8900.1 CHG 568


Indicates new/changed information.


Section 2  Definitions

1-26    DEFINITIONS. The following definitions are from Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 1, § 1.1 or other appropriate sources.

A.    Aircraft. A device that is used or intended to be used for flight in the air.

B.    Aircraft Engine. An engine that is used or intended to be used for propelling aircraft. It includes turbo-superchargers, appurtenances, and accessories necessary for its functioning, but does not include propellers.

C.    Airworthy. Two conditions must be met before an aircraft can be considered “Airworthy”:

1)    The aircraft must conform to its type certificate (TC); that is, when the aircraft configuration and the components installed are consistent with the drawing, specifications, and other data that are part of the TC, and include any supplemental TC and field-approved alterations incorporated into the aircraft.
2)    The aircraft must be in condition for safe operation; this refers to the condition of the aircraft relative to wear and deterioration.

D.    Appliance. Any instrument, mechanism, equipment, part, apparatus, appurtenance, or accessory, including communications equipment, that is used or intended to be used in operating or controlling an aircraft in flight, is installed in or attached to the aircraft, and is not part of an airframe, engine, or propeller.

E.    Applicable. Capable or suitable for being applied.

F.    Appropriate. Especially suitable or compatible; fitting.

G.    Available. Accessible, obtainable.

H.    Current. The term “current,” as it relates to the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) and Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM), has two meanings, depending on whether one is referring to aircraft certification or to ongoing operations conducted under 14 CFR part 91, 121, 125, or 135. In an October 8, 1998 legal interpretation from the Assistant Chief Counsel, Regulations Division (AGC-200) the term current is defined as follows:

1)    Certification Rules, 14 CFR Part 21. The definition of current, as it pertains to aircraft certification and as used in the phrase “current approved Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual” in part 21, § 21.5(a), means belonging to the present time. Once the “current” AFM or RFM is made available to the owner at the time of delivery of the aircraft, the obligation under § 21.5 is met, fulfilled, and complete.
2)    Operating Rules, 14 CFR Parts 91, 121, 125, and 135. The definition of current, as it pertains to operations under these parts and as used in the phrase “current approved flight manual” in part 121, § 121.141(a), has been interpreted by the Office of the Chief Counsel (AGC) differently from the interpretation of current for aircraft certification procedures. In contrast to § 21.5(a), AGC has determined that the word current in § 121.141(a) is ongoing and those persons certified to operate under part 121 have an ongoing obligation to keep a current approved AFM.

I.    Data. The drawings and specifications necessary to define the configuration and design features of the repair or alteration. These drawings and specifications include information on weight, balance, operating limitations, flight characteristics, dimensions, materials, and processes that are necessary to define the structural strength of the repair or alteration.

J.    Directive Information. Information that is regulatory in nature and uses terms such as “shall” and “must.” These terms mean that the actions are MANDATORY. “Shall not” or “must not” means that the actions are PROHIBITED. The use of these terms allows the aviation safety inspector (ASI) no flexibility and means their direction must be followed, unless otherwise authorized by Flight Standards division managers.

K.    Field Approval. One of the means used by the FAA to approve technical data used to make a major repair or major alteration. It is an approval by the Administrator, through an authorized Airworthiness ASI, of technical data used to make a major repair or major alteration. Technical data, so approved, becomes “technical data approved by the Administrator.” This type of approval may be accomplished in one of the following two ways:

1)    Examination of technical data for use on only one aircraft; or
2)    Examination of technical data by physical inspection, demonstration, testing, etc., for use on only one aircraft.

L.    Guidance Information. Guidance information is information considered guiding in nature and will contain terms such as “should” or “may.”

1)    “Should” indicates actions that are expected. If the “should” expectation cannot be met, what was done to comply must be documented. Resulting mitigating actions must be taken and communicated as appropriate.
2)    “May” indicates actions that are desirable, permissive, or not mandatory, and allow flexibility.
Indicates new/changed information.

M.    This Order. This order is a directive designed to provide essential overall instructions, guidance, and requirements for operations, airworthiness, and manufacturing field personnel to accomplish their job functions.

N.    Major Alteration. An alteration not listed in the aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller specifications, that:

1)    Might appreciably affect weight, balance, structural strength, performance, powerplant operation, flight characteristics, or other qualities affecting airworthiness; or
2)    Is not done according to accepted practices or cannot be done by elementary operations.

O.    Major Repair. A repair that fits one or more of the following:

1)    Might appreciably affect airworthiness by changing weight, balance, structural strength, performance, powerplant operation, or flight characteristics if improperly done; or
2)    Is not done according to accepted practices or cannot be done by elementary operations.

P.    Minor Alteration. Any alteration that is not classified as a major alteration.

Q.    Minor Repair. Any repair that is not classified as a major repair.

R.    Propeller. A device for propelling an aircraft that has blades on an engine-driven shaft which, when rotated, produces by its action on the air, a thrust approximately perpendicular to its plane of rotation. It includes control components normally supplied by its manufacturer, but does not include main and auxiliary rotors or rotating airfoils of engines.

S.    Substantiating. To support and verify with proof or evidence. To give material form. To make firm or solid. To give substance or reality.

RESERVED. Paragraphs 1-27 through 1-45.