Lower-Than‑Standard Takeoff Minimums. If an operator is not authorized to use lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums, C078 will not be issued. See Volume 4, Chapter 2 for information concerning requirements an operator must meet before being authorized to use lower–than‑standard takeoff minimums. If an operator conducts operations under both 14 CFR parts 121 and 135, C056 and C057 may need to be issued. For more information, see the following:

·        Part 121, §§ 121.649 and 121.651(a)(1).

·        Title 14 CFR part 91, § 91.175(f).

·        Volume 4, Chapter 2.

·        Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report for specific aircraft.

C.     Availability to Part 91 Subpart K (Part 91K) Program Managers. This is not available or applicable to part 91K program managers. See § 91.1039(e).

OPSPEC C057, IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS, PART 135 OPERATIONS—ALL AIRPORTS. C057 is issued to all 14 CFR part 135 operators who conduct instrument flight rules (IFR) airplane operations to authorize an operator to use takeoff minimums equal to the lowest straight‑in landing minimums (part 135, § 135.225(h)).

A.     Issuance for Conducting IFR Standard Takeoff Minimums. C057 is issued for conducting IFR standard takeoff minimums, which are defined as 1 statute mile visibility or Runway Visual Range (RVR) 5,000 for airplanes having two engines or fewer, and one‑half statute mile visibility or RVR 2,400 for airplanes having more than two engines. RVR reports, when available for a particular runway, must be used for all takeoff operations on that runway. All takeoff operations, based on RVR, must use RVR reports from the locations along the runway specified in this paragraph.

B.     Single Engine IFR (SEIFR) Authorization. The principal operations inspector (POI), principal maintenance inspector (PMI), and principal avionics inspector (PAI) must coordinate the issuance of OpSpecs A046, C057, and D071 once the operator has met the requirements for SEIFR operations. All three OpSpec paragraphs must be issued for SEIFR authorization.

1)      OpSpec A046 contains specific maintenance and operational limitations and provisions necessary for the authority to operate under IFR while carrying passengers in a single‑engine airplane.
2)      The standard OpSpec paragraph C079 is not authorized for SEIFR operations. SEIFR part 135 passenger‑carrying operations are not authorized lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums at any airport without concurrence and authorization from FAA headquarters (HQ). Thus, for SEIFR operations there is no automatic relief from the requirements of § 135.225(e).
3)      OpSpec D071 contains requirements for airplanes operated in SEIFR operations.

C.     Subparagraph Selectable for Issuance of C057. The following subparagraph is selectable for issuance in C057, if applicable:

Note:        “c. When takeoff minimums are equal to or less than the applicable standard takeoff minimum, the certificate holder is authorized to use a takeoff minimum equal to the lowest authorized straight in CAT I IFR landing minimum applicable to the certificate holder for that particular airport. The Touchdown Zone RVR report, if available, is controlling.”

D.    Subparagraph Selectable for Issuance of C057 for Turbine‑Powered, Single‑Engine Airplanes. The following subparagraph is selectable for issuance in C057 for turbine‑powered, single‑engine airplanes only:

Note:        “d. Notwithstanding the requirements of the “NOTE” in subparagraph b above, the certificate holder is authorized lower than standard takeoff minimums for its  part 135 single engine passenger carrying operations in its turbine powered single engine airplanes only per the limitations and provisions of C057 including subparagraph c.”

E.     Authorizing Part 135 Operators to Use Takeoff Minimums Lower Than One‑Half Mile or RVR 1,800. OpSpec C079 is applicable for authorizing the part 135 operator to use takeoff minimums lower than one‑half mile or RVR 1,800. See the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 120‑29, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minima for Approach, for information concerning requirements an operator must meet before being authorized to use lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums.

F.      Other Applicability and Authorizations. C057 is not applicable or available for 14 CFR part 91 subpart K (part 91K) program managers. See part 91, § 91.1039(e). For helicopter authorizations, see OpSpecs H106 and H116.

OPSPEC C058, SPECIAL RESTRICTIONS FOR FOREIGN TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES.

A.     General. C058 is issued only when the principal operations inspector (POI) (or region responsible for the geographic area where a foreign airport is located) finds it necessary to place special restrictions on a foreign terminal instrument procedure.

B.     Purpose and Applicability of Restrictions. These special restrictions to foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) are applicable to U.S. air carriers (14 CFR parts 121 and 135) and program managers (14 CFR part 91 subpart K (part 91K)). The purpose of these special restrictions is to establish an equivalency between the foreign terminal instrument procedure and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Procedures for Air Navigation Services Aircraft Operations (PANS‑OPS) or TERPS criteria.

C.     Other Guidance. FAA Order 8260.31, Foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures, current edition, provides direction and guidance on how to place restrictions on foreign instrument procedures. This order also contains a list of foreign TERPS that are currently restricted. If an operator conducts flights to any airport listed in the appendices of this order, the POI must issue C058 with the name of the airport, airport identification, procedure identification, and special restrictions listed.

D.    Considerations and Procedures for Chek Lap Kok Airport. On July 6, 1998, Hong Kong’s new airport (Chek Lap Kok) opened; at the same time, Hong Kong’s old airport (Kai Tak) closed. Since there has been no revision to the appendices of Order 8260.31, we recommend removing the reference to Kai Tak airport from C058 and referencing the Chek Lap Kok airport. Consideration and procedures will be established for the following at the new Chek Lap Kok airport:

1)      Loss of navigation capability;
2)      Severe reduction of aircraft climb performance due to engine or aircraft system failures; and
3)      Escape paths for the above situations.

E.     Helicopter Authorization. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec/MSpec H107.

OPSPEC/MSPEC/LOA C059—CATEGORY II INSTRUMENT APPROACH AND LANDING OPERATIONS (OPTIONAL): 14 CFR PARTS 91, 121, 125, 125M, 135, AND 91K OPERATORS.

A.     General. Category (CAT) II operations are approved by the issuance of OpSpec C059 to certificate holders for 14 CFR parts 121, 125, and 135; MSpec C059 to program managers for 14 CFR part 91 subpart K (part 91K) fractional ownership operations; and LOA C059 to operators for part 91 and 125M operations. Guidance for authorizing helicopter CAT II/III operations is in Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 4.

B.     Authorization for CAT II Airplane Operations. All initial CAT II authorizations for each operator/program manager and each airplane type used by that operator/program manager require regional Flight Standards division (RFSD) review and concurrence before issuing OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059. RFSD concurrence is also necessary before amending OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 to include an airplane make, model, and series (M/M/S) new to the operator/program manager. CAT II operations are evaluated for authorization with reference to the following:

1)      Advisory Circular (AC) 120‑29, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minima for Approach, current edition.
2)      Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 4 and Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 6.
3)      Applicable Lower Landing Minimums (LLM) maintenance program approved by the assigned avionics inspector in accordance with Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 11 in coordination with the principal avionics inspectors (PAI) and principal maintenance inspectors(PMI).

C.     Approved Airplanes. Each airplane type (M/M/S) used in CAT II operations must be listed in Table 1 of C059 and have an acceptable LLM maintenance program. Specify the lowest decision height (DH) and lowest Runway Visual Range (RVR) authorized for each airplane type. The example in Table 3‑17, Example Category II Approach and Landing Minimums, illustrates the method for authorizing each airplane in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059.

Table 3-17, Example Category II Approach and Landing Minimums

CAT II Approach and Landing Minimums

Airplane (Make/Model/Series)

DH Not less Than

Lowest Authorized RVR

DC‑9‑31

100 ft

1,600

B 727‑217

100 ft

1,600

A‑300‑B46505R

100 ft

1,200

B‑757‑223

100 ft

1,200

A‑320‑12

100 ft

1,200

DHC‑8‑402

100 ft

1,000

B‑737‑200

100 ft

1,000

B‑777‑200ER

100 ft

1,000

Note:        Refer to Table 1 in OpSpec C059.

D.    Required CAT II Airborne Equipment. Table 2 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 (see Table 3‑18, Example Category II Items of Equipment, for example) lists the necessary equipment to conduct either manually or automatically flown CAT II operations for each airplane M/M/S. The equipment required is established in accordance with the applicable regulations, the approved Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM), if applicable, and AC 120‑29. There are two acceptable methods of demonstrating that an airplane meets the technical qualifications and is eligible for CAT II operations. These acceptable methods are by approval under the type certificate (TC) or Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) holder, or an operation demonstration conducted by an operator/program manager. Type‑design approval is discussed in AC 120‑29, paragraphs 5.19 through 5.19.3, and paragraph 10.5.

1)      TC or STC Approval. The approved AFM (or Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS)) identified in the airplane type design typically contains a statement that the airborne systems and equipment meet performance requirements, a statement regarding reliability and/or redundancy, and affirmation that such systems and equipment have been demonstrated to be eligible for CAT II operations. The AFM or AFMS also may specify that certain equipment is required for airworthiness approval of the various kinds of CAT II operations. Some AFMs or AFMSs also may indicate that acceptable CAT II performance was demonstrated, both with and without certain equipment (e.g., “autothrottles w/wo”). AC 120‑29 also specifies that certain types of equipment are required for operation approval of the various kinds of CAT II operations (manual/autopilot). Therefore, the approved AFM or AFMS and AC 120‑29 must be considered in determining if the additional equipment requirement meets the criteria. The equipment must be listed (specified) in Table 2 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059. Refer to Table 3‑18.
a)      Equipment that is explicitly required by the airplane certification regulations (14 CFR parts 23 and 25), the operating regulations (parts 91K, 121, 125, and 135), and/or the approved AFM or AFMS should not be listed in Table 2 of the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA. The standard text of C059 requires that this equipment be installed and operational. The additional equipment or operational requirement that must be listed (specified) in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 is determined by cross‑checking the equipment required by regulations and the approved AFM or AFMS against the equipment required by AC 120‑29 for the kinds of proposed CAT II operations.
b)      Enter into Table 3‑18 all additional equipment for the M/M/S and kind(s) of CAT II operations authorized. Include additional equipment required by any of the following:

·        AC 120‑29,

·        TC or STC,

·        AFM or AFMS, and

·        Order 8400.13, Procedures for Category I Approach Operations at 1800 RVR and Approval of Special Authorization for Category II Approach Operations on Type I ILS, current edition.

c)      If the AFM or AFMS describes acceptable performance both with and without certain items of equipment (that are not explicitly required by AC 120‑29), it must be determined how the operator/program manager intends to conduct CAT II operations and train flightcrews with those items of equipment. If the operator/program manager proposes to conduct operations both with and without certain equipment (such as autothrottle, autopilot), flightcrews must be trained for both situations and the equipment does not need to be listed in Table 2 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059.
2)      Operational Demonstration of Equipment Eligibility. This method is used when equipment eligibility is not stated in the AFM, the AFMS, or the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report. The operational demonstration method is only appropriate for airplanes and equipment that do not have CAT II reflected in the TC or STC. If the operational demonstration method is used:
a)      Conduct the operational demonstration as described in AC 120‑29. A part 121, 125, 129, or 135 operator, or a part 91K program manager should request that its Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) provide assistance in the eligibility assessment.
b)      The operator or program manager should provide the FSDO with the aircraft make, model, and serial number, any evidence of instrument flight rules (IFR) approach approval, and pertinent information from flightcrew operating procedures.
c)      If the FSDO cannot determine equipment eligibility from the provided documentation (e.g., TC, STC, or AFM), it should forward the request and supporting data through its RFSD to the appropriate Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG). The AEG will verify that the aircraft, its landing system, and equipment meet the criteria for CAT II operations, and that the system can safely fly the CAT II approach procedures. The AEG will provide written documentation (e.g., amended FSB report or other official documentation) to verify the eligibility of that equipment.
d)      The equipment determined by an operational demonstration to be eligible and required to conduct either manually or automatically flown CAT II operations should be listed in Table 2.

E.     Specify the Kind of CAT II Operation in Table 2 of OpSpec/MSpec C059. The kind of CAT II operation (manual control using a (head‑up display (HUD)) or autopilot) must be specified for each equipment item listed in Table 2 of OpSpec/MSpec C059. Follow the guidelines below for filling out Table 2:

·        The required airborne equipment table combines the manual (HUD) and autopilot columns into one column for programming purposes. The principal operations inspector (POI) will select the appropriate phrase: manual (HUD), or autopilot.

·        If an item of equipment is applicable to a specific airplane’s M/M/S for both manual (HUD) and autopilot CAT II operations, both “Manual (HUD)” and “Autopilot” can be highlighted and selected for insertion into the column.

·        List the equipment required for 1,000 RVR CAT II authorization in the “Additional Equipment and Special Provisions” column.

·        See Table 3‑18 below for examples of how the items of equipment should be specified for the kind of CAT II operation.

Table 3-18, Example of Category II Items of Equipment

Kind of Category II Operation

Airplane (Make/ Model/Series)

Additional Equipment

& Special Provisions

Manual (HEAD‑UP DISPLAY (HUD))/

Auto Pilot

B‑767‑219

Autoland required for 1,000 Runway Visual Range (RVR).

Autopilot

B‑757‑232

An independent flight director (FD) and display for each pilot (L and R or C and R).

Autopilot

B‑737‑200

None—Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) guidance.

Manual (HUD) or

Autopilot

ERJ‑170‑100LR

Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS) dated 3/26/2003, 1,000 RVR not authorized.

Autopilot

Note:        Refer to Table 2 in OpSpec C059.

F.      Airplane Maintenance. For CAT II authorization, the operator or program manager must have an approved LLM maintenance program, as described in subparagraph B3). The maintenance program should detail a specific maintenance interval, periodic tests, and inspections required on systems and equipment used for LLM. The maintenance program should identify or contain system and equipment reliability tracking methods derived from 14 CFR part 119 requirements.

G.    Flightcrew Qualifications. A pilot in command (PIC) who has not met the requirements of part 91, § 91.1039(c), part 121, § 121.652, part 125, § 125.379, or part 135, § 135.225(e), as appropriate, must use the high minimum pilot RVR landing minimum equivalents, as determined from the table in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C054. For the PIC to conduct the part 121 CAT II operations at the lower authorized minimums, he or she must have currently accumulated the hours required by § 121.652 in the aircraft type that he or she will fly for that carrier. The provision of Air Transportation Association of America (ATA) exemption 5549 for part 121 air carriers may also apply.

H.    Authorized CAT II Approach and Landing Minimums. To determine the applicable minimums for an approach, the pilot must first compare the DH shown on the 14 CFR part 97 approach chart with the operator’s lowest authorized DH for the airplane being flown. The higher minimum is applicable. Therefore, considering RVR sensor reports available, the RVR to be used for the approach is the highest RVR value in the approach chart, Table 1, or subparagraph g of the OpSpec.

I.       Authorized CAT II Approaches, Airports, and Runways.

1)      If the airport and runways are approved for CAT II operations in part 97, they should not be routinely listed in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 unless the POI determines there is a need to specify a special limitation for an operator at a particular airport.
a)      Standard CAT II approaches are published as CAT II procedures in the National Aeronautical Charting Office (NACO) instrument approach procedure (IAP) Flight Information Publication (FLIP). They are identified by the procedure name “ILS RWY 16C (CAT II)” and by the note in the minimums section stating “CATEGORY II ILS—SPECIAL AIRCREW & AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION REQUIRED.”
b)      Special Authorization CAT II approaches are published by NACO with the same identifiers as standard CAT II approaches, but they also have a note in the “Procedure Notes” section stating “Special Authorization: Requires specific OPSPEC, MSPEC, or LOA approval and use of Autoland or HUD to touchdown.”
2)      Standard CAT II. The operator may be authorized up to three different minimums for use with published part 97 approaches: 1,600 RVR, 1,200 RVR, and 1,000 RVR. Allowable minimums depend on the availability of RVR sensors and the availability and use of required airplane equipment.
a)      Minimums of 1,600 RVR (touchdown zone (TDZ) RVR only) and 1,200 RVR (TDZ and one other RVR) require the flightcrew to use an approach coupler or fly at least to DH under manual control using an HUD for flight guidance. A manually flown landing is assumed and need not be specified.
b)      Minimums of 1,000 RVR (TDZ RVR and one other RVR) require the flightcrew to use autoland or to fly under manual control using an HUD to touchdown.

1.      For operations to touchdown, the airplane and its automatic flight control guidance system (AFCGS), autoland system, or manually flown guidance system (HUD) are approved for approach and landing operations as specified by AC 120‑29.

2.      For manual control using an HUD to touchdown, the HUD must be flown in the “A III Approach” mode.

3.      The flightcrew has been trained at the lower visibilities before they can be authorized. If the flightcrew is currently authorized CAT III operations, no further training is required for this authorization in C059.

c)      CAT II operations, with a DH of 100 feet and 1,000 RVR (300 meters) may be authorized at certain foreign airports. The following example of Table 3‑19, Example List of Authorized Foreign Airports and Runways for Category II Instrument Approach and Landing Operations, illustrates an example for listing authorized airports and runways:

Table 3-19, Example List of Authorized Foreign Airports and Runways for Category II Instrument Approach and Landing Operations

Airport Name/

Identifier

Runways

Limitations and Provisions

Mirabel, Canada CYMX

06

NA

Taipei—

Chiang Kai Shek, Taiwan RCTP

10, 28

NA

Tokyo Narita, Japan RJAA

16

NA

Athens, Greece

Eleftherios Venizelos LGAV

03L

03R

21L

21R

RVR 350 m

Note:        Refers to Table 3 in OpSpec C059.

d)      Operators authorized Special Authorization CAT II, as described in subparagraph I3) below, may also be authorized to conduct approaches to standard CAT II facilities when the TDZ and/or centerline (CL) lights are inoperative. They must comply with all requirements in paragraph I2), using minimums appropriate to the RVR available and using autoland or manual (HUD) to touchdown.
3)      Special Authorization CAT II. In addition to the standard CAT II operations authorized by OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059, Special Authorization CAT II operations can be authorized to qualifying runways that do not meet the performance or ground equipment requirements normally associated with a compliant CAT II operation (e.g., TDZ lighting, CL lighting, or Approach Lighting System With Sequenced Flashing Lights (ALSF) 1 and 2).
a)      Approval criteria for Special Authorization CAT II approaches are given in FAA Order 8400.13, where they are described as CAT II Approach Operations on Type I instrument landing system (ILS) facilities. These Type I facilities are CAT I ILS installations that meet the glideslope and localizer signal quality requirements of CAT II facilities. The required increase in aircraft capabilities mitigates the special authorization requirements (i.e., HUD and/or autoland).
b)      RVR requirements and available minimums are the same as standard CAT II 1,600 RVR (TDZ RVR only) and 1,200 RVR (TDZ and one other RVR), but these minimums require the flightcrew to use autoland or to fly under manual control using an HUD to touchdown.
c)      Aircraft operation approval, HUD usage, and flightcrew training requirements are the same as for standard CAT II to 1,000 RVR.
4)      The lists “Foreign Facilities Approved for Category 2-3 Operations, Restricted U.S. Facilities Approved for Category 2-3 Operations,” and “U.S. Runways Approved for CAT II on Type I Operations” are located on the Flight Operations Branch (AFS‑410) Web site at http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs410/status_lists.

J.      Missed‑Approach Requirements. The missed approach decision point has been changed from 1,000 feet above touchdown to the final approach fix (FAF). After passing the FAF, if the required visual landing references are not acquired and any failure of required equipment occurs, or if the primary guidance system in use (autopilot/autoland or HUD) is disengaged or disabled for any reason, the flightcrew must execute the missed approach. The exception to this requirement is that if both guidance systems are properly briefed and engaged before reaching the FAF and one system is disengaged or fails inside the FAF, the remaining guidance system is considered the primary and the approach may be continued.

K.    CAT II Runway Restrictions. The requirement to conduct automatic special authorization landings and 1,000 RVR operations implies that autoland restrictions imposed by pre‑threshold terrain must be considered. Approaches that have pre‑threshold terrain characteristics that may cause abnormal performance in flight control systems will have a note on the approach chart requiring a special autoland evaluation. Approved runways will be on the AFS‑410 restricted facilities list in subparagraph I4) above, and must be listed in Table 4 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C060, CATEGORY III INSTRUMENT APPROACH AND LANDING OPERATIONS.

A.     General. Category (CAT) III is an optional authorization. OpSpec/MSpec C060 issuance is required for authorizing 14 CFR parts 91 subpart K (part 91K), 121, 125, and 135 CAT III operations.

1)      CAT III operations are evaluated in accordance with the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 120‑28, Criteria for Approval of Category III Weather Minimums for Takeoff, Landing, and Rollout.
2)      Initial CAT III authorization must be coordinated through the regional Flight Standards division (RFSD) All Weather Operations Program Manager (AWOPM) (see Volume 4, Chapter 2).
3)      RFSD (All Weather Operations (AWO)) concurrence is also required before amending OpSpec/MSpec C060 to include an airplane make, model, and series (M/M/S) for an operator.
4)      All reductions in CAT III operating minimums for each operator and aircraft also require RFSD (AWO) concurrence.
5)      Initial authorizations may require higher minimums for a period of time or number of operations. The principal operations inspector (POI) should issue the authorization using the higher minimums and re‑issue the OpSpec/MSpec at the appropriate time to authorize the higher minimums.

B.     Applicability. The authorization is applicable to operations conducted by:

·        Part 91K program managers,

·        Part 121 certificate holders,

·        Part 125 operators,

·        Title 14 CFR part 129 foreign air carriers, and

·        Part 135 certificate holders.

C.     Airplanes Approved for CAT III operations. Airplanes with an approved Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) entry authorizing CAT III may be approved for CAT III. In accordance with the AFM, CAT III operations may be conducted with either fail operational (FO) or fail passive (FP) systems. Table 3‑20, Fail Operational Landing Systems, and Table 3‑21, Fail Passive Landing Systems, of OpSpec/MSpec C060 classify all CAT III landing systems as either FP or FO and is specified in Table 3‑22, Category III Approach and Landing Minimums, for each airplane M/M/S.

1)      Each airplane type M/M/S and the equipment authorized to conduct CAT III operations must be listed in Table 3‑22 of OpSpec/MSpec C060. Aircraft, including wide‑body aircraft such as the DC‑10, L‑1011, and B‑747, which are authorized for FO CAT III but have not been demonstrated to meet the FP provisions of AC 120‑28, appendix A may be approved with landing minimums of Runway Visual Range (RVR) 1,000.
2)      The equipment required to conduct CAT III operations is established in accordance with the applicable parts of the 14 CFR, the approved AFM, and AC 120‑28.
a)      The only acceptable method of demonstrating that an airplane is airworthy for CAT III operations is through type design approval obtained by a manufacturer.
b)      The approved AFM (or flight manual supplement) for airplanes that have CAT III type design approval contains a statement to the effect that the airborne systems have demonstrated the reliability and redundancy necessary for CAT III operations in accordance with AC 120‑28.
c)      These AFMs also specify that certain equipment is required for airworthiness approval of the various kinds of CAT III operations.
d)      Some of the AFMs also indicate that acceptable CAT III performance was demonstrated both with and without certain equipment (for example “autothrottles w/wo”). AC 120‑28 also specifies that certain types of equipment are required for operational approval of the various kinds of CAT III operations. Therefore, both the approved AFM and AC 120‑28 must be considered in determining the additional equipment which must be listed (specified) in Table 3‑22.
3)      Equipment that is explicitly required by the airplane certification regulations (14 CFR parts 23 and 25), the operating regulations (parts 91, 121, 125, and 135), and/or the approved AFM should not be listed in Table 3‑22.
a)      The standard text of OpSpec/MSpec C060 requires this equipment to be functional.
b)      Therefore, only the additional equipment that must be listed (specified) in Table 3‑22 of OpSpec/MSpec C060 is determined by cross‑checking the types of equipment required by AC 120‑28 for the kind(s) of CAT III operation proposed against the equipment required by the regulations and the approved AFM.
c)      The equipment to be listed in Table 3‑22 as additional equipment is only that equipment which is not explicitly required by the regulations and/or the AFM, but is required by AC 120‑28 and/or the guidance and direction in the AWOPM concurrence letter for the kind(s) of CAT III operations to be authorized.
4)      When the AFM indicates acceptable performance both with and without certain items of equipment (which are not explicitly required by AC 120‑28 or the AWOPM AFS‑400 concurrence letter), it must be determined how the operator intends to conduct CAT III operations and train flightcrews with those items of equipment.
a)      If the operator proposes to conduct operations both with and without certain equipment (such as autothrottle), the operator must train flightcrews for both situations, and the item of equipment does not need to be listed in OpSpec/MSpec C060.
b)      If the operator proposes to conduct operations only when those items of equipment (with and without) are functional, then those items of equipment must be listed in OpSpec/MSpec C060.
5)      The authorizations for a decision height (DH)/alert height (AH), the lowest RVR (see subparagraph I below), the field length factor (see subparagraph D below), and the FP/FO landing systems must be specific for each airplane type. In general, the following summary applies:

Table 3‑20, Fail Operational Landing Systems

Fail Operational Landing Systems—General

1. Utilize an AH (typically 50 ft).

2. Must go‑around if any system failure occurs above AH.

3. Could land safely if a failure occurs after AH.

Fail Operational Without a Rollout System

Fail Operational with Any FAA‑Approved Rollout System

Fail Operational with a Fail Passive Rollout System

Fail Operational with a Fail Operational Rollout System

1. Lowest allowable RVR 600/600/600.

2. Suitable visual prior to touchdown.

1. No visual necessary.

2. Any FAA‑approved rollout system.

3. Lowest allowable RVR 600/400/400.

1. No visual necessary.

2. Lowest allowable RVR 400/400/400.

1. No visual necessary.

2. Lowest allowable RVR 300/300/300.

Table 3‑21, Fail Passive Landing Systems

Fail Passive Landing Systems—General:

1. Utilize a DH (no less than 50 ft).

2. Must have visual references NLT DH to land, otherwise missed approach.

3. System not capable of autoland if a failure occurs after DH.

4. If lose visual references after DH or a failure after DH (prior to touchdown), missed approach.

 

Fail Passive Without a Rollout System

Fail Passive With Any FAA‑Approved Rollout System

 

Lowest allowable RVR 600/600/600.

Lowest allowable RVR 600/400/400.

D.    Runway Field Length Requirements. The runway field length required for the various kinds of CAT III operations must be specified in Table 3‑22 of OpSpec/MSpec C060 for each airplane M/M/S.

1)      For operations with a controlling RVR at or above RVR 600, the required field length is 1.15 times the field length required by:

·        Part 91, § 91.1037 and AFM,

·        Part 121, § 121.195(b),

·        Part 135, § 135.385(b), or

·        The AFM for part 125.

2)      For a precision instrument approach and landing with a controlling RVR below 600 feet, the required field length is either 1.15 or 1.3 times the field length required by the previously cited regulations, depending on the operational procedures and/or additional equipment used by the operator.
3)      The “Special Operational Equipment and Limitations” column in Table 3‑22 is provided for equipment that is in addition to that required by the 14 CFR and not included in the AFM.
4)      For example, additional equipment may be required if a field length factor of 1.15 is used in operations below RVR 600 where a procedural means alone is not acceptable (see AC 120‑28).

E.     Operators Authorized for RVR 700 Can Be Approved for RVR 600. Operators currently authorized RVR 700 may be approved for RVR 600 operations as follows:

1)      When the operator has incorporated changes reflecting RVR 600 into the approved training program (when applicable), bulletins, aircraft placards, etc., as appropriate.
2)      When a check airman or an FAA inspector has certified the flightcrews to fly to these reduced minimums.

F.      Approval for RVR 600. An operator currently using RVR 600 or lower in its approved training for FP operations may be approved for RVR 600 without further checking when the operator has updated the approved training program (when applicable) and flightcrew bulletins to reflect RVR 600 authorization.

G.    CAT III Approach and Landing Minimums. The following is an example of Table 3‑22 with data inserted. If an operator is not authorized to conduct those kinds of CAT III operations with a particular airplane, or if the operator does not need special operational equipment, put “N/A” under the appropriate column (do not delete or leave any cells blank).

Note:         Include only that equipment which is not explicitly required by the regulations and/or the AFM. For new CAT III operators, inspectors must coordinate the operational equipment requirements with the AWOPM during normal review processing.

Table 3‑22, Category III Approach and Landing Minimums

Airplane M/M/S

Type of HGS/ Autoland System*

Type of Rollout System*

DH/AH

Lowest RVR

Field Length Factor

Special Operational Equipment and Limitations

B‑737‑232B‑737‑247B‑

FP

N/A

50 DH

600

1.15

N/A

B‑737‑35B

B‑737‑3

B7B‑737‑3L9

FP

N/A

50 DH

600

1.15

Either autoland or HGS must be operable.

B‑737‑832

FP

N/A

50 DH

600

1.15

Either autoland or HGS must be operable.

A‑320‑214

FO

FO

100 AH

300

1.15

1.30 required if thrust reverser or antiskid inoperative below RVR 600.

B‑747‑47UF

FO

FO

100 AH

300 feet

(75 meters)

1.15

Anti‑skid and thrust reverser system must be fully operative for operations below RVR 600.

B‑737‑301

FP

N/A

50 DH

600

1.15

N/A

B‑757‑225

FO

FO

50AH

300

1.15

1.30 required if thrust reverser or anti‑skid inoperative below RVR 600.

B‑727‑277, B727‑2D4

FP

N/A

DH 50

600

1.15

 

B‑757‑212B‑757‑232B‑767‑432

FO

FO

50 AH

300

1.15

N/A

B‑767‑222

FO

FO

100 AH

300

1.15

Use 1.3 if autobrake is inoperative.

A319‑112

FO

FO

100 AH

300

1.15

1.30 required if thrust reverser or antiskid inoperative below RVR 600.

B‑777‑236

FO

FO

50AH

700

1.15

N/A

B‑777‑236

FO

FO

50AH

300

1.3

N/A

DC‑10‑10F

FO

FO

100 AH

300

1.15

Groundspeed indicating system.

MD‑11F, MD‑10‑30F

FO

FO

100 AH

300

1.15

Groundspeed indicating system.

Note:        Enter: *N/A = not applicable; FP = Fail passive landing or rollout control system; FO = Fail operational landing or rollout control system; (i.e., FP/FO systems include autoland and Head-Up-Guidance System (HGS)).

H.    Additional Information.

1)      Some European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) Member States apply a DH (as opposed to an AH) to operations at or below RVR 600 because of instrument landing system (ILS) facility integrity concerns.
2)      As part of FAA/EASA harmonization, it was agreed that U.S. operators could continue to use AH when using an FO system in accordance with its OpSpec authorization.

I.       Required RVR Reporting Equipment. The RVR reporting equipment authorizations were expanded to enable the use of new and more robust EASA approval and AC 120‑28 certification criteria for autoflight or guidance landing system(s) with FP rollout control or flight guidance landing systems.

1)      OpSpec/MSpec C060 allows touchdown RVR 600, mid RVR 400, rollout RVR 400 (600/400/400) for appropriate FP landing/rollout systems, and 400/400/400 for FO landing systems with FP rollout control or flight guidance landing systems.
2)      Note that to use the touchdown RVR 600 with mid/rollout RVR 400, published runway landing minimums of RVR 400 or lower is required.
3)      Mid and rollout RVR 400 cannot be used at runways where RVR 600 is the lowest published RVR minimum.
4)      RVR 300/300/300 is allowed for FO landing systems with FO rollout control or flight guidance landing systems.
5)      The operator or program manager is not authorized to conduct operations using an RVR lower than the published minimums at any runway (domestic or foreign) even if the operator or program manager is authorized to conduct CAT III operations at a lower RVR than is published for that approach.

J.      Crosswind Limitations. The crosswind component allowed is either less than the AFM’s crosswind limitations, or 15 knots or less, whichever is more restrictive. This should be reflected in the approved training program and flightcrew bulletins.

K.    Authorized CAT III Airports and Runways. With the issuance of OpSpec/MSpec C060, the operator/program manager is authorized to conduct CAT III operations at airports and runways using an approved 14 CFR part 97 CAT III instrument approach procedure (IAP) unless a restrictive Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) is issued for that approach. Domestic airports and runways (that have no restrictions) do not have to be individually listed in OpSpec/MSpec C060; only foreign airports and runways approved for CAT III operations need to be specifically identified and listed in OpSpec/MSpec C060.

1)      Foreign Airports and Runways. CAT III operations may be authorized at the foreign airports and runways listed in Table 3‑22 from the selection list provided for Table 3‑22.
2)      U.S. Facilities with Restrictions or Conditions. The U.S. ILS facilities provided in Table 3‑22 of C060 are approved only for the specific aircraft to conduct CAT III operations. The characteristics of the pre‑threshold terrain at these facilities may cause abnormal performance in flight control systems. Additional analysis or flight demonstrations are required for each aircraft type before approval of CAT III minimums. Publication of a part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) or additional operators and their aircraft may be approved by the regional AWO staff as provided in AC 120‑28, appendix 8. Approved aircraft are equipped with either autoland or HGS equipment. The restrictions at U.S. facilities for the certificate holder are provided as selectables for listing in Table 3‑22. If applicable, Providence, RI (KPVD) should be selected and listed with the following condition: “CAT III authorized with TDZ and RO RVR sensors, both are controlling. Mid RVR used from adjacent runway.”

L.     Inoperative Lights. OpSpec/MSpec C359 authorizes specific minimums for part 97 CAT II and III approaches when the TDZ and centerline (CL) lights are inoperative.

M.  Lower Landing Minimums (LLM) Maintenance Program. The operator/program manager must maintain the aircraft and equipment listed in Table 3‑20 of OpSpec/MSpec C060 in accordance with its approved LLM maintenance program or inspection program, as applicable.

N.    Nonstandard Requests. All requests for operational nonstandard OpSpec/MSpec authorizations must be submitted to the Air Transportation Division (AFS‑200) using the nonstandard request policy outlined in Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 2, paragraph 3‑713.

O.    Foreign Air Carriers and Foreign Operators of U.S.‑Registered Aircraft. For part 129, see Volume 12, Chapter 2.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C061, FLIGHT CONTROL GUIDANCE SYSTEMS FOR AUTOMATIC LANDING OPERATIONS OTHER THAN CATEGORIES II AND III.

A.     General. C061 authorizes an operator to use a flight control guidance system with automatic landing capabilities to touchdown. Title 14 CFR part 121, §§ 121.579(c) and 14 CFR part 135, § 135.93(d) specify that this type of operation must be authorized by OpSpecs. A part 91 subpart K (part 91K) program manager is issued MSpec C061, if applicable. Before issuing C061, the principal operations inspector (POI) must determine the following:

1)      The Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) permits use of the flight control guidance system (autoland system) to touchdown;
2)      Training on the use of the flight control guidance system and autoland procedures to touchdown is provided to flightcrew members; and
3)      The operator continually maintains flight control guidance and autoland systems in accordance with an approved maintenance program for autoland operations.

B.     Listing Flight Control Guidance Systems. The airplanes (make/model) and the flight control guidance systems (manufacturer/model) authorized for this type of operation must be listed in C061a.

C.     Additional Information. AC 120‑67, Criteria for Operational Approval of Auto Flight Guidance Systems, current edition, provides additional information.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C062, MANUALLY FLOWN FLIGHT CONTROL GUIDANCE SYSTEM CERTIFIED FOR LANDING OPERATIONS OTHER THAN CATEGORY II AND III.

A.     General. OpSpec/MSpec C062 is optional for 14 CFR part 91 subpart K (part 91K), 121, and 135 operations to authorize operators to use manually flown flight control guidance systems to conduct approach and landing operations to fly a Category (CAT) I instrument landing system (ILS) using a head‑up guidance system (HGS). C062 is issued to use an HGS just as C061 is issued to use an autoland system for other than CAT II or CAT III operations.

1)      This authorization is independent of CAT II/III authorizations. Typically this authorization is issued prior to CAT II/III authorizations and is kept after the issuance of CAT II/III authorizations.
2)      FAA Order 8400.13, Procedures for Category I Approach Operations at 1800 RVR and Approval of Special Authorization for Category II Approach Operations on Type I ILS, current edition, also provides credit for lower‑than‑standard CAT I minimums using HGS or an autoland system to touchdown.
3)      It is required to list series of aircraft in addition to make/model due to the distinct differences in series of models (especially in the newer aircraft). The aircraft listed must have a manual flight control guidance system installed and certified for manually flown landings (HGS).

B.     Exceptions to Issuance of C062. C062 is not required to be issued to fly a CAT I ILS when the HGS CAT III guidance is not used to touchdown. Neither C061 or C062 is required when the autoland or HGS are disconnected before, or not used to, touchdown.

C.     Requirements for Operators Conducting Operations in MD‑11 Aircraft. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) safety recommendation A‑99‑40 recommends the FAA “issue a flight standards information bulletin that directs principal operations inspectors to ensure that MD‑11 training programs provide simulator instruction in the proper procedure for autopilot disengagement and the subsequent manual control of the airplane.” As a result, Flight Standards recommends that principal operations inspectors (POI) ensure that each operator conducting operations in an MD‑11:

1)      Has included in its Company Flight Manual (CFM) information regarding the potential for pitch attitude upsets caused by improper operation of the autopilot and disseminate that information to each flightcrew member of the MD‑11; and
2)      Has included simulator instruction in the proper operating procedure for autopilot disengagement and subsequent manual control of the airplane in its MD‑11 initial, upgrade, recurrent, transition, and requalification training programs.

D.    Helicopter Authorization. See OpSpec/MSpec H111 for the helicopter equivalent of this authorization.

OPSPEC/MSPEC/LOA C063—U.S. IFR RNAV DEPARTURE PROCEDURES, RNAV ROUTES, AND RNAV STANDARD TERMINAL ARRIVALS.

A.     General. The authorization provided by OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 is applicable to operators conducting operations under 14 CFR parts 91 subpart K (part 91K), 121, 125 (including the part 125(M) operators issued a Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA)), 129, and 135.

1)      OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 authorizes operators to conduct operations using 14 CFR part 97 U.S. instrument flight rules (IFR) terminal Area Navigation (RNAV) departure procedures (DPs) and RNAV Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR) in the National Airspace System (NAS).
2)      The term RNAV DPs includes Standard Instrument Departures (SID) and Obstacle Departure Procedures (ODP).
3)      If an operator’s aircraft are not eligible (properly equipped) and/or its flightcrews are not appropriately trained to conduct RNAV 1 DPs and STARs, then the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 authorization should not be issued.

B.     RNAV DPs and STARs. The current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 90‑100, U.S. Terminal and En Route Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations, provides detailed guidance for operators regarding operations on RNAV DPs and RNAV STARs. The AC provides a link to the Flight Standards Services (AFS) Flight Operations Policy and Guidance Web page, where a compliance table is available as a checklist to determine aircraft eligibility (http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs410/policy_guidance).

1)      Based on the information supplied by the operator, the principal operations inspector (POI) must coordinate with the principal avionics inspector (PAI) to determine equipment eligibility for the RNAV DPs and STARs compliance table referenced in AC 90‑100.
2)      An aircraft equipment compliance matrix is also available in the automated Operations Safety System (OPSS) guidance in association with OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 by clicking on “Other Useful Links.”

C.     Outlining Procedures Using This Approval. Procedures used under this approval should be outlined in the appropriate operations manual or within the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 template for operators conducting operations under part 135 who have no operations manual.

D.    Designation of RNAV 1. Part 97 U.S. RNAV DPs and STARs throughout the NAS are designated as RNAV 1 and published in accordance with part 97. Current and new terminal RNAV DPs and STARs are charted as RNAV 1 to reflect the requirements specified in AC 90‑100. The previous version of AC 90‑100 made reference to Type B procedures; that guidance should no longer be used.

E.     Definitions Related to This Authorization. Some important definitions as they relate to this authorization:

1)      Climb Via. An air traffic control (ATC) instruction in development that will be issued to pilots flying RNAV DPs. The instruction is issued to enable pilots to vertically navigate (i.e., climb in accordance with published speed and/or altitude constraints) on a departure procedure as published.
2)      Descend Via. An ATC instruction issued to pilots flying RNAV STARs or Flight Management System Procedures (FMSP). The instruction is issued to enable pilots to vertically navigate (i.e., descend in accordance with published speed and/or altitude constraints) on an arrival procedure as published.
3)      Flight Management System Procedure (FMSP). An RNAV arrival, departure, or approach procedure developed for use by aircraft equipped with a flight management system (FMS).

Note:        The number of FMSPs in the NAS is limited and FMSP criteria are no longer preferred for the design of RNAV procedures.

4)      Instrument Departure Procedure. Instrument DPs are published IFR procedures that provide obstruction clearance from the terminal area to the en route structure. There are two types of DPs: SID and ODP.
a)      Standard Instrument Departure (SID). A SID is a published IFR ATC departure procedure that provides obstacle clearance and a transition from the terminal area to the en route structure. SIDs are primarily designed for air traffic system enhancement to expedite traffic flow and to reduce pilot/controller workload.
b)      Obstacle Departure Procedure (ODP). An ODP is a published IFR departure procedure that provides obstruction clearance via the least onerous route from the terminal area to the appropriate en route structure. ODPs are recommended for obstruction clearance unless an alternate DP (such as a SID or radar vector) has been specifically assigned by ATC. The RNAV ODP must be retrievable from the FMS database and included in the filed flight plan.
5)      Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR). An RNAV STAR is a published IFR ATC arrival procedure that provides a transition from the en route structure to the terminal area.
6)      Area Navigation (RNAV) 1 Departure Procedures (DPs) and Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR). RNAV terminal procedures requiring, as a minimum, a distance measuring equipment (DME)/DME/Inertial Reference Units (IRU)-based and/or Global Positioning System (GPS)‑based RNAV system satisfying the criteria of AC 90‑100. RNAV 1 procedures require the aircraft’s trackkeeping accuracy remain bounded by + 1 nautical mile (NM) for 95 percent of the total flight time.

F.      Training. An operator’s FAA-approved training program should include subject areas and frequency in accordance with the following:

Note:        Operators not required to have approved training programs must include an RNAV SID, an RNAV ODP, and an RNAV DP and STAR on each 14 CFR part 61 qualification check.

1)      Training and qualification should be conducted in the specific equipment being used and type of procedure(s) approved under OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063. Training and qualification should include the following subject areas:
a)      Operating procedures in AC 90‑100;
b)      Pilot knowledge requirements and training described in AC 90‑100;
c)      Importance of reducing Flight Technical Error (FTE) on RNAV procedures via use of equipment such as flight director (FD) and/or autopilot;
d)      Recognition that some manually selectable aircraft bank-limiting functions might reduce the ability to satisfy ATC path expectations, especially during turns of 70 degrees or greater;
e)      Procedures for verification that the correct procedure and runway are entered into the navigation system database prior to departure; and
f)        Recognition of altitude restrictions on RNAV DPs and related aircraft capabilities.
2)      Recurrent training and continuing qualification should be based upon the following:
a)      These RNAV procedures should be trained to proficiency during the crewmember’s first training sequence in the specific airplane type with equipment being used by the operator.
b)      Pilot proficiency should be validated during each recurrent training or continuing qualification cycle (i.e., every 12 months) in the use of RNAV DPs and STARs that the operator is approved to use, in accordance with the operator’s FAA‑approved training program. This may be accomplished during a Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), a Line‑Operational Simulation (LOS), or another course of training, as appropriate.
c)      For part 91K and 135 operators, pilot proficiency must be tested during each recurring qualification cycle (i.e., every 6 months) in the use of the RNAV system approved for conducting these RNAV DPs and STARs.
3)      Typical pilot errors should be included in the operator’s training program. The following are examples of RNAV FMS entry errors:
a)      Proper Interpretation of Pre‑Departure Clearance (PDC) and Printed Clearance Routes. Pilots of operators using PDC and printed routes must be able to properly interpret their assigned clearance. Specifically, pilots must be able to recognize direct routings, assigned altitudes, revised clearances, SIDs, and en route transitions. As an example, some pilots incorrectly inferred that the absence of a period (“.”) in their PDC or printed clearance meant a direct routing. By making this assumption, their navigation system missed waypoints on the assigned en route transition segment. In the case of the NOBLY2 SID at Dallas–Fort Worth, a PDC with the routing of “NOBLY2 LIT” did not mean direct from NOBLY to LIT. In summary, pilots must understand their operator’s PDC notation and must request clarification from ATC if any doubt exists with regard to their clearance.
b)      Correct Entry of Runway and En Route Transitions into RNAV System/FMS Prior to Takeoff. Prior to commencing takeoff, pilots must verify their aircraft navigation system is operating correctly and that the correct airport, runway, and DP (including any applicable en route transition) have been entered and are properly depicted by their navigation system. Pilots who are assigned an RNAV DP and subsequently receive a change of runway, procedure, or transition must verify that the appropriate changes are entered and available for navigation. A final check of proper runway entry and correct route depiction, shortly before takeoff, is recommended.
c)      Verification of Assigned Route and Correct Entry of Transitions into RNAV System/FMS.

1.      DPs. Before flight, pilots must verify that their aircraft navigation system is operating correctly and that the correct runway and DP (including any applicable en route transition) are entered and properly depicted. Pilots who are assigned an RNAV departure procedure and subsequently receive a change of runway, procedure, or transition must verify that the appropriate changes are entered and available for navigation. A final check of proper runway entry and correct route depiction, shortly before takeoff, is recommended.

2.      STARs. Pilots must verify that their aircraft navigation system is operating correctly and the correct arrival procedure and runway (including any applicable transition) are entered and properly depicted.

d)      Use of Navigation Map Displays. Before takeoff, pilots of aircraft with a navigation map display should verify that the relationship of the aircraft position symbol to their assigned runway and route on their display matches external visual cues, as well as charts. Specifically, once on or near their assigned runway, pilots should ensure that their navigation display reflects the same relative position to the runway, and the route depiction reflects that of the respective chart. During flight, these displays should be used in concert with textual displays for route verification.
e)      Manually Selectable Bank-Limiting Functions. Pilots should recognize that manually selectable aircraft bank-limiting functions might reduce their ability to satisfy ATC path expectations, especially when executing turns of 70 degrees or greater. Do not construe this request for awareness as a requirement to deviate from AFM procedures; rather, pilots should be encouraged to limit the selection of such functions within accepted procedures.

G.    Aircraft Eligibility. Operators and pilots should use the guidance in AC 90‑100 to determine their eligibility for domestic U.S. RNAV terminal procedures. For the purpose of this authorization, “compliance” means meeting operational and functional performance criteria.

Note:        Aircraft compliant with the current edition of AC 90-45, Approval of Area Navigation Systems for Use in the U.S. National Airspace System, may not be compliant with the criteria in AC 90‑100.

Note:        Per AC 90‑100, data suppliers and avionics data suppliers must have an LOA in accordance with the current edition of AC 20‑153, Acceptance of Data Processes and Associated Navigation Databases; operators must ensure that data supplier(s) are compliant.

1)      RNAV 1 procedures require DME/DME/IRU sensors and/or GPS inputs. Due to gaps in the DME infrastructure of the NAS, “RNAV 1” procedures require IRU sensor inputs to augment DME/DME, which is often referred to as DME/DME/IRU.
2)      The operator is responsible for providing equipment eligibility documented by the AFM or other FAA recognized means. If the operator is unable to determine that the aircraft is eligible, it must provide the following required documentation for RNAV 1 terminal procedures to the certificate-holding district office (CHDO):

·        RNAV system make, model, and part number(s);

·        Evidence of compliance with AC 90‑100 criteria;

·        Crew operations procedures;

·        Crew training program; and

·        Any other pertinent information.

Note:        AC 90‑100 includes terminology harmonized with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) procedures. Formerly classified as either “Type A” and “Type B” procedures, they are now referred to as RNAV 1 procedures.

3)      Based on the information supplied by the operator, the POI must coordinate with the PAI to determine equipment eligibility in accordance with the RNAV DPs and STARs compliance table. An aircraft equipment compliance table is also available in the OPSS guidance in association with all OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 templates and via the AFS‑410 Web site at http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs410/policy_guidance.
a)      As described in the AC 90‑100, the term “compliance” means meeting the operational and functional performance criteria. For the intended purpose of this policy, “compatible” means equipment and systems that perform their intended function and meet performance requirements for RNAV 1 (and RNAV 2) operations, as determined to be in compliance for approval.
b)      The PAI determines the proper nomenclature of the equipment manufacturer’s make, model, and software version, and that the RNAV equipment and system is installed in accordance with approved data and meets the criteria of the most recent version of AC 90‑100. To ensure the proper configuration control of the approved RNAV operating system, it is required to list both the hardware and the software part numbers or version/revision numbers in Table 1 of OpSpec C063.
c)      If the CHDO is unable to determine equipment eligibility for RNAV DPs and STARs via the AFS‑410 Web site, contact AFS‑410 for guidance.
4)      Some RNAV equipment and systems may not be able to perform multiple STAR runway transitions, sometimes known as “route Type 3,” because of database limitations. Operators of such RNAV systems must procure a “tailored” database and charts to allow the use of multiple runway transitions in order to qualify for RNAV 1 approval.
5)      After the POI and PAI agree that the operator’s navigation equipment, procedures, and flightcrew training are eligible for RNAV 1 DPs and STARs operations, the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 template may be issued indicating the appropriate authorizations.

H.    Certificate Holders and Program Managers Authorized European Precision Area Navigation (P‑RNAV) Operations. The criteria in AC 90‑100, required for U.S. RNAV procedures, are generally consistent (but there are exceptions) with the criteria for P‑RNAV operations in Europe.

1)      P‑RNAV terminal and en route operations require a trackkeeping accuracy of ± 1 NM for 95 percent of the flight time.
2)      If an operator has met the requirements for and is authorized P‑RNAV (OpSpec/MSpec/LOA B034), that operator may also be eligible for RNAV 1 after consideration of the following issues regarding equipment. POIs should still evaluate their operator’s procedures and training to ensure compliance with AC 90‑100.
a)      If approval for the P‑RNAV included the use of very high frequency (VHF) omni‑directional range station/distance measuring equipment (VOR/DME), then RNAV system performance must be based on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), DME/DME, or DME/DME/IRU for RNAV 1. However, VOR/DME inputs do not have to be inhibited or deselected.
b)      If approval for the P‑RNAV included the use of DME/DME, the Operator can ask manufacturer or check the FAA Web site for a list of compliant systems. However, DME/DME only systems are not authorized to conduct RNAV 1 operations.
c)      Operators must be able to follow RNAV guidance no later than 500 feet above field elevation (AFE).
3)      Appropriate P‑RNAV references are:
a)      Current edition of AC 90‑96, Approval of U.S. Operators and Aircraft to Operate Under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) in European Airspace Designated for Basic Area Navigation (B-RNAV) and Precision Area Navigation (P‑RNAV).
b)      Joint Aviation Authority (JAA) temporary guidance leaflet (TGL) Number 10, Airworthiness and Operational Approval for Precision RNAV Operations in Designated European Airspace.
c)      Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 4, OpSpec/MSpec/LOA B034.

I.       References (current editions):

·        Part 91, §§ 91.123, 91.205, and 91.503 (data currency);

·        Title 14 CFR part 95;

·        Part 121, § 121.349;

·        Part 125, § 125.203;

·        Title 14 CFR part 129, § 129.17;

·        Part 135, § 135.165; and

·        FAA Order 7110.65, Air Traffic Control.

OPSPEC C064, TERMINAL AREA IFR OPERATIONS IN CLASS G AIRSPACE AND AT AIRPORTS WITHOUT AN OPERATING CONTROL TOWER—NONSCHEDULED PASSENGER AND ALL CARGO OPERATIONS. C064 authorizes an operator to conduct nonscheduled passenger and all cargo (scheduled and nonscheduled) terminal area instrument flight rules (IFR) operations in Class G airspace or into airports without an operating control tower, with the following limitations and provisions:

A.     Operation Information. Before authorizing C064, the principal operations inspectors (POI) must ensure that the operator has sufficient content in its manual(s) and training program to cover common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF) and pilot controlled lighting (PCL) information and procedures. The POI must also determine that the operator has a method or procedure for obtaining and disseminating necessary operation information. This operation information must include the following:

1)      The airport is served by an authorized instrument approach procedure (IAP) (and departure procedure when applicable);
2)      Applicable charts for crewmember use;
3)      Operational weather data from an approved source for control of flight movements and crewmember use;
4)      Status of airport services and facilities at the time of the operation;
5)      Suitable means for pilots to obtain traffic advisories (TA); and
6)      Sources of TA and airport advisories.

B.     Radio Sources of Air TA Information. Certificate holders may be authorized to use any two‑way radio source of air TA information listed in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) (for operations in U.S. airspace) or equivalent Aeronautical Information Publications (AIP) (for foreign operations).

1)      These sources include CTAFs, Aeronautical Advisory Stations (UNICOM), Aeronautical Multicom Stations (MULTICOM), and Flight Service Stations (FSS).
2)      In those cases where two sources are listed at the same airport, inspectors must ensure that the operator’s manuals have procedures that require pilots to continuously monitor and use the TA frequency when operating within 10 nautical miles (NM) of the airport. The procedures should require communication concerning airport services and facilities to be completed while more than 10 NM from the airport.
3)      At some airports, no public use frequencies may be available. In those cases, a certificate holder must arrange for radio communication of essential information including surveillance of local or transient aircraft operations by ground personnel. Ground personnel who operate a company radio for airport status and TA must be able to view airspace around the airport.

C.     Issuance of C064 for C081 Authorization. OpSpecs C064 and/or C080 may need to be issued to the certificate holder in order for the OpSpec C081 to be issued. C081 authorizes the use of special (non‑14 CFR part 97) IAPs or departure procedures (DPs).

D.    Other Authorizations. C064 is applicable to 14 CFR part 121, 125, 121/135, and 135 certificate holders. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec H121. Title 14 CFR part 91 subpart K (part 91K) program managers should use MSpec A014 for Class G operations.

OPSPEC C065, POWERBACK OPERATIONS WITH AIRPLANES.

A.     General. C065 authorizes the use of powerplant reversing systems for rearward taxi operations. Before issuing C065, the principal operations inspector (POI) must determine whether the operator meets requirements discussed in AC 120‑29, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minima for Approach, current edition. Airplane types’ make, model, and series (M/M/S) authorized for powerback operations must be listed in C065. Airports where powerback operations are authorized must also be listed. If the POI and/or operator determine that restrictions to powerback operations are required at certain gates or ramp areas, the restrictions must be described (adjacent to the airport name) in the “Restrictions and Limitations” column. OpSpecs worksheets provide a template for listing authorized airplanes, airports, and restrictions.

B.     Policies and Procedures for Ground Personnel During Ground Operations. Title 14 CFR part 121, §§ 121.133 and 121.135, part 134, § 134.23, and part 135, § 135.21, require certificate holders to prepare manuals setting forth procedures and policies that must be used by ground and maintenance personnel in conducting their ground operations. Sufficient procedures must be established to maintain an adequate level of passenger and company ground personnel safety during ramp operations. Procedures should emphasize safety during boarding and deplaning of passengers or cargo, specifically during times when an engine(s) may be running or a propeller(s) is turning during ground operations. Procedures should include, as a minimum, a means for defining no access areas around the propeller(s), as well as the landing gear and tugs, during push and ground marshaling operations. Policies should provide that an adequate number of ground personnel are assigned to ensure safety of company personnel and passengers.

C.     Pushback and Ground Marshaling. Procedures for pushback and ground marshaling activities should be clearly defined and should include safety precautions and signals, and should ensure adequate visibility of assigned personnel during the time of aircraft movement.

D.    Increased Awareness. FAA air carrier surveillance programs should emphasize increased awareness by inspectors and the strict need to follow safety procedures around turning propellers, in marshalling and pushback procedures, and/or other ground activities.

E.     Other References. Additional references can be found in National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Recommendations 91‑297, 91‑298, and 93‑146, and Air Carrier Operating Bulletin (ACOB) 8‑94‑2, Safety in Ground Operations.

OPSPEC C067, SPECIAL AIRPLANE AUTHORIZATIONS, PROVISIONS, AND LIMITATIONS FOR CERTAIN AIRPORTS.

A.     General. OpSpec C067 authorizes certificate holders to operate airplanes into certain airports. The authorizations include the following:

1)      Title 14 CFR part 121 air carriers to conduct passenger‑carrying operations into uncertificated airports (see subparagraph C);
2)      Part 121 air carriers to conduct operations at airports that require curfew limitations for flights into or out of specific airports (see subparagraph D);
3)      Part 121 or 14 CFR part 135 air carriers to conduct operations into airports that have operational considerations such as special aircraft performance charts and equipment, special lighting (flare pots, etc.), or unpaved runways (see subparagraph D);
4)      Part 121 or 135 air carriers to conduct operations using the Reginald Bennett International Runway (RBI) Reflectorization System in Alaska (see subparagraph D); and
5)      Part 135 transport category airplane deviations from part 135, § 135.376(a)(3) or § 135.379(d). (See subparagraph D and Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5.)

B.     Authorizations Where Other OpSpecs Are Applicable.

1)      OpSpec C050 for “special PIC qualification airports” is applicable to the authorization described in part 121, § 121.445. Do not list special pilot in command (PIC) qualification airports in OpSpec C067 unless one of the items in subparagraph A also applies.
2)      OpSpec C081 should be used for listing the airports/runways where the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS‑400) has approved specific “special” instrument procedures for a certificate holder.
3)      OpSpec C058 is used for authorizing specific foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS).
4)      OpSpec C064 and C080 are used for authorizing a certificate holder to conduct airplane operations in airport terminal areas in Class G and E airspace.
5)      OpSpec C070 is used for authorizing airports where certificate holders conduct scheduled operations.

C.     Uncertificated Airports.

1)      In accordance with § 121.590(c) and (e), a certificate holder may be authorized to conduct passenger‑carrying airplane operations into an airport (nonmilitary) operated by the U.S. Government that is not certificated under 14 CFR part 139 if those airports meet:
a)      The equivalent safety standards for airports certificated under part 139, and
b)      The equivalent airport classification requirements under part 139 to serve the type airplanes to be operated and the type of operations to be conducted.
2)      Authorization to use such airports may be granted by entering the location/identifier of each airport, and the make and model (if applicable) of the airplanes to be operated in Table 3‑24, Sample of Airports and Special Provisions:
a)      Operators should obtain permission from the airport manager of nonmilitary airports to operate at these airports before starting operations.
b)      This permission is not needed for operations at joint‑use civil and military airports.
3)      The FAA may authorize a certificate holder to conduct passenger‑carrying airplane operations into a domestic military airport that is not certificated under part 139 (by selecting this text in the OpSpec) if the certificate holder ensures the following in advance of starting operations into that airport:
a)      Certificate holders should obtain permission from the base commander of military airports that are not certificated under part 139 in advance of commencement of operations.
b)      In accordance with the requirements of § 121.590, certificate holders must ensure that the airport:

1.      Meets the equivalent safety standards for airports certificated under part 139, and

2.      Meets the equivalent airport classification requirements under part 139 to serve the type airplanes to be operated and the type of operations to be conducted.

D.    Other Special Authorizations.

1)      Other special authorizations include those that may require special operational considerations and special flightcrew member training. (See guidance in Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5, paragraph 4‑601.) These authorizations may include but are not limited to:
a)      Operations into airports with special runway markings, such as flare pots or trees;
b)      High‑altitude airports with special airplane performance requirements;
c)      Airports in or near precipitous terrain (§ 135.363(h)); and
d)      Airports with unpaved runways or runways constructed on frozen lakes and rivers.
2)      Special authorization for conducting operations at airports in Alaska. For authorization to conduct airplane operations using the RBI Runway Reflectorization System in Alaska:
a)      The air carrier must provide a station agent at the airport trained to give wind information to the flightcrew, and
b)      The air carrier must train its flightcrews on this specific system in accordance with an approved training program. The training program must be approved in accordance with the following criteria:

1.      Each pilot must receive initial and follow‑on recurrent training in accordance with the company approved training program.

2.      Ground and flight personnel must complete initial training before participation with this authorization.

3.      Recurrent training must be completed every 12 calendar‑months following completion of initial training.

4.      Whenever a person who is required to take this recurrent training completes the training in the calendar‑month before or the calendar‑month after the month in which this recurrent training is required, that person is considered to have completed it in the calendar‑month in which it was required.

Note:      The sample Table 3‑24 shows how to provide authorization for conducting operations after curfew hours at specific airports or use of the RBI Runway Reflectorization system at specific airports in Table 3‑24 of OpSpec C067.

3)      Unpaved runways for turbojet operations. To use an airport with unpaved runways, an operator is required to have special operational procedures and flightcrew member training. For approval of operations at an airport with unpaved runways, the principal operations inspector (POI) must identify the airport and reference the appropriate section of the operator’s manuals in Table 3‑24 of OpSpec C067. See Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5.
4)      You may list in OpSpec C067 flag or supplemental destination airports that do not have an available alternate airport (in accordance with § 121.621(a)(2) or § 121.623(b)), for use by airplanes that are dispatched in accordance with the required fuel reserves set forth in § 121.641(b) or § 121.645(c).
5)      Although the FAA does not encourage operators to list aircraft limitations at certain airports during curfew hours in their OpSpecs, if an airport authority requires operators to list these limitations in their OpSpecs, then operators may list them in Table 3‑24 of OpSpec C067. A sample of Table 3‑24, below, shows an example of limitations for air carrier operations into specific airports during curfew hours.

Table 3-24, Sample of Airports and Special Provisions

Airport Location/Identifier

Aircraft M/M (enter N/A if not applicable)

Special Provisions and Limitations and Special Flightcrew Member Training

PKEK, Ekwok, Alaska

N/A

A station agent is required to give wind information to the flightcrews and the flightcrew must have completed the required approved training on the RBI Runway Reflectorization System.

DCA, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport

Boeing 737‑800

Limitations during the curfew hours.

Boeing 737‑800

Max Takeoff—159,000 pounds.

Max Landing—137,600 pounds.

Tahiti Island, Society IS; PPT/NTAA

N/A

Approved as destination airport without an available alternate.

6)      Deviation from the requirement to obtain obstacle clearance data for takeoff. This OpSpec provides for the authorization of certain transport category airplanes a deviation from § 135.367(a)(3) or § 135.379(d). Guidance for this deviation authorization is contained in Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5, paragraph 4‑599. To authorize this deviation, it must be listed in OpSpec A005 and the following statement must be selected in OpSpec C067:

“The certificate holder is authorized to conduct takeoff operations using transport category airplanes weighing no more than 19,000 pounds and having a seating configuration of no more than 19 passenger seats without showing compliance with part 135, §§ 135.367(a)(3) and 135.379(d). This authorization is limited to only the following operations conducted:

·        At airports of 4,000 feet mean sea level or less field elevation;

·        On runways on which the available length of runway is equal to or greater than 150 percent of the runway required by part 135, § 135.367(a)(1) and (2) or part 135, § 135.379(c), as applicable; and

·        In weather conditions equal to or greater than straight‑in Category I landing minimums for the runway being used.”

OPSPEC C068, NOISE ABATEMENT DEPARTURE PROFILES (NADP) ITEM 7K.

A.     General. C068 authorizes an operator to conduct Noise Abatement Departure Profiles (NADP) using aircraft with a maximum certificated gross takeoff weight (GTOW) of more than 75,000 pounds. Operators may use either or both of two standard NADPs as described in Advisory Circular (AC) 91‑53, Noise Abatement Departure Profiles, current edition.

B.     Compliance of Vertical Departure Profiles. Before authorizing this paragraph, the principal operations inspector (POI) must ensure that all airplane vertical departure profiles described in the certificate holder operations and/or training manuals comply with the minimums criteria established in AC 91‑53 for NADPs (close‑in and distant) before approving paragraph C068 for the certificate holder’s OpSpecs. The certificate holder must not use any other departure profile (except as stated in 14 CFR part 91) that is not defined within the AC.

Note:        Use of part 91 procedures does not require OpSpecs authorization. If the operator does not meet the criteria established in AC 91‑53, then OpSpec C068 will not be issued.

C.     Proposed Exceptions to This OpSpec. Proposed exceptions to the criteria as stated in this OpSpec, which would be less limiting (less than 800 feet above field elevation (AFE)), must be addressed by the certificate holder to the certificate holder’s POI for concurrence by the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS‑400) of the Flight Standards Service (AFS).

D.    Criteria for Close‑In and Distant NADPs. AC 91‑53, effective July 22, 1993, established minimum acceptable criteria for speed, thrust settings, airplane configurations, and the criteria for both the close‑in and distant NADPs. These NADPs can be combined with preferential runway selection and flightpath techniques to minimize noise impact. For helicopter information, see the current edition of AC 91‑66, Noise Abatement for Helicopters.

Note:        The distant departure profile requires an initiation of flaps/slats retraction prior to thrust cutback initiation with the thrust cutback initiation at an altitude of no less than 800 feet AFE. Configuration changes necessary to meet regulatory performance or operations requirements will not be affected by this procedure. For those airplanes that have a performance requirement to reduce takeoff flaps to an intermediate takeoff flap setting at 400 feet AFE or above, the next flap/slats retraction should be initiated at an altitude of no less than 800 feet AFE.

OPSPEC C070, AIRPORTS AUTHORIZED FOR SCHEDULED OPERATIONS.

A.     General. Under 14 CFR part 119, § 119.49, the OpSpecs must prescribe the authorizations and limitations for each type of operation. All regular airports shall be listed in the OpSpecs of all operators conducting scheduled operations. This includes domestic operations, flag operations, and commuter operations. Provisional and refueling airports will be listed for 14 CFR part 121 domestic and flag operations:

·        Airport name,

·        Three‑letter identifier of the airport,

·        Airplanes authorized to use the airport, and

·        A notation as to whether the airport is regular (R), refueling (F), or provisional (P) for each type of airplane authorized (refueling and provisional airports are not applicable to part 135 operators).

Note:        If an airport is designated as provisional, the regular airport or airports for which it serves as a provisional airport must be annotated. (Except in unique situations, an airport should not be designated as a provisional airport if it is located more than 100 statute miles outside of the metropolitan area served by the regular airport.)

B.     Requirements for List of Airports. If the operator provides a list of airports to be incorporated into C070, this list must provide the same type of information discussed in subparagraph A. This list must be annotated with the effective date of the listing.

C.     List of Alternate Airports. C070 specifies that the operator must maintain a list of alternate airports that can be used. This list of alternates may be integrated into the list provided by the operator, if desired. The principal operations inspector (POI) should occasionally inspect the list of alternates to determine airport and airplane compatibility.

OPSPEC C071, AUTOPILOT ENGAGEMENT AFTER TAKEOFF AND DURING INITIAL CLIMB FOR AUTO FLIGHT GUIDANCE SYSTEM (AFGS).

A.     General. OpSpec C071 is an optional authorization applicable to certificate holders operating in accordance with 14 CFR parts 121, 125, and 135; there is no MSpec C071 for 14 CFR part 91 subpart K (part 91K) operators. The authorization to engage the Auto Flight Guidance System (AFGS) at an altitude lower than 500 feet after takeoff and the initial climb segment requires authorization through OpSpec C071 in accordance with the following criteria:

1)      For certain aircraft, the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) may specify a minimum altitude that has been satisfactorily demonstrated for AFGS engagement after takeoff and the initial climb phase of flight that is lower than 500 feet:
a)      If the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report sets a higher altitude than the AFM, the higher FSB altitude would be the authorized altitude.
b)      If an FSB report is not available, or does not address autopilot engagement heights, the lowest authorized altitude shall be the altitude specified in the AFM.
c)      If the FSB report sets a lower altitude than the AFM, the AFM value will be used.
d)      Operator training material and pilot training program(s) have been reviewed, incorporating appropriate changes, as necessary. The flightcrew must have successfully completed the certificate holder’s approved training program curriculum segment(s) for AFGS operations at the minimum engagement altitude(s).
e)      The established maintenance and reliability program must be checked. This program should be designed to ensure that the equipment functions to the prescribed levels as delivered by the manufacturer, and include maintenance and preventative maintenance. Appropriate manuals should be referenced for compliance with manufacturers’ recommendations.
2)      If the AFM does not specify an altitude for engaging the AFGS for the initial climb, the lowest minimum altitude authorized is 500 feet, in accordance with part 121, § 121.579(a), part 125, § 125.329(a), or part 135, § 135.93(a), as applicable.
a)      The FSB report for the aircraft may also contain further conditions or limitations regarding AFGS engagement after takeoff and initial climb.
b)      If there is uncertainty about applying AFM performance information, Airplane Operations Manual (AOM), General Operations Manuals (GOM), or Flightcrew Operating Manual (FCOM) procedures, or if there is a conflict between the AFM and AOM, the GOM, or the FCOM, the Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG) should be consulted.
c)      Principal inspectors (PI) approving, or who have approved, performance‑related takeoff procedures and training for systems not specifically designed with a takeoff mode should coordinate with the cognizant AEG.
d)      The AEG, in coordination with the cognizant Aircraft Certification Office (ACO), will concur or nonconcur with the procedure, or propose conditions and limitations, if any, as appropriate.

B.     AFM. The AFM is the document that contains “FAA‑approved,” “performance,” and “limitations.” Any use of the autopilot and/or flight director (FD) modes should be consistent with both the AFM and the applicable operating rules (e.g., § 121.189).

1)      The AFM establishes the basis to be used when developing the AOM or the FCOM.
2)      While AOMs, GOMs, and FCOMs are accepted by the FAA, they typically are not used as the means to specify performance information, and they do not supersede the limitations sections of the AFM.
3)      The FSB report further addresses such issues for some, but not all, aircraft types.

C.     Manuals With Takeoff Procedures. Some AOMs, GOMs, or FCOMs contain takeoff procedures such as using one-half bank mode, go‑around mode, or capturing indicated airspeed (IAS) for systems not specifically designed with a takeoff mode. Those manuals should not, by procedures themselves, be used as the basis for approving procedures and training programs that relate to achieving necessary takeoff performance.

D.    Additional Information. Advisory Circular (AC) 120‑67, Criteria for Operational Approval of Auto Flight Guidance Systems, current edition, gives additional criteria applicable to operators using commercial turbojet and/or turboprop aircraft operating under parts 121, 125, and 135.

OPSPEC C072, ENGINE‑OUT DEPARTURE PROCEDURES WITH APPROVED 10 MINUTE TAKEOFF THRUST TIME LIMITS.

A.     General. OpSpec C072 is optional and authorizes the certificate holder to use engine‑out departure procedures (DPs) under the provisions of 14 CFR parts 121, 125, and/or 135, as appropriate, using airplanes that are equipped with powerplants that are approved 10‑minute takeoff thrust time limits in accordance with the provisions of this guidance and OpSpec C070.

B.     Takeoff Obstacle Climb Data in the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). The manufacturer’s AFM must include takeoff obstacle climb data for use with a 10‑minute, engine‑out takeoff thrust time limit. This AFM data must be applied to the certificate holder’s airplane engine‑out takeoff obstacle analysis to provide critical obstacle clearance in the event of an engine failure during takeoff.

1)      The FAA Transport Airplane Directorate and the Engine and Propeller Directorate have developed a procedure to certify and revise airplane manufacturers’ AFMs to include takeoff obstacle climb data for use with a 10‑minute, engine‑out takeoff thrust time limit.
2)      Previously, airplane operators’ AFM takeoff data only provided data for a 5‑minute takeoff thrust time limit. Airplane operators may obtain revised AFMs from airplane manufacturers for specific airplane/engine combinations. This AFM data may then be applied to the airplane operator’s engine‑out takeoff obstacle analysis to provide critical obstacle clearance in the event of an engine failure during takeoff.

C.     Airplane Thrust Limit Restrictions. Because it is assumed that not all airplanes operated by an air carrier will have their AFMs revised for 10‑minute takeoff thrust data, some operators’ airplane takeoff thrust limits may be restricted to 5 minutes, while other airplanes in the same fleet may have the 10‑minute restriction. Certain criteria must be addressed to inform the pilot which limit is applicable in the event of an engine failure during takeoff.

D.    Engine‑Out DPs. The certificate holder’s approved operations manual and training program must include the engine‑out DPs specifically designed to use the 10‑minute takeoff thrust time limits. These DPs require that airplane operator’s training programs, manuals, and procedures address the following areas:

1)      Air carrier performance engineers’ evaluation of engine‑out DPs specifically designed to use the 10‑minute takeoff thrust time limit.
2)      An FAA AFM revision outlining operational procedures with specific airplane/engine lists that involve the 10‑minute takeoff thrust time limit.
3)      An FAA‑approved dispatch or similar acceptable system that provides specific 10–minute, engine‑out takeoff thrust departure procedure information to the pilot for the impending flight concerning the airport, aircraft weight, and departure path.
4)      Information readily available to the pilot that indicates airplanes authorized for 10‑minute takeoff thrust operations in the event of an engine failure on takeoff.
5)      Pilot knowledge of the designed engine‑out departure procedure that uses the 10‑minute takeoff thrust time limit.
6)      Pilot training of the 10‑minute takeoff thrust time limit departure flight procedure.

OPSPEC C073, IFR APPROACH PROCEDURES USING VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNAV). To be determined.

OPSPEC C075, CAT I IFR LANDING MINIMUMS—CIRCLING APPROACHES. (SPLIT FROM C053).

A.     General. OpSpec C075 is issued to operators who conduct 14 CFR part 121, 125, and 135 operations with fixed‑wing airplanes. OpSpec C075 specifies the lowest minimums that can be used for Category (CAT) I circling approach maneuvers. It also provides special limitations and provisions for instrument approach procedures (IAP) at foreign airports. See Volume 4, Chapter 2 for more information on required training for circling maneuvers.

B.     Circle‑to‑Land Maneuver. For the purpose of this OpSpec authorization, any operator issued this paragraph is authorized to conduct circle‑to‑land maneuvers. In any weather condition, a certificate holder that permits its pilots to accept a “circle to land” or a “circle to runway (runway number)” clearance from air traffic control (ATC) conducts circle‑to‑land maneuvers. The term “circle‑to‑land maneuver” includes the maneuver that is referenced in various regulations, publications, and documents as “circle to land maneuver,” “circling,” “circling maneuver,” “circle,” “circling approach,” and “circling approach maneuver.” With regard to pilots, “conducting” a circle‑to‑land maneuver means to act as the Pilot Flying (PF) when a circle‑to‑land maneuver is being conducted.

C.     Operations Under IFR During Circle‑to‑Land. Aircraft operating under instrument flight rules (IFR) during all circle‑to‑land maneuvers are required to remain clear of clouds. If visual reference to the airport is lost while conducting a circle‑to‑land maneuver, the missed approach procedure specified for the applicable instrument approach must be followed, unless an alternate missed approach procedure is specified by ATC.

D.    Documenting Maneuver Descriptions and Procedures. Each certificate holder who is issued OpSpec C075, and who is also required to have maneuver descriptions/procedures, must publish in its training manual, or must incorporate in its training manual by reference to another approved manual, a detailed description of the procedures used to conduct a circle to land maneuver. Pilots must conduct circle‑to‑land maneuvers using those procedures.

E.     Provisions for Part 121 Certificate Holders to Perform Circle‑to‑Land Maneuvers. Part 121 certificate holders may conduct circle‑to‑land maneuvers under two separate provisions within OpSpec C075.

1)      Part 121 Operations with Flight Training and Flight Checking. Part 121 certificate holders whose pilots have been trained and checked for the circling maneuver in accordance with part 121 appendices E and F, or in accordance with an Advanced Qualification Program (AQP), may conduct a circle‑to‑land maneuver:

·        At the published circling landing minimums for the instrument approach to be used; or

·        At the minimums specified in the chart contained within the OpSpec paragraph, whichever is higher.

a)      Appendix E does not require a part 121 certificate holder to train a second in command (SIC) in the circling maneuver if the certificate holder prohibits the SIC from performing/conducting (acting as PF) a circling maneuver. However, an SIC must be trained and can be checked in those functions specific to the circle‑to‑land maneuver that the SIC is required to perform while acting as pilot‑not‑flying (PNF).
b)      Any pilot who possesses a pilot certificate restricting circling approaches to visual meteorological conditions (VMC) is not eligible to conduct circle‑to‑land maneuvers, except as provided in subparagraph E.
2)      Part 121 Operations Without Flight Training and Flight Checking. Certificate holders conducting circle‑to‑land maneuvers without training and checking must use a minimum descent altitude (MDA) of 1,000 feet height above airport (HAA) or the MDA of the published circling landing minimums for the instrument approach to be used, whichever is higher. Certificate holders that conduct a circle‑to‑land maneuver under this provision remain under an IFR clearance and must comply with those procedures otherwise required for circle‑to‑land maneuvers. Certificate holders must ensure that pilots are familiar with those procedures. Part 121 pilots who have not been trained and checked for the circling maneuver in accordance with part 121 appendices E and F, or in accordance with an AQP, may conduct a circle‑to‑land maneuver when:

·        The reported ceiling is at least 1,000 feet and the visibility is at least 3 statute miles (see part 121 appendices E and F); or

·        The reported weather is at least equal to the published circling landing minimums for the instrument approach to be used, whichever is higher.

F.      Circle‑to‑Land Maneuvers Regarding Part 125. Part 125 certificate holders are not permitted to conduct circle‑to‑land maneuvers in airplanes without their pilots having been checked in that maneuver.

1)      Part 125, § 125.291(b) states: “The IAP or procedures must include at least one straight in approach, one circling approach, and one missed approach. Each type of approach procedure demonstrated must be conducted to published minimums for that procedure.”
2)      Required Part 125 SIC. The SIC must complete the annual competency check required by § 125.287. The circle‑to‑land maneuver is not part of the § 125.287 competency check. However, each SIC is evaluated for flightcrew coordination.
3)      PNF Duties. Each crewmember can be checked in those functions specific to the circle‑to‑land maneuver that the pilot is required to perform while acting as PNF.

G.    Circle‑to‑Land Maneuvers Regarding Part 135. Part 135 certificate holders are not permitted to conduct circle‑to‑land maneuvers in aircraft without their pilots having been checked in that maneuver. (Helicopter IFR circle to land maneuvers are authorized in OpSpec H118.)

1)      Part 135, § 135.297.
a)      Section 135.297(a) does not allow “any person to serve, as pilot in command of an aircraft under IFR unless, since the beginning of the 6th calendar month before that service, that pilot has passed an instrument proficiency check under this section….”
b)      Section 135.297(b) requires, “The IAP or procedures must include at least one straight in approach, one circling approach, and one missed approach. Each type of approach procedure demonstrated must be conducted to published minimums for that procedure.” The requirement to demonstrate a circle‑to‑land maneuver applies to both airplanes and helicopters.
c)      Part 135 single‑pilot and single pilot‑in‑command (PIC) operators are not required to have training programs. However, the circle‑to‑land maneuver must be successfully demonstrated in every § 135.297 instrument proficiency check (IPC).
2)      In accordance with § 135.293, a part 135 IFR operator must ensure that each IFR SIC has an annual competency check. In accordance with Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 7, paragraph 3‑1279, an SIC need not be evaluated in “circling approaches” when an operator’s procedures restrict an SIC from conducting (acting as PF) this event in revenue service. However, each required IFR SIC is evaluated for flightcrew coordination.
3)      PNF Duties. Each pilot must be trained and can be checked in those functions specific to the circle‑to‑land maneuver that the pilot is required to perform while acting as PNF.
4)      The standard of competence for part 135 IPCs is specified in § 135.293(d). This standard is also specified in the Airline Transport Pilot and Aircraft Type Rating Practical Test Standards for Airplane (FAA S‑8081‑5) and the Instrument Rating Practical Test Standards for Airplane Helicopter Powered Lift (FAA S‑8081‑4).

H.    Helicopter Authorization. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec H118.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C076, CAT I IFR LANDING MINIMUMS—CONTACT APPROACHES. (SPLIT FROM C053.) The certificate holder must not use any instrument flight rules (IFR) Category (CAT) I landing minimum lower than that prescribed by the applicable published instrument approach procedures (IAP). The IFR landing minimums prescribed in paragraphs C053 for nonprecision “other than ILS, MLS, or GLS” approaches and C074 for precision “ILS, MLS, or GLS” approaches of these OpSpecs are the lowest CAT I minimums authorized for use at any airport. Those paragraphs must also be issued, as applicable. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec H119.

OPSPEC C077, TERMINAL FLIGHT RULES LIMITATIONS AND PROVISIONS. (FORMERLY OPSPEC B033.)

A.     OpSpec C077. OpSpec C077 is an optional authorization that is applicable to all operators conducting operations under the provisions for 14 CFR part 135 on‑demand turbojet, all 14 CFR parts 121 and  129 foreign operators (except for rotorcraft operations). OpSpec B051 is applicable for parts 121 and 129 visual flight rules (VFR) en route operations for propeller‑driven aircraft and may be issued in conjunction with C077.

B.     Charted Visual Flight Procedure (CVFP). OpSpec C077 provides for operations under a CVFP unless operating under the provisions of 14 CFR part 93, Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 50‑2, if the minimums in the CVFP are lower than those listed in part 121, § 121.649; § 121.649 prevails for all part 121 operations. Conversely, for part 135 operations in Class G airspace, part 135, § 135.205 prevails. There are no provisions in § 121.649 or § 135.205 for a deviation. An exemption is required if the operator wants to use a CVFP with lower‑than‑standard minimums. For part 129 operators, the applicable provisions and limitations of 14 CFR part 91 prevails.

C.     VFR Weather Condition Minimums. The VFR weather conditions specified in part 91, § 91.155 may be used. However, where § 91.155(c) and (d) refers to § 91.157, the minimums set forth in § 121.649 or § 135.205, as applicable, take precedence for operations conducted under part 121 or 135.

D.    Subparagraph c(2)(b). Uncontrolled airports can be in either controlled or uncontrolled airspace. As long as the provisions listed in this subparagraph are met, the operator may operate VFR in uncontrolled airspace in the terminal area in accordance with this OpSpec. For the purpose of direct communication at uncontrolled airports, a common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF) may be utilized as long as it is associated with an air/ground communication facility. The CTAF may be an Aeronautical Advisory Station (UNICOM), Aeronautical Multicom System (MULTICOM), Flight Service Station (FSS), or a tower frequency. Acceptable air/ground communication is a demonstrated reliable means to directly relay traffic advisories (TA) and information that is pertinent to conditions on and around the landing surface during the terminal phase of flight. For example, if the operator adequately demonstrates to the principal operations inspector (POI) its reliability to relay essential information, via radio or another type of communication, through an agent located near the landing surface, it is considered to be a “demonstrated reliable means” of communication.

E.     Subparagraph c(3). In lieu of a published CVFP, an authorized visual guidance procedure such as the use of Visual Approach Area Navigation (RNAV) Reference Points (VARRP), or special RNAV Visual Flight Procedures (RVFP) is highly recommended for all terminal VFR departures/arrivals that fall under this OpSpec. The POI may approve that procedure. The proximity of obstacles to the departure flightpath, the seeing conditions, the accuracy of the guidance and control systems, the pilot’s proficiency, and the operator’s training should determine the size of the area in which obstacle clearance or avoidance must be considered. The POI should take into account the airplane performance data in Volume 4, Chapter 3.

F.      Operating on an Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Flight Plan When Authorized VFR En Route. Where there is an operating ATC facility and it is possible to obtain an IFR clearance, the flight must depart on an IFR flight plan, even if authorized en route VFR under B051.

1)      It is recognized that the IFR infrastructure at certain locations may not always support an expeditious departure environment. If the certificate holder is able to show that it is just as safe to depart on a VFR flight plan at certain IFR airports, the certificate holder may apply for a nonstandard OpSpec prescribing VFR departure procedures (DPs) for that airport.
2)      Subparagraph d(3). The requirement to obtain an IFR clearance no farther than 50 nautical miles (NM) still is valid. However, it is recognized that this procedure may not be practical in all situations. If a greater distance is necessary, the certificate holder may apply for a nonstandard paragraph.
3)      OpSpec B051 is for parts 121 and 129 VFR en route operations for propeller driven aircraft. Paragraph B052 is for certain VFR operations in remote areas. If operating under those paragraphs, certain en route VFR provisions in part 93, SFAR 50‑2, or SFAR 71, the flightcrew may depart VFR under the provision of C077d, except that the requirement to obtain an IFR clearance en route does not apply.

G.    Terminal Departure IFR Requirements in Subparagraph e. It is acceptable if air traffic control (ATC) clears the flight to execute a VMC takeoff and climb to a specified point in the clearance as part of an IFR clearance. However, the operator must ensure that the obstacle performance requirements are met. Further, the flight must not depart on a VFR flight plan if the capability to go on an IFR flight plan is evident.

H.    Special Limitations and Provisions for All VFR Operations. Subparagraph f provides special limitations and provisions for all VFR operations. This subparagraph is applicable to all the provisions and limitations of C077.

1)      Subparagraph f(1). In order for the certificate holder or operator to conduct VFR operations under C077, they must have in place either a procedure or program which can identify obstacles and the airport obstacle data. Further, they must ensure use of that information by the flightcrew.
2)      Subparagraph f(2). Although each subparagraph has specific details and minimums regarding VFR, the requirements for sufficient seeing conditions to identify and avoid obstacles is required for all VFR operations.

I.       For Alaska Operations. A nonstandard subparagraph (C077g) for certain intrastate Alaskan operations was added. The operator may operate under that nonstandard paragraph provided they qualify under the following requirements. If the operator does not qualify, they will not be issued subparagraph g.

1)      In view of Public Law 104‑264, section 1205, and in accordance with § 121.657(a), a deviation was granted from the minimums set forth in § 121.657(b).
2)      That deviation applied only to 14 CFR part 119 certificate holders that “transitioned” from operations under part 135 to part 121 by March 20, 1997, and only for those operations conducted solely within the state of Alaska (intrastate). OpSpec C077 subparagraph g describes the provisions for that deviation and is controlling.
3)      If a “transitioned” certificate holder applied the above deviation to its operations, paragraph A005 of its OpSpec must reference that deviation for authorization.

OPSPEC C078/C079, IFR LOWER THAN STANDARD TAKEOFF MINIMA, 14 CFR PART 121 AIRPLANE OPERATIONS—ALL AIRPORTS.

A.     General. C078 and C079 are optional for authorizing lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums. The authority for lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums is contained in 14 CFR part 91, § 91.1039(e); part 121, § 121.651(a)(1); part 125, § 125.381(a)(1); and part 135, § 135.225(g) and (h). When appropriate, principal operations inspectors (POI) will issue OpSpec C078 to part 121 or 125 operators, LOA paragraph C078 to part 125M operators, OpSpec C079 to part 135 operators, and MSpec C079 to part 91 subpart K (part 91K) operators. These authorizations contain specific criteria regarding pilots, training and qualifications, aircraft, and airports when lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums are used.

Note:        C078 and C079 are applicable to all airports utilized by the operator.

Note:        There may be additional limitations and guidance for specific airplanes in Flight Standardization Board (FSB) reports, which are binding upon all part 121 and 135 operators.

Note:        For the purpose of this OpSpec/MSpec/LOA, the word “sensor” is used to indicate all approved Runway Visual Range (RVR) systems.

B.     Lower‑Than‑Standard Takeoff Minimums for Part 121 or 125. C078 allows for lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums for operators conducting operations under part 121 or 125 (including holders of a Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) operating under part 125) with the following limitations and provisions:

1)      Takeoff operations without runway centerline (RCL) lighting are not allowed at less than RVR 1,000 (300 meters),
2)      Takeoff operations using only visual references are not allowed at less than RVR 500 (150 meters),
3)      Takeoff operations with visibility down to, but not lower than, RVR 300 (75 meters) using approved head‑up display (HUD) takeoff guidance systems,
4)      Authorization for pilot assessment of touchdown zone (TDZ) RVR for takeoff when the installed RVR sensor is inoperative (see subparagraph H), and
5)      Lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums include paragraphs addressing takeoffs down to RVR 1,600 (500 meters), RVR 1,200 (350 meters), RVR 1,000 (300 meters), RVR 600 (175 meters), and RVR 500 (150 meters).

C.     Lower‑Than‑Standard Takeoff Minimums for Part 91K or 135.C079 allows for lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums for operators conducting operations under parts 91K and 135 with the following limitations and provisions:

1)      Lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums down to RVR 1,600 (500 meters), RVR 1,200 (350 meters), RVR 1,000 (300 meters), or RVR 500 (150 meters) for part 135 domestic operations. Section 135.225(f) restricts part 135 domestic operators to 1 mile visibility for takeoffs at foreign or military airports.
2)      Lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums down to RVR 1,600 (500 meters), RVR 1,200 (350 meters), RVR 1,000 (300 meters), or RVR 600 (175 meters) for part 91K operations at all airports.
3)      Each aircraft must be operated with a flightcrew consisting of at least two pilots. Use of an autopilot in lieu of a required second in command (SIC) is prohibited.
4)      There are some circumstances in which an Operations inspector for a part 121 or 135 carrier may consider issuing this OpSpec for airplanes certificated under Civil Air Regulations (CAR) 3 or 14 CFR part 23. Those airplanes have to meet the 14 CFR part 25 avionics equipment requirements necessary to hold C079 authorization. The following statement becomes binding on such aircraft, and must be added using the remarks paragraph selection for C079 to be issued:
a)      Each pilot station must have operational equipment that displays a reliable indication of the following:

1.      Aircraft pitch and bank information (attitude) (from a gyroscopic or attitude heading reference system source);

2.      Aircraft heading (from a gyroscopic or magnetic direction indicating source);

3.      Vertical Speed (VS);

4.      Airspeed; and

5.      Altitude.

b)      Each pilot station must have an independent source of power for the equipment required by subparagraph C4)a)1 and C4)a)2.
5)      Each pilot in command (PIC) must have at least 100 hours of flight time as PIC in the specific make and model airplane used under this authorization. Each PIC must have satisfactorily completed the operator’s approved training program (as applicable) and a qualification check for the minimums approved by this authorization. This includes the methods to be used to ensure compliance with the aircraft performance limitations during takeoffs with RVR less than RVR 1,000 (300 meters), when applicable.
6)      Any part 91K or 135 SIC authorized to manipulate the flight controls during lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums must have at least 100 hours of flight time as a pilot in the specific make and model airplane, and must have satisfactorily completed the operator’s approved training program and qualifications check for those minimums, when applicable.
7)      For takeoffs when the RVR is less than RVR 1,000 (300 meters), each airplane used must be operated at a takeoff weight that permits the airplane to achieve the performance equivalent to the takeoff performance specified in § 135.367 (for reciprocating‑powered airplanes), § 135.379 (for turbine‑powered airplanes), or § 135.398 (for commuter category airplanes).

D.    Lower‑Than‑Standard Takeoff Minimums Using HUD Systems. C078 or C079 provide for the authorization of lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums using HUD systems with certain limitations and provisions. Although RVR 500 (150 meters) is the lowest authorized minimum when the takeoff is based upon outside visual references (with the exception of operations conducted under part 91K and operations to foreign or military airports conducted under part 135), RVR 300 (75 meters) is the lowest authorized minimum when using an HUD system on a runway that has been determined to be served by a Localizer (LOC) providing Category (CAT) III rollout guidance as indicated by a III/E/4 facility classification. As the HUD systems uses the LOC signal for steering commands, the LOC needs to be III/E/4‑certified (III = CAT III, E = accurate to at least 2,000 feet from the departure end of the runway, and 4 = 4,000 hours mean time between failures for the LOC signal). A listing of runways with III/E/4 LOC classifications is available on the AFS‑410 Web site at http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs410.

E.     Lower‑Than‑Standard Takeoff Minimums for TDZ RVR. C078 or C079 authorizes lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums of TDZ RVR 1,600 (500 meters). If TDZ RVR is inoperative, mid-point RVR may substitute for TDZ RVR. Below RVR 1,600, two operating RVR sensors are required and controlling. If more than two RVR sensors are installed, all operating RVR sensors are controlling, with the exception of a fourth, far-end RVR sensor that may be installed on extremely long runways. A far-end RVR sensor is advisory only. C078 or C079 allow the selection of the following lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums based on flightcrew training, checking, and allowed authorizations:

1)      TDZ RVR 1,200 (350 meters), mid-point (if installed) RVR 1,200 (350 meters), and rollout RVR 1,000 (300 meters);
2)      TDZ, mid-point (if installed), and rollout RVR 1,000 (300 meters);
3)      TDZ, mid-point (if installed), and rollout RVR 600 (175 meters) (part 91K);
4)      TDZ, mid-point (if installed), and rollout RVR 500 (150 meters) (part 121, 125, or 135). Part 91K program managers are limited by regulation to RVR 600 (175 meters) takeoff authorization without an exemption. The RVR 500 (150 meters) and RVR 300 (75 meters) authorization will not be available in the part 91K MSpec C079. Tables 3‑24A, Runway Equipment Requirements for Lower‑Than‑Standard Takeoff Minimums, and 3‑26A, Runway Equipment Requirements for Lower‑Than‑Standard Takeoff Minimums, provide examples of tables that may be included in flightcrew manuals such as the Flight Operations Manual (FOM).

Table 3-24A, Runway Equipment Requirements for Lower‑Than‑Standard Takeoff Minimums

Serviceable

Runway Visual Aid Required

Lowest Allowable Takeoff Minimum Authorization

If an RVR sensor is not available:

 

Adequate visual reference, OR any ONE of the following:

HIRL/CLL/RCLM

¼ sm (400 m)

If an RVR sensor is available:

Note: Below RVR 1,600, two operating RVR sensors are required. All operating RVR sensors are controlling (except per the note below for Far End sensors).

Adequate visual reference, OR any ONE of the following:

HIRL/CLL/RCLM

RVR 1,600 ft (500 m)/NR/NR

Mid-point can substitute for an unavailable touchdown.

Day: CLL or RCLM or HIRL

Night: CLL or HIRL

RVR 1,200 ft (350 m)/1200 ft (350 m)/1,000 ft (300 m)

RCLM and HIRL, or CLL

RVR 1,000 ft/1,000 ft/1,000 ft (300m)

HIRL and CLL

RVR 600 ft/600 ft/600 ft (175 m) or RVR 500 ft/500 ft/500 ft (150 m)

With an approved HUD takeoff guidance system, HIRL, and CLL

RVR 300 ft/300 ft/300 ft (75 m)

Note:        Extremely long runways (e.g., DEN 16R) utilize four RVR sensors (i.e., TDZ, mid, rollout, and far-end). When a fourth far-end RVR value is reported, it is not controlling and is not to be used as one of the two required operative RVR sensors.

Table 3-26A, Runway Equipment Requirements for Lower‑Than‑Standard Takeoff Minimums

Runways with 1 RVR Sensor

 

RCLM or CLL or HIRL or Adequate Visual Reference

Standard

 

TDZ RVR 16

or 1/4

3&4 Eng

1&2 Eng

 

RVR 24 or 1/2

RVR 50 or 1

 

 

 

Runways with 2 RVR Sensors

Both RVR sensors are required and controlling.

RCLM or CLL or HIRL or Adequate Visual Reference

Standard

HUD & CLL & HIRL

CLL & HIRL

CLL, or RCLM & HIRL

RCLM (day only) or CLL or HIRL

TDZ RVR 3

Rollout RVR 3

TDZ RVR 5

Rollout RVR 5

TDZ RVR 10

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 12

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 16

or 1/4

3&4 Eng

1&2 Eng

RVR 24 or 1/2

RVR 50 or 1

 

Runways with 3 RVR Sensors

Two operating RVR sensors are required. All operating RVR sensors are controlling.

RCLM or CLL or HIRL or Adequate Visual Reference

Standard

HUD & CLL & HIRL

CLL & HIRL

CLL, or RCLM & HIRL

RCLM (day only) or CLL or HIRL

TDZ RVR 3

Mid RVR 3

Rollout RVR 3

TDZ RVR 5

Mid RVR 5

Rollout RVR 5

TDZ RVR 10

Mid RVR 10

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 12

Mid RVR 12

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 16

(if TDZ inop)

Mid RVR 16

or 1/4

3&4 Eng

1&2 Eng

RVR 24 or 1/2

RVR 50 or 1

 

Runways with 4 RVR Sensors

Two RVR sensors below must be operational. All operating RVR sensors are controlling except Far End which is advisory only.

RCLM or CLL or HIRL or Adequate Visual Reference

Standard

HUD & CLL & HIRL

CLL & HIRL

CLL, or RCLM & HIRL

RCLM (day only) or CLL or HIRL

TDZ RVR 3

Mid RVR 3

Rollout RVR 3

TDZ RVR 5

Mid RVR 5

Rollout RVR 5

TDZ RVR 10

Mid RVR 10

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 12

Mid RVR 12

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 16

(if TDZ inop)

Mid RVR 16

or 1/4

3&4 Eng

1&2 Eng

RVR 24 or 1/2

RVR 50 or 1

F.      RVR Applicability to Lower‑Than‑Standard Takeoff Minimums.

1)      Other than the authorization for RVR 1,600 (500 meters), which permits use of Runway Visibility Values (RVV) under the appropriate authorization for an operator issued C078 or C079, all the authorizations in C078 and C079 are based on RVR reports that are generated by RVR sensors.
a)      “Controlling” RVR means that RVR reports are used to determine operating minimums whenever operating minimums are specified in terms of RVR, and RVR reports are available for the runway being used.
b)      All CAT I operating minimums below one‑half statute mile (RVR 2,400), and all CAT II and III operating minimums are based on RVR. The use of visibility is prohibited because the reported visibility may not represent the “seeing-conditions” on the runway. (See Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 3, paragraphs 4‑208 and 4‑213.)
c)      All takeoff minimums below 1/4 statue mile visibility require RVR values, and the use of Runway Visibility Value (RVV) for takeoff clearances is prohibited. In these situations, RVR is said to be “controlling”; that is, RVR must be operating and reporting (by requirement High Intensity Runway Lights (HIRL) also must be working), and at a value equal to or greater than the lowest authorized RVR for the particular clearance. Takeoffs or approaches and landings in these conditions require actual RVR values to be authorized by the controlling agency.

C078 Lower Than Standard Takeoff Visibility Quick Reference Chart

Note:        The diagram above is intended as a memory aid intended to help in remembering the various RVR breakdowns and associated requirements within each grouping. For example, two RVR sensors are required for all takeoffs at RVR values less than 1,600 (500 meters) (shown above the runway).

2)      The following requirements and restrictions apply to the use of RVR values below 1,600 feet (500 meters). (In the C078 and C079 templates, simplified wording is used):
a)      Where only two RVR sensors are installed, the TDZ and rollout RVR sensors are both required and controlling.
b)      Where three RVR sensors are installed on the runway to be used:

1.      The TDZ, mid, and rollout RVR reports are controlling for all operations.

2.      The failure of any one RVR will not affect operations provided the remaining two RVR sensors are reporting values at or above the appropriate minimums in this subparagraph.

Note:        Extremely long runways (e.g., DEN 16R) utilize four RVR sensors (e.g., TDZ, mid, rollout, and far-end). When a fourth far-end RVR value is reported, it is not controlling and is not to be used as one of the two required operative RVR systems.

G.    Flightcrew Training and Qualification Requirements. If an operator requests authorization to conduct lower‑than‑standard takeoffs, the flightcrew must be trained and qualified in their respective crew positions for the applicable takeoff minimums requested. The PIC is ultimately responsible for ensuring that the flightcrew members are appropriately qualified before conducting an authorized lower‑than‑standard takeoff.

1)      Individual pilots must be trained in their respective crew positions (parts 91K, 121, and 135) and checked (parts 91K, 121, 125, and 135) in takeoffs using the appropriate requested minimums, before being approved for conducting such takeoffs.
2)      Pilot qualification must consist of an initial check that includes one takeoff at the lowest requested takeoff minimums. It is also required during each pilot’s recurrent qualification cycle. This qualification must be completed in a flight simulator (SIM) capable of replicating the applicable takeoff visibility, and the simulator must be set at the applicable takeoff visibility, or lower, during such takeoffs.
3)      Additional crew qualification for a check airman or a qualified FAA inspector, beyond that shown herein for regular flightcrews, is not required.
4)      POIs must ensure that operators requesting lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums provide appropriate training for flightcrews, including the procedures listed below, as appropriate:

·        Confirming the takeoff runway alignment (Safety Alert for Operators (SAFO) 07003 includes guidance and/or advisory information about acceptable techniques);

·        Rejected takeoffs in a low‑visibility environment;

·        Low‑visibility instrument takeoff cross‑check priorities;

·        Engine failure during critical phases of takeoff in low visibility;

·        Acceleration and climb disorientation factors and illusions;

·        Use of HUD takeoff guidance systems (when installed in aircraft for RVR 300 authorization only);

·        Taxiing in a low visibility environment with emphasis on preventing runway incursion and Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (SMGCS) training Advisory Circular (AC) 120‑57, Surface Movement Guidance and Control System, current edition, includes guidance and/or advisory information about acceptable techniques);

·        Taxiway critical areas;

·        Crew coordination and planning;

·        Required ground-based visual aids (such as stop bars and taxi holding position lights);

·        Required ground-based electronic aids (such as instrument landing system (ILS)/microwave landing system (MLS) and transmissometers); and

·        Determination of takeoff alternate airports.

H.    Pilot Assessment of IFR Lower‑Than‑Standard Takeoff Minimums. C078 and C079 allows pilots to make an assessment of the touchdown RVR when the TDZ RVR sensor is inoperative, is not reported, or the pilot determines that the reported TDZ RVR report is in error. This assessment, when equal to or greater than the TDZ RVR requirement for takeoffs made with only outside visual references, or for takeoffs using HUD systems, can be used for takeoff when mid and rollout RVR sensors are available, and are equal to or greater than the required minimums. To be authorized for this pilot assessment, each operator must meet the following requirements:

1)      For each specific runway for which the assessment is allowed, have an FAA‑approved procedure for assessing RVR values that includes:
a)      Identification of actual distances between runway lights (from 160 feet to 200 feet) on the particular runway for the takeoff in question.
b)      Identification of an appropriate number and type of runway lights that matches the particular RVR minimums or required visual distance for the takeoff being made.
c)      Identification of runway markings of known spacing with corresponding distances that must be visible to the pilot from the flight deck when the aircraft is in the takeoff position.
2)      This procedure must include the effects of variability of runway light intensity settings and changing ambient lighting (day or night). Flightcrew training and checking must assess knowledge of this specific subject area by requiring crews to relate runway markings and number of lights visible to specific known distances.
3)      For each type of runway where an assessment is allowed, have an FAA-approved procedure for describing the actions to be taken when local visibility conditions, as determined by the pilot, indicate that a significantly different visibility exists from that reported for the TDZ recorded by RVR sensor. The procedure will address types of runway markings, runway lights and distances between lights, and any other runway environmental cues that permit precise distance evaluations by flightcrews.
4)      For each runway where an assessment is allowed, have an FAA-approved procedure for coordinating release with air traffic control (ATC) and dispatch for part 121 operations.
5)      For part 135 air carriers, the operator must have an FAA-approved procedure for conducting pilot assessment of takeoff visibility contained in their manual as defined by § 135.21. That procedure will cover the following requirements:
a)      How to determine actual visibility measured in number and type of runway lights that are seen, or markings of known spacing that are visible to the pilot when viewed from the cockpit in the takeoff position.
b)      How all flightcrew members will be trained and checked in the procedures used to determine visibilities, as described above.
6)      Have FAA-approved procedures for RVR assessment, for determining that TDZ RVR sensor reports are in error, and for takeoff and flight release coordination in operating manuals and in such materials that are readily available to the flightcrew in the cockpit.
7)      Have an FAA-approved training and validation program of the FAA-approved procedures for all flightcrews authorized to participate. Validation of the procedures will be accomplished in an FAA-qualified and approved SIM. No flightcrew member may participate in these operations until this portion of the approved training program is accomplished satisfactorily.

OPSPEC C080, TERMINAL AREA IFR OPERATIONS IN CLASS G AIRSPACE AND AT AIRPORTS WITHOUT AN OPERATING CONTROL TOWER FOR SCHEDULED PASSENGER OPERATIONS. C080 is used to authorize terminal‑area instrument flight rules (IFR) operations for scheduled passenger operations in Class G airspace or at airports without an operating control tower.

A.     Authorizing Scheduled Terminal‑Area IFR Operations in Class G Airspace. Before authorizing scheduled terminal‑area IFR operations in Class G airspace, or at airports without an operating control tower, the principal operations inspector (POI) must ensure the operator has sufficient content in its manual(s) and training program to cover common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF) and pilot controlled lighting (PCL) information and procedures. The POI must also obtain and list the following information in C080.

1)      Names of airports.
2)      Sources of weather information to be used by flightcrews (see Volume 3, Chapter 26, Section 3; and Volume 3, Chapter 2).
3)      Source of traffic advisories (TA) and airport advisories.

B.     Sources of TAs and Airport Advisories. Certificate holders may be authorized to use any two‑way radio source of air TA information listed in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) (for operations in U.S. airspace) or equivalent Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) (for foreign operations).

1)      These sources include CTAFs, Aeronautical Advisory Stations (UNICOM), Aeronautical Multicom Stations (MULTICOM), and Flight Service Stations (FSS).
2)      If an air TA source is also suitable for determining the status of airport services and facilities, it is the only source which needs to be listed in C080.
3)      When airport services and facilities information is on a different frequency, both sources should be listed in C080.
4)      In cases where two sources are listed at the same airport, inspectors must ensure the operator’s manuals have procedures that require pilots to continuously monitor and use the TA frequency when operating within 10 nautical miles (NM) of the airport. The procedures should require communication concerning airport services and facilities to be completed while more than 10 NM from the airport.
5)      At some airports, no public use frequencies may be available. In those cases, a certificate holder must arrange for radio communication of essential information including surveillance of local or transient aircraft operations by ground personnel. Ground personnel, who operate a company radio for airport status and traffic advisory, must be able to view airspace around the airport.
6)      OpSpec C080 may need to be issued to the certificate holder authorized scheduled passenger operations in order for the C081 to be issued.

C.     Part 125 Operators. C080 is not applicable for part 125 operators.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C081, SPECIAL NON 14 CFR PART 97 INSTRUMENT APPROACH OR DEPARTURE PROCEDURES. C081 authorizes special non‑14 CFR part 97 instrument approach procedures (IAP) or departure procedures (DPs) and is applicable to 14 CFR part 121, 125/135, 125, and 135 certificate holders. C081 may require the authorization of OpSpec C064 and/or C080, as applicable.

A.     Special Terminal IAPs or DPs. (See Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 10 or contact your regional flight procedures branch for more information.)

B.     Helicopter Authorization. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec H122.

OpSpec C300, 14 CFR Part 97 NDB, NDB/DME, VOR, and VOR/DME Instrument Approach Procedures using substitute means of navigation.

A.     Authority. C300 authorizes 14 CFR part 121 and 135 certificate holders under certain limitations and provisions to substitute specific Area Navigation (RNAV) systems for non-directional radio beacon (NDB), NDB/distance measuring equipment (DME), Very high frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR), and very high frequency (VHF) omni‑directional range station/distance measuring equipment (VOR/DME) instrument approaches. At this time, C300 will only be issued to part 121 and 135 certificate holders. The operator or principal inspector (PI) may request this nonstandard paragraph by submitting their proposal through the certificate‑holding district office (CHDO) and the region to the FAA headquarters (HQ) Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS‑400) and Air Transportation Division (AFS‑200).

B.     Proposal. The proposal submitted to AFS-400 and AFS-200 must contain procedures on how the operator intends to comply with each limitation and provision of OpSpec C300 paragraph c.

C.     Training Program. The flightcrew must complete the operator’s approved training program, to include training specific to the RNAV manufacturer/model/software and software version.

OPSPEC/MPEC/LOA C358, SPECIAL RESTRICTIONS FOR FOREIGN RNAV TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES WITH RNP LINES OF MINIMUMS.

Note:        To obtain the nonstandard authorization C358, the operator must use the nonstandard request process. See Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 2, paragraphs 3‑712 to 3‑713, for the nonstandard request process. For operators conducting operations under 14 CFR part 121 or 135, the formal request must be requested through the Air Transportation Division (AFS‑200). For operators conducting operations under 14 CFR part 125, including part 125 Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) holders, or under 14 CFR part 91 subpart K (part 91K), the same nonstandard request process must be used and submitted through the General Aviation Division (AFS‑800). The airplane qualification package should be sent simultaneously to the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS‑400) for evaluation. AFS-400 will coordinate with the appropriate policy division for final approval of this nonstandard authorization for all operator requests.

A.     Nonstandard Authorization. The nonstandard template C358 authorizes a qualified operator to conduct certain “RNP-like” foreign Area Navigation (RNAV) Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) with required navigation procedures (RNP) lines of minimums. These “RNP-like” foreign RNAV approaches are not designed to the same criteria as U.S. 14 CFR part 97 RNAV RNP special aircraft and aircrew required (SAAAR) procedures. Only the selectable procedures in Table 1 of the C358 template may be authorized. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) uses the term Authorization Required (AR) rather than SAAAR. AR may appear on “RNP-like” foreign RNAV procedures with RNP lines of minimums regardless of the design criteria.

Note:        “RNP-like” foreign RNAV procedures with RNP minimums that meet part 97 RNAV RNP SAAAR procedure design criteria are not available for selection in the C358 template, Table 1, and require authorization via the authorization of template C384.

1)      C358 authorization is granted through the nonstandard authorization request process (see Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 2).
2)      C358 authorization is applicable to operators conducting operations under 14 CFR parts 91, 91K, 121, 125 (including those with a LODA 125M), and 135.
3)      Procedures With RNP Lines of Minimums. These “RNP-like” foreign RNAV procedures have RNP lines of minimums of 0.3 or less, and/or a radius to a fix (RF) leg required, and/or the missed approach requiring an RNP less than 1.0. RNP less than 0.3 specified in the line of minimums (RNP line of minimums refers to the minimum altitude for the approach and has an RNP requirement associated with it; e.g., there may be minimums of 250 feet for RNP 0.11 and a separate line of minimum of 350 feet for RNP 0.20).
4)      U.S. RNAV RNP SAAAR procedures are authorized (nonstandard template C384) using the guidance in Advisory Circular (AC) 90‑101, Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures with SAAAR, current edition. The foreign “RNP-like” RNAV procedures in Table 1 are authorized using the portions of AC 90‑101 that apply to the particular RNP procedure design criteria for each approach.

Figure 3‑66A, Sample Table 1—Special Restrictions for “RNP-like” Foreign RNAV Terminal Instrument Procedures with RNP Lines of Minimums

(Only those procedures allowed for authorization will be available as selectables in the C358 template.)

Airport

Procedure Identification

Procedure Requirements

QUITO, Ecuador (SEQU-UIO) / RNAV (RNP) Rwy 17 / VNAV path required, RF leg required, RNP 0.15, Missed approach RNP < 1.0

QUITO, Ecuador (SEQU-UIO) / RNAV (RNP) Rwy 35 / VNAV path required, RF leg required, RNP 0.15, Missed approach RNP < 1.0

B.     Airplane Qualification. The airplane qualification must meet the guidelines established in AC 90‑101, appendix 2, with the following exceptions:

1)      Principal operations inspectors (POI) should send the formal nonstandard request to the appropriate headquarters (HQ) division stating that the airplane qualification and operating procedures have been sent to the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS‑400) for evaluation. POIs should simultaneously submit the airplane qualification and operating procedures package to AFS‑400, as described in the AC 90‑101, appendix 7 checklist.
2)      The vertical accuracy requirement as written in AC 90‑101, appendix 2, paragraph 2c is not required for this authorization. Vertical guidance in these foreign “RNP-like” procedure(s) is based on barometric vertical navigation (baro-VNAV). Eligible aircraft are those with an Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) or Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS) that explicitly states that the vertical navigation (VNAV) system is approved for approach operations in accordance with the current edition of AC 20‑129, Airworthiness Approval of Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Systems for use in the U.S. National Airspace System and Alaska, or those with written documentation (e.g., Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report or other official documentation) verifying eligibility.
3)      Airspace Containment (AC 90-101, appendix 2, paragraph 2d). The airspace containment requirement as written in AC 90-101 is not required for this authorization. Airplanes that are qualified to conduct RNAV operations in accordance with applicable directives and which have the proper RNAV capability (e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS), RF leg capability) for the procedure(s) listed may be authorized.

C.     Operating Considerations. The operator must establish operating procedures that meet the applicable guidelines of AC 90‑101, appendix 4. Operating procedures must incorporate all operational mitigations based on equipment authorization. For example, if RF leg is authorized, an operational mitigation is required if the equipment engages in “track hold” mode when a go-around is selected. (Track hold would not follow the lateral navigation (LNAV) path when a go-around is initiated in or shortly after an RF leg.) Submit the operating procedures package to AFS‑400 as described in the AC 90‑101 checklist in appendix 7. The operating procedures must meet the guidelines established in AC 90‑101, appendix 4, with the following exceptions.

1)      Vertical track deviation monitoring limit of 75 feet (AC 90‑101, appendix 4, paragraph 3g.). The track deviation monitoring limit of 75 feet vertically, as written in AC 90‑101, is not required for this authorization. Eligible airplanes, in accordance with baro‑VNAV requirements, must be equipped with and operationally using either a flight director (FD) or autopilot capable of following the Vertical Path (VPATH).
2)      Verification of the most current airport altimeter is set prior to the final approach fix (FAF) but no earlier than the initial approach fix (IAF) (AC 90‑101, appendix 4, paragraph 3k). The altimeter setting requirement as written in AC 90‑101 is not required for this authorization. Although the listed procedure(s) require(s) the current altimeter setting for the airport of intended landing, the flightcrew is not required to verify the setting between the IAF and the FAF. Normal flight deck procedures must meet this requirement.

D.    Training. The flightcrew must complete the operator’s approved RNP instrument approach procedure (IAP) training program for these procedures and qualify for RNP instrument approach operations by one of the operator’s check airmen/check pilot, as applicable, or by an FAA inspector. The guidance of AC 90‑101, appendix 5, must be addressed in the training program.

1)      For operators authorized RNP SAAAR instrument approaches for the aircraft equipment listed in Table 2 of the C358 authorization, only the specific differences from RNP SAAAR procedures that apply to the “RNP-like” foreign RNAV instrument procedures listed in Table 1 of the C358 authorization, must be trained.
2)      Flightcrew members of operators that are not authorized for RNP SAAAR for the aircraft equipment listed in Table 2 of the C358 authorization, the applicable subjects of AC 90‑101, appendix 5 must be trained:
a)      Guidance of AC 90‑101, appendix 5, must be followed except where a task analysis has shown that the crew knowledge and skills for RNP SAAAR do not apply to the “RNP-like” foreign RNAV instrument procedure(s) authorized in Table 1.
b)      Unique RNP approach criteria that apply to the “RNP-like” foreign RNAV instrument procedure(s) authorized in Table 1.

E.     Listing Airplanes and Navigation Systems Approved for “RNP‑Like” Foreign RNAV TERPS. The airplane(s) and navigation systems approved for “RNP-like” foreign RNAV TERPS with RNP lines of minimums must be listed in Table 2 of the C358 authorization as follows:

1)      The approved navigation systems and the specific software version must be listed.
2)      The table must identify the authorized use of a coupled autopilot or an FD which is provided as a selectable in the automated Operations Safety System (OPSS) in processing the authorization.
3)      The lowest RNP authorized must be listed.

Figure 3‑66B, Sample Table 2—Airplanes and Navigation Systems Eligible for “RNP-like” Foreign RNAV Terminal Instrument Procedures with RNP Lines of Minimums

Airplane M/M/S

Navigation System M/M/Software/ Version

Limitations and Restrictions

Autopilot Coupled or Flight Director Required

Lowest RNP

B‑737‑490

Smiths FMCS/FMC 2907A4 or 2907C1 with U10.5A.

Not authorized to exceed temperature limits of the approach.

Not authorized RNP parallel approach operations (RPA).

Not authorized RNP parallel approach runway transitions (RPAT).

Either FD or Autopilot only

RNP-0.15

RNP-0.11

 

F.      Execution of an “RNP‑Like” Foreign RNAV Instrument Procedure. Execution of an “RNP-like” foreign RNAV instrument procedure requires the current, local altimeter setting for the airport of intended landing. Remote altimeter settings are not allowed.

G.    VNAV Path Requirements. An airplane(s) with an airworthiness approval for baro‑VNAV approach operations in accordance with AC 20‑129 must be equipped with and operationally use either an FD or autopilot capable of following the VPATH.

H.    Approval Requirements. Unlike RNP SAAAR C384 authorization, there is no interim approval required for this nonstandard authorization in C358. The operator must submit the following information on a continuous basis every 30 days to the POI for his or her evaluation of the continuing use of the authorization (AC 90‑101, appendix 6, paragraph 1):

1)      Total number of the “RNP-like” foreign RNAV approach procedures conducted;
2)      Number of satisfactory approaches by aircraft/system (satisfactory if completed as planned without any navigation or guidance system anomalies); and
3)      Unsatisfactory approaches must be included in the report and must include, but are not limited to, the following:
a)      UNABLE REQ NAV PERF, NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD, or other RNP messages during any approach;
b)      Excessive lateral or vertical deviation;
c)      Terrain Awareness and Warning Systems (TAWS) warning;
d)      Autopilot system disconnect;
e)      Navigation data errors; and
f)        Pilot report of any anomaly.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C359, SPECIAL AUTHORIZATION FOR CERTAIN CATEGORY II OPERATIONS AT SPECIFICALLY APPROVED FACILITIES. OpSpec/MSpec C359 is a special authorization for Category (CAT) II operations to approved instrument landing system (ILS) runways that do not have touchdown zone (TDZ) and centerline (CL) or CAT II Approach Lighting System With Sequenced Flashing Lights (ALSF) 1 & 2. (For special authorization for lower‑than‑standard CAT I operations to Runway Visual Range (RVR) 1,800, see OpSpec/MSpec C074.)

A.     Decision Height (DH) Limits. These special authorization CAT II operations at specifically approved facilities with a single RVR reporting system are limited to a DH of 100 feet and no lower than RVR 1,600. An approved runway facility with two RVR reporting systems will be limited to DH of 100 feet and no lower than RVR 1,200.

B.     Authorization of “Special Aircrew and Aircraft Certification Required” CAT II Approaches. These special authorization CAT II approaches labeled as “Special Aircrew and Aircraft Certification Required” cannot be authorized except in accordance with the limitations and provisions of this OpSpec/MSpec and the following:

1)      Conducted only when using an autoland system or a Head-Up Guidance System (HGS) to touchdown.
2)      Only aircraft certified for autoland or HGS to touchdown capability are eligible for these operations. Those aircraft and equipment must be listed in Table 3‑18, Example of Category II Items of Equipment, of OpSpec/MSpec C059.
3)      Should the autoland system or HGS malfunction or be disengaged during the approach, the PIC must execute a missed approach not later than arrival at DH.
4)      Pilots must be trained in the use of the autoland system or HGS, as applicable, and demonstrate proficiency in ILS approaches to minimums using this equipment on checks conducted to satisfy 14 CFR part 91, § 91.1069; part 121, § 121.441; or part 135, § 135.297, as applicable.
5)      The certificate holder/program manager must be authorized for CAT II operations and issued OpSpec/MSpec C059.

C.     Authorized Airports and Runways.

1)      The approved airports and runways required to be listed in OpSpec/MSpec C359 are those specific facilities that have been approved for these special authorization CAT II operations in accordance with the procedures and requirements in Order 8400.13, Procedures for Category I Approach Operations at 1,800 RVR and Approval of Special Authorization for Category II Approach Operations on Type I ILS, current edition. Once a facility has been approved and charted in accordance with 14 CFR part 97, it can be listed on OpSpec/MSpec C359.
2)      These special authorization CAT II operations can also be conducted at runways approved for CAT II and CAT III operations under either OpSpec/MSpec C059 or C060 and need not be listed in OpSpec/MSpec C359.
3)      When lighting components (e.g., TDZ and runway centerline lights (RCL)) that are normally required for CAT II or CAT III operations become inoperative, the operations authorized under OpSpec/MSpec C359 may be conducted without having listed those airports and runways in OpSpec/MSpec C359, provided all the requirements of OpSpec/MSpec C359 are met.

OPSPEC/MSPEC/LOA C384, REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE PROCEDURES WITH SPECIAL AIRCRAFT AND AIRCREW AUTHORIZATION REQUIRED.

A.     C384 Nonstandard Authorization. The nonstandard template C384 authorizes qualified operators to conduct Required Navigation Performance (RNP) instrument approach procedures (IAP) that require 14 CFR part 97 special aircraft and aircrew authorization required (SAAAR). This template also authorizes foreign RNP Authorization Required (AR) IAP.

1)      OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C384 authorization covered by this subparagraph applies to operators conducting operations under 14 CFR parts 91 (including part 91 subpart K (part 91K)), 121, 125 (including the Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) A125 operators), 129, and 135.
2)      The documentation package to authorize RNP SAAAR IAP is found in Advisory Circular (AC) 90‑101, Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures With SAAAR, current edition. If an operator is requesting a foreign RNP AR approach that is not already in Table 2, the operator must send an application package to the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS‑400). The application package must include a letter of request, the applicable state’s Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) in English, and the applicable procedure charts.
3)      Before a principal operations inspector (POI) can issue nonstandard OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C384, AFS‑400 and either the International Program & Policy Office (AFS‑50), Air Transportation Division (AFS‑200), or General Aviation and Commercial Division (AFS‑800), as appropriate, must concur with the POI’s recommendation to issue the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA.
4)      The POI must use the request process as illustrated in Figure 3‑71, RNP SAAAR Application Flowchart, when the operator submits an application package.
a)      The POI submits the application package to the All-Weather Operations Program Manager (AWOPM) in the regional Flight Standards division (RFSD).
b)      The AWOPM forwards the application to AFS‑400 for review.
c)      AFS‑400 will review the application in consultation with AFS‑50, AFS‑200, or AFS‑800 (as appropriate), and forward a written concurrence from AFS‑400 and the appropriate policy division to the AWOPM.

Note:        If AFS‑400 and/or the appropriate policy divisions do not concur with the application, a memo of nonconcurrence will be forwarded.

Note:        If the request for concurrence is for a foreign approach, AFS‑400 will follow the additional steps as outlined in Figure 3‑71.

d)      The AWOPM will forward the written concurrence to the POI.
e)      The POI will issue OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C384 to the operator.

Note:        For operators conducting operations under part 121 or 135, AFS-400 will coordinate the concurrence with AFS‑200. For operators conducting operations under part 129, AFS‑400 will coordinate the concurrence with AFS‑50. For operators conducting operations under part 125 (including part 125 LODA holders) or 91 (including part 91K operators), AFS‑400 will coordinate the concurrence with AFS‑800.

Figure 3-71, RNP SAAAR Application Flowchart

Figure 3-71, RNP SAAAR Application Flowchart

B.     Aircraft Qualification. Use the guidelines in AC 90‑101, appendix 2 for aircraft qualification.

C.     Operating Considerations. The operator must establish operating procedures that meet the applicable guidelines of AC 90‑101, appendix 4. Operating procedures must incorporate all operational mitigations based on equipment authorization. For example, if a radius to fix (RF) leg is authorized, an operational mitigation is required if the equipment engages in track hold mode when a go-around is selected. (Track hold would not follow the lateral navigation (LNAV) path when a go-around is initiated in or shortly after an RF leg.)

D.    Training. The flightcrew must complete the operator’s approved RNP SAAAR IAP training program for the aircraft listed in C384 Table 1. Guidance in AC 90‑101, appendix 5, must be addressed in the training program.

Figure 3‑66C, Sample Table 1—Aircraft and Navigation Systems Eligible for RNP SAAAR Instrument Approach and Landing Operations

Aircraft

M/M/S

Navigation System M/M/Software/ Version

Limitations

Autopilot Coupled or Flight Director Required

Lowest RNP

B‑737‑490

Smiths FMCS/FMC 2907A4 or 2907C1 with U10.5A.

Not authorized RNP parallel approach runway transitions (RPAT).

Either FD or

Autopilot only.

RNP 0.15

RNP 0.11

E.     Memo of Concurrence. The memo of concurrence from AFS‑400 and other appropriate policy divisions will contain the information required to populate the “Limitations and Restrictions” and the “Lowest RNP” columns in Table 1 of paragraph C384, in addition to the requirements for specific interim authorization.

F.      Interim Authorization. The operator must comply with the interim authorization procedures outlined in AC 90‑101.

G.    RNP Monitoring Program. The operator must submit the information outlined in AC 90‑101, appendix 6 to the POI for his or her evaluation of the continuing use of the authorization on a continuous basis every 30 days.

H.    Foreign Approaches. Authorization for RNP AR foreign approaches is listed in Table 2 of paragraph C384.

Figure 3‑66D, Sample Table 2—Foreign Approaches Authorized for RNP AR Operations

Approach Name/Identifier

Special Limitations

 

 

 

 

 

TABL08

TABL10

RESERVED. Paragraphs 3‑872 through 3‑920.


1/4/11                                                                                                                         8900.1 CHG 42

Volume 3 General technical administration

chapter 19  TRAINING PROGRAMS AND AIRMAN QUALIFICATIONS

Section 6  Flight Training Curriculum Segments

3-1226       GENERAL. This section specifies the objectives of flight training. Both the structure and content of flight training curriculum segments are discussed. Also clarified are the differences between training objectives and qualification objectives. Flight training consists of certain required maneuvers and procedures which are referred to as “training events.” The training events which must be included in flight training curriculum segments to satisfy the requirements of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 121 and 135, are specified in the maneuvers and procedures tables (see Tables 3‑62 through 3‑68) in this section.

3-1227       FLIGHT TRAINING OBJECTIVES. Flight training, as used in this section, means the conduct of training events in an aircraft, flight simulator (SIM), or a flight training device (FTD) in accordance with an approved training curriculum. Flight training (except for windshear training) may be conducted entirely in an aircraft. Flight training may also be conducted using a combination of an aircraft with either a SIM and/or a FTD. In certain cases, flight training may be conducted entirely in an advanced SIM. In all cases, the primary objective of flight training is to provide an opportunity for flight crewmembers to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to perform to a desired standard. This opportunity provides for demonstration, instruction, and practice of the maneuvers and procedures (training events) pertinent to a particular aircraft and crewmember duty position. Successful completion of flight training is validated by appropriate testing and checking.

3-1228       QUALIFICATION OBJECTIVES. The objective of the qualification curriculum segment is to determine whether enough learning has occurred by comparing an individual’s performance in practical situations, to established standards. A person meeting the qualification objectives satisfactorily completes the curriculum. A person failing to meet these objectives must be returned to training status. After additional training, that person must retake and satisfactorily complete at least the previously unsatisfactory portions of the qualification curriculum segment.

3-1229       FLIGHT TRAINING MODULES OR EVENT OUTLINES.

A.     Curriculum Segment. A flight training curriculum segment may be outlined in a modular format or may be outlined as a series of events in which training must be accomplished. This curriculum segment must include as many training modules or events as necessary to provide appropriate training. Each training module or event outline should provide at least the following information:

·        A descriptive title of the training module;

·        A list of the training events that must be accomplished during flight training;

·        Any specific conditions applicable to a particular training event, such as the weather minimums to be used; and

·        Provisions for briefing before and after each training period.

B.     Training Outline. The operator may submit an outline containing training modules representing blocks of training events, or an outline listing all the elements and events to be accomplished during the flight training. Other forms of presenting the flight training curriculum segment may be acceptable. Regardless of the format used, inspectors should evaluate a proposed flight training curriculum by comparing it with the maneuvers and procedures tables in this section. During actual training, the order and rate of training event presentation may vary. An instructor may vary the events in a published curriculum segment, during any particular period, when a student’s progress indicates it is necessary. However, a required event must not be omitted from the curriculum segment. A principal operations inspector (POI) may need to review the operator’s flight training courseware, such as lesson plans or instructor guides, to assure that a plan exists in which all events will be appropriately accomplished. To further support that a plan exists, a POI may need to review the forms that will be used to record flight training. It is unnecessary for the POI to approve courseware or training record forms.

C.     Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). It is unnecessary to include detailed descriptions of how specific maneuvers or procedures will be accomplished in a flight training module outline or training event outline. However, detailed descriptions must be included in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)‑approved AFM, the operator’s aircraft operating manual, or in a separate maneuvers and procedures document. Detailed descriptions or pictorial displays are required for certain normal, abnormal, and emergency maneuvers, procedures, and functions which are performed in flight training. POIs may require operators to provide extremely detailed training outlines in any of the following situations:

·        When directed by the Air Transportation Division (AFS‑200);

·        When a new technology or procedure is addressed in the training module (examples include fly‑by‑wire aircraft control and helicopter instrument flight rules (IFR) flight slower than minimum speed (VMINI); and

·        When an operator has had approval of a curriculum segment withdrawn because of deficiencies, the POI may require any redeveloped flight curriculum segments to include highly detailed training module or training event outlines. (The level of detail should provide sufficient information for the POI to determine that previously identified deficiencies are corrected.)

D.    Regulatory Compliance. To ensure regulatory compliance, the training module or training event outlines must contain at least the training events listed in the appropriate maneuvers and procedures tables in this section. The interrelationship of training modules and/or training events in a curriculum segment should provide for an orderly and practical progression of training. For example, taxiing may be listed as a training event in the first module of a flight training curriculum segment but does not have to be listed in subsequent training modules, even though training on the taxiing maneuver will occur throughout flight training. Training event modules should be developed so that training events are presented in a logical sequence. For example, missed approach training should be conducted in conjunction with approach training.

E.     Interrelationship Example. The following example illustrates the interrelationship of a curriculum segment and training modules when a modular format is used:

Interrelationship of a Curriculum Segment and Training Modules—Modular Format

3-1230       TRAINING HOURS. Flight training curriculum segments must specify a planned number of training hours. The operator’s proposed number of training hours must realistically allow enough time for demonstration, instruction, and practice of the training events listed in the entire curriculum segment. A POI will not approve a proposed flight training curriculum segment unless the specified training hours realistically allow enough time to accomplish the required training events.

A.     Programmed Hours. Part 121, §§ 121.424 and 121.425 specify programmed hours of flight training for pilots and Flight Engineers (FE) enrolled in the initial new‑hire and initial equipment categories of training. It is national direction and guidance that the training hours specified for any part 121 pilot in command (PIC), second in command (SIC), or FE flight training curriculum segments shall not be less than the programmed hours specified by §§ 121.424(c) and 121.425(b). Table 3‑58 lists the part 121 programmed hours.

Table 3-20,  Title 14 CFR Part 121 Regulatory Programmed Hours by Category of Training

 

 

Initial New‑Hire

Initial Equipment

PIC

SIC

FE

PIC

SIC

FE

14 CFR Part 121 Airplane Groups

Group I (Reciprocating)

10

6

6

10

6

6

Group I (Turboprop)

15

7

7

15

7

7

Group II (Turbojet)

20

10

10

20

10

10

B.     Training Hours. Sections 121.427(d)(1) and (2) stipulate that programmed hours are not specified for pilot or FE recurrent flight training (RFT). However, if the flight training is conducted in an approved airplane SIM, § 121.409(b)(1) requires at least four hours of training at the pilot controls for PIC and SIC training. Four hours of training are required regardless of whether the training is conducted on the events listed in part 121 appendix F, or the training is conducted under an approved Line‑Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) program.

C.     Curriculum Segment Outlines. Part 121 does not specify programmed hours for the other categories of training. Part 135 does not specify programmed hours for any of the categories of training. The number of training hours must be specified, however, on all flight training curriculum segment outlines. Because of the various situations that can be encountered, it is difficult to provide guidance on acceptable training hours for flight training curriculum segments. POIs must thoroughly study an operator’s proposals. Based on experience with the operator, past experiences with other operators, as well as their own training experiences, POIs must use reasonable judgment when determining whether the training can be adequately accomplished within the training hours specified by the curriculum segment.

D.    Pilot Concurrent Training. When flight training is conducted in a SIM or training device, it is acceptable and preferable for the flight training curriculum segment to be developed so that two pilots can be trained during a single flight training session. This includes the training of a PIC and SIC, two PICs, or two SICs at the same time. During this type of training, one pilot (pilot A) manipulates the controls of the aircraft while the other pilot (pilot B) performs the duties of the “pilot‑not‑flying” (PNF) the aircraft. During the same training session, the pilots reverse roles. Pilot B manipulates the controls, and pilot A performs the duties of the PNF. The duties of the PNF are typically included in the operator’s aircraft operating manuals and/or in the maneuvers and procedures document. These duties include normal, abnormal, and emergency duties (that are performed by the PNF) and the crew participation activities (Crew Resource Management (CRM) concepts) used by the operator. Both pilots are receiving essential “crew‑concept” training throughout the training session. Therefore, the total training hours accomplished during the training session can be credited to each of the participating pilots. For example, if a PIC and an SIC participated in a four‑hour SIM session, both pilots would receive four hours of training credit. This method of crediting training hours is valid only when both student pilots manipulate the controls for approximately equal amounts of time. This method of crediting training hours is not valid when the instructor is providing instruction and is also occupying one of the pilot seats of the SIM, FTD, or aircraft.

E.     LOFT Training Session. Both recurrent and qualification LOFT training sessions should be based on at least four hours of total crewmember training activity. When the guidance contained in the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 120‑35, Line Operational Simulations: Line‑Oriented Flight Training, Special Purpose Operational Training, Line Operational Evaluation is followed, all crewmembers who participate in a LOFT training session are credited with four hours of training time, as follows:

1)      Two Trainees. Appropriate crew composition is central to the LOFT training concept. Acceptable scheduling practices and crew substitution allowances differ in recurrent LOFT and qualification LOFT. Refer to AC 120‑35 for specific differences. When the crew consists of two PIC trainees or two SIC trainees, both pilots should receive full credit
(four hours), provided the following conditions are met:

·        The LOFT session conforms to the minimum four‑hour format described in AC 120‑35,

·        At least 2 1/2 hours are spent in the LOFT scenario, and

·        The pilots swap seats at approximately the midpoint in the LOFT flight segment.

2)      One Trainee. When only one trainee participates in qualification LOFT, that trainee should receive full credit (four hours), provided the following conditions are met:

·        The LOFT session conforms to the minimum four‑hour format described in AC 120‑35, and

·        At least 2 1/2 hours are spent in the LOFT scenario (including spot).

Note:   A two‑hour qualification LOFT session for one pilot does not meet the training requirements of part 121 appendix H. A qualification LOFT program consists of at least a four‑hour course of training for each flightcrew.

F.      National Norms. Tables 3‑60 and 3‑61 specify established national norms for flight training curriculum segments. These norms are based on the assumption that there is reasonable training support, such as proficient instructors and well-organized flight instructor guides. The national norms in Table 3‑60 are for flight training when most or all of the training is being conducted in a FTD or SIM, and when two pilots are being trained at the pilot controls during the same training session (see paragraph 3‑1230, subparagraph D). The national norms in Table 3‑61 are for flight training when only one pilot is being trained in a FTD or SIM, or when flight training is conducted entirely in an aircraft.

G.    Adequacy of Training Hours. When determining the adequacy of flight training hours, a POI should use these national norms as a point from which other factors shall be weighed. There may be many reasons why the training hours need to be greater than the national norm. The operator may need to specify more hours because of the complexity of the aircraft or types of operation. The POI may need to require more hours because of inadequate training support. Conversely, training hours fewer than the national norm may be fully acceptable due to the use of highly sophisticated, modern training methods, effective systems integration in aircraft ground training, less complex aircraft, or the conduct of a less complex type of operation. Some factors that would indicate a need for more training hours may be counterbalanced by other factors indicating that fewer training hours are necessary. The following diagram illustrates some of the factors that should be considered when determining the adequacy of flight training hours.

Table 3-21,  Factors of Flight Training Hours

Special Operations

No Special Operations

New Entrant Operator

Basic Servo/Mechanical Instruments

Complex Pilot Operation of Aircraft Systems, Engines, Propellers

Pilot Experience with Similar Aircraft

Critical Aircraft Performance

Modern Simulators and Training Devices

EFIS, FMS, Autoflight

Well Organized Flight Instructor Guides

Dissimilar Flightcrew Experience Levels

Basic Navigation System

Low Visibility Capabilities

Simple Flight Handling Characteristics

Complex Navigation Systems

Effective System Integration Training

More than National Norm

National Norm

Less than National Norm

Table 3-22,  Flight Training Hours (National Norms) Two Pilots—FTD and/or SIM

 

CATEGORY OF TRAINING

Family of Aircraft

Initial New‑Hire

Initial Equipment

Transition

Upgrade

Recurrent

Part 121 Group I (Reciprocating)

PIC ‑ 24

SIC ‑ 24

FE ‑ 20

PIC ‑ 20

SIC ‑ 20

FE ‑ 20

PIC ‑ 20

SIC ‑ 20

FE ‑ 20

SIC TO PIC 8 FE

TO SIC 20

PIC – 4

SIC ‑ 4

FE ‑ 4

Part 121 Group I (Turboprop)

PIC ‑ 24

SIC ‑ 24

FE ‑ 20

PIC ‑ 20

SIC ‑ 20

FE ‑ 20

PIC ‑ 20

SIC ‑ 20

FE ‑ 20

SIC TO PIC 8 FE

TO SIC 20

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

FE ‑ 4

Part 121 Group II (Turbojet)

PIC ‑ 28

SIC ‑ 28

FE ‑ 20

PIC ‑ 24

SIC ‑ 24

FE ‑ 20

PIC ‑ 24

SIC ‑ 24

FE ‑ 20

SIC TO PIC 8 FE

TO SIC 28

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

FE ‑ 4

Part 135Transport  and Commuter Category

PIC ‑ 24

SIC ‑ 24

PIC ‑ 20

SIC ‑ 20

PIC ‑ 20

SIC ‑ 20

SIC TO PIC 8

PIC ‑ 4

SIC – 4

Part 135 IFR/VFR

PIC ‑ 16

SIC ‑ 16

PIC ‑ 12

SIC ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 8

SIC ‑ 8

SIC TO PIC 4

PIC ‑ 2

SIC ‑ 2

Part 135 VFR Only

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

SIC TO PIC 4

PIC ‑ 1

SIC ‑ 1

Part 135 IFR/VFR

PIC ‑ 8

SIC ‑ 8

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

SIC TO PIC 2

PIC ‑ 2

SIC ‑ 2

Part 135 VFR Only

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 2

SIC ‑ 4

SIC TO PIC 2

PIC ‑ 1

SIC ‑ 1

IFR/VFR

PIC ‑ 16

SIC ‑ 16

PIC ‑ 12

SIC ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 8

SIC ‑ 8

SIC TO PIC 4

PIC ‑ 2

SIC ‑ 2

VFR Only

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

SIC TO PIC 4

PIC ‑ 1

SIC ‑ 1

Table 3-23,  Flight Training Hours (National Norms) One Pilot—FTD and/or SIM or When All Training is Conducted in an Aircraft

 

CATEGORY OF TRAINING

Family of Aircraft

Initial New‑Hire

Initial

Equipment

Transition

Upgrade

Recurrent

Part 121 Group I (Reciprocating)

PIC ‑ 14

SIC ‑ 14

FE ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 14

SIC ‑ 14

FE ‑ 12

PIC - 12

SIC ‑12  

FE ‑ 12

SIC TO PIC 6 FE

TO SIC 14

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

FE ‑ 4

Part 121 Group I (Turboprop)

PIC ‑ 15

SIC 15

FE ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 15

SIC ‑ 15

FE ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 12

SIC‑ 12

FE‑12

SIC TO PIC 6 FE

TO SIC 15

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

FE ‑ 4

Part 121 Group II (Turbojet)

PIC ‑ 20

SIC ‑ 16

FE ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 20

SIC ‑ 16

FE ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 12

SIC‑ 12

FE ‑ 12

SIC TO PIC 6 FE

TO SIC 16

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

FE ‑ 4

Part 135 Transport and Commuter Category

PIC ‑ 12

SIC ‑ 12

PIC ‑ 10

SIC ‑ 10

PIC ‑ 8

SIC ‑ 8

SIC TO PIC 6

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

Part 135 IFR/ VFR

PIC ‑ 8

SIC ‑ 8

PIC ‑ 6

SIC ‑ 6

PIC ‑ 6

SIC ‑ 6

SIC TO PIC 4

PIC ‑ 3

SIC ‑ 3

Part 135 VFR Only

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 3

SIC ‑ 3

PIC ‑ 3

SIC ‑ 3

SIC TO PIC 2

PIC ‑ 2

SIC ‑ 2

Part 135 IFR/VFR

PIC ‑ 6

SIC ‑ 6

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

SIC TO PIC 4

PIC ‑ 3

SIC ‑ 3

Part 135 VFR Only

PIC ‑ 3

SIC ‑ 2

PIC ‑ 2

SIC ‑ 1

PIC ‑ 2

SIC ‑ 1

SIC TO PIC 1

PIC ‑ 1

SIC ‑ 1

IFR/VFR

PIC ‑ 10

SIC ‑ 10

PIC ‑ 8

SIC ‑ 8

PIC ‑ 6

SIC ‑ 6

SIC TO PIC 4

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

VFR Only

PIC ‑ 4

SIC ‑ 4

PIC ‑ 3

SIC ‑ 3

PIC ‑ 3

SIC ‑ 3

SIC TO PIC 2

PIC ‑ 2

SIC ‑ 2

3-1231       COURSE COMPLETION REQUIREMENTS.

A.     Failure to Meet Requirements. Ordinarily, a flight crewmember completes a flight training curriculum segment by successfully accomplishing each training event and the specified number of training hours. Flight crewmembers are then required to successfully meet the requirements specified in the qualification curriculum segment (see Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 7 for the qualification curriculum segment requirements). If a person fails to meet any of the qualification requirements because of a lack in flight proficiency, that person must be returned to training status. After retraining, an instructor recommendation is required for re‑accomplishing the unsatisfactory qualification requirement.

B.     Exceptions to Requirements. A flight crewmember may successfully complete a flight training curriculum segment without completing the specified number of training hours, provided all of the following conditions are met:

1)      The crewmember successfully completes all of the training events required by the curriculum segment.
2)      An instructor recommends the flight test be conducted before completion of the specified number of training hours. The recommendation must be suitably documented.
3)      The flight crewmember satisfactorily completes the qualification curriculum segment requirements. If a flight crewmember fails to meet the qualification curriculum segment requirements because of a lack in flight proficiency, he must be required to complete all the training hours specified in the flight training curriculum segment. The crewmember must then be recommended by an instructor before re‑accomplishing the failed qualification requirements.

3-1232       EVALUATION OF FLIGHT TRAINING CURRICULUM SEGMENT OUTLINES FOR INITIAL APPROVAL. When evaluating a flight training proposal for initial approval, an inspector must determine that the proposed curriculum segment meets the following requirements:

A.     Maneuvers and Procedures Table. The training events must be consistent with the maneuvers and procedures tables applicable to the specific category of training. An inspector must select the appropriate maneuvers and procedures table and make a side‑by‑side comparison of the table and the proposed flight training curriculum segment. The required training events and the appropriate level FTD, SIM, or aircraft to be used must be in the proposal. Omission of any required training event or inappropriate use of an FTD or SIM is sufficient reason to deny initial approval.

B.     Realistic Training Hours. The specified training hours are realistic, as discussed in paragraph 3‑1230.

C.     Examining Courseware. The training emphasizes specific areas applicable to the category of training. Since flight training curriculum outlines are not usually constructed in a manner that allows for a determination that appropriate areas are emphasized, an inspector must examine courseware (such as flight instructor guides and LOFT scenarios) to determine if appropriate areas will be emphasized and if the operator is capable of developing acceptable courseware. In the paragraphs preceding the applicable maneuvers and procedures tables in this section, training emphasis considerations for each category of flight training are discussed.

3-1233       EVALUATING THE OPERATOR’S MANEUVERS AND PROCEDURES DOCUMENT. The operator must provide a maneuvers and procedures document for approval by the FAA. An inspector must determine that this document provides detailed descriptions or pictorial displays for the normal, abnormal, and emergency maneuvers, including the procedures and functions that will be performed in flight training. Instructor guides or lesson plans which support the maneuvers and procedures document should specify the conditions (such as weather, aircraft weight, and other parameters) to be applied during training on a maneuver or procedure. The conditions specified in these guides or lesson plans should be equivalent to the types of operations authorized by the operations specifications, such as low visibility takeoffs or the use of Category I Approach (CAT I) or Category II Approach (CAT II) minimums. FAA policy requires detailed descriptions (or pictorial displays) of at least those training events identified with the symbol M in the appropriate maneuvers and procedures tables. Maneuvers and procedures documents must be evaluated in sufficient detail to ensure the following requirements are met:

·        The descriptions of applicable maneuvers or procedures must conform to recommendations made in the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report when appropriate;

·        The description of each maneuver or procedure must conform to the operating limitations and procedures in the FAA‑approved AFM/Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM) or the operator’s aircraft operating manual;

·        The description of each maneuver or procedure must conform to the certificate holder’s procedural instructions for cockpit checks, altitude awareness, required callouts, crew coordination, and cockpit resource management; and

·        The description of each maneuver or procedure must specify the operator’s procedures, such as altitudes, configuration airspeeds, and other parameters.

3-1234       AIRCRAFT FAMILIES. The four families of aircraft used in part 121 and part 135 operations are described in paragraph 3‑1073 of Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 1. The flight training requirements for flight crewmembers differ significantly between each family. Within each family, the flight training requirements are similar, even though individual aircraft may differ significantly in construction and appearance. The maneuvers and procedures tables have been tailored to account for similar flight crewmember knowledge, skill, and ability requirements common to aircraft of a particular family and specific to different kinds of operations within a family.

A.     Transport and Commuter Category Airplane Family. Airplanes in this family are similar in operational characteristics. Crewmembers of airplanes in this family are required to have similar knowledge, skills, and abilities regardless of the applicable operating regulation (part 121 or part 135). The maneuvers and procedures tables containing required training events for flight crewmembers operating airplanes in this family are in paragraphs 3‑1245 through 3‑1248 (see Tables 3‑62 through 3‑65).

B.     Multiengine General Purpose Airplane Family. Crewmembers of airplanes in this family are required to have similar knowledge, skills, and abilities when operating under part 135. The flight training events required for flight crewmembers operating airplanes in this family are identified in the maneuvers and procedures table in paragraph 3‑1249                      (see Table 3‑66).

C.     Single‑Engine Airplane Family. Crewmembers of airplanes in this family are required to have similar knowledge, skills, and abilities to be operated under part 135. The flight training events required for the operation of single‑engine airplanes are identified in the maneuvers and procedures table in paragraph 3‑1250 (see Table 3‑67).

D.    Helicopter Family. Crewmembers operating helicopters under part 135 are required to have similar knowledge, skills, and abilities. The flight training events required for flight crewmembers operating helicopters are identified in the maneuvers and procedures table         (see Table 3‑68).

3-1235       FTDs and SIMS. Flight training equipment consists of seven levels of FTDs, four levels of SIMs, and the aircraft. The approved use of each item of flight training equipment is listed in the maneuvers and procedures tables. These devices and simulators are the only types of flight training equipment (other than aircraft) which may be approved for use in an FAA-approved flight training program. Before any level 1 through level 5 FTD can be used, it must be evaluated by the POI to determine that it meets the prescribed requirements for the appropriate level of FTD. Before a specific level 6 and 7 training device or any level SIM can be used, it must be evaluated and qualified by the National Simulator Program Manager (NSPM) and approved by the operator’s POI. The following paragraphs describe the FTDs and SIMs applicable to parts 121 and 135 flight training. The current editions of ACs 120‑40, Airplane Simulator Qualification, and 120‑45, Airplane Flight Training Device Qualification, provide the qualification policy, and criteria, as well as more detailed technical descriptions of SIMs and FTDs. The functional descriptions in the following paragraphs provide only a brief overview. Therefore, the appropriate ACs are the only authorized source documents and must be used for evaluation and approval of FTDs and SIMs.

Note:   The functional and technical descriptions for the first three levels of FTDs are presently under development and are not applicable to part 121 or part 135 flight training.

3-1236       LEVEL 4 FTD.

A.     Purpose. To permit learning, development, and the practice of skills and cockpit procedures necessary for understanding and operating the integrated systems of a specific aircraft.

B.     Functional Description. A level 4 training device has the following characteristics and components:

·        A replica of the flight deck panels, switches, controls, and instruments, in proper relationship, to represent the aircraft for which training is to be accomplished;

·        Systems indications which respond appropriately to switches and controls which are required to be installed for the training or checking to be accomplished; and

·        Air/ground logic (however, simulated aerodynamic capabilities are not required).

3-1237       LEVEL 5 FTD.

A.     Purpose. To permit learning, development, and the practice of skills, cockpit procedures, and instrument flight procedures necessary for understanding and operating the integrated systems of a specific aircraft in typical flight operations in real time.

B.     Functional Description. A level 5 training device has the following characteristics and components:

·        A replica of the flight deck panels, switches, controls, and instruments, in proper relationship, to represent the aircraft for which training is to be accomplished;

·        Systems indications which respond appropriately to switches and controls which are required to be installed for the training or checking to be accomplished;

·        Simulated aerodynamic capabilities representative of the aircraft group or class;

·        Functional flight and navigational controls, displays, and instrumentation; and

·        Control forces and control travel of sufficient precision for manually flying an instrument approach.

3-1238       LEVEL 6 FTD.

A.     Purpose.

1)      To permit learning, development, and the practice of skills in cockpit procedures, instrument flight procedures, certain symmetrical maneuvers and flight characteristics necessary for operating the integrated systems of a specific aircraft in typical flight operations.
2)      To permit the use of previously approved nonvisual simulators and the continued use of level 6 and 7 FTDs (formerly known as advanced training devices) for those part 135 operators approved to use them.

Note:   Nonvisual simulators are categorized with level 6 training devices and may continue to be used as previously approved, or as prescribed in part 61 appendix A and part 121 appendices E and F.

B.     Functional Description. A level 6 training device has the following characteristics and components:

·        Systems indications which respond appropriately to switches and controls which are required to be installed;

·        A replica of the cockpit of the aircraft for which training is to be accomplished;

·        Simulated aerodynamic capabilities which closely represent the specific aircraft in ground and flight operations;

·        Functional flight and navigational controls, displays, and instrumentation;

·        Control forces and control travel which correspond to the aircraft; and

·        Instructor controls.

3-1239       LEVEL 7 FTD.

A.     Purpose. To permit learning, development, and the practice of skills in cockpit procedures, instrument flight procedures and maneuvers, and flight characteristics necessary for operating the integrated systems of a specific aircraft in typical flight operations.

B.     Functional Description. A level 7 training device has the following characteristics and components:

·        Systems representations, switches, and controls which are required by the type design of the aircraft and by the approved training program;

·        Systems which respond appropriately and accurately to the switches and controls of the aircraft being simulated;

·        A full‑scale replica of the cockpit of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the aerodynamic and ground dynamic characteristics of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the effects of selected environmental conditions which the simulated aircraft might encounter;

·        Control forces, dynamics, and travel which correspond to the aircraft; and

·        Instructor controls and seat.

3-1240       LEVEL A SIM.

A.     Purpose. To permit development and practice of the necessary skills for accomplishing flight operational tasks, to a prescribed standard of airman competency, in a specific aircraft and duty position. Level A SIMs may be used for specified pilot recency of experience requirements and specified flight operational task training requirements in transition, upgrade, recurrent, and requalification training under parts 121 and 135. It may also be used for initial new‑hire and initial equipment training on specified events.

Note:   Level A SIMs comply with the technical standards specified for basic (visual) simulators in the current edition of AC 120‑40.

B.     Functional Description. Level A SIMs have the following characteristics and components:

·        Systems representations, switches, and controls which are required by the type design of the aircraft and by the user’s approved training program;

·        Systems which respond appropriately and accurately to the switches and controls of the aircraft being simulated;

·        A full‑scale replica of the cockpit of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the effects of selected environmental conditions which the simulated aircraft might encounter;

·        Control forces and travel which correspond to the aircraft;

·        Instructor controls and seat;

·        At least a night visual system with the minimum of a 45 degree horizontal by 30 degree vertical field of view (FOV) for each pilot station; and

·        A motion system with at least three degrees of freedom.

3-1241       LEVEL B SIM.

A.     Purpose. To permit development and practice of the necessary skills for accomplishing flight operational tasks, to a prescribed standard of airman competency, in a specific aircraft and duty position. Level B SIMs may be used for pilot recency of experience requirements and for specified flight operational task training requirements in transition, upgrade, recurrent, and requalification training under parts 121 and 135. It may also be used for initial new‑hire and initial equipment training on specified events. Level B simulators may also be used to accomplish night takeoffs and landings and for landings in a proficiency check.

Note:   Level B SIMs comply with the technical standards specified for Phase I simulators in part 121 appendix H and the current edition of AC 120‑40.

B.     Functional Description. Level B SIMs have the following characteristics and components:

·        Systems representations, switches, and controls which are required by the type design of the aircraft and by the user’s approved training program;

·        Systems which respond appropriately and accurately to the switches and controls of the aircraft being simulated;

·        A full‑scale replica of the cockpit of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the aerodynamic (including ground effect) and ground dynamic characteristics of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the effects of selected environmental conditions which the simulated aircraft might encounter;

·        Control forces and travel which correspond to the aircraft;

·        Instructor controls and seat;

·        At least a night visual system with a minimum of a 45 degree horizontal by
30 degree vertical FOV for each pilot station;

·        A motion system with at least three degrees of freedom.

3-1242       LEVEL C SIM.

A.     Purpose. To permit development and practice of the necessary skills for accomplishing flight operational tasks, to a prescribed standard of airman competency, in a specific aircraft and duty position. Level C SIMs may be used for pilot recency of experience requirements and for specified flight operational task training in transition, upgrade, recurrent, and requalification training under parts 121 and 135. It may also be used for initial new‑hire and initial equipment training for all events. All training events may be conducted in a level C SIM for persons who have previously qualified as PIC or SIC with that operator.

Note:   Level C SIMs comply with the technical standards specified for Phase II simulators in part 121 appendix H and the current edition of AC 120‑40.

B.     Functional Description. Level C SIMs have at least the following characteristics and components:

·        Systems representations, switches, and controls which are required by the type design of the aircraft and by the user’s approved training program;

·        Systems which respond appropriately and accurately to the switches and controls of the aircraft being simulated;

·        A full‑scale replica of the cockpit of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the aerodynamic including ground effect, and ground dynamic characteristics of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the effects of selected environmental conditions which the simulated aircraft might encounter;

·        Control forces, dynamics, and travel which correspond to the aircraft;

·        Instructor controls and seat;

·        At least a night and dusk visual system with a minimum of a 75 degree horizontal by 30 degree vertical FOV for each pilot station; and

·        A motion system with at least six degrees of freedom.

3-1243       LEVEL D SIM.

A.     Purpose. To permit development and practice of the necessary skills for accomplishing flight operational tasks, to a prescribed standard of airman competency, in a specific aircraft and duty position. Level D SIMs may be used for parts 121 and 135 pilot currency and for all flight operational task training except for static aircraft training.

Note:   Level D SIMs comply with the technical standards specified for Phase III simulators in part 121 appendix H and the current edition of AC 120‑40.

B.     Functional Description. Level D SIMs have the following characteristics and components:

·        Systems representations, switches, and controls which are required by the type design of the aircraft and by the user’s approved training program;

·        Systems which respond appropriately and accurately to the switches and controls of the aircraft being simulated;

·        A full‑scale replica of the cockpit of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of the aerodynamic (including ground effect) and ground dynamic characteristics of the aircraft being simulated;

·        Correct simulation of selected environmentally affected aerodynamic and ground dynamic characteristics of the aircraft being simulated considering the full range of its flight envelope in all approved configurations;

·        Correct and realistic simulation of the effects of environmental conditions which the aircraft might encounter;

·        Control forces, dynamics, and travel which correspond to the aircraft;

·        Instructor controls and seat;

·        A daylight, dusk, and night visual system with the minimum of a 75 degree horizontal by 30 degree vertical FOV for each pilot station; and

·        A motion system with at least 6 degrees of freedom.

3-1244       MANEUVERS AND PROCEDURES TABLES.

A.     Compliance. The events which must be accomplished during flight training are listed in the maneuvers and procedures tables in this section. The requirements of parts 121 and 135 are included in these tables. These tables can be used as a single source document in the development and evaluation of flight training curriculum segment proposals. Compliance with the provisions of these tables automatically ensures that all requirements of both parts 121 and 135 are met. These tables also contain the acceptable flight training equipment           (training devices, simulators, or aircraft) which may be used for any training event. An “X” indicates that the specified FTD or SIM has been qualified for that event without further consideration or approval. An “A” indicates that a lower level device or simulator may be used for procedural training if that device has the necessary systems representations and functions for training on the event. These systems representations and functions exceed the basic requirements for that level device or simulator; therefore, an “A” indicates that the device or simulator must be evaluated and approved for each particular event. Any maneuver or procedure permitted in a specific level of FTD or SIM may also be conducted in a higher level of FTD, SIM, or the aircraft itself (providing the event can safely be accomplished in the aircraft). Certain training events within the tables are preceded with a box ([ ]). If the operator is authorized (or required) to conduct these maneuvers by operations specifications (OpSpecs) (for example, a circling approach), a POI should check the appropriate box to indicate these events must be included in the training curriculum. Certain optional training events indicated by a pound sign (#) in the maneuvers and procedures tables are not specifically required by the regulations or OpSpecs. Many of these optional training events, however, are often included in an operator’s flight training curriculums and should be conducted in a properly qualified device or simulator.

Note:   See paragraph 3‑1233 for description of maneuvers marked with the letter (M).

B.     Wind Shear Training. Wind shear training is a training event in each table. The tables indicate that wind shear training may only be performed in a level 7 FTD or any level of SIM. Operators who do not use a level 7 FTD or SIM may perform their windshear/microburst training in accordance with the guidelines in the FAA document entitled, Wind shear Training Aid.

C.     Requirements Paragraph. Preceding each maneuver and procedure table is a paragraph which states the required maneuvers and procedures for each crewmember and provides guidance on specific areas of emphasis which should be included in the training.

3-1245       PIC/SIC INITIAL NEW‑HIRE AND INITIAL EQUIPMENT FLIGHT TRAINING—TRANSPORT AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES.

A.     Required Maneuvers and Procedures. Training in the maneuvers and procedures in Table 3‑62 must be conducted for satisfactory completion of initial new‑hire and initial equipment flight training.

1)      PICs must complete training in each training event in this table.
2)      SICs must complete training in each training event in this table. SIC training in the following events does not require manipulation of the primary aircraft controls but should emphasize duties of the PNF:

·        Steep turns,

·        Approach and landing with pitch mis‑trim,

·        Approach and landing with 50 percent loss of power, and

·        Approach and landing with flap/slat malfunction.

B.     Training Emphasis Considerations. A POI should ensure that the operator’s flight training emphasizes appropriate areas for these categories of training:

1)      For initial new‑hire training, emphasis should be on specific company procedures and procedures for the particular aircraft.
2)      For initial equipment training, emphasis should be on company procedures specific to the aircraft.

Table 3-24,  Flight Training PIC/SIC Initial New‑Hire and Initial Equipment Flight Training—Transport and Commuter Category Airplanes

(FRONT SIDE)

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

LEVEL OF FLT TRNG DEVICE

 

LEVEL OF FLT SIM

ACFT

4

5

6

7

A

B

C

D

 

 

 

 

VIS

PH

I

PH

II

PH

III

 

PREPARATION

Visual Inspection
(For aircraft with FE, use of pictorial display authorized)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

Prestart Procedures

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Performance Limitations

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

SURFACE OPERATION

Pushback

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] Powerback Taxi

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Starting

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Taxi/Runway Operations

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Pretakeoff Checks

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

TAKEOFF

Normal M

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Crosswind

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Rejected M

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Power Failure V1 M

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

Powerplant Failure During Second Segment #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] Lower than Standard Minimum

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

CLIMB

Normal

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

One‑engine Inoperative During Climb to En Route Alti tude #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

EN ROUTE

Steep Turns PIC

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Approaches to Stalls: M (Takeoff Config.)

(En Route Config.) (Landing Config.) X* Only if stall warning/stall avoidance provides first stall indication

 

 

X*

X*

X

X

X

X

X

Inflight Powerplant Shutdown

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Inflight Powerplant Restart

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

High Speed Handling Characteristics

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

DESCENT

Normal

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Maximum Rate

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

APPROACHES

VFR Procedures M

Visual Approach

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

With 50 percent Loss of Power on one‑side PIC M (2-engines inoperative on 3‑engine airplanes) A* (May be accomplished in levels A or B provided one-engine inoperative training is conducted in level C or D, or the aircraft)

 

 

 

 

A*

A*

X

X

X

With Slat/Flap Malfunction PIC M

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

IFR Precision Approaches M

ILS/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

ILS/One‑Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

[ ] MLS/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

[ ] MLS/One‑Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

[ ] PAR/Normal

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] PAR/One‑Engine Inoperative #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

IFR Non‑precision Approaches M

NDB/Normal

 

 

A*

A*

X

X

X

X

X

VOR/Normal

A* At least one Non‑precision approach must be accomplished in a level A or higher simulator or the aircraft

 

 

A*

A*

X

X

X

X

X

Non‑precision Approach One‑Engine Inoperative #

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] LOC Backcourse Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] SDF/LDA Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] ASR Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] RNAV Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] LORAN C Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 (BACK SIDE)

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

LEVEL OF FLT TRNG DEVICE

 

LEVEL OF FLT SIM

ACFT

4

5

6

7

A

B

C

D

 

 

 

 

VIS

PH

I

PH

II

PH

III

APPROACHES (Cont’d)

[ ] Circling Approach M (Simulator must be qualified for training/checking on the circling maneuver)

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Missing Approaches M From Precision Approach

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

From Non‑precision Approach

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

With Powerplant Failure

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

NOTE: At least one MAP must be a complete approved procedure. At least one MAP must be with a powerplant failure

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LANDINGS

Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

With Pitch Mis‑trim PIC

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

From Precision Instrument Approach

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

From Precision Instrument Approach With Most Critical Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

With 50 percent Loss of Power on One Side PIC (2‑engines inoperative on 3‑engine airplanes) A*    (May be accomplished in Levels A or B, provided one‑engine inoperative training is conducted in level C or D, or the aircraft.)

 

 

 

 

A*

A*

X

X

X

With Flap/Slat Malfunction

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

Crosswind

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

With Manual Reversion/Degraded Control Augmentation

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

AFTER LANDING

Parking #

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Emergency Evacuation #

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

OTHER FLIGHT PROCEDURES DURING ANY AIRBORNE PHASE

Holding

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Ice Accumulation on Airframe #

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

Air Hazard Avoidance #

 

 

 

 

A

A

X

X

X

Windshear/Microburst #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

SYSTEMS PROCEDURES TRAINING DURING ANY PHASE

 

 

 

 

‑Normal

 

‑Abnormal

 

‑Alternate

Pneumatic/Pressurization

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Air Conditioning

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Fuel and Oil

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Electrical

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Hydraulic

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flight Controls

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Anti‑icing and Deicing Systems

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Autopilot (AP)

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flight Management Guidance Systems and/or Automatic or Other Approach & Landing Aids

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Stall Warning Devices, Stall Avoidance Devices, and Stability Augmentation Systems

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Airborne Weather Radar

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flight Instrument System Malfunction

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Communications Equipment

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Navigation Systems

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

SYSTEMS PROCEDURES TRAINING DURING ANY PHASE

 

 

‑Emergency

Aircraft Fires

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Smoke Control

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Powerplant Malfunctions

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Fuel Jettison

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Electrical, Hydraulic, Pneumatic Systems

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flight Control Systems Malfunction

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Landing Gear and Flap Systems Malfunction

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

3-1246       PIC/SIC TRANSITION AND UPGRADE FLIGHT TRAINING—TRANSPORT AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES.

A.     Required Maneuvers and Procedures. Training in the maneuvers and procedures in Table 3‑63 must be conducted for satisfactory completion of transition or upgrade flight training.

1)      PIC Transition Training. PICs must complete training in each training event in this table.
2)      SIC Transition Training. SICs must complete training in each training event in this table. SIC training in the following events does not require manipulation of the primary flight controls but should emphasize the duties of the PNF:

·        Approach and landing with pitch mis‑trim,

·        Approach and landing with 50 percent loss of power,

·        Approach and landing with flap/slat malfunction, and

·        Steep turns.

3)      PIC Upgrade Training. An SIC upgrading to PIC must complete training in each training event in this table (including those marked “PIC”).
4)      Appendix H SIC‑to‑PIC Initial Equipment Training. Part 121 appendix H—Phase II, Training and Checking Permitted—permits certain SICs to be trained as PICs in a different aircraft of the same group, if the training is conducted in a level C simulator. Because of the experience levels required in appendix H for SICs in this type of training (which is actually initial equipment training) the training may be accomplished in the same manner as PIC upgrade training.
5)      SIC Upgrade Training. FEs upgrading to SIC must complete training in each training event in Table 3‑63. FEs upgrading to SIC are not required to manipulate the primary flight controls for the following events, but should receive training which emphasizes duties of the PNF. The training events are as follows:

·        Steep turns,

·        Approach and landing with pitch mis‑trim,

·        Approach and landing with 50 percent loss of power, and

·        Approach and landing with flap/slat malfunction.

B.     Training Emphasis Considerations. POIs should ensure that the operator’s transition and upgrade training emphasizes the appropriate areas for these categories of training:

1)      For transition training, emphasis should be on the handling characteristics and the maneuvers and procedures pertinent to the specific aircraft type.
2)      For upgrade training, emphasis should be on the specific duties and responsibilities pertinent to the crewmember position. Additionally, in the case of an FE upgrading to SIC, maneuver‑emphasis training (particularly in approaches and landings) should be included.

Table 3-25,  Flight Training PIC/SIC Transition and Upgrade Flight Training—Transport and Commuter Category Airplanes

(FRONT SIDE)

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

LEVEL OF FLT TRNG DEVICE

 

LEVEL OF FLT SIM

ACFT

4

5

6

7

A

B

C

D

 

 

 

 

VIS

PH

I

PH

II

PH

III

PREPARATION

Visual Inspection          (For aircraft with FE, use of pictorial display authorized)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

Prestart Procedures

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Performance Limitations

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

SURFACE OPERATION

Pushback

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] Powerback Taxi

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Starting

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Taxi

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Pretakeoff Checks

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

TAKEOFF

Normal M

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Crosswind

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

Rejected M

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Power Failure V1 M

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

Powerplant Failure During Second Segment #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] Lower than Standard Minimum

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

CLIMB

Normal

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

One‑engine Inoperative During Climb to En Route Altitude #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

EN ROUTE

Steep Turns PIC

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Approaches to Stalls: M (Takeoff Config.)               (En Route Config.) (Landing Config.) X* Only if stall warning/stall avoidance provides first stall indication

 

 

X*

X*

X

X

X

X

X

Inflight Powerplant Shutdown

A

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Inflight Powerplant Restart

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

High Speed Handling Characteristics

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

DESCENT

Normal

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Maximum Rate

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

APPROACHES

VFR Procedures M

Visual Approach

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

With 50 percent Loss of Power on One side PIC M (2‑engines inoperative on 3‑engine airplanes)

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

With Slat/Flap Malfunction PIC M

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

IFR Precision
Approaches M

ILS/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

ILS/One‑Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] MLS/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

[ ] MLS/One‑Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] PAR/Normal

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] PAR/One‑Engine Inoperative #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

IFR Non‑precision Approaches M

NDB/Normal

 

 

A*

A*

X

X

X

X

X

VOR/Normal

A* At least one Non‑precision approach must be accomplished in a level A or higher simulator or the aircraft

 

 

A*

A*

X

X

X

X

X

Non‑precision Approach One‑Engine Inoperative #

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] LOC Backcourse Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] SDF/LDA Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] ASR Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] RNAV Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

[ ] LORAN C Procedures

 

A

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

(Back side)

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

LEVEL OF FLT TRNG DEVICE

 

LEVEL OF FLT SIM

ACFT

4

5

6

7

A

B

C

D