VOLUME 3 GENERAL TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATION
CHAPTER 6 ISSUE A CERTIFICATE OF WAIVER OR AUTHORIZATION FOR AN AVIATION EVENT
Section 1 Issue a Certificate of Waiver or Authorization for an Aviation Event
3-141 PROGRAM TRACKING AND REPORTING SUBSYSTEM (PTRS) ACTIVITY CODES.
A. Issue Certificate of Authorization (COA). Enter “1220” in
the “Activity Code” box of the PTRS transmittal form and enter “PA” in the “National
Use” box if the COA was issued for parachuting.
B. Issue Certificate of Waiver. Enter “1230” in the “Activity
Code” box and in the “National Use” box enter “AS” for an airshow, “AR” for
an airplane air race, and “BE” for any type of balloon event.
C. Complete DD Form 2535, Request for Military Aerial Support.
Enter “1231” in the “Activity Code” box and enter “WI” in the “National Use”
box if a waiver will be issued and “NW” if no waiver will be issued for the operation requested.
3-142 OBJECTIVE. This section’s task is to determine whether to
issue a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Form 7711-1, Certificate of Waiver
or Authorization, to an applicant for an aviation event. Completion of this
task results in the issuance of a certificate of waiver or authorization or the disapproval of FAA
Form 7711-2, Application for Certificate of Waiver or Authorization.
NOTE: Appropriate paragraphs in the automated Operations Safety System
(OPSS) or Web‑based automated Operations Safety System (WebOPSS) may be used
in lieu of FAA Form 7711-1, Certificate of Waiver or Authorization.
A. Definitions. Many terms used in this chapter are unique to
aviation events; therefore, the following definitions should enhance the understanding of their application:
1) Aerobatic Box. The airspace at an airshow where participating
aircraft are authorized to perform aerobatic maneuvers appropriate to their
Category (CAT). This box begins at the appropriate CAT I/II/III show line (Figure 3-24).
2) Aerobatic Flight. Aerobatic flight is where the pitch attitude
exceeds 60 degrees above or below the horizon and/or the angle of bank exceeds
75 degrees in reference to the horizon for all aircraft when conducting the
event in accordance with a certificate of waiver or authorization. The definition in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part
not apply. Therefore, always waive the portion
of § 91.303 that
defines aerobatic flight.
3) Air Boss. The individual who has the primary responsibility
for airshow operations on the active taxiways, runways, and the surrounding airshow demonstration area.
4) Airshow. An aviation event defined as an aerial demonstration
by one or more aircraft before an invited assembly of persons.
5) Airworthiness Certificate. For the purpose of this chapter,
the terms “airworthy” or “Airworthiness Certificate” refer to more than just
the United States (U.S.) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
countries’ standard airworthy aircraft. For a U.S.-registered experimental aircraft
this would be a special flight permit, which must be accompanied by operating
limitations. Foreign registered experimental aircraft must have the special
flight permit with operating limitations and a special flight authorization allowing airshow operations in U.S. airspace.
6) Airshow Demonstration Area. The total airspace (lateral and
vertical limits) identified by the FAA waiver, temporary flight restriction
(TFR), or the Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) issued for an airshow (sometimes referred to as the waivered airspace).
7) Altimeter Setting. Many performers and jump aircraft may wish
to set their altimeters to zero while on the ground to measure height above ground during their performance. This may require a waiver
of § 91.121. The
inspector-in-charge (IIC) should waive §
any event where aircraft involved in that event are departing from a runway at that location. This does not require the affected aircraft
to set their altimeter(s) to zero but gives the pilot the option to do so.
8) Approved Maneuver. An AFS-800 approved maneuver or a series
of maneuvers. These may include flight over the designated spectator area(s)
below 1,000 feet above ground level (AGL), higher speeds for military airplanes,
or a maneuver that may involve energy directed at the spectator area that meets safety criteria.
9) Aviation Event. Aviation events include airshows, closed course
air races, parachute demonstration jumps, balloon meets, and fly-ins conducted
before an invited assembly of persons, for which the FAA issues a Certificate of Waiver or Authorization.
NOTE: This chapter does not address or include aerobatic competitions
(see Volume 3, Chapter 5, Issue a Certificate of Waiver or Authorization for an Aerobatic Practice Area or an Aerobatic Contest Box).
10) Aircraft Show Line Categories. Show line categories, speeds,
and distances are shown in Table 3-1 below. These speeds are only for determining
assignment to a show line, not maximum performing speeds. The following criteria are the basis for the minimum distances in the table below:
a) For reciprocating engine powered airplanes knots indicated airspeed (KIAS)
in straight and level flight at 75 percent power at standard temperature and
pressure (15°C/sea level) and maximum certified gross weight.
b) For turbine engine powered airplanes (does not include the BD-5J Microjet)
85 percent of the maximum continuous powered straight and level flight KIAS
at standard temperature, pressure (15°C/sea level), and maximum certified gross weight.
c) Minimum show line distances are measured from the crowd line to the center
of the aircraft closest to any spectator area for Show Line CAT II and III aircraft and to the center airplane for CAT I airplanes.
Table 3-1. Example of Airplane Show Line Category
More than 245 knots (282 miles per hour (mph))
More than 156 knots but 245 knots or less (181-282 mph)
(Single reciprocating engine and BD-5J)
156 knots or less (180 mph) or no more than 2,250 pounds gross takeoff weight (GTOW)
* These are not operating limitations
NOTE: See Table 3-1A for all aircraft categories.
11) COA. An official document issued by the FAA to permit certain
activities that require FAA approval but that does not waive any regulations,
for example, parachuting/sky diving demonstrations. (See Figure 3-33 and 3-33A.)
12) Certificate of Waiver. An official document issued by the
FAA that authorizes certain operations of aircraft to deviate from a regulation
but under conditions that ensure an equivalent level of safety. Section
91.905 lists the sections of part
can be waived. (See Figure 3-32 and 3-32A.)
13) Civil Twilight. Civil twilight in the evening is the time
between sunset and when the center of the sun is less than 6 degrees below the horizon. (See subparagraph 3-147N for restrictions.)
14) Control Point. A specified location where the event organizer,
a designated representative, or an air boss manages the aviation event. The
control point must have a communication system with the capability necessary to control the aviation event.
15) Corner Markers. An easily identifiable marker or landmark
from the air, 500 feet or more right and left of primary spectator area along
the crowd line from the primary spectator area to provide flybys and performers
a 500-foot reference for proper separation from spectators (see Figure 3-24, Figures 3-26 through 27C and Figure 3-29).
NOTE: Markers that may be hazardous to aircraft operations should not
be placed on runways, taxiways, or any other operational area. This includes
the X on the end of runways to denote runway closure. Place them in a safe area adjacent to the designated spot.
16) Critical Aircraft. That aircraft closest to the primary spectator area in a formation flight.
17) Crowd Line. A physical barrier or a line marked on the ground
that serves as a restraining line for designated spectator areas and provides
the appropriate safety distances from the aerobatic box and/or show line.
18) Essential Personnel. Individuals authorized to access the
flying display area during an aerobatic performance. (See subparagraph 3-145C.)
19) Event Organizer. The person or agency responsible for the organization and conduct of the aviation event.
20) Flyby. A non-aerobatic pass or a series of non-aerobatic passes,
performed by one or more aircraft, before an invited assembly of persons at an aviation event while a waiver is in effect. (See paragraph 3-147J.)
21) Flying Display Area. The airspace at an airshow where participating
aircraft have authorization to perform. This area includes all the aerobatic boxes and show line but does not include ingress/egress routes.
22) Formation Flying. When an aircraft is flown solely with reference
to another aircraft and within 500 feet of the referenced aircraft. Air racing and simulated dogfighting are not considered formation flying.
23) Heritage Flight Program. The U.S. Air Force (USAF)-approved
military and civilian pilots flying formations consisting of USAF, former USAF,
and U.S. Army Air Corps aircraft to demonstrate the history of USAF aircraft.
24) Ingress/Egress Routes. Those routes used by airshow performers to enter and exit the flying display area.
25) IIC. The FAA aviation safety inspector (ASI) who has primary FAA responsibility for the aviation event. (See subparagraph 3-143D.)
26) Military Jet Demonstration Teams. The sanctioned North American
Military jet demonstration teams are the USAF Thunderbirds, the U.S. Navy (USN) Blue Angels, and the Canadian Forces Snowbirds.
27) Military Single-Ship Demonstration Teams. A U.S. Department
of Defense (DOD) or Canadian Department of National Defense (DND)-sanctioned
demonstration team that consists of single aircraft conducting flybys or aerobatic demonstrations of current military fighter aircraft.
28) Night. Night means the time between the end of evening civil
twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight, as published in the American Air Almanac, converted to local time.
29) Official Photographers. Photographers designated by the responsible
person as essential personnel to be in designated areas of the aerobatic box during performances (see subparagraph 3-145C).
30) Participant. Any individual specifically involved with, or directly participating in, the waivered aviation event.
31) Primary Spectator Area. The main area designated by the event
organizer for spectator use. The crowd line creates its boundary and has well
defined lateral limits (ends). This is the area from which the public is directed to view the event. There may be more than one primary spectator area.
32) Responsible Person. A person designated by the event organizer
to be responsible for all aspects and special provisions of the waiver/authorization.
This person must be acceptable to the waiver/authorization-issuing Flight Standards
District Office (FSDO) as being knowledgeable concerning the terms and provisions
of the certificate of waiver/authorization for this aviation event. The responsible person will be responsible to the FAA for the safe conduct of the event.
33) Secondary Spectator Area(s). Any area, not designated as a
primary spectator area, where people have a natural tendency to gather to observe
the event. This includes, but is not limited to, private property or property
not under control of the event organizer, public roads, and private access roads.
34) Show Center. A visible reference point that denotes the center
of the flying display area.
35) Show Line. A line on the surface of the ground or water, marked
to be clearly visible to pilots from the air, intended to enhance pilot orientation
during the performance. The show line provides the performer with a clear visual
reference to the minimum safety distance applicable to the CAT of the maneuvering aircraft being flown (see subparagraphs 3-147A, C through F.)
36) Tailhook Legacy Flyover Program. The USN-approved military
and civilian pilots flying formations consisting of sanctioned USN and former USN aircraft to demonstrate the history of U.S. naval aviation.
B. Regulatory Authority. Flight Standards Service (AFS) has the authority to grant or deny waivers of the regulations
listed in §
aviation events. The FSDO that has responsibility for aviation events conducted at the proposed site processes requests for waivers or authorizations.
1) Scope of Waivers.
a) Waivers of 14 CFR sections and the attendant special provisions may vary
in scope depending on the regulations that an applicant requests to be waived
and will vary depending upon the type of aviation event and the location. Some events require nothing more than waiving §
permit aerobatic flight at less than 1,500 feet above the surface.
Other events that consist of flybys and static displays may only require waiving sections of part
aircraft speed limitations, minimum safe altitudes, or limitations
while operating in the vicinity of airports or within Class B, C, D, or E airspace.
b) Waivers of the basic visual flight rules (VFR) weather minimums specified in §
be considered in areas where the entire event can be conducted
with air traffic control (ATC) providing separation between participating aircraft
and nonparticipating aircraft. This will mean that the entire airshow display
area for the affected aircraft must be within a TFR, Class C, or Class D airspace.
NOTE: Class B airspace is normally “Clear of Clouds” for VFR operations.
a list of rules subject to waivers. Some of the subsections
of the mentioned sections may or may not need to be waived. For example, see the Note below on §
should be a corresponding special provision that gives the
conditions that must be followed for each section and/or subsection to be waived
to maintain an equivalent level of safety. Another example would be §
speed may be waived but that waiver of airspeed would have
a limitation on maximum airspeed, and the limitations on where that waiver is valid would be in the special provisions attached to the waiver.
not be waived for airshow demonstration purposes.
Section 91.119(b) and
(c) may be waived only when the conditions stated herein are met.
C. Program Coordinators. A national airshow coordinator is designated
in FAA headquarters by AFS‑800. The regional Flight Standards Division manager
designates regional airshow coordinators. The national coordinator is responsible
for overall program monitoring and coordination of all information and communications
between DOD, FAA regions, and the public. The regional coordinators are responsible
for monitoring the same programs in that region and for coordinating policy
and information between FSDOs and the national coordinator. The national and
regional airshow coordinators function in an advisory capacity. IICs making
onsite evaluations are responsible for technical determinations as to the issuance or denial of a request for waiver.
1) The IIC will elevate any issues requiring clarification or
that may be of regional or national interest, such as military demonstration
team participation, to the regional airshow coordinator. The regional coordinator
will determine the level of regional participation. A list of regional coordinators is available on the public access site at
IIC and other FAA employees may use the following site:
regional coordinator assists in resolving issues and coordinates with the national coordinator as necessary.
2) The national coordinator makes recommendations regarding policy changes. When policy change is not required,
provide clarification back to the regional coordinator.
a) Regional supplements to aviation event policy are not permitted (see
Volume 1, Chapter 1, Section 1, subparagraph 1-3C).
b) The regional coordinator will receive reports of initiation of any enforcement
investigations, and he/she will coordinate the necessary response with the national coordinator as early as possible in the investigation.
c) All accidents or incidents occurring at an aviation event will be reported
immediately to the regional coordinator, who will coordinate with the national coordinator.
D. IIC. To enable the FAA to most effectively manage the aviation
event program, FSDO managers will assign an IIC to process an application for
a waiver or authorization for an aviation event. The IIC oversees or personally conducts the following activities:
· Site feasibility study.
· Participation in the preseason evaluation meeting.
· Evaluation of the application for waiver or authorization.
· Recommendation for issuance or denial.
· Prepares a list of special provisions appropriate for the event
in compliance with current guidance in this order.
· Surveillance of the aviation event.
E. IIC Qualifications. The IIC assigned this task and the subsequent
surveillance must have completed the applicable on-the-job training (OJT), and
must have participated in the issuance of at least three certificates of waiver
and surveillance of at least three aviation events as a trainee with a qualified
IIC. For events in which a military aerobatic demonstration team performs, the
IIC must have satisfactorily completed OJT for a military aviation event, including
participation in a site feasibility determination required by DOD, a preseason
evaluation meeting, and a waiver preparation for a military demonstration team.
F. Qualified Inspector Not Available. If the FSDO does not have
an inspector who meets the above qualifications, the FSDO manager will contact
the regional airshow coordinator to request an inspector who is qualified to
perform the tasks of an IIC. After the regional coordinator identifies an available
IIC, FSDO managers should work out the arrangements necessary to accomplish
the task and provide OJT if an ASI is available. A PTRS record must be made documenting the need for outside resources.
G. Surveillance of an Aviation Event. Surveillance of an aviation
event is the responsibility of the FSDO manager. Preferably, the IIC who processed
the application for a waiver or authorization should monitor the event. Consider
additional resources for high profile events or large aviation events. Any event
not monitored by an IIC must be coordinated with the regional airshow coordinator well in advance, and the outcome documented in PTRS. (See
Volume 6, Chapter 11, Section 10, Surveillance
of an Aviation Event, paragraph 6-2371.)
H. Surveillance of an Aviation Event—Inspector Resources Not Available.
It is always preferred to have a monitor at each event, although in rare circumstances
it may not be possible. The FSDO manager, along with the regional airshow coordinator,
should consider the following as part of the decision making process and assessing the risk:
· Size of the event (length, number of airshow acts and static
display, number of spectators)?
· Has there been a history of problems with the management of the
· Is it a military airshow?
· What is the previous safety history of this event?
· Is the event well planned and are experienced personnel in key
positions (e.g., event organizer/responsible person, air boss, performers, Crash, Fire and Rescue personnel, etc.)?
· What is the experience level of the responsible person/event
organizer and air boss?
· Is the emergency plan well designed and adequately staffed for
· Is the plan to manage spectators and sterile areas well designed
and adequately staffed for this event?
· Is a TFR issued for the event?
· Is ATC managing the movement of aircraft? Are they onsite?
· How many FAA monitors would this show normally require?
· Will you send an Airworthiness inspector to inspect aircraft
prior to event?
· Will you send an ASI (Operations) to check the performers’ credentials
prior to event?
· Is it possible to attend first day to ensure compliance with
waiver and special provisions?
3-144 APPLICATION FOR A CERTIFICATE OF WAIVER OR AUTHORIZATION.
A. FAA Form
of Waiver or Authorization Application. An inspector who reviews relevant information about the proposed operation and
site suitability processes applications for aviation events should use FAA Form
3-32 through 3-33A). Not all blocks on the form may apply to each event. In other cases, additional information may be required. The FSDO
manager has the authority to sign a waiver or authorization when the application is approved.
1) Submit applications for airshows or air races at least 90
days before the date of the event. Only after the event organizer has met all
requirements, approval or denial of the application will be completed within 30 days of receipt by the FSDO.
2) Present applications for parachute jumps made over or into
a congested area or open-air assembly of people at least 10 working days before
an event. Completion of an application’s approval or denial must be done within 5 working days of receipt by the FSDO.
3) TFRs are requested in accordance with §
should be requested about the same time the application for
waiver is made and will be processed in accordance with the procedures established in subparagraph 3-144E4).
4) The completion and submission of FAA Form
7711-2 and all supporting documents are solely the applicant’s responsibility.
5) Upon approval, FAA Form
7711-2 and its attachments become a part of FAA Form 7711-1 (Figure 3-34).
6) The applicant must attach current maps, charts, diagrams,
or other data appropriate to the activities and locations to FAA Form
7711-2 upon application for a certificate of waiver or authorization.
7) For most events, the supporting data must address the following major areas:
a) Diagrams and descriptions of spectator areas which restrict the public from:
· The flight areas;
· The active runways;
· The taxi and run-up areas; and
· Other active areas, such as emergency or police helipads,
parachute landing areas, pyrotechnic areas, etc.
b) Supporting documents should describe the methods that will be used to
ensure security of areas outside of the designated spectator area, especially the area under the aerobatic maneuvering area.
8) Except for official military pilots, each pilot flying a civil
aircraft must have the proper certification and rating for the aircraft to be
flown. In addition, each civilian pilot who performs aerobatics must possess
a Statement of Aerobatic Competency (SAC) (see subparagraph 3-145A) including foreign civil airmen (Figures 3-35 and 3-36).
a) Non-airmen participants, such as parachutists, can be accepted on the
basis of a license issued by the U.S. Parachute Association (USPA), similar
organizations or equivalent qualifications acceptable to the FAA. The FAA does
not require certification of operators of ultralight vehicles, wing walkers
or trapeze occupants, ribbon-cut personnel, drivers of ground vehicles for a
car-to-plane transfer, and other non-airmen participants. For unmanned air vehicle operations, contact the regional coordinator for support.
b) Except for official military aircraft, each aircraft flown in an aerial
demonstration must be properly certificated and have documentation in accordance
with the procedures established in subparagraph 3-145F indicating current inspections,
Airworthiness Directives (AD) and time limitations are appropriate for the aircraft to be in an airworthy condition.
B. Assisting the Event Organizer with Form
7711-2. The current edition of FAA Advisory Circular (AC)
Aviation Events, or AC
Parachuting, as appropriate, provides most information necessary
to plan and conduct a safe event. You may obtain these documents and other pertinent information from the FAA at
inspectors can obtain additional information at
1) Thorough planning has a direct bearing on the success and
safety of any event. In larger events, the event organizer should be encouraged
to appoint a responsible person (see subparagraph 3-143A32), to develop a detailed
plan for all facets of the event regarding the FAA waiver or authorization.
The event organizer and/or responsible person must understand that a waiver
is only issued after the determination that a proposed event can be conducted
safely and in the best interest of public safety. The inspector should direct
the event organizer or responsible person to the detailed guidance in this chapter and ensure that the following subjects have been addressed:
· Type of event,
· Each act’s support and airspace requirements and
eligibility of participants and aircraft (military/civil),
· Military aircraft performances,
· Parachute demonstrations,
· Site selection (airports, fairgrounds, other sites),
· Airspace considerations and issuance of a TFR,
· Minimum safety distances and altitudes, and
· Event management.
2) The experienced event organizer is generally well acquainted
with the requirements and procedures for obtaining the waiver or authorization
and will usually appoint a responsible person to attend to areas regarding the
waiver or authorization. Ask first time event organizers to review and have a good understanding of the current edition of AC
91-45 or AC
contain important information for planning and conducting safe aviation events, because they may not be aware that a waiver or authorization
is required. These ACs also provide information on how to request FAA Form 7711-1.
First time event organizers are strongly encouraged to contact industry organizations
(e.g., the International Council of Air Shows (ICAS)) for airshow support and/or training.
C. Completion of Form
Figures 3-32 and 3-32A.) Upon receipt, review the application for obvious discrepancies. If discrepancies
exist, arrange a meeting with the applicant to resolve the issues to mutual
satisfaction. The applicant must revise the information he/she submitted on FAA Form
7711-2; the FSDO will not alter it.
1) Blocks 1 and 2. An organization does not sponsor every airshow.
An individual may sponsor an event. If the applicant represents an organization,
the organization’s name should appear in Block 1. The name of the individual
and his/her position or authority to represent the organization (i.e., the responsible
person) should appear in Block 2. If the applicant is not representing an organization,
“N/A” should be entered in Block 1 and the applicant’s name entered in Block
2. A responsible person is one who has demonstrated to the FAA knowledge concerning
the terms and provisions of the certificate of waiver/authorization for this
aviation event. The responsible person will be responsible to the FAA for the safe conduct of the event.
2) Block 3. Permanent Mailing Address. The applicant should indicate
the permanent mailing address of the organization named in Block 1 or the individual named in Block 2.
3) Block 4. Pertains to Banner Towers only. Aviation events should enter “N/A.”
4) Block 5. Pertains to Banner Towers only. Aviation events should enter “N/A.”
5) Block 6. Reference §
a list of rules subject to waivers. Ensure that the applicable
rules to be waived have been requested. An application for a parachuting operation should state that authorization is requested in accordance with §
6) Block 7. It may be sufficient for the applicant to use the
terms airshow, parachute demonstration jump, or air race to describe the events.
However, it would be helpful for the applicant to fill in as detailed a description
as possible if the event is an airshow or air race; for example, enter the CAT
of aircraft to be flown, in addition to make and model, if known. (See Figure 3-32, block 5.)
7) Block 8. The applicant should describe the airshow demonstration
area as a rectangular, cubic, or cylindrical cell of airspace; and the aerobatic
box as a cube or rectangle bounded by a runway or other definable geographical
reference, a lateral point, and up to a particular altitude AGL. This can be over land or water.
a) For off-airport sites, the boundaries should be described using rivers,
highways, railroads, or other easily identifiable landmarks or markers.
b) For an airshow, the applicant should attach current, properly marked
maps, drawings, or photographs of the planned area of operation (satellite photographs may be substituted for topographic charts (from
The applicant will include as much of the following data as known at
the time of application. The IIC will review the documentation for acceptance. Any depiction submitted must include indications of the following:
· The location and marking of the show lines.
· The location of the boundaries of the airshow demonstration area.
· The location of the boundaries of the flying display area
and/or aerobatic box.
· The location and type of corner markers if flybys are
· The location of the primary spectator area and the types of
barriers used, including gates.
· The location of the emergency vehicles and medical facilities.
· The location of the emergency access surface routes to and
from the event site.
· The location of the aircraft movement areas.
· The location of the parachuting landing area.
· The location of the static display aircraft parking areas.
· The location of the airshow aircraft parking areas.
· The location of the fly-in aircraft parking areas.
· The location of the refueling areas.
· The location of the helipads.
· The location of the airshow control point.
· The location of the pyrotechnic areas.
c) Applicants should note in Block 7 if supplemental information is attached.
d) The site layout must depict that the airshow demonstrations or airshow
acts can be accomplished at that site. If an airshow demonstration or act cannot
fit within FAA distance criteria, or if congestion or new development around
the proposed site impedes those criteria, the site is not appropriate for that demonstration or act.
8) Block 9. Inspectors can eliminate the need for the applicant
to resubmit applications for an additional authorization by advising applicants
to list alternative dates on the initial application. This avoids confusion
and reduces the number of applications that must be submitted by the event organizer.
9) Block 10. The initial application does not need to list specific
performers/aircraft. The application may be accepted with a notation in Block
8 that a list will be provided at a later, specified date and time. The list
should eventually include all performers and aircraft (civilian and military)
and parachute teams (civilian and military). A notation stating the show line
CAT must be annotated with each make and model aircraft. Once the list has been
supplied, may be amended by the responsible person and resubmitted to the IIC
for approval. Performers added on the day of the event must show proof of appropriate
qualifications that the aircraft is airworthy, and a determination must be made that the performance can be conducted at that show site.
10) Block 11 and 12. This section requires the name and address
of the event organizer. The event organizer of an airshow may be an individual,
a group of individuals, or an organization. The event organizer of an airshow
may appoint a responsible person that has the overall responsibility for the
conduct of the airshow in a safe manner and in accordance with the conditions
contained in the certificate of waiver or authorization issued for the airshow.
The event organizer may delegate to other persons the authority to organize
and control particular aspects of the event. At a small event, one person may
be able to coordinate more than one activity, while at a large event, a committee
of persons delegated by the appropriate authority may control an activity.
11) Block 13. There is no specific requirement for the use of
uniformed police or security guards. The need for policing depends upon several
factors that must be discussed with the IIC to ensure adequate crowd control.
However, it is highly recommended that uniform clothing be worn (high visibility
T-shirts, hats, etc.) by individuals performing crowd control or other official duties.
a) The event organizer must ensure that the airshow demonstrations are conducted
safely and without creating a hazard to any non-participants or spectators.
It is imperative that all areas adjacent to the airshow site containing homes,
factories, major highways, traveled thoroughfares, or any occupied vessel, vehicle,
or structure be carefully evaluated before making a final decision for site
selection, and that these areas can remain sterile if their location is under the aerobatic box.
b) With respect to crowd control, it is the event organizer’s responsibility
to ensure that all reasonable efforts are made to confine spectators to the
spectator areas, ensure that sterile areas are evacuated and remain sterile,
and to present a plan to the IIC in sufficient detail that specifies how this
will be accomplished and who is responsible to police the aviation event. The
application may be accepted with a notation in Block 13 that a written plan will be provided at a later date, specified date and time.
12) Block 14. Emergency facilities have caused problems for event
organizers. As previously noted, the application serves as an all-purpose form
and contains blocks that may or may not be appropriate to emergency facilities.
Some applications have been erroneously denied because the boxes for physician,
ambulance, and fire truck were blank. Encourage every airshow event organizer
to provide emergency medical service even though this service may not be utilized.
Many event organizers prefer to have the local fire department’s emergency rescue
squad, paramedics, or emergency medical technicians at their show rather than a physician.
NOTE: For balloon events, consult the guidelines for emergency procedures
listed in paragraph 3-153 when considering which boxes to check in Block 14.
13) Block 15. In this block enter a description of method for
controlling air traffic (AT) and potential alternative communication methods. For example:
a) Although every aircraft in the event may be equipped with a two-way radio,
a visual ground‑to-air emergency signal must be provided and described in the application.
b) If a scheduled air carrier serves an airport that is the site of an aviation
event, arrangements must be made for the arrival and departure of such aircraft.
It is usually adequate to schedule a break in the activities to allow for scheduled
arrivals and departures. The event organizer should complete prior coordination with the air carrier and ATC.
c) Request for TFRs, as authorized under §
applicable. Add notation in Block 15 if request initiated.
d) List ATC facilities, frequencies, and contacts.
14) Block 16. The FAA must see a proposed schedule of events to
evaluate the application. It should contain at least a general description of
the types of events and their approximate sequence in the show. The application
may be accepted with a notation in Block 16 that a final schedule of events will be provided at a later, specified date and time.
a) The schedule should identify the aircraft and expected performers in
the approximate sequence of appearance as best as possible at the time. During
the event, the scheduled order of appearance may change because of weather,
mechanical problems, or other factors at the discretion of the air boss.
b) Any demonstration or act added to the airshow schedule requires notification
to FAA and should be submitted at the earliest opportunity (see subparagraph
3-144C6, Block 8). Cancellation of an airshow demonstration or act does not
require advance notice, unless it has a significant impact on the event (e.g., cancellation
of a military demonstration team would require notification, as would the cancellation of the entire event).
D. Temporary Practice Areas. During the airshow season, the FSDO
may be called upon to issue a waiver for the establishment of a temporary aerobatic practice area.
1) Inspectors should encourage event organizers to apply for
a temporary practice area for an associated airshow as part of that airshow
waiver request, if one is desired. This will provide participating performers
with a convenient and safe area in which to practice their aerobatic performances.
2) Although this will be a separate waiver, which becomes effective
as much as 7 days immediately before the event, it should terminate on or before the same date and time as the event waiver.
3) The actual airshow site may be suitable as a temporary practice
area if it is a controlled environment and there will be no conflict with other
nonparticipating aircraft. The effective times must be thoroughly coordinated
with the pertinent AT facilities before approval and issuance of the waiver.
4) The temporary practice area should be established no more than 20 or 30 miles from the actual airshow site.
5) The responsibility for site selection, coordination, approvals,
application, and oversight of the temporary aerobatic practice area rests solely with the airshow event organizer.
NOTE: Temporary aerobatic practice areas are excluded from Order
Impacts: Policies and Procedures, due to their temporary nature.
E. Coordination Requirements.
1) AT Coordination. Any request for a waiver or authorization
for an aviation event or flyover not as part of an aviation event requires coordination
with the appropriate ATC facility. Any special conditions considered necessary
by the Air Traffic Service (ATS) Area will be made a part of the certificate of waiver or authorization in the special provisions.
2) Special Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF)/Very High Frequency (VHF) Frequency
Requests. Requests for special UHF/VHF frequencies for airshow usage should
be made by the sponsor or responsible person to the AT facility having jurisdiction over the airspace where the airshow will take place.
3) FAA Airports (ARP). Any event organizer who requests a waiver
for a public aviation event on an airport certificated in accordance with 14 CFR part
coordinate with the appropriate FAA Airport District
Office (ADO) and receive approval for the event ground operations plan before issuance of FAA Form 7711-1.
a) Encouraging event organizers to include airport management in the coordination
will greatly facilitate the process. These steps will facilitate the resolution
of any conflicts with ARP (Associate Administrator for Airports) policy/regulatory requirements relative to part
ground operations plan includes the necessary changes that must be addressed for security. ARP is responsible for ensuring any necessary changes
to the security plan are coordinated with FAA security before approval. ARP-1’s
approval of the ground operations plan is generally separate and distinct from
the review and approval of the overall airshow layout (primary spectator area,
show line(s), takeoff/landing runway, etc.) that is the responsibility of the waiver-issuing FSDO.
b) Any limitations or special provisions considered necessary by the ADO
will be made a part of the certificate of waiver. As part of their normal program
responsibilities, FAA ADO inspectors may from time to time request information
concerning aviation event activities at airports other than those certificated in accordance with part
c) ARP has designated lead airport inspectors in each ARP regional office
as the approval authority for this approval. Affected airshow sponsors should
call the appropriate regional office for coordination. If unable to reach that
office, call the national ARP point of contact. The list of regional offices is found on the Internet at
4) TFR. A TFR is an area designated to enhance the protection
of persons and property on the surface or in the air, to maintain air safety
and efficiency, or to prevent the unsafe congestion of aircraft in the vicinity
of an aviation event. The responsible person or air boss must request a TFR
not FSDO personnel. The procedures for requesting a TFR are found on the following Web site:
a) Aerial demonstrations contained entirely within a Class B, C, or D airspace area should not request the issuance of a TFR under §
b) Requirements for issuance of a TFR NOTAM in accordance with §
· Any segment of the requested airspace for the aerial demonstration
for aircraft exceeding 200 KIAS is outside of Class B, C or D airspace;
· Military aircraft are conducting aerobatic demonstrations;
· Civilian aircraft that operate in excess of 200 knots are
conducting aerobatic demonstrations; or
· Sanctioned military parachute demonstration teams are performing.
c) TFR issued will reflect the dates, times, and lateral and vertical limits
of the airshow display area for the aerial demonstration for which a certificate of waiver or authorization (FAA Form 7711-1) has been issued.
1. VFR and instrument flight rules (IFR) AT (not specified on the waiver)
may be authorized to operate within the designated airspace area published in the TFR NOTAM, when the following conditions are met:
· The controlling ATC facility or air boss (if authorized by ATC)
· The air boss has coordinated the procedure with the IIC, and
· The TFR NOTAM specifies the frequency to contact ATC for an
2. Cancellation of a waiver and TFR NOTAM must be coordinated. The Responsible
person or air boss must coordinate cancellation with the controlling ATC facility
and the IIC. The procedures can be either pre-coordinated or established at the time of cancellation.
5) Class D NOTAM. Issue a Class D NOTAM for any aerial demonstration
that does not require a TFR. A Class D NOTAM does not prohibit transient aircraft
from entering the airspace. It is only a notice for non-participating aircraft that the airport is closed and the purpose of that closure.
6) Waiver of §
91.155 Requirements for VFR.
operations “clear of clouds” is waived under the following circumstances:
1. Aerial demonstrations are conducted entirely within Class C or D
airspace where ATC communication is maintained (Class B is normally clear of clouds); or
2. Aerial demonstrations that are conducted within the boundaries of
a TFR issued for that event and ATC communication is maintained.
b) Aerial demonstrations conducted at night must comply with all of §
3-145 PARTICIPANT AND AIRCRAFT ELIGIBILITY.
A. Aerobatic Competency Documentation.
1) All civil pilots who perform aerobatic maneuvers in any aircraft
where the pitch angle or bank angle exceeds 90 degrees must possess a valid
FAA Form 8710-7, Statement of Acrobatic Competency, or Transport Canada Form 26-0307, Statement of Aerobatic Competency (Figures 3-35 and 3-36).
2) All civil pilots who perform maneuvers in excess of 60 degrees
but not more than 90 degrees of pitch, and/or more than 75 degrees but not more
than 90 degrees of bank that do not meet the requirements in subparagraph A1)
must have a logbook endorsement or a competency letter issued within the past 24 calendar‑months after complying with the following:
a) Have successfully completed a flight and ground review by a DPE (Designated
Pilot Examiner), FAA Operations Inspector, ICAS or Experimental Aircraft Association
(EAA) aerobatic competency examiner possessing authorization to administer this test in that particular airplane or helicopter.
b) The endorsement or letter states that the pilot may fly maneuvers up
to 90 degrees of pitch and/or 90 degrees of bank in reference to the horizon
(see Figure 3-37). The endorsement is limited to the altitude demonstrated but
not less than 200 feet AGL. The testing standards for this endorsement are as follows:
1. For 90 degrees of bank endorsement the applicant must demonstrate
a roll to 90 degrees from the horizon and return to level without loss of altitude and within 10 degrees of the predetermined roll out heading.
2. For 90 degrees of pitch up, the applicant must demonstrate a pitch
up to 90 degrees from the horizon starting at the lowest altitude authorized
but never less than 200 feet AGL. This pitch up will terminate at a predetermined airspeed or altitude as determined by the examiner.
3. For a 90 degrees of pitch down, the applicant must demonstrate a
pitch down to 90 degrees and recover at a predetermined altitude but never lower than 200 feet.
4. The applicant must demonstrate knowledge of show line orientation
and proper distance’s from spectator areas.
a. Demonstrate ability required to reposition the aircraft from a maneuvering pass;
b. Realign 180 degrees for the next pass; and
c. Align the flight path so as not to direct energy toward the primary spectator area.
5. For any demonstrations, at no time may the outcome of the maneuver be in doubt.
6. The applicant may only be endorsed for the altitude demonstrated but not less than 200 feet.
3) All limitations on the document listed in subparagraphs 3-145A1)
or 2) above must be followed. Aerobatic maneuvers and sequences/performances
that contain aerobatic maneuvers must be initiated and completed at or above
the altitude listed in the limitations on the SAC. Non-aerobatic fly-bys may
be performed below the altitude limitation listed on the SAC only before or
after the sequence/performance is completed. The performer may not interrupt
an aerobatic sequence/performance to perform a non-aerobatic fly-by below the altitude restriction.
4) Upon request of the FAA, civil aircraft pilots must show evidence
of performing or practicing their performance(s) within the previous 15 days.
B. Required Crewmembers. With the exception of stunt persons,
the special provisions of an airshow waiver provide that only required crewmembers
by aircraft type design be carried on any civil aircraft engaged in an aerial
demonstration. For additional persons necessary for safety to be on board a
performing civil aircraft, the situation must meet the following conditions and be approved by the IIC:
1) Each crewmember must be on board to fulfill a definite safety function, such as, but not limited to:
a) A one-time show site checkout for a qualified pilot who is unfamiliar with the site;
b) A qualified pilot flying cover for closed course air racing;
c) A qualified person who is required to operate aircraft systems during
normal or emergency conditions in flight; or
d) A qualified pilot obtaining experience before inclusion as a non-aerobatic aerial demonstration team member.
2) Each pilot must be current and have the proper qualifications for the specific make and model of a civil aircraft.
3) Each pilot must hold a SAC or aerobatic endorsement when occupying
a seat of an aircraft with functional dual controls for all three axes and aerobatic flight is conducted.
4) Each pilot in command (PIC) must hold a non-aerobatic formation
credential when occupying a seat of an aircraft that has functional dual controls
for all three axes when in a formation flight and aerobatic flight is not conducted.
C. Essential Personnel Requirements. Examples of essential personnel
as determined by the IIC would include, but are not limited to: Crash, Fire
and Rescue personnel, FAA personnel, pole holders, pyrotechnicians, essential
support crew, other performers, official photographers or taxiing aircraft associated
with the event. Essential personnel must meet the following conditions:
1) Have a safety briefing including ingress and egress from the aerobatic box;
2) Wear high visibility clothing that will easily identify them as essential personnel when in the box; and
3) Official photographers may not exceed the number agreed upon
by the responsible person and the IIC to be in the specified areas at one time.
NOTE: Essential personnel do not include news media or photographers (other than official photographers) for the event.
D. Aerobatic Formation Flight. Perform formation aerobatics where
the angle of bank exceeds 60 degrees and/or the angle of pitch excess 45 degrees only if the following conditions are met:
1) The members of the aerobatic team must have performed together
in 10 aerobatic performances over the preceding 12 months; or
2) When the team members have flown less than 10 aerobatic performances
in the past 12 months, the team must be able to document 30 aerobatic practice
sessions or combination of 30 practice sessions and airshow performances as
a team over the preceding 12 months in the performing aircraft type; and
3) All persons conducting formation aerobatics must have demonstrated
or substantiated their skills and have the formation aerobatics notation placed on their SAC.
E. Non-Aerobatic Formation Flight. Each civil PIC who wishes
to conduct non-aerobatic formation flybys where the angle of bank does not exceed
60 degrees or 45 degrees of pitch in the airshow display area must meet the following:
1) Be in possession of an FAA recognized current and valid industry formation flying card.
2) Attend a briefing given by the flight leader of the proposed flight;
3) The briefing in subparagraph E2) above must meet the requirements
of the industry formation group that issued the formation flying card of the formation flight leader;
4) The responsible person must provide the IIC a list of the pilots flying in the formation.
NOTE: Formation training will not be conducted during the airshow.
F. Aircraft Eligibility. To be eligible to participate in an
aviation event, an aircraft must be in an airworthy condition. The waiver or
authorization’s named responsible person is responsible for ensuring that the
participating aircraft have the required documentation to show the aircraft is in airworthy condition.
1) To ensure that the aircraft participating in an aviation event
are airworthy, an IIC or his or her representative should examine the general
condition of the aircraft and required aircraft documents, and determine if the aircraft has met the specified inspections.
2) The ASI should use one of the following methods to determine compliance with required inspections:
a) Review of the aircraft’s maintenance records (logbooks); or
b) Review of a current and valid form supplied by the owner/operator.
1. The completed form must be similar to the sample FAA Aircraft Inspection and Status Form (Figure 3-38).
2. An appropriately qualified airman who holds a mechanic or repairman
certificate or an Inspection Authorization (IA) must sign the form.
3. The ASI who inspected the aircraft and determined it was airworthy may sign the form.
4. If an ASI has previously signed off on this form, an aircraft inspection is not required.
3-146 AIRSHOW AIRSPACE REQUIREMENTS. Issue FAA Form 7711-1 to an
event organizer. It specifies a geographic area, both lateral and vertical,
where airshow demonstrations are authorized. This area could be quite large
(e.g., 10 nautical mile (NM) radius of an airport from the surface up to 18,000
feet mean sea level (MSL) or rather small (e.g., 2 NM radius up to 3,000 feet
MSL), depending on the type of airshow demonstration planned. In determining
where aerobatics will be performed within the geographic area specified on FAA Form
event organizer selects a site that will accommodate all the
specific types of airshow demonstrations without detracting from safety or creating
a hazard to any non-participants or spectators. It is imperative that all areas
adjacent to the airshow site containing homes, factories, major highways, traveled
thoroughfares, or any occupied vessel, vehicle, or structure be carefully evaluated
before making a final decision for site selection. An environmental review in accordance with the current edition of FAA Order
not required due to the temporary nature of a waiver for an aviation event. You must identify the following applicable blocks for an airshow:
· Airshow demonstration area,
· Show lines,
· Flying Display Area,
· 500 feet corner markers,
· Restrictions to ingress /egress routes (noise sensitive areas,
obstructions, etc.), and
· Designated spectator areas.
3-147 MINIMUM SAFETY DISTANCES AND ALTITUDES. This paragraph provides
the minimum safety distances, both horizontal and vertical, which must be maintained
between aircraft in flight and the primary spectator area, secondary spectator area and occupied buildings during an airshow.
A. Show Lines. For aerobatic and other flight demonstrations,
an aerobatic box and show lines must be established at prescribed minimum distances
from the designated spectator areas. The appropriate performers must be able to easily identify these lines.
Table 3-1A. Minimum Show Line Distance From Spectator Areas, Congested Areas and Occupied Buildings by Aircraft Category
Category I Aircraft
Category II Aircraft
Category III Aircraft
Aerobatic maneuvers and Flybys
Gliders, Hang Gliders, powered paragliders
Aerobatic maneuvers and Flybys
Ultralight airplanes and Weight-shift control aircraft
Aerobatic maneuvers and Flybys
Category I Aircraft
Category II Aircraft
Powered Parachute Aircraft, Ultralights (paragliders and powered paragliders)
The minimum distances in this table are based upon the following criteria:
a) For reciprocating engine
powered airplanes–true airspeed in straight and level flight at
75 percent power at standard temperature and pressure (15°c/sea level) and maximum certified gross weight.
b) For turbine engine powered
airplanes (does not include the BD-5J Micro jet),—85 percent of
the maximum continuous powered straight and level flight true airspeed
at standard temperature, pressure (15°C/sea level), and maximum certified gross weight.
NOTE: The speeds in paragraphs (a) and (b) above are used for determining assignment to a show line, not the
maximum performing speed of the aircraft. See subparagraph 3-143A10) for Category.
B. Formation Flight Demonstrations. For formation flight demonstrations,
the formation leader must adjust his or her ground track so that the critical
aircraft remains the appropriate distance from the designated spectator areas.
C. Guidelines for Establishing Show Lines and/or Aerobatic Boxes.
1) Establish show lines prior to establishing the spectator area.
If possible, the distance from a crowd line to the closest shoulder of an active
runway should be at least 500 feet. This will allow demonstration teams to make
formation takeoffs, performers to use the entire runway for ribbon cuts, etc.
It is permissible to use a crowd line that is 500 feet from the centerline of
the runway in use but requires CAT I airplanes to make single ship centerline
takeoffs and CAT III airplane aerobatics to remain beyond the centerline, not allowing them to use the centerline for alignment during their performances.
2) Use prominent features such as runway shoulders or centerlines,
tree lines, parked vehicles, boats for events over water or other geographical features to establish the show lines.
3) Prescribed minimums may not be altered to accommodate obstacles
that are hazards to performers (antennas, windsocks, tall trees, hangars, etc.).
4) All show lines must be clearly discernable, to ensure that
pilots have adequate visual references throughout their performance.
5) Show lines for events held at night must be lighted in a manner
that ensures the lines are clearly visible and identifiable by the participating pilots.
6) For military demonstration teams, both the CAT I and CAT III
show lines must be discernible at least 2 miles from show center at an altitude
of 200 feet; the CAT I show line should be clearly visible from the highest altitude required by the applicable team.
7) Any turbine engine powered airplane for which bona fide performance
data acceptable to the FAA is not available will be required to perform on the CAT I show line.
D. CAT I Show Lines. The minimum distance from the spectator
area to the show line for CAT I aircraft is 1,500 feet or greater (Figure 3-26 and Figure 3-26A).
1) Aerobatic maneuvers for CAT I airplanes remain centered on the CAT I
show line and parallel to the crowd line while in the flying display area. This includes single or multiple airplane maneuvers (Figure 3-26B).
2) If the only well defined show line is closer than 1,500 feet
to a spectator area, and if it is not possible to move the spectator area, the
distance between the CAT I show line and the primary spectator area may be reduced
from 1,500 feet to a minimum of 1,200 feet. This reduction is authorized solely in the interest
of flight safety because a well-defined show line is essential for pilot orientation. Place all artificial show lines at 1,500 feet.
3) When there is a reduction in the distance from the show line
to the primary spectator area, a similar reduction shall not be permitted for the secondary spectator area side of the show.
4) In no case shall there be less than 2,700 feet between the primary and the secondary spectator areas.
5) The reduction should be determined by first considering the secondary spectator area side of the show line.
E. Category II Show Lines. The minimum distance from the spectator
area to the show line for CAT II aircraft is 1,000 feet or greater. (Figure 3-26C)
1) Aerobatic maneuvers for CAT II airplanes remain no closer
than the CAT II show line and parallel to the crowd line while in the flying
display area unless the aerobatic box is large enough to contain any aerobatic
maneuver. This includes single or multiple airplane maneuvers (Figure 3-26D).
2) If the only well-defined show line is closer than 1,000 feet
to a spectator area, and if it is not possible to move the spectator area, the
distance between the CAT II show line and the primary spectator area may be
reduced from 1,000 feet to a minimum of 800 feet. This reduction is authorized
solely in the interest of flight safety because a well-defined show line is essential for pilot orientation.
3) When there is a reduction in the distance from the show line
to the primary spectator area, a similar reduction shall not be permitted for the secondary spectator area side of the show line.
4) In no case will there be less than 1,800 feet between the primary and the secondary spectator areas.
5) Determine the reduction by first considering the secondary spectator area side of the show line.
F. CAT III Show Lines.
1) The CAT III show line will not be closer than 500 feet from the primary or secondary spectator areas.
a) If there is less than 1,000 feet between the primary and any secondary
spectator areas, the site cannot be considered for an airshow waiver.
b) The width of the flying display area:
1. If there are less than 1,000 feet between the primary and any secondary
spectator areas, the site cannot be considered for an airshow waiver. The width
of the aerobatic box must be large enough to contain the aircraft maneuvers
and still ensure the safety distances for the spectators. When the flying display
is only 1,000 feet between the spectator areas, a single aircraft must fly centered
on the 500 feet show line when in the display area. No lateral or turning maneuvers
are performed in that area and the aircraft must fly past the spectator areas
and make a non-aerobatic turn to re-enter the aerobatic display area (Figure 3-27).
2. For multi-aircraft demonstrations the flying display area must be
wide enough to contain all maneuvers and/or all aircraft where no aircraft or
maneuver is closer than 500 feet from a spectator area (Figure 3-27B and Figure 3-27C).
3. For single aircraft performing lateral and/or turning maneuvers the
flying display area must be wide enough to contain all maneuvers where the aircraft
or maneuver is closer than 500 feet from a spectator area (Figure 3-27A).
2) The 500-foot show line may also be used for flybys. In this
case, clearly delineate the CAT III show line for high performance aircraft.
3) For flybys and ingress/egress routes place corner markers
on the ground to clearly identify the 500-foot lateral separation from the primary
spectator area and that marker must be visible from 500 feet AGL at 200 knots (Figure 3-29).
G. Takeoff and Landing Distances from Spectators.
1) As listed in Table 3-2, an aircraft’s performance characteristics
will determine the minimum distance required between the spectator area and
the takeoff/landing surface. The guidance pertaining to aircraft operations
applies to all aircraft operating at an aviation event while the waiver is in
effect. These same safety distances are recommended to be applied starting when
spectators are allowed into the show site until all spectators have left the show site.
Table 3-2. Minimum Distance between Spectator Areas, Built-up Areas or Occupied Buildings and Takeoff/Landing Surface
Powered Parachute Aircraft
(1) Airplanes, gyroplanes, and weight-shift
control aircraft with reference speed for final approach (Vref) of 60 kts or less and a certificated gross weight of 2500 lbs or
less, including ultralights (airplanes, gyroplanes, and weight-shift control) (See Figure 3-25)
(2) Gliders, powered and unpowered paragliders, and hang gliders (See Figure 3-25)
(3) Helicopters—engine start and shutdown and hover taxi in ground effect (See Figure 3-30)
Airplanes and gyroplanes with Vref of more
than 60 kts but less than 100 kts and certificated gross weight of 50,000 lbs or less (See Figure 3-25A)
(1) Airplanes and gyroplanes with Vref in excess of 100 kts (See Figure 3-25B)
(2) Airplanes and gyroplanes with a certificated gross weight in excess of 50,000 lbs (See Figure 3-25B)
(3) Airplanes and helicopter conducting excessive,
non‑aerobatic maneuvers on takeoff or landing (comedy acts) (See Figure 3-25B)
(4) Helicopter—takeoff and landing (See Figure 3-30)
The minimum distances in this table for:
Formation takeoff/landing operations, will be measured to the closest runway edge, and
Single aircraft operations conducted on thecenterline may be measured to the runway centerline.
2) Takeoffs and Landings—Aerobatic Maneuvers Conducted. When
the takeoff runway is separated from the primary or secondary spectator areas
by less than 500 feet for CAT III, 1,000 feet for CAT II, and 1,500 feet for CAT I aircraft:
a) Aerobatics are not permitted over spectator areas or congested areas; or
b) An aerobatic maneuver may be performed after takeoff when the aircraft
has turned away from the spectator area and crossed the appropriate show line. (See Figure 3-28 and Figure 3-28A for CAT III aircraft example.)
3) Helicopter Operations. As listed in Table 3-2, all helicopters
must take off and land at a minimum distance of 500 feet from the spectator
area during an aviation event and helicopters will not pass over spectator areas
at any time, except as provided in subparagraphs 3-147H and I below, during
the departure and arrival. Helicopters must start up and shut down at a minimum
distance of 200 feet from the crowd and hover taxi in ground effect or ground
taxi at a maximum ground speed of 20 knots ground speed between the takeoff/landing areas and the startup/shutdown area.
4) Aircraft Towing. Conduct glider, hang glider, and paraglider
towing (airplane/automobile) at a minimum distance of 200 feet from the crowd.
H. Flight Over Primary Spectator Area.
1) Civilian and Military Aircraft. Flight over the primary spectator
area is permitted when at or above 1,000 feet above the spectators.
2) Military Jet Demonstration Teams. When authorized by AFS-800,
military demonstration teams are permitted to fly at a minimum altitude of 500 feet over the primary spectator area if:
a) Flight is non-maneuvering and straight and level or wings level in a normal climb; and
b) The direction of flight is in one direction only—back to front or front to back.
I. Flight Over Secondary Spectator Areas. The responsible person
will make every effort to discourage secondary spectator areas. Secondary spectator
areas cannot be under the aerobatic maneuver area. Flight over the secondary
spectator area is permitted by all civilian and military airshow performers when the following conditions are met:
1) Minimum altitude must be no lower than 500 feet above the spectators; and,
2) Until the aircraft reaches an altitude of 500 feet, flight will be non-maneuvering and wings level in a normal climb.
J. Flyby. A flyby can be performed by a single aircraft, by aircraft in formation, or by aircraft in trail.
1) No abrupt maneuvers between the corner markers may be performed along the 500 feet show line by CAT I or II airplanes,
2) Conduct a flyby along show lines at a minimum horizontal distance
of not less than 500 feet from primary spectator areas, secondary spectator
areas, congested areas, or occupied buildings; and in accordance with the following conditions:
a) By CAT I or II airplanes—no lower than 100 feet AGL when less than 1,000
feet from a designated spectator area, unless the pilot possesses a current
surface level SAC card for the make and model of airplane being flown;
b) By all airplanes—using a bank angle of no more than 75 degrees, a pitch
angle of no more than 60 degrees, and a maximum indicated airspeed of no more than 300 knots, regardless of the show line CAT;
c) By formation flights, no lower than 200 feet AGL, using a bank angle
of no more than 60 degrees, a pitch angle of no more than 45 degrees and a maximum
indicated airspeed of no more than 250 knots, regardless of the show line CAT.
3) Corner markers must be highly visible landmarks or contrasting
markers easily visible from 200 feet AGL at 200 KIAS that identify the crowd
line 500-foot lateral separation (corner) points left and right of the primary spectator area (see Figure 3-29).
NOTE: Per §
the minimum safe airspeed for any particular operation is greater than the maximum speed required by §
91.117(a through c), the
aircraft may be operated at that speed.
K. Airshow Maneuvers Toward Primary Spectator Area. The categories
for airshow maneuvers towards the primary spectator area are as follows:
· Unacceptable level of risk—prohibited.
· Acceptable level of risk—no approval required.
· Acceptable level of risk—approval required.
1) Prohibited Maneuvers. Aerobatic maneuvers conducted inside
the aerobatic box that in the event of a catastrophic failure a part of the
aircraft would contact the surface at or inside the primary spectator area between the corner markers are prohibited.
2) Permitted Maneuvers—No Approval Required. The following maneuvers
are permitted without any additional approval:
a) Aerobatic maneuvers in which the aircraft, but not the actual energy
vector, is momentarily pointed towards the primary spectator area (e.g., hammerhead turns, spins, tail slides, torque rolls, and lomcevaks).
b) High energy maneuvers such as minimum radius turns (maximum of 90 degrees
of bank) by single aircraft on the appropriate show line for the aircraft CAT in accordance with the following (see Figure 3-30A):
1. CAT III aircraft—maximum altitude of 250 feet,
2. CAT II aircraft—maximum altitude of 300 feet, and
3. CAT I aircraft—maximum altitude of 500 feet.
c) Non-aerobatic maneuvers by a single aircraft with an energy vector directed
towards the primary spectator area provided the aircraft remains beyond the
appropriate reference line for their show line CAT ( i.e., 500 feet for CAT III; 1,000 feet for CAT II, 1,500 for CAT I) (see Figure 3-28B).
d) Flight over the spectator areas in accordance with subparagraphs 3-147H and 3-147I.
e) Repositioning turns in accordance with subparagraph 3-147L.
3) Permitted Maneuver—Approval Required. The following maneuvers
are prohibited unless approved in accordance with paragraph 3-149, FAA AFS-800 Maneuver Packages Approval Process:
a) Aerobatic maneuvers which direct an energy vector toward the primary
spectator at any point, other than those described in subparagraph 3-147L1), which are prohibited; and
b) Non-aerobatic maneuvers by multiple aircraft or aircraft in formation
with an energy vector directed towards the primary spectator area.
c) Aerobatic 360 degree turns with an energy vector directed towards the primary spectator area:
1. For single aircraft that exceed the requirements of paragraph 2)b) above; or
2. For multiple aircraft.
L. Repositioning Turns.
1) Return to the Flying Display Area/Aerobatic Box. Conduct repositioning
turns that may have an energy vector directed towards the primary spectator
area made for the purposes of returning to the flying display area or aerobatic box to realign with the appropriate CAT aircraft show line as follows:
a) Civilian performers.
1. Holders of a SAC card and flying CAT III or CAT I and CAT II ex-military
fighters are permitted to perform repositioning turns using a maximum of 120
degrees of bank and 90 degrees of pitch when above 500 feet AGL and not over designated spectator areas or congested areas.
2. Holders of an endorsement for pitch and bank angles up to 90 degrees
are permitted to perform repositioning turns to those limits above 500 feet AGL when not over designated spectator areas or congested areas.
b) Military jet demonstration teams and single ship demonstration teams.
1. Military demonstration teams with accepted maneuvers packages are
permitted to exceed a maximum of 120 degrees of bank and 90 degrees of pitch; and
2. Pitch and bank angles must not exceed standard operating procedures
prescribed for the specific aircraft; and
3. Inverted flight is not authorized below 1,500 feet AGL and not over
congested areas or spectator areas.
2) Inside the Flying Display Area/Aerobatic Box. When it is not
practical to leave the flying display area or aerobatic box in between segments
of a flight demonstration, repositioning turns that have an energy vector directed
towards the primary spectator area and are made for the sole purpose of remaining
in the flying display area and realigning with the appropriate CAT show line are permitted in accordance with the following:
a) Holders of a SAC card or an endorsement for pitch and bank angles up
to 90 degrees are permitted to perform repositioning turns and/ or clearing turns to a maximum 90 degree bank;
b) The turns are carried out without abrupt control inputs during the portion
of the turn when the aircraft is directing energy at the crowd; and
c) The turns are conducted in a manner to ensure the aircraft remains beyond
the appropriate distance for their show line CAT (i.e., 500 feet for CAT III; 1,000 feet for CAT II, 1,500 feet for CAT I).
M. Night, Civil Twilight, and Airborne Pyrotechnic Demonstrations
Authorization. Aerobatic performers may request authorization to conduct
aerial demonstrations at night (after civil twilight). The demonstrations are
typically conducted with pyrotechnic devices attached to the wings. Other demonstrations
use numerous landings lights, strobe lights, or smoke. Conduct these demonstrations
no lower than 500 feet and no higher than 5,000 feet AGL. Jet aircraft performers
may request a higher ceiling requirement. Inspectors can accommodate such requests by ensuring that the following have been accomplished:
· The pyrotechnic or light installations are appropriately
documented in the aircraft’s maintenance records.
· The requirements in subparagraph 3-147N below are met.
N. Night and Twilight Event Special Provisions. As appropriate,
include the applicable special provisions in addition to the special provisions
in paragraph 3-155 of this section for events conducted after local sunset.
1) Confine aerobatic demonstrations at night to 1 NM on either side of the show center along
a well‑defined, lighted show line.
2) Confine aerobatic demonstrations to altitudes above 500 feet AGL and below 5,000 feet AGL after official sunset.
3) The minimum weather conditions at night require a cloud base
no lower than 2,500 feet and 3 statute miles visibility. Section
not be waived for any flight conducted between sunset and sunrise.
4) Aircraft position lights must be operating from sunset to
sunrise except while pyrotechnics on the aircraft are illuminated unless §
waived. Waive §
if the flight is conducted totally within Class B, C, D or TFR airspace.
5) When pyrotechnics are illuminated, operations over persons are prohibited at any altitude.
O. Passenger and Emergency Helicopter Operations. During some
aviation events, helicopters take passengers for rides or serve as emergency
vehicles. The responsible person, in conjunction with the helicopter operator,
will establish a comprehensive operation plan, to include egress and ingress
routes that do not overfly spectator areas at low altitudes and will not interfere
with performers or other operations conducted during the event. This plan will
be briefed at the performers’ briefing. The following guidelines will be adhered to:
1) Startup and shutdown areas for helicopters will be:
a) Located at a minimum distance of 200 feet from the crowd or passenger waiting areas.
b) Protected by appropriate barriers and/or crowd control to prevent unauthorized persons from entering these areas.
c) Located to prevent the helicopter from passing over spectators during takeoff or landing.
2) Pilots must receive the performer’s briefings by the same
briefer unless relief is granted by the IIC for a different briefer to give the briefing due to remoteness of helicopter operations in reference to the
event (attendance at the performer’s briefing is highly recommended).
3) Refueling procedures for operations conducted during the event hours must be approved by the IIC.
NOTE: Helicopter operations will not be permitted during military demonstration
team performances, or parachuting operations. The IIC may permit helicopter
operations during parachuting operations if the operations are distant enough from the parachuting landing area to not be a safety
hazard (e.g., Air Venture at Oshkosh, where the helicopter operations are at a separate location from the main airfield).
P. Helicopter Demonstrations.
1) Helicopter Acts Involving External-Load Operations. Airshow
acts that are considered Class B, C, or D external-load operations, will not
be conducted over persons on the surface unless those persons are part of the act and must be conducted in accordance with 14 CFR part
the provisions of the waiver. Military helicopters need not comply with part
must comply with the provisions of the waiver.
2) Helicopters may perform aerobatic maneuvers no closer than 1,000 feet horizontally from designated spectator areas.
3) Helicopters performing aerobatic maneuvers must have a valid
and current special airworthiness or experimental certificate issued in the
Experimental CAT for the purpose of exhibition. Nothing contained in these special
provisions of the waiver should be contrary to any operating or special limitation issued as a part of
that special airworthiness or experimental certificate.
4) Helicopters may not perform non-aerobatic abrupt maneuvers closer than 500 feet horizontally from a spectator area.
5) Helicopter performers are limited to the aerobatic maneuvers as listed on their SAC card.
Q. Air Carrier Aircraft Demonstrations. Flight demonstrations
may be conducted at an airshow under the provisions of a waiver by any certificated
air carrier with a large (more than 12,500 lb (GTOW aircraft)) listed on that
certificate. When an air carrier operating this large aircraft requests authorization
to conduct a flight demonstration at an airshow, the IIC will require the following:
1) The air carrier will develop a performance package that describes
in detail the entire flight profile. The performance package will specifically
address the make and model of the aircraft and take into consideration any specific flight safety conditions of that aircraft.
2) A waiver provision should be developed with the following limitations:
· Minimum altitude—200 feet AGL,
· Maximum bank—30 degrees,
· Maximum speed—300 knots, and
· Minimum speed—Vref for the configuration and weight of the
aircraft, or as required for the go-around sequence on touch-and-go landings should be
permitted only when the carrier has addressed the crew procedures, the runway requirements, and the abort procedure in sufficient detail.
3) Coordination with the air carrier’s principal operations inspector
(POI) is necessary before approval by the IIC.
4) Any maneuvers not in the air carrier’s training program must
be practiced before the demonstration. This practice may be in an approved simulator that represents the make and model of the demonstrated aircraft.
R. Ultralight Vehicle Demonstrations. An ultralight vehicle is
only a single place vehicle and must meet the applicability of 14 CFR part
operate as an ultralight vehicle under part
FAA does not require certification of ultralight vehicle operators meeting the provisions of §
1) Aerobatic flight demonstrations by ultralight vehicles should
be included on a certificate of waiver or authorization, with appropriate special
provisions. The applicant must provide the issuing office with a statement of determination that the vehicle meets the requirements of §
authorized under an exemption to part
the operator is able to conduct the proposed demonstration without creating a hazard to persons and property on the surface. The statement should
contain a summary of how the determination was made. The IIC determines if the
statement is suitable. The IIC may require a demonstration prior to making a determination. For additional support, contact AFS-800.
2) Ultralight vehicles must meet the same separation standards
as conventional aircraft with a level flight cruise speed of less than 156 knots
using 75 percent power (CAT III), with the exception of powered parachutes.
3) Wing walking acts using ultralight vehicles are not authorized
for operation as an ultralight vehicle operated in accordance with part
certificated aircraft may be used for this type operation.
4) Pilots may not receive compensation for participation at aviation
events because ultralight vehicles may not be operated for compensation or hire.
S. Experimental Amateur-built and Exhibition Aircraft. The aircraft
can be flown acrobatically if it is airworthy and not prohibited from aerobatic
flight. The performer must provide to the IIC documentation of the aerobatic
maneuvers authorized in accordance with the aircraft operating limitations. The IIC should consult with the airworthiness inspector regarding suitability.
T. Wing Walking and Specialty/Trapeze Acts. Wing walking acts
may be approved when the performers have safely demonstrated the act in an aerobatic competency evaluation. Section
(3) may need to be waived for stunt persons only. All helicopter trapeze acts must comply with the applicable requirements of part
helicopter external load combination Class B or D operations. Avoid overflight of the designated spectator areas for these acts.
U. Ground-based Pyrotechnics. As appropriate, in addition to
the applicable airshow special provisions listed on the FAA Internet site at
on the FAA employee’s Intranet site at
the pyrotechnics special provisions and checklist (see Figure 3-39)
for events that will use ground-based pyrotechnics, if the ground-based pyrotechnics will be installed and/or detonated anywhere on the airport surface.
V. Glider Operations. The following criteria apply only to glider operations.
1) Motorized and non-motorized gliders fall into the CAT III
aircraft group. CAT III aerobatic box and performance distances apply.
2) Unless obstructions are present that would make a taxiway
takeoff unsafe, it should be permitted with a minimum distance of 200 feet from
the primary spectator area (see Figure 3-25). This distance may be reduced to
150 feet if the takeoff path is at an angle of at least 10 degrees away from the spectators.
3) Landings may be approved on the taxiway used for the takeoff
as long as there are no obstructions or adverse wind conditions that would create
a hazard to the spectators. If the landing approach requires a low altitude
turn over the spectators, landing on a taxiway is not permitted. After landing, the aircraft must come to a full stop at least 50 feet from spectators.
W. Agricultural Aircraft Demonstration. In addition to the applicable
airshow special provisions listed on the above mentioned Web sites, include
the appropriate agricultural aircraft special provisions for events that have agricultural aircraft aerobatic demonstrations.
X. Ingress and Egress Routes Into and Out of the Flying Display Area.
1) All Civil and Military Aircraft. For flight over congested (built-up) areas adjacent to flying display areas:
not be waived for aerial demonstration purposes. Section
that all pilots must always operate an aircraft at an altitude allowing, if a power unit fails, an emergency landing without undue
hazard to persons or property on the surface, except when necessary for takeoff or landing; and
b) Aerobatic maneuvers are prohibited.
2) All Civil and Military Aircraft (Except for Sanctioned Military
Demonstration Teams). For flight over congested (built-up) areas adjacent to the flying display area:
a) Minimum Altitude. At least 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle within a radius of 500 feet from the aircraft;
b) Ingress from Adjacent Congested Areas (Built-up Areas) to Flying Display
Area. Aircraft entering a flying display area from over a congested (built-up)
area are permitted to leave the minimum altitude specified above in subparagraph
3-147X2)a) to complete a smooth transition to the performance altitude on the
flight line; however, the angle of descent should not be lower than a normal
approach for that aircraft type (i.e., steeper than normal approaches are permitted).
c) Egress from Flying Display Areas to Adjacent Congested (Built-up) Areas.
Aircraft exiting a flying display area to a congested (built-up) area should
climb at a rate consistent with the safe operation or best pitch attitude for
that aircraft type. If extended flight over the built-up area is expected, compliance
with the minimum altitude specified above in subparagraph 3-147X2)a) is required (see Figure 3-31).
Y. Compensation at Airshows.
1) To receive any type of compensation (fuel, oil, lodging, rental
cars, etc.), for flight activities at an airshow, an airman must have a commercial
pilot certificate and second-class medical certificate. The aircraft must be
certificated for operations that allow compensation or hire. Additionally, if
passengers or property are carried for compensation or hire, the aircraft must be certificated to allow for those types of operations.
2) In accordance with part
experimental aircraft are prohibited from conducting operations for compensation or hire while carrying passengers and/or property operations.
Experimental aircraft may be authorized to be operated for compensation or hire without any passengers or property on board.
3) IICs should conduct an investigation when they become aware
of any performers who may only hold a private pilot certificate and appear to be receiving compensation while performing or giving rides.
4) Additionally, all FAA inspectors conducting surveillance should
be vigilant in monitoring activities that involve passenger rides at an aviation
event. They should conduct an investigation when they become aware of operations
conducted in an aircraft or by a pilot who may be operating contrary to regulations.
3-148 MILITARY PERFORMANCES.
A. General. The guidelines in this paragraph apply to military
aircraft, military pilots, and parachute teams specifically designated to perform missions for the U.S. DOD and the Canadian DND.
1) Only the Aviation Liaison Officer in the Office of the Assistant
Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs can sanction a U.S. DOD team.
2) Canadian DND Sanctioned Military Teams. The Canadian DND-sanctioned
military teams are the Canadian Forces Snowbirds, the Canadian Forces CF-18
Demo Special Events, and Sky Hawks. Their contact information is listed on
3) The DOD-single ship military demonstration teams
are not exempt from any regulation or policy that is used in issuing a waiver
unless specifically stated in their FAA-accepted command guidance. Fly these aircraft in accordance with these guidance documents (see paragraph 3-148C below).
4) FAA headquarters does not issue any blanket special approvals,
authorizations, waivers, or blanket exemptions that would pertain to all military
airshow performances. The sanctioned North American Jet Demonstration teams
have maneuver packages that are approved each year and pertain only to the team for whom it was approved.
5) Forward any outside complaints received by the FAA as a result
of the aerial demonstration to the designated military representative for disposition.
Direct any questions by FAA representatives involving a military team to the appropriate team.
6) Enforcement action against any military team or performer
will be conducted according to current FAA policy (see the current edition of FAA Order
and Enforcement Program). When enforcement action
is initiated, the IIC must notify the national airshow coordinator through the regional airshow coordinator.
7) All accidents and incidents must be reported to the national
airshow coordinator by the IIC through the regional airshow coordinator.
B. Sanctioned Military Jet Demonstration Teams. This title pertains
only to The Blue Angels, The Thunderbirds and the Snowbirds. A list containing their contact information is available at
1) The sanctioned military jet demonstration teams provide AFS-800
with command-approved maneuvers packages for approval. See paragraph 3-149 for the approval/acceptance process.
2) These teams normally will conduct preseason meetings with
the airshow event organizer and jurisdictional FAA offices. These meetings will
usually occur in the winter months before the start of the airshow season. Participation
in these meetings is mandatory for the jurisdictional FSDO. It is incumbent
upon the event organizer to notify the appropriate FSDO in ample time to send
a representative to the meeting. The FSDO will notify the regional airshow coordinator
of the meeting. It is imperative to review site suitability in detail with the
event organizer and military jet demonstration team representative at this meeting.
This will include, but is not limited to, the placement of the aerobatic box
and impact on the nonparticipating public on the surface under this box, review
of proposed ingress/egress routes that will require FAA approval and any impact on scheduled air carrier operations.
3) Coordinate any change to an FAA maneuvers package or the addition
or removal of a pilot authorized to fly under the prescribed maneuvers package
with the national airshow coordinator as soon as possible. These changes are
not authorized until accepted or approved by AFS-800 and the national airshow coordinator.
4) Military jet demonstration teams and military Single ship
Demonstration teams may conduct an arrival demonstration. This normally consists
of several passes for visual familiarity with existing landmarks and maneuvers
practice using these landmarks. Coordinate details of the arrival demonstration
in advance. For the military demonstration teams, this should be accomplished at the preseason meeting.
a) The arrival demonstration must be previously approved and meet all FAA
regulations and requirements as stated in the waiver and special provisions.
The main difference between the arrival demonstration and a regular demonstration
is that the normal size crowd is not present, which may preclude the need for crowd control.
b) The teams often ask to have the team advance coordinator or operations
officer accept the arrival demonstration briefing and relay all necessary information
to the team. The IIC should allow this if the team representative is a rated
aviator or a nonrated officer serving with the team. Briefings with the team
representative must be completed before the team’s arrival at the demonstration
site. It is mandatory that the IIC or IIC’s representative is present at this briefing.
5) The sanctioned military jet demonstration teams have FAA-approved
maneuvers packages. The maneuvers packages describe each demonstration maneuver
in detail and specify ingress/egress routes. Flight over congested (built up)
areas adjacent to flying display areas (ingress and egress) must be carried out as follows:
a) They are authorized to fly nonaerobatic at 500 feet above obstacles and/or
occupied buildings when within 3 NM of show center.
b) The opposing solos are permitted to descend below 500 feet AGL in the
transition area over occupied buildings in a wings level shallow descent to arrive at 200 feet AGL before reaching 1 NM from show center.
c) On a case-by-case basis, where it is deemed a safe transition to the
next maneuver, the IIC will grant a waiver to the sanctioned military jet demonstration
teams permitting them to fly as low as 200 feet above the highest obstacle within
a 500-foot horizontal radius along specified ingress/egress routes within 3 NM from show center, provided the following conditions are met:
1. A request is sent or given to the IIC by an authorized team member for each show site.
2. The results of a completed onsite survey conducted during the current
airshow season by a representative of the military demonstration team.
3. A current aerial photograph or topographical chart depicting the
CAT I show line, aerobatic box required for the approved maneuvers package, and ingress/egress routes.
4. Depict ingress/egress routes on a 1:24,000 scale map (or its equivalent)
indicating the minimum altitudes requested, the 500-foot lateral distance of
the end of the primary spectator area, and any other secondary open-air assemblies of persons.
d) Flight is never authorized below 500 feet:
1. Over occupied buildings outside of the transition area;
2. Within 500 feet laterally of open-air assemblies of persons; and
3. Aerobatic flight is not permitted outside of the aerobatic box (except
as authorized as stated above).
C. Sanctioned Military Single Ship Demonstration Teams—Military Single-Ship
Demonstrations. The military single ship demonstration teams are the sanctioned
North American military specialized teams that demonstrate the capabilities
of one particular aircraft; (e.g., the USAF A-10, F-15, F-16, and F-22 single
ship demonstration teams); the USN F-18 single ship demonstration teams; and
Canada’s DND single ship demonstration teams. The applicable branch of the military
must develop guidance and/or maneuver packages, which define the aerobatic routine to be performed at aviation events (see paragraph 3-149).
D. Other U.S. Military Demonstration Teams. Other U.S. military
demonstration teams include the USAF Heritage Flights and the USN Tailhook Legacy
Flights. These flights may include a victory roll at the end of their performance
and is the only aerobatic maneuver authorized but is not authorized over spectator
areas or occupied buildings and must conform to military guidance or meet civilian
requirements as appropriate. Various other military aircraft may be authorized
for flybys, simulated in-flight refueling demonstration, simulated assault or rescue operation or other non-aerobatic operations or static displays.
E. Other Foreign Military Demonstration Teams. Other foreign
military flight demonstration teams single and multi-aircraft, must submit a
maneuvers package to AFS-800 to ensure compliance with FAA guidance. See paragraph 3-149 for the approval process.
F. Military Parachuting Demonstration Teams.
1) Sanctioned Military Parachuting Teams. The sanctioned military
demonstration teams are the U.S. Army Golden Knights, USN Leap Frogs and the
Canadian DND Skyhawks. The sanctioned military parachute teams are considered
to have met the highest level of parachuting certification. The team members
need not be listed on an application for a FAA Parachuting Authorization application, FAA Form
7711-2. The sponsor
or responsible person may make the application for a sanctioned team.
2) Non-Sanctioned Military Parachuting Teams. Non-sanctioned
military teams are not performing any demonstrations for the DOD or DND, therefore must meet all the same requirements as any civilian team.
G. DD Form 2535 (Military Participation). The DOD requires the
event organizer, or a designated representative, to complete DD Form 2535 when
requesting a U.S. military aerial demonstration team on or off a military installation.
The event organizer or representative must forward the form to the appropriate
FSDO. The event organizer must allow for a 30-day review period. The FSDO completes
Section IV, FAA Coordination (Airspace Coordination). Classify the proposed
site requiring a waiver as satisfactory, conditional-satisfactory, or unsatisfactory
during an FAA inspector conducted site feasibility study. The USAF is using
an automated DD Form 2535 and the applicant can only obtain it by accessing their Web site:
· A satisfactory classification indicates that a waiver is not
required or can be issued following compliance with other stated requirements.
· A conditional-satisfactory classification will include
specific conditions that need to be met, such as closing roads, evacuating buildings,
etc., and special consideration for the military demonstration teams’ ingress and egress routes.
· An unsatisfactory classification indicates that the requested
activity cannot be performed safely at the proposed site, and a waiver will not be issued.
1) Generally, the standard aerobatic box for the Blue Angels
and Thunderbirds is 12,000 feet by 3,000 feet. The Snowbirds usually request 8,000 feet by 3,000 feet. For a single ship demonstration team, the standard
aerobatic box is 6,000 feet by 3,000 feet. The support manuals and some maneuvers packages will indicate the size of the required airspace.
2) Military Flybys (Other than an Aviation Event). DD Form 2535
for a flyover or flyby at civic events, funerals, etc., are submitted to the local FSDO for FAA coordination. Other than the three sanctioned North American
Jet Demonstration teams, the flybys should be accomplished at 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle within 2,000 feet horizontal from the flight path.
a) If no regulations are being waived:
1. No site evaluation is necessary.
2. Contact the AT facility with jurisdiction for the air space being
used for coordination and enter the AT contact information in block 18 of Section IV.
3. Check the appropriate boxes (a through g) in block 16.
4. Check the appropriate box in block 17. If other that satisfactory,
enter the conditions for “Conditionally Satisfactory” or reason(s) for “Unsatisfactory” in block 18.
b) If a waiver of one or both of the following regulations is require:
1. If the speed requested is above those authorized in §
2. If one of the sanctioned military jet demonstration teams is requesting
a flyover below 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle 2,000 feet either side of their flight path as required in §
3. If a waiver of §
issued to one of the sanctioned military jet teams, the follow conditions must be met:
a. A site suitability must be conducted including ingress and egress routes,
b. Flight below 500 feet above the highest obstacle 1,000 feet either side
of the intended flight path is not authorized, and
c. Only shallow turns, climbs and descents are authorized below 1,000 feet AGL.
4. In addition the following coordination requirements must be met:
a. Conduct a briefing between the PIC and ASI before the flyby.
b. Compliance with all other rules of part
91 is required.
3-149 FAA AFS-800 MANEUVERS PACKAGES APPROVAL PROCESS.
A. North American and Foreign Military Flight Demonstration Teams.
North American and Foreign Military flight demonstration teams, single-ship
demonstration teams, and mixed military and civilian formation demonstrations
who conduct public performances in the United States, require FAA acceptance
of their command-approved maneuvers package or accepted aerial demonstration
guidance by AFS-800. Some of the maneuvers described in these packages may not
conform to all guidance requirements in Volume 3, Chapter 6 (e.g., airspeed,
altitude over primary spectator area, etc.) and therefore require FAA acceptance of their maneuvers package (see paragraph 3-148 above).
B. Civilian Performers. Civilian performers requesting approval
for one or more maneuvers described in subparagraph 3-147K) or relief from one
or more requirements listed in\ this chapter require FAA acceptance and must make an application as follows:
1) The applicant must fill out an applicant to include (applicants
that are applying for relief from a requirement and not an approval of a maneuver
need only comply with a) and b) below and send request to address listed in subparagraph 3) below):
a) A copy of the performer’s SAC (FAA Form 8710-7 or Transport Canada Form 26-0307);
b) A detailed description of the maneuver(s) requiring approval or relief;
c) A pictorial display (e.g., ribbon drawing) of the maneuver(s) including the sequence in which the maneuver(s) will be flown;
d) The entry and exit airspeed and altitude for the requested maneuver;
e) The airspace required to complete the maneuver(s) requiring approval to include lateral, horizontal and vertical distances;
f) A computation of turn radius, scatter radius and safety radius from the
closest points to the primary spectator area of the maneuver(s) needing approval
using the formulas listed in subparagraph 3-151 noting the airspeed, altitude and G forces used in the computations; and
g) An evaluation from an ICAS or EAA aerobatic competency evaluator verifying the following.
1. The maneuver has been demonstrated,
2. It can be performed competently with regularity,
3. It has been demonstrated by the applicant to be within the airspace described in 4 above, and
4. It does not meet the definition of a Prohibited Maneuver as described in subparagraph 3-147K1).
2) Upon completion, the aerobatic competency examiner will forward
the application and evaluation results to: ICAS Safety Committee Chairman, 750 Miller Drive, S.E., Suite F-4 F-3, Leesburg, Virginia 20175.
3) Upon receipt, the Safety Committee will review the application
and documentation. Within 15 working days of receipt, the Safety Committee Chairman
will forward the application package with comments to: FAA Headquarters, AFS-800, 800 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C. 20591.
4) AFS-800 will notify the applicant of the results within 30
days of receiving the application package from the ICAS Safety Committee Chairman.
C. Evaluation Process. An evaluation is required to assure an
equivalent level of safety for spectators in case of an incident involving the
aircraft. AFS-800 and the National Air Show Coordinator will decide what the
appropriate evaluation requires. This will depend on the requested maneuver(s)
and completeness of the application. The review may include but not limited
to a safety committee of subject matter experts as determined by AFS-800.
1) The following criteria will be used to evaluate maneuvers for compliance:
a) Aerobatic maneuvers which direct an energy vector toward the primary
spectator at any point, other than those described in subparagraph 3-147K1), which are prohibited.
b) Non-aerobatic maneuvers by multiple aircraft or aircraft in formation
with an energy vector directed towards the primary spectator area.
c) 360 degree turns with an energy vector directed towards the primary spectator area:
1. For single aircraft that exceed the requirements of subparagraph b) above; or
2. For multiple aircraft.
2) Below is an outline of the FAA acceptance process:
a) Military Flight Demonstration Individual Pilots or Teams planning to
perform an aerobatic demonstration in the United States must submit an application package that contains the following requirements:
1. A complete copy of their maneuvers package must be furnished to AFS-800,
National Air Show Coordinator, and;
2. The maneuvers package (electronic format is required) will consist
of profiles that must contain the following:
· A ribbon pictorial (or equivalent) of all maneuvers in the
· Minimum and maximum operating altitudes,
· Distances from the designated spectator area, and
· Relationship of the aircraft to the show line.
3. Minimum weather requirements for the performance and profiles for
a high and low show if that option is available.
4. The size and dimensions of the following airspace required to conduct
the performance: flying display area, aerobatic box, and ingress/egress routes.
5. A proposed date for a private demonstration/review by the National Air Show Coordinator.
b) Military teams must also submit a letter from the commanding officer authorizing this military team. The letter must include:
· A team roster, including the address and telephone number of
the commanding officer of the military organization;
· The military orders describing the requirements for training
and the conduct of the operation; and
· A list of the aircraft used in the demonstration and a description
on how to conduct flight demonstrations in the United States.
c) For all civilian teams or individuals requesting a maneuvers package
approval for relief from one or more requirements in this guidance will submit a letter of request. The letter must include:
· A team roster, including the address, telephone number, fax
number and e-mail address of the point of contact (POC).
· If foreign, a list of the aircraft used in the demonstration
and a description of how they intend to conduct flight demonstrations in the United States.
· If requesting an approval for a maneuver not meeting the description
in subparagraph 3-147K2) (acceptable maneuvers) then submit an application in accordance with subparagraph 3-149B above.
d) Final acceptance of approved maneuvers. The national airshow coordinator
will coordinate any necessary changes with the applicant. Changes may also be coordinated with an appropriate committee selected by AFS-800.
3-150 PARACHUTE DEMONSTRATIONS. Although many airshow activities
may require waivers, parachuting or skydiving demonstration jumps do not. As provided in part
of these jumps require a COA. FAA Form
the application for authorizations parachute jumps.
A. Parachutists Not Associated With the USPA. Parachutists who
are not members of the USPA and who wish to participate in a demonstration or
exhibition jump over or into a congested area, must present satisfactory evidence
of the experience, knowledge, and skill equivalent to that required by the USPA.
Although the majority of contacts with the parachutists are made by operations
inspectors, questions concerning parachute riggers, airworthiness, or engineering
should be referred to the Aircraft Maintenance Division (AFS-300) and/or the
Aircraft Certification Service (AIR), Rotorcraft Directorate’s Special Certification
Office (ASW-190) for resolution. In some cases, the local USPA area safety and
training advisor may be able to answer safety questions regarding the jump and
landing area. Contact the USPA for assistance in locating a USPA area safety and training advisor in your area.
1) If the applicant is unable to provide adequate information
about the event or jumper’s qualifications, inspectors may require a demonstration
jump (not over a congested area) before approving an authorization.
2) The FAA authorized the USPA to adopt its own safety rules
and licensing standards for parachutists, instructors, and jumpmasters. Additionally,
the USPA has pledged to implement a policy of self‑policing so that conflicts
with other airspace users are avoided and a high level of safety is maintained.
Toward this goal of assisting the FAA, the USPA has supplied every FSDO with
a brochure of its rules and safety programs and has offered assistance any time
the FAA has encountered problems with a particular club or has questions regarding parachuting.
3) Airborne demonstrations, other than those performed by the
DOD, must have an approval letter from AFS-800 containing the conditions for
these demonstrations if the equipment, opening altitude and jump experience does not meet the requirements found in this paragraph.
B. Safety. Title 14 CFR part
rules designed to protect the general public and other users of the national airspace from sport parachuting activities.
1) When a parachute jump is conducted over or into a congested area, a COA is required.
2) An open-air assembly of persons usually occupies a relatively
small area. Therefore, it should not be a problem to avoid these areas during an exit. The primary purpose of an exit limitation over an open-air assembly
is to provide a higher level of safety under the remote possibility that a jumper would be unable to deploy one of two parachutes.
C. COA (FAA Form 7711-1). Section
rules applicable to jumps over or into congested areas or
open-air assemblies of persons. Any jump over or into a congested area requires FAA Form 7711-1. Section
through 7) lists the information required when applying for a COA.
1) The drift-over provision of §
a jumper to exit an aircraft over areas other than a congested area and, with a fully deployed parachute, drift over a congested area or open-air
assembly of persons, and then land in an open area. Under these circumstances
a COA is not required. However, the drift‑over provision does not permit any
jump that results in a landing into a congested area or open-air assembly of persons unless the parachutists have obtained a COA.
2) Operations inspectors reviewing applications for authorizations
to jump into congested areas or controlled airspace should look for any indication
that these jumps involve special stunts or more participants than the aircraft
type certificate allows. When in doubt, coordinate with the FSDO airworthiness unit. Further information about congested areas can be found in
Volume 3, Chapter 51, Section 6, Evaluate a Part
Area Plan, paragraph 3-4203; and
Volume 3, Chapter 52, Section 2, Evaluate a Part
Area Operations Plan, paragraph 3-4258.
D. Parachutist’s License and Recent Experience. The competence
of parachutists is extremely important when evaluating the suitability of a landing site.
1) Open field and Level I landing areas require a current USPA
class C or D license (or equivalent), a minimum of 200 jumps, of which 50 jumps
were within the last 12 months to include 5 jumps within the previous 60 days on the same make and model canopy to be used for the demonstration.
2) Level II and stadium landing areas require a class D license
with a pro rating (or equivalent), and 50 jumps within the last 12 months to include 5 jumps in the previous 60 days on the same make and model canopy.
3) USPA issues the PRO rating with an expiration date that coincides
with the expiration date of the holder’s USPA membership. USPA members are renewed
on the basis of continued demonstration of the original certification requirements.
USPA original certification requirements are memberships in USPA, a USPA class
D license, and the accomplishment of 10 successive jumps into a 10-meter (33 feet) diameter target area in accordance with the following:
· Accomplish all required jumps with a stand-up landing;
· The size of the canopy used during the PRO rating qualification
determines the smallest canopy allowed in demonstration jumps; and
· Either a safety and training advisor or an instructor/examiner
and at least two other spectators witnesses qualification jumps.
E. Landing Areas. All FAA-authorized demonstration jumps are classified as open field, Level I, Level II, or stadium.
1) Open Field.
a) A minimum-sized area that will accommodate a landing area no less than
500,000 square feet (e.g., approximately 750 by 750 feet, or an area with the sum total that equals or exceeds 500,000 square feet);
b) Allows a jumper to drift over the spectators with sufficient altitude
(250 feet) so as to not create a hazard to persons or property on the ground; and
c) Will accommodate landing no closer than 100 feet from spectators.
2) Level I Landing Area.
a) An open area that will accommodate a landing area no smaller than 250,000
square feet (e.g., approximately 500 by 500 feet); and
b) Permits jumpers to land no closer than 50 feet from the spectators and
to pass over the spectators no lower than 250 feet, including the canopy and all external paraphernalia.
c) Many open field athletic areas and airport operational areas constitute Level I landing areas.
3) Level II Landing Area.
a) An open area that will accommodate a rectangular, square, oval or round
shaped landing area of approximately 5,000 square feet for no more than four
jumpers, with at least 50 feet in width. An additional 800 square feet minimum
for each additional jumper over four for any jumper landing within 30 seconds of the last of any four jumpers; and
b) Permits jumpers to land no closer than 15 feet from the spectators and
to pass over the spectators no lower than 50 feet including the canopy and all external paraphernalia.
c) Athletic fields 150 yards in length by 80 yards in width, or smaller
with bleachers, walls, or buildings in excess of 50 feet in height on two or
more sides above the landing surface, are defined as stadiums and constitute Level II landing areas.
4) Stadium. A Level II landing area smaller than 150 yards in
length by 80 yards in width and bounded on two or more sides by bleachers, walls, or buildings in excess of 50 feet high.
5) Other Landing Area Considerations.
a) A landing area that exceeds the maximum dimensions of a Level I landing
area, permits a parachutist to drift over a congested area or open air assembly
with a fully deployed and properly functioning parachute (if the parachutist
is at sufficient altitude to avoid creating a hazard to persons and property
on the ground), and that has no other safety concerns would likely not require a COA as required by 14 CFR part
§ 105.21 or §
b) Any parachute jumping demonstration planned in conjunction with a public
aviation event will require a COA with appropriate special provisions as required by §
105.21 and/or §
if the landing area exceeds the maximum dimensions for a Level I area. A parachute jumping demonstration planned in conjunction with a public
aviation event is one that takes place any time after the first spectator arrives for the event that day.
F. Tandem Jump Demonstrations.
1) Tandem jumps will only be authorized in open field and Level I landing areas.
2) The USPA must approve the tandem jump master in order to conduct tandem jumps.
3) The passenger (or “rider”) requires no previous jump experience or license.
G. Alternate Landings Areas. Regardless of the parachutists’
experience, “runoffs” or escape areas must be identified.
H. Cutaway Acts. Cutaways may not be performed if cutaway equipment will drift into the spectator area.
3-151 AIR RACES.
A. Cross-Country Air Races. Cross-country air races are normally
proficiency type races and do not require waivers other than for altitude and
speed at checkpoints along the route. This will require some coordination with
the AT facility that services that airspace. See Volume 3, Chapter 7, Issue a Certificate of Waiver or Authorization: Section
(c) (Minimum Safe Altitudes), for assistance and guidance in issuing a waiver for §
may be waived in accordance with this chapter similar to military flybys described in subparagraph 3-148G2).
B. Closed-Course Air Races. Due to the complexity of the two
types of closed-course pylon air racing courses (e.g., Reno type and Red Bull
type), all air racing courses must be submitted to AFS-800, the national airshow
coordinator, for approval before a waiver can be issued by the FSDO having jurisdiction.
The formulas found in subparagraphs 3-151G and H should help the applicant design the racecourse for submission.
NOTE: Both demonstration and competitive events are normally conducted
over a fixed, short‑distance racecourse, usually located on or adjacent to an
airport. It is the sponsor’s responsibility to design the course so that hazards
to spectators and other persons on the surface are prevented. Only persons and
vehicles authorized by the participating race organization will be permitted beyond the crowd line during racing operations.
1) Authorized persons may include press, aircraft support crews, judges, and officials at the start line.
2) Authorized persons must clear the runway and move back to
at least the runway “hold short” line 1 minute before the launch for standing
starts. No one will be permitted in front of the first row of aircraft after this time except the starter flag team.
3) Pylon crews, press, and vehicles, except the home pylon flag
crews, will remain inside the pylon course during races in designated areas.
Race timing teams are permitted in the area between the crowd line and the show line during racing.
4) Handle non-competitive demonstration races like a competitive
event, including a determination of pilot competency. Choreograph demonstration
races from takeoff to landing. New classes of racing aircraft must be found competent by a similar existing air racing organization.
C. Participants. A fundamental principle of closed-course air
race safety, including demonstration events, is that all of the participants
need to be associated with an organization dedicated to the sport. Race pilots
must possess a current race pilot authorization in the class in which that pilot
is racing (issued within the previous 12 months). An organization or person
given issuing authority by the FAA must issue the race pilot authorization.
The structure and existence of a credible air racing organization provides an
internal level of safety that would not otherwise exist. It is recommended that
the IIC determine the following before issuing a waiver for an event that includes closed-course air races:
1) Determine whether the air race course has AFS-800 approval.
2) Determine if the participants have the proper qualifications
by holding air race pilot authorization for the class in which they are participating.
3) Obtain statements from the organization regarding the air racing currency of each airman.
4) Determine whether the organization has established safety operating rules.
5) Inform the regional and national airshow coordinators upon receipt of an air race application.
D. Air Racing Organizations. If AFS-800 determines that an air
race organization has a credible program, policies, and procedures for determining
air racing pilot competence, that organization will be given authorization to
issue race pilot certificates. The current contact for each air race organization can be found at
organizations are normally listed by class, such as the following:
· International Formula One,
· Unlimited Division,
· AT-6/SNJ Racing Association, Inc.,
· Formula V Air Racing Association,
· Professional Race Pilots Assn. (Biplane),
· Sport Class, and
· Jet Class.
E. Typical Racecourses. A diagram of a typical air race site
is shown in Figure 3-40. A diagram of a typical unlimited racecourse is shown
in Figure 3-40A. Two examples of suitable air race site diagrams are shown in
Figure 3-40B. The following paragraphs discuss the method of determining the various distances used.
F. Racecourse Design. A satisfactory pylon air racecourse design
involves the shape of the course and its relationship to the area around the
course, especially the spectator areas. Both of these factors depend upon the
maximum speed of the racing aircraft and the maximum “g” loading (acceleration
forces) that the aircraft are expected to encounter when flying the racecourse
in a normal manner. The maximum height at which the aircraft are expected to fly during the race is also a factor.
G. Racecourse Speeds.
1) The following are typical speeds for each racing class:
· Formula V: 160 mph,
· Sport Biplane: 210 mph,
· AT-6/SNJ: 225 mph,
· International Formula One: 250 mph,
· Sport Class: 300 mph, and
2) Unlimited and jet classes: 450 mph and higher.
3) As additional classes become active, they will be added to this list with appropriate speeds specified.
4) The maximum “g” loading for a race aircraft flying the course
in a normal manner has been set at 3.5 “g’s.” In actual racing, where maneuvering
and turbulence is encountered, momentary “g” loadings in excess of this figure can be expected.
5) The speed and “g” loadings permit the calculation of the minimum
radius turn that should be permitted in the design of the racecourse. The formula
for the turn radius for a given “g” loading and speed is shown below. (Using
a value of 3.5 for “g,” the minimum turn radius is shown for each racing class below.)
Minimum Turn Radius Formula
6) The angle of a turn (the change in course required to negotiate
the turn) should be planned to avoid forcing a race aircraft to make the turn
too sharply. A maximum turn angle that does not exceed 65 degrees has been found to be satisfactory.
H. Racecourse Show Line. During the race, aircraft occupy a raceway
around the race course. The edge of this raceway closest to the spectator area
is the show line, over which no aircraft is permitted to cross while racing.
1) The raceway width may vary from 150 feet to 500 feet in the
various racing classes so that the aircraft may pass one another. The critical
requirement is that no racing aircraft is permitted to cross over the show line during the race.
2) The minimum turn radius, the maximum turn angle, and the raceway
width define the limits of a satisfactory race course. The race course relationship
to the spectator areas or other populated area must also be defined. All racing
classes require a distance of 500 feet between the primary spectator area and the show line.
3) An additional safety area is required to ensure that spectators
are protected in the event that debris leaves a race aircraft. Should this occur
while the aircraft is in a turn, the debris will follow a path tangential to the turn from the moment it departs the aircraft.
a) The theoretical straight-line distance to a point on the ground that
the debris will follow (ignoring air resistance) depends upon aircraft speed
and altitude. This distance is the scatter distance. A maximum racing altitude
of 250 feet is acceptable for aircraft weighing in excess of 1,000 lb (presently,
the AT-6/SNJ and the Unlimited class). A maximum racing altitude of 150 feet
is acceptable for aircraft weighing 1,000 lb or less (presently the International
Formula One, Sport Biplane, and Formula V classes). The scatter distance formula for each racing class is shown below.
Scatter Distance Formula
b) The theoretical location of all possible debris impact points from an
aircraft in a turn is a circle whose radius is the square root of the sums of
the squares of the turn radius and the scatter distance. This radius is the scatter radius.
Scatter Radius Formula
c) To provide an acceptable margin of safety, the difference between the
turn radius and the scatter radius is multiplied by a safety factor of 1.5 and added to the turn radius to define the safety radius.
Safety Radius Formula
4) The critical turn with respect to the safety radius is the
turn that enters the portion of the race closest to the spectators. The safety area is constructed as follows:
a) Bisect the course change angle for the critical turn;
b) Mark off the minimum turn radius for the class of aircraft racing, as
shown in Figure 3-28A, from the pylon position to a point on the angle bisector; and
c) Draw an arc, whose radius is the safety radius, from the point described
in subparagraph 3-151H3)c) above. No spectators can be within this arc (Figure 3-40).
5) In some cases, it may be expedient to design the race course
around the spectator area. While spectator area-to-show line distances are unchanged,
the safety zone is now outside the spectator area and is no longer a factor.
Roads to this kind of a race course layout must be completely closed off to the spectator area during the race.
6) Race courses are normally flown in a counterclockwise direction
(left turns). Problem sites may require flying the course in a clockwise direction
(right turns). Other modifications of the race course, such as changing the
angular relationship of the spectator line to move the crowd away from a turn
pylon, or lengthening the race course to move the turn pylon away from the crowd, may also be necessary.
3-152 BALLOON MEETS AND COMPETITIONS.
A. Balloon Meets. Routine balloon ascensions can usually be conducted in accordance with the provisions of part
no waiver is required. However, balloon competitions will likely
require a certificate of waiver or authorization with appropriate special provisions to maintain the safety of the nonparticipating public.
B. Balloon Operations. Flight competitions by manned balloons
often involve operations at horizontal and vertical distances less than those required by §
(c). Operations at these altitudes are necessary to take advantage of varying wind conditions at different altitudes that are the balloonist’s
only means of directional control. These operations are acceptable when appropriate
limitations are developed to ensure public safety and the safety of the participants.
C. Public Safety. Ballooning has grown significantly in recent
years, and competitive tasks have been refined and standardized. The FAA’s concern is that every effort is made to ensure public safety. The intent
of § 91.119 should
never be compromised when issuing waivers and developing special provisions.
1) Target areas must be under the control of event officials.
The use of portable bull horns or public address systems provides an adequate
means for crowd control, or for directing balloonists away from the target area
in an emergency. Balloon landings are not normally permitted closer than 1,500
feet from the target or goal, although event officials may allow a reduction
of this distance to 500 feet for safety considerations. Only balloon recovery
ground support crewmembers and authorized event officials can be present at the landing site.
2) The relatively slow speed of balloons allows spectators to
move from harm more easily than at an airshow where fast moving aircraft are
performing. Accordingly, the designated spectator area can be minimized to a
200-foot radius away from the designated balloon goal/target. IICs should ensure
that the sponsors assure spectators remain clear of the goal/target area during balloon meets or competitions.
D. Balloon Competition Event Waivers. To be found eligible for a waiver of §
(c), the applicant must prepare and maintain an organized manned balloon competition manual that has been found acceptable by the jurisdictional
FSDO. The contents of the manual are the basis for issuance of the waiver. The applicant
and the participants must comply with the balloon manual contents
and requirements. No operations can be conducted under a waiver except while
in VFR conditions during the period from sunrise to sunset, as specified in §
1) Event organizers should be asked to submit a set of competition
rules when applying for a waiver. Although this is not a regulatory requirement,
it should be encouraged for the sake of conformity and safety. These competition
rules should generally conform to a recognized industry standard, such as those
developed by the Balloon Federation of America (BFA) for events sanctioned by the BFA Competition Division.
2) A waiver of §
(c) for organized balloon competitions can be issued based on submission of an application containing the proposed operations and contents
of the organized manned balloon competition manual. (See subparagraph 3-152E below.)
(c) should be waived only to the extent necessary to accommodate the event while allowing an acceptable level of safety. Evaluation of the site
by the IIC determines the actual separation distances for a specific event;
however, the following minimum distances and special provisions must be observed.
be waived to allow flight over a congested area at an altitude of no less than 500 feet above the highest obstacle within a 500-foot horizontal
radius of the balloon. This section of the regulation may only be waived within
a specified maximum distance from designated launch sites and/or target areas.
This designated area will be determined by the event organizer and the FAA;
this area must also be clearly delineated in the event organizer’s manual before
the event. (A scaled map, drawing, and/or aerial photographs should be in the
event organizer’s manual before the event.) The designated area should be the
minimum area necessary to accommodate the event, and the area should be consistent
with the event organizer’s ability to control operations. A waiver of §
not be issued if the target area is so small that a normal descent (200 to 300 feet per minute) cannot be made.
be waived to allow flight above, but not less than 75 feet
from, any open-air assembly of persons (designated spectator area) under the direct control of the event organizer.
be waived to allow flight over open water or sparsely populated areas, no closer than 200 feet horizontally to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.
E. Organized Manned Balloon Competition Manual. The following
is a list of the minimum required topics that must be addressed in the competition
manual for a balloon event. Other information may also be included (see Figure 3-41).
1) Responsibilities and procedures:
· Duties of personnel,
· Registration and airworthiness determinations,
· Pilot qualifications,
· Pilot/crewmember briefing responsibilities,
· Copy of letter(s) of agreement, and
· Event flight crewmember qualifications, experience, and maximum
numbers onboard each balloon for each type of event.
2) Ground operations:
· Clear areas,
· Spectator areas (designated primary and potential
· Crowd control requirements, and
· Landowner relations/notification.
3) Flight operations:
· Areas of operations,
· Types of operations,
· Weather requirements,
· Communications requirements, and
· AT coordination.
4) The organized manned balloon competition manual must incorporate §
(c) limitations as appropriate to the event in a form and manner acceptable to the FAA and the event organizer. The event organizer should
describe in the manual as clearly as possible the manner of operations that are needed to comply with the event waiver.
5) The organized manned balloon competition manual must include
a list and description of all events, tasks, and races to be included in the waiver.
F. Personnel. The organized manned balloon competition manual
must contain the names of the following personnel who are responsible for the event:
· Flight director (event director),
· Person responsible for establishing and maintaining crowd
· Event organizer’s FAA liaison, and
· Persons responsible for obtaining weather data and conducting
the pre-event pilot and event flight crewmember briefings.
G. Letters of Agreement. In addition to the organized manned
balloon competition manual, a letter of agreement (LOA) clearly detailing all
responsibilities may provide an excellent means of control. In the manual, the
event organizer outlines the responsibilities assumed, such as crowd control,
notification, communication, and briefing of participating pilots and event
flight crewmembers. ATC identifies the services they provide, such as up-to-date
weather, a portable tower, or direct communication line with the tower. The FSDO
identifies the necessary aircraft and airman certification qualifications and site inspection requirements through the waiver process.
H. Balloon Event Flight Crewmembers. Only pilot and event flight
crewmembers, as described in the organized manned balloon competition manual,
may be carried onboard any balloon operating under the waiver issued to the event organizer.
1) Event flight crewmembers will be restricted to the minimum
number required for the type of event as specified in the organized manned balloon
competition manual. Event flight crewmembers should be kept to a minimum for competitive events.
2) All event flight crewmembers must have received appropriate
training concerning their duties relative to the event, and must attend the
event pilot and flight crewmember briefing before each event. These crewmembers
must sign a statement that they have been briefed and that they are designated
event flight crewmembers for the purpose of the specific event for which the waiver was granted.
3) The PIC of each balloon is responsible for obtaining the signed
statements on a form furnished by the event organizer. The PIC will maintain
this form during the event and return it to the event organizer and make it available to the FAA upon request.
4) Balloon event flight crewmembers are differentiated from ground support launch and recovery crewmembers.
I. Maximum Wind Speed. The maximum wind speed for launch and
at the target zones is mutually determined by the event organizer/flight director
and the FAA. Place these limitations in the operations manual. Determine the
maximum wind speed limitations after considering the local terrain conditions
and the competency of the participating airmen and the limitations of the aircraft.
If a balloon does not have an FAA-approved flight manual, operating limitations
can be found on the Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS). The actual means of determining
the wind speed must be mutually agreeable to the FAA and the event
organizer. The IIC and/or the event organizer/flight director may wish to consider
moving the designated spectator area barriers if the wind speed is excessive.
J. Types of Competitive Tasks. Competitive tasks are exercises
in navigation using changes in wind direction. The winner of a task is the balloonist
who can best take advantage of changes in wind direction by ascending and descending.
Event organizers generally engage launch directors to control staggered launch
times and ensure safety for multiple launches. The following are some typical
balloon competitive tasks, based on information provided by the BFA. See Figure 3-41 for detailed descriptions of the tasks.
· Pilot declared goal,
· Judge declared goal,
· Multiple judge declared goal,
· Hare and hound,
· Convergent navigational task (CNT),
· Fly on task,
· Gordon Bennett memorial,
· Watership down, and
· Key grab.
3-153 EVENT MANAGEMENT.
A. Management Organization.
1) The event organizer of an aviation event may be an individual,
a group of individuals, or an organization that will designate a responsible
person to act on all matters pertaining to an FAA-issued certificate of waiver or authorization.
2) The responsible person of an aviation event has the overall
responsibility for the conduct of the airshow in a safe manner and in accordance with the conditions contained in FAA Form 7711-1, issued for the airshow.
3) The IIC should work closely with the responsible person to
develop normal and emergency plans, briefings, and checklists.
B. Briefing (See Figure 3-41A). The importance of the participant
briefing to the safe and successful conduct of a special aviation event cannot
be overemphasized. At a safety briefing review all aspects of the flying, ground,
and emergency procedures of the proposed airshow. Conduct the briefing in such
a way that each of the performers and airshow personnel in charge of the air,
ground, and emergency operations leaves the briefing with a clear understanding
of their responsibilities and procedures to be followed in normal or emergency situations that may occur during the course of the aviation event.
1) The requirements for a briefing held at an aviation event are as follows:
a) Conduct a briefing before the beginning of an aviation event on each
day of the event. A night show briefing can be incorporated into this briefing if all parties are present;
b) Carry out a briefing in an area as free of noise and other distractions
as possible, and you must limit attendance to flight crews, appropriate flight
crew support staff, parachutists, ground performers such as pyrotechnic teams,
public announcers, and other key event personnel as determined by the air boss and/or IIC;
c) Verify each participant’s attendance at a briefing by roll call or otherwise,
and a record retained for submission to the IIC, if requested;
d) Performers who are not briefed are not permitted to participate in the aviation event covered in the briefing;
e) For team performances, only the team leader is required; however, a delegate
may represent the team leader, provided the person is a pilot member of the team;
f) For an aircraft that is to be launched from a remote airfield, the briefing
may be given to the aircraft’s pilot by telephone; and
g) The briefing is conducted at a time as close to the performance time as practicable.
2) The briefing must cover the following points, at a minimum:
a) Key aviation event personnel (to include essential and event organizer
personnel) are introduced and the means of communication with them is described.
b) Weather—the briefing should be given by a meteorologist if one is available,
but may be given by a flight specialist or experienced pilot. The briefing need
only cover aspects of the weather that are significant to the conduct of the
aviation event such as the altimeter setting, cloud cover or ceiling, visibility,
winds and temperature, density altitude, and other weather data forecast for
the period of the event. If a low ceiling program (marginal weather) has been
approved, the weather minima and a “low show” program must be briefed. If §
clearance) is waived, this must be briefed.
c) The airport airspace details, such as position, dimensions, height above
MSL, the airspace in accordance with the NOTAM and/or any TFRs issued for the
aviation event, local obstructions, warnings, and other pertinent information.
d) The method of coordinating AT, including type of coordination, such as
positive control by ATS, advisory by Flight Service Station (FSS), or other. This aspect of the briefing must include airshow frequencies and assigned radio
call signs, if necessary. The method(s) of suspending the performance or recalling a performer by both radio and visual signals must be described.
e) The aviation event site, including the position of the primary spectator
areas, secondary spectator areas, show lines, show center, airshow demonstration
area, hazards, direction of entry/exit lanes, holding areas, and alternate airports
using aerial photographs, maps, scale diagrams, or other means of depiction.
f) The performance schedule will include a performer’s on stage time and
routine duration time. Additional timing information (e.g., startup, taxi, takeoff,
show and landing timings) may be included at the discretion of the briefer.
Participants, if required, are to note their onstage and offstage timings if
required. Performers should be aware of the position of the act they follow
and location for the start of their performance. During this portion of the
briefing, other programmed flying events before, during, or after the airshow
portion itself, such as balloons, parachutists, flybys, and similar aerial displays, must be covered.
g) Wake turbulence can be a factor at any airshow where there is a mix of
participants and should be addressed in preparing the flight program and mentioned at the briefing as a precaution to participants.
h) The fire fighting and emergency services equipment available, including
their location and the access routes to be kept clear, must be discussed.
i) Pyrotechnic briefing, in accordance with subparagraph 3-147U. The pyrotechnic
briefing card must be used by the shooter in command (Figure 3-39).
j) Identification and location of all participating aircraft equipped with
operable ejection seats, jettisoned fuel tanks, or ballistic parachute systems.
k) Time check—to ensure all participants are using the same time for airshow coordination.
l) The flight operations director or other person responsible for flight
operations ensures that each performer understands the applicable special provisions
with respect to individual low-level authorizations contained in the certificate of waiver issued for the airshow.
m) Circling the jumpers—all key personnel involved with circling the jumpers
must complete the briefing described in Figure 3-42.
n) Any other subjects as necessary.
NOTE: Examples of other subjects that have been included in briefings
are medical factors affecting pilot performance (e.g., over-the-counter medication,
pilot fatigue, heat stress), and factors affecting orientation of flight (e.g.,
over water or unusual terrain). It is suggested that, at the briefing on the
final day of an airshow, a “Departure Briefing” be included to advise participants
of ATC procedures, etc., to be followed on leaving the airshow site. Remind
pilots that their departures are to be normal and that no “ad hoc” demonstrations are to take place during their departures.
3-154 WEATHER CONDITIONS.
1) Flight demonstrations will not be conducted unless the ceiling
is at least 1,500 feet, and the visibility is at least 3 statute miles at the time of the demonstration.
2) Except for North American military performers, aerobatic maneuvers
conducted by CAT III aircraft during flight demonstrations will not be conducted
unless the ceiling is at least 1,500 feet, and the visibility is at least 3 statute miles at the time of the demonstration.
3) The FAA monitor may adjust the minimum ceiling and visibility
requirements at his or her discretion, but no less than 1,000 feet and 3 statute miles if:
a) Except for North American military performers, aerobatic maneuvers are
conducted by CAT III aircraft only within an operations area having a diameter of no more than 2 statute miles; and
b) To the surface as a result of the reduced weather conditions.
4) Originally scheduled aerobatic maneuvers are not modified
or conducted in close proximity to the surface as a result of the reduced weather conditions.
5) The FAA monitor may specify a higher ceiling minimum and a
higher visibility minimum where justified by the presence of surrounding terrain or other local condition.
6) Flight demonstrations may be conducted “clear of cloud” when the requirements have been met to waive §
91.155, cloud clearance requirements.
B. Night. The minimum weather conditions at night require a cloud
base no lower than 2,500 feet and 3 statute miles visibility.
C. Military. Military participants must comply with minimum weather
requirements established in the command-approved maneuvers package, except when
the minimum weather requirements are less restrictive than the policy established in this order.
3-155 SPECIAL PROVISIONS. Special provisions are conditions, requirements,
or limitations necessary to protect nonparticipating persons, property on the
surface, and other users of the national airspace system. Each certificate of
waiver or authorization must include special provisions as determined by the issuing FSDO.
A. Applicability. Many safety provisions are general in nature
and are applicable to most aviation events. Other provisions may apply only
to certain types of events. Provisions that appear on the waiver or authorization
should be restricted to protective measures, controls, or requirements that
are not otherwise specified by the regulations. Regulatory requirements that
are not waived should not be included as special provisions. Waiver provisions never supersede aircraft airworthiness operating limitations.
B. Ensuring Safety. The special provisions ensure that the event
can be conducted without an adverse effect on safety. Every waiver/authorization
must contain special provisions to ensure an equivalent level of safety with
the rules that are waived for the nonparticipating public and nonparticipating AT.
C. Use of Special Provisions. Some events require extensive and
highly detailed special provisions, whereas the special provisions for other
events can have less detail. In addition to variation among events, local conditions
may have a significant impact on the necessary special provisions.
1) Special provisions may pertain to associated protective measures
and control requirements that may not be specifically covered by the regulations.
In addition, it may be necessary to increase one regulatory minimum in order
to authorize safe deviation from another. For example, in order to permit aerobatic
flight in Class D airspace, it might be necessary to increase the minimum visibility requirement to 5 miles or some other appropriate value.
2) When applicable, IICs should insert the name of the responsible
person, found in Block 2 of the application, into the text of the special provisions
to indicate the holder of the certificate of waiver or authorization.
3) Type the provisions with as little editorial change as possible
onto the certificate of waiver or authorization form or on attached pages. Any
special provisions add that are not listed on the airshow Web site (see subparagraph
D below) must have Regional or National Air Show Coordinator approval before
inclusion except for ATC instructions. Only include applicable special provisions.
Numbers and language can be inserted or changed to suit each event only when
necessary, appropriate, and in accordance with the guidance in this handbook.
Editorial comments enclosed in square brackets, [ ], should not be included on the certificate.
3-156 PREREQUISITES AND COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS.
A. Prerequisites. This task requires knowledge of regulatory requirements in part
FAA policies and qualification as an ASI (Operations).
1) The inspector assigned this task is also responsible for the surveillance of the aviation event
(see Volume 6, Chapter 11, Section 10, paragraph 6-2371).
2) The inspector assigned this task and the subsequent surveillance
must have completed OJT and participated in issuing a certificate of waiver
and the surveillance of three aviation events with an inspector qualified in this task.
3) For an aviation event at which a military demonstration team
performs, the inspector must have satisfactorily completed OJT (including participation
in the feasibility study, the preseason evaluation meeting, waiver preparation,
and airshow surveillance) at an event that includes a military demonstration aerobatic team.
B. Coordination. This task requires prior coordination with the appropriate AT facility and the airworthiness unit.
3-157 REFERENCES, FORMS, AND JOB AIDS.
A. References (current editions):
· Title 14 CFR Parts
91-45, Waivers: Aviation Events.
103-7, The Ultralight Vehicle.
105-2, Sport Parachuting.
· FAA Form 7711-1, Certificate of Waiver or Authorization (Figure
· FAA Form
7711-2, Certificate of Waiver or Authorization Application (Figure 3-32 and 3-33).
· FAA Form 8710-7, Statement of Acrobatic Competency (Figure 3-35).
· Transport Canada Form 26-0307, Statement of Aerobatic Competency
C. Job Aids:
· Sample letters and figures.
· Job Task Analysis (JTA): 2.5.14, 4.7.2.
3-158 GENERAL PROCEDURES.
A. Determine if a Waiver or Authorization Is Required. If the
event cannot take place in compliance with the regulations, a waiver is required.
1) If a waiver or authorization is not required, no further action is required with this task.
2) DD Form 2535, section IV, should be completed and signed if
requested by an event sponsor. These forms are required for vehicle and static displays, as well as for military flight demonstrations and flybys.
NOTE: DD Form 2535 can be found by going to one of the FAA airshow sites
and selecting one of the DOD teams. The team names are hyperlinked to the team
Web sites from which you can view, print, or download this form. The USAF and
the USMC (U.S. Marine Corps) requires the sponsor to apply on their Web site for any type of support, flying or static displays
3) If a waiver or authorization is required, brief the applicant on preparing FAA Form
B. PTRS. Open the PTRS File. Enter “1220” in the “Activity Code”
box of the PTRS transmittal form and enter “PA” in the “National Use” box if
the COA was issued for parachuting. Enter “1230” in the “Activity Code” box
and enter “AS” in the “National Use” box if issued for an airshow, “AR” for
an air plane air race and “BE” of any type of balloon event. Enter “1231” in
the “Activity Code” box and enter “WI” in the “National Use” box if a waiver
will be issued and “NW” if no waiver will be issued for the operation requested.
C. Brief Applicant.
1) Advise applicant on the procedures to prepare FAA Form
2) Advise the applicant on the procedures to obtain the current editions of AC
103-7 (if applicable), and AC
3) Provide applicant with FAA Form
7711-2 (Figure 3-32 through 3-33A).
3-159 ADDITIONAL PROCEDURES FOR MILITARY APPLICANTS. In addition
to the procedures in paragraph 3-158 and paragraph 3-160, conduct the following procedures for military applicants.
A. Determine if a Feasibility Study is Required. A FAA feasibility study is required when a waiver is required.
B. Conduct Feasibility Study.
1) Determine if an onsite inspection is required. An onsite inspection is required when:
a) The inspector is unfamiliar with the area of the scheduled event;
b) It has been more than 1 year since the last onsite inspection;
c) There has not been an aviation event or flyby requiring a waiver there before; and/or
d) There may be new construction or other unique environmental changes near the site.
2) If an onsite inspection is required, review the documents
submitted with the request for FAA completion of DD Form 2535, section IV. The documents that must be submitted by the event organizer are:
a) Use templates of the proposed maneuvers overlay for the proposed site
(the maneuvers package for the current year should be used to evaluate the site);
b) Current 7.5-minute series Topographic Quadrangle Map published by the
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (scale 1:24,000) for the area or current aerial
photographs of the required airspace for the event, as necessary, to conduct the feasibility study.
3) The inspector will determine the following for an aerial demonstration:
a) If the operating area is large enough to contain the aerobatic maneuvers;
b) Whether proposed egress and ingress routes adversely impact safety; and
c) Whether a waiver of §
91.119(b) and (c) is necessary.
4) The inspector will determine for a military flyby:
a) If the operating area is appropriate to conduct a flyby at 1,000 feet
above the highest obstacle, and 2,000 feet laterally of an obstruction;
b) If it can be conducted in accordance with part
c) Whether proposed egress and ingress routes adversely impact safety.
C. Complete Applicable Section of DD Form 2535. Fill in the appropriate
FAA blocks on the form, with special emphasis on Block 17;
1) For an aerial demonstration, select one of these three classifications:
a) Satisfactory classification. A waiver can be issued following compliance with standard requirements of this chapter.
b) Conditional-satisfactory classification (most common). The remarks section
specifies specific conditions that must be met, such as closing roads, evacuating
buildings, compliance with a crowd control plan, and minimum altitudes on ingress and egress routes.
c) Unsatisfactory classification. The requested activity cannot be performed
safely at the proposed site, and a waiver will not be issued.
2) For a military flyby, select one of these three classifications:
a) Satisfactory. The flight can be conducted without a waiver.
b) Conditional-satisfactory classification. The remarks section specifies
certain conditions that must be met and a waiver is required:
· A briefing between the PIC and ASI must be conducted before the
· Compliance with all nonwaived section of part
· An authorization and agreement of the conditions from the commanding
officer must be submitted to the ASI.
c) Unsatisfactory classification. Requested activity cannot be performed
safely at the proposed site, and a waiver will not be issued.
3) The ASI must ensure the information in the remarks section
of DD Form 2535 is coordinated with the commanding officer authorizing the aerial demonstration or military flyby if a waiver is required.
4) Sign the form.
5) Retain a copy of DD Form 2535 for the office file. Return the original to the show sponsor.
D. Preseason Evaluation Meeting. Attend the preseason evaluation
meeting for those events at which the USAF Thunderbirds or the USN Blue Angels participate. At this meeting, the inspector should discuss the following:
· Proposed special provisions of the certificate of waiver or authorization;
· DD Form 2535;
· Onsite evaluation;
· Conditional-satisfactory requirements;
· Safety concerns unique to the site;
· Past events, if appropriate;
· Review of request for a waiver to §
(c) and submitted supporting documents; and
· Proposed egress and ingress routes and requests for flight along
those routes below 500 feet AGL that will require FAA approval.
3-160 GENERAL PROCEDURES CONTINUED.
A. Evaluate FAA Form
the information provided by the applicant and the background in section 1, review FAA Form
all pertinent information and supporting documents for the proposed aviation event.
Accept strikeovers that are minor in nature and initialed by the applicant. Blocks 11 through 16 apply to airshow waiver requests only.
1) Blocks 1 and 2—Name of Organization and Responsible Person.
Ensure that the applicant has indicated the name of the organization in Block
1. Annotate “N/A” in Block 1 if an individual is applying. Annotate the name
of the responsible person or the individual applying in Block 2.
2) Block 3—Permanent Mailing Address. Ensure that the applicant
indicates the permanent mailing address of the organization named in Block 1 or the individual named in Block 2.
3) Block 4. Enter “N/A” since this pertains to banner towing only.
4) Block 5. Enter “N/A” since this pertains to banner towing only.
5) Block 6—Section and Number To Be Waived. Ensure that the applicant
has listed all sections of the regulations to be waived.
6) Block 7—Description of Proposed Operation. Determine if the
applicant has correctly indicated the type of aviation event.
7) Block 8—Area of Operation. Ensure that the applicant has listed
the specific locations and the lateral and vertical limits of the aerial demonstrations.
8) Block 9—Beginning Date and Hour and Ending Date and Hour.
Check for a beginning date and time, and an ending date and time for the aviation event.
9) Block 10—Aircraft and Pilots. Check for aircraft make and
model, pilot names, certificate numbers and ratings, and full home addresses.
A notation stating the show line CAT must be annotated with each make and model
of aircraft. Ensure that parachutist names, license class, and addresses are
included. Block 8 may be accepted with a statement, “A list containing aircraft
and pilot information (and/or parachutist information) will be furnished on [applicant enters a specific date and time].”
10) Blocks 11 and 12—Event Organizer. Ensure that the applicant
has indicated the event organizer (organization or individual) of the aviation event and the event organizer’s address.
11) Block 13—Policing. Ensure that the applicant has described
provisions for policing the event. Specify if a written formal plan has been
provided to IIC. Block 11 may be accepted with a statement “A crowd control
plan will be furnished on [applicant enters a specific date and time]” or “crowd control plan N/R” (if approved by IIC).
12) Block 14—Emergency Facilities. Ensure that the applicant marked
all blocks that will be available at the time and place of the event.
13) Block 15—ATC. Ensure that the applicant has described the
method of controlling AT, including the arrival and departure of aircraft, requested TFR in accordance with §
applicable, and has coordinated with the appropriate FAA ATC. Add a notation stating if TFR requested from ATC.
14) Block 16—Schedule of Events. Ensure that the applicant has
listed all events and dates and times. Block 16 may be accepted with a statement
“A final schedule of event will be furnished on [applicant enters a specific date and time].”
15) Block 17—Certification. Ensure that the applicant has signed and dated the application.
B. Determine if Application Is Complete.
1) Application Incomplete or Inaccurate. If the application is
incomplete or inaccurate, complete the “FAA Action” block on FAA Form
marking “Disapproved.” Write the reason for disapproval in the “Remarks” section. Return the application to the applicant.
2) Application Complete. If all pertinent information and supporting
documents have been submitted with the application and the application is complete and correct, evaluate the proposed operation.
C. Evaluate Proposed Operation. Use the application information
and the items listed below to determine if the proposed operation can be accomplished without an adverse effect on safety:
1) Review, if applicable, previous certificates of waiver or
authorization issued for aviation events at the same location.
2) Coordinate the use of controlled airspace with the appropriate
AT facility as soon as possible. Include any limitations or special conditions
considered necessary by the ATS as part of the certificate of waiver or authorization.
3) Using the list of participating aircraft, verify that the airworthiness unit completed the required documents.
4) Using the list of participating aircraft and Table 3-1A, determine the required show line distance.
5) Accompanied by the applicant, conduct an onsite visit to sites
used for the first time and to sites unfamiliar to the inspector.
a) Clarify or confirm information submitted with the application.
b) Verify the distances and the location of the show and reference lines.
6) Verify that NOTAM has been issued and is appropriate.
a) A copy of the published NOTAM should be attached to the waiver.
b) Brief the NOTAM at each pre-show briefing for all participants.
D. Review Waiver Requests for §
91.119. Determine if a waiver of §
91.119 is appropriate.
1) Waive §
(c) only if the pilot will still be in compliance with §
2) Waive §
(c) only for non-aerobatic flight, while temporarily exiting or returning to the operating area. Use the standards discussed in section 1.
3) Waive §
if unoccupied structures are involved, or to allow participating
personnel, vehicles, or vessels to be positioned closer than 500 feet from the performing aircraft.
4) Waive §
(c) for flight over structures, roads, vehicles, or vessels
under the following conditions for the USAF Thunderbirds, USN Blue Angels, and Canadian Defense Forces Snowbirds:
a) When the show line is generally aligned with a runway at an active airport;
b) When ingress and egress transition of the operating area coincides with
established approach or departure paths used for the designated runway;
c) When aerobatic flight will not be conducted over any nonparticipating persons; and
d) When non-aerobatic flight over nonparticipating persons is not closer
than 500 feet but may be as low as 200 feet above unoccupied obstacles less
than 500 feet laterally from ingress/egress route while flying within 3 NM from the show center.
5) Consult with the regional airshow coordinator as necessary.
E. Approve or Disapprove Waiver.
1) Waiver Disapproval. If the entire operation cannot be approved, complete the “FAA Action” block on FAA Form
state the reasons for disapproval in the “Remarks” section of the form. Return the application form to the applicant.
2) Waiver Approval. If the entire operation can be approved, complete the “FAA Action” block on FAA Form
7711-2 and develop the special provisions.
F. Develop Special Provisions List. Develop the list of special
provisions appropriate to the aviation event using the information submitted
with the application and the suggested special provisions on the airshow internet site
G. Issue Certificate of Waiver or Authorization.
1) Complete FAA Form 7711-1, (Figure 3-34) as follows:
a) Enter the waiver holder’s and responsible person’s names and addresses
as they appear in Blocks 1 and 2 on the application.
b) Include a brief summary of the aviation event in the “Operations Authorized”
block. For aviation events involving aerobatic flight, clearly define the dimensions
of the affected airspace. In the case of parachute demonstration jumps, use
the following statement, “Parachute demonstrations are authorized in accordance with §
c) Except for parachute demonstrations, include in the “List of Waived Regulations”
and “Title” blocks each specific regulation waived by the FAA. Ensure that the listed regulations correspond to those on FAA Form
7711-2 and conform to §
many regulations are involved, list the specific rules on a separate sheet of paper and attach it to the certificate. Use the following
statement, “A list of waived regulations is attached.”
d) Place the total number of special provisions in the appropriate spaces in the “Special Provisions” block.
1. Type and sequentially number the special provisions on the reverse
side of FAA Form 7711-1 or on separate pages.
2. Use only the special provisions, which apply to the operations in
the waiver or authorization application.
3. Group the provisions by type of event, such as airshow provisions
or parachute demonstration jump provisions.
e) Attach any additional pages to the certificate of waiver or authorization.
f) When an aviation event is scheduled for multiple days, uses a separate
sheet to list the dates and times the certificate is in effect, if needed. Use
the following statement: “See attached page [insert appropriate page number] for dates and times.”
g) Have the jurisdictional FSDO manager or their designated representative,
which may be either the assistant manager or another supervisor from within that jurisdictional FSDO sign FAA Form 7711-1.
2) Attach to FAA Form 7711-1 a copy of FAA Form
7711-2 and its supporting documents.
3) Distribute FAA Forms 7711-1 and
7711-2 as follows:
a) Place a copy of both forms in the FSDO file;
b) Send a copy of FAA Form 7711-1 to all affected AT facilities; and
c) Return the original of both forms to the applicant.
H. PTRS. Make the appropriate PTRS entry.
3-161 TASK COMPLETION. Completion of this task results in one of the following:
· Issuance of a certificate of waiver,
· Issuance of a COA, or
· Denial of an application for a certificate of waiver or
3-162 FUTURE ACTIVITIES.
· Surveillance of an aviation event.
· Possible cancellation of the waiver or authorization as a result
of noncompliance with its provisions.
· Consideration of a future application for waiver or authorization
from the same or other applicants.
Figure 3-24. Example of an Airshow Layout
Figure 3-25. Minimum Separation Distance (200 Feet) Between Runway or Takeoff Area and the Primary Spectator Area
Figure 3-25A. Minimum Separation Distance (300 Feet) Between Runway or Takeoff Area and the Primary Spectator Area
Figure 3-25B. Minimum Separation Distance (500 Feet) Between Runway or Takeoff Area and the Primary Spectator Area
Figure 3-26. Minimum Distance from Spectators for Category I
Figure 3-26A. Site Layout with Flying Display Area Less Than 1500 Feet from Show Line
Figure 3-26B. Example of Category I Aircraft Formation on Show Line
Figure 3-26C. Minimum Distance from Spectators for Category II Aircraft
Figure 3-26D. Example of Category II Aircraft Formation on Show Line
Figure 3-27. Single Category III Aircraft in Minimum Width Flying Display Area
Figure 3-27A. Minimum Width of a Flying Display Area for Category III Aircraft Performing Lateral and/or Turning Maneuvers
Figure 3-27B. Minimum Width of a Flying Display Area for Category III Aircraft in Formation Flight
Figure 3-27C. Example of the Minimum Width of a Flying Display Area for Multiple Category II Aircraft Performing Lateral and/or Turning Maneuvers
Figure 3-28. Aerobatic Maneuvers Performed After Aircraft Beyond Spectator Area
Figure 3-28A. Aerobatic Maneuvers Performed After Turn Away Performed
Figure 3-28B. Nonaerobatic Maneuvers by a Single Aircraft with an Energy Vector Directed Towards the Primary Spectator Area
Figure 3-29. Typical Arc-in Review or Banana Pass
Figure 3-30. Helicopter Takeoff and Landing Areas
Figure 3-30A. Maneuvers Toward the Primary Spectator Area-360 Degree Turns Using Bank Angles of Less Than 90 Degrees
Figure 3-31. Aircraft Approach and Exit to and from a Flying Display Area Bordered by Congested Areas
Figure 3-32. Sample FAA Form
7711-2, Certificate of Waiver Application
Figure 3-32A. Sample FAA Form
7711-2, Certificate of Waiver Application (Back)
Figure 3-33. FAA Form
7711-2, Application for Parachuting Authorization
Figure 3-33A. FAA Form
7711-2, Request for Parachuting Authorization (Back)
Figure 3-34. Sample FAA Form 7711-1, Certificate of Waiver
Figure 3-35. FAA Form 8710-7, Statement of Aerobatic Competency
Figure 3-36. Transport Canada Form 26-0307, Statement of Aerobatic Competency
Figure 3-37. Sample Endorsement for Increase Angle of Pitch and Bank
“I have observed Mr./Ms. [pilot’s full name]_____, Certificate Number _________________,
execute maneuvers up to 90 degrees of pitch and bank and find him/her proficient
and competent in those maneuvers in the following Make and Model of airplane: _______________. ”
This endorsement may be entered in the logbook or issued in the form of
a letter. This endorsement may only be made by an FAA operations inspector,
an ICAS aerobatic competence examiner or a designated pilot examiner authorized
to administer a practical flight test in this make and model of airplane.
Figure 3-38. Sample Aircraft Status and Inspection Form
Figure 3-39. Pyrotechnic Briefing Checklist
exact dimensions and location of the pyrotechnics area *
magnitude of explosives being used*
aircraft/pyro deconfliction plan*
pyro crew and crash/fire/rescue positions
communications frequency and procedure*
pyro sequence by act*
altitude and flyby lines*
forecast winds and effects on pyro*
fod potential and effects
kio (knock it off) procedures*
*NOTE: These items comply with, and are required by “Addition to AFI 11-246 V1, ACC Sup 1.”
Figure 3-40. Typical Air Race Site
Figure 3-40A. Typical Unlimited Racecourse Site
Figure 3-40B. Sample Racecourses
3.0 MILE [5.0 KM] FORMULA ONE AIR RACECOURSE
2.0 MILE FORMULA V AIR RACECOURSE
Figure 3-41. Example of a Balloon Competition Manual
BALLOON COMPETITION MANUAL
This manual has been prepared as part of the application for the issuance of a Certificate of Waiver with attachments and special provisions for a Manned
Free Balloon Competition on [insert date]. [Insert event name] BALLOON RACE.
Table of Contents
II. Responsibilities and Procedures.
a) Duties of Personnel.
and Airworthiness Determination.
and Event Flight Crewmembers.
III. Ground Operations.
a) Clear Areas.
b) Spectator Areas.
IV. Flight Operations.
Section I. Purpose.
This manual is submitted as a part of an application for a waiver of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part
the [insert name of organization] for the [insert name of event] Balloon Race. Specifically, the waiver will allow officially registered
balloons to operate at an altitude of no less than [insert number] feet above
the highest obstacle within a [insert number]-foot radius of the balloon en
route to the target within a [insert number] nautical mile (or other specified
distance) radius of the designated launch field or goal. It will also allow
for officially registered balloons to operate at [insert number] feet AGL over
spectators and to set goals and/or targets at a minimum distance of [insert
number] feet from physical barriers provided for spectator control.
No waiver is requested nor is a waiver required by 14 CFR for any mass ascensions or pilot choice launches.
Section II. Responsibilities and Procedures.
a) Duties of Personnel.
1) Event Director—[insert name].
2) Operations Director—[insert name].
3) FAA Liaison—[insert name].
4) Weather Officer—[insert name].
5) Safety Officer—[insert name].
b) Registration and Airworthiness Determination.
Balloons flown at the event must have current certificates of registration
and airworthiness, or in place of the latter, an equivalent document from the
Federal Aviation Administration. Chapter [insert number] of the competition
rules cover procedures for balloons damaged or otherwise made unairworthy during
the event. Throughout the event the Safety Officer or his designees; and appropriate FAA personnel will be consulted as necessary.
c) Pilot and Event Flight Crewmembers.
Each pilot must hold the appropriate pilot certificate (Private or Commercial)
with Lighter-than-Air Category and Free Balloon Class Rating. Each pilot must show evidence of current Flight Review (14 CFR part
must also show evidence of currency per §
hours as PIC per the organizers specified time must also be shown.
Event flight crewmembers carried on board a balloon during the event must
have been briefed by the pilot of the balloon and must attend the pilot briefing
for that flight. Each event flight crewmember must sign the waiver form supplied
by the pilot. Each event flight crewmember must attest that they have attended
the applicable pilot briefing(s) and have read and understand the conditions
of the waiver. Only [insert number] event flight crewmember(s) may be carried in each balloon during the flight.
d) Pilot Crew Briefing Procedures.
All pilots are required to sign a statement indicating that they have read
and understand the provisions of the waiver and the official [insert title]
Competition Rules prior to any competitive flight.
Before each flight all pilots must attend the flight briefing. Chapter [insert
number] of the competition rules provides details of all briefings.
e) Letter of Agreement.
Letter of agreement will be issued and signed as required for the specific type of event.
f) Event Documentation.
All relevant registration files, task data sheets, pilot registration information
etc., will be maintained by the organizer at least [insert number] days after
the event and will be made available to the FAA Monitor upon request. Competition
maps and task sheets will be made available to the FAA Monitor at the time of the pilot briefing.
Section III. Ground Operations.
a) Clear Areas.
Clear areas are established at each target site. These areas are kept clear
of spectators and are usually fenced. [Insert type of officials] will police
any area (such as the target area on the main launch field) to keep unauthorized
persons out. In the Minimum Altitude Diagram, this is referred to as the “Target Area.”
b) Spectator Areas.
The primary competitive spectator area is located at the main launch site.
Crowd control is initiated by physical barriers around the launch site and target
areas controlled by [insert type of officials]. Official and balloon recovery
vehicles are parked in restricted areas. Traffic is controlled by local police
as required. Use of existing and temporary barriers secure spectators from the
briefing area and headquarters and from potential low level flight areas surrounding
goals/targets (see additional remarks under “ALTITUDES”).
Competitive goals/targets set outside of the primary launch area in remote
areas attract few, if any, spectators beyond those involved in race operations
(officials and crews). Scoring/measuring officials control these areas as determined
by conditions, and will isolate the area surrounding the goal/target from any unauthorized personnel.
c) Crowd Control Requirements.
Crowd control will be provided by [enter law enforcement agency name(s)]
agencies and officials of the balloon event under the direction of the Safety Officer.
d) Landowner Relations/Notification.
Positive landowner relations are vital to the continuance of sanctioned
events. There is an ongoing effort by all involved persons to maintain good
landowner relations for the event. Additionally, as per Rule [enter number]
pilots must obtain permission for launch from private property; and per Rule
[enter number] minimize disturbing landowners. Landowners may request that their
property be indicated on the competition map as a Prohibited Zone (PZ) as per Rule [enter number].
Section IV. Flight Operations.
a) Area of Operation.
The operations will occur in a [insert number] mile radius of the launch
field located at [insert name] Airport as indicated on the official competition
map (to be provided as requested). Final landings may occur beyond these boundaries,
but no pilot choice takeoffs or mass ascensions will exceed these boundaries.
Headquarters for the event operations will be located at the [insert name of location].
b) Types of Operations.
The event will consist of single and multiple tasks as called by the Director
after consultation with other approved competition officials, as appropriate,
considering the conditions at hand and forecast to develop during the anticipated flight times.
The tasks will include:
1) Pilot Declared Goal.
Each pilot will fly from a launch area and will attempt to drop a marker
close to a goal selected by him/her. Pilots define goals by description and
map reference. The goals are declared in writing and given to a timekeeper.
Each pilot flies from the designated launch area and attempts to drop a marker
close to the selected goal. The result is the distance from the declared goal
to the observed mark. The shortest distance wins. The landing after dropping the marker cannot be less than 1,500 feet from the declared goal.
2) Judge Declared Goal.
Each pilot flies from the designated launch area and attempts to drop a
marker as close as possible to a goal set by the officials. The result is the
distance from the declared goal to the observed mark. The shortest distance
wins. The landing after dropping the marker cannot be less than 1,500 feet from the declared goal.
3) Multiple Judge Declared Goal.
Each pilot flies from the launch area and chooses one of a number of goals
set by the officials. The pilot attempts to drop a marker near the goal chosen.
The result is the distance from the observed mark to the nearest goal. The shortest
distance wins. The landing after dropping the marker cannot be less than 1,500 feet from the selected goal.
4) Hare and Hound.
A hare balloon will fly from the launch area and each pilot will attempt
to fly near the final landing place of the hare and drop the marker. In the
West, this may be referred to as the “Road Runner Race.” The lead balloon, “the
hare,” takes off several minutes before the rest of the balloons and drops a
marker at a designated point. The hare balloon deflates and is removed from
the landing area. The marker dropped by the hare balloon becomes the target
for the later balloons, “the hounds.” The hounds try to drop markers as close
as possible to the hare balloon’s target. After dropping the marker from the
hound balloon, landing is at the pilot’s discretion but cannot be less than 1,500 feet from the target.
5) Fly In Task.
Pilots find their own launch areas and attempt to reach a set goal or target.
6) Fly On Task.
A task where a pilot declares a goal to which he flies, after dropping his marker in another task.
7) Gordon Bennett Memorial.
The competitors will maneuver their balloons a prescribed distance from
a target on the ground (scoring area). They will then attempt to maneuver back to the scoring area and drop markers on the target.
8) Max Distance—Minimum Distance.
Pilots will attempt to drop their markers in the Scoring Area a maximum or minimum distance from the launch point as specified on the task sheet.
9) Elbow (ELBO).
Each pilot flies from the launch area and attempts to achieve the greatest
change of flight direction during the flight with the least angle of divergence.
A 180-degree change in direction with a zero angle of divergence is best. Two
concentric circles, specific distances apart, surround the launch point. The
pilot drops two markers. The first marker must be dropped between the inner
and outer circle. The second marker must be dropped within the outer circle.
The second marker cannot be less than 5,000 feet from the first marker. Landing after dropping the marker is at the pilot’s discretion.
10) Convergent Navigational Task (CNT).
Officials establish a goal, but pilots find their own launch areas for the
attempt to reach the goal. The boundary of the launch area declared by the pilot
is the physical boundary of a field or a circle with a 300-foot radius from
the inflation point, whichever is less. The officials place a target at the
goal 30 minutes before the launch period. The pilot launches from a selected
site, attempts to navigate to the target, and drops a marker. The result is
the distance from the target to the marker. The shortest distance wins. The
landing after dropping the marker is at the pilot’s discretion but cannot be less than 1,500 feet from the target.
11) Watership Down.
This is a two-part task. Pilots find their own launch sites and fly to a
target established by the officials. At a specified time before the launch,
a hare balloon takes off adjacent to the target and drops a marker at a designated
point. This marker becomes the second target. The hare balloon deflates, and
the envelope remains flattened on the ground to serve as a guide to the second
target area. Each competing pilot drops a marker as close as possible to the
first target, which was the launch site of the hare balloon. Pilots then fly-on
to drop a second marker as close as possible to the target marker placed by the hare balloon.
12) Key Grab.
This event usually has a target (generally a tall pole with the keys to
a new automobile affixed to the top) in a centralized location. The balloonist
must depart a predetermined distance from the target. The object is to maneuver
the balloons, one by one, over the target so the pilot can attempt to grab the keys as the balloon goes by the pole.
The area around the pole must be completely clear of spectators and under
the control of the event officials. Event organizers should have portable bull
horns or a public address system to control the crowd movements or to direct
the balloonist away from the target area in an emergency. If these precautions are observed, a waiver of §
be issued to allow operations closer than 500 feet to the crowd.
The event organizer must establish procedures to ensure that the balloonists
will abort the key grab attempt if it becomes apparent that the balloons’ ground
tracks will not be within the operating area or when a realistic chance for
the key is no longer possible. The landing areas must be segregated from the
spectators; only bona fide recovery crews should be present in the landing area
to assist the balloonist with recovery. All participants must be briefed before the operations.
c) Minimum Altitude Diagram.
The waiver provides that registered balloons will be allowed to make approaches
to targets and/or goals within the designated areas. Balloons making these approaches
will be permitted to fly over the designated spectator areas at an altitude
of not less than [insert number] feet AGL. The balloons must have attained a
state of altitude equilibrium at this [insert number]-foot minimum altitude
and not be descending while passing over designated spectator areas. It is felt
that this altitude is sufficient to allow for unusual circumstances with an adequate margin of safety for spectators.
In order to provide the highest possible level of safety for spectators,
the scoring officials will cause scoring/measuring officials to be positioned
among the spectators to allow crowds to be shifted as necessary and to provide
warning regarding any markers that may be dropped in the spectator areas. Announcements
over the public address systems will also advise the spectators of the possibilities
of both low flying balloons over the area and of markers being dropped in this area.
e) Weather Requirements.
Flight operations will be conducted during the period from published sunrise
to sunset, with the visual flight rules (VFR) and weather conditions as specified in §
demonstrated surface winds must be [insert number] or less.
The decision for flight is the sole responsibility of the pilot and the
decision of whether to hold a task is the sole responsibility of the director after consultation with appropriate safety officials.
f) Communications Requirements.
Primarily by required pilot briefing, however, supplementary information
is also given on local radio stations and on the public address system. Most
pilots carry either FM, CB, or aircraft radios, and some communication is possible by radio.
g) Air Traffic Coordination.
A NOTAM will be requested from the [insert name] FSS advising air traffic
of numerous balloons in the [insert name] area at varying altitudes from [insert
date] through [insert date] during the three hours immediately after sunrise and three hours prior to sunset.
This Operations Manual includes the information and requirements contained in the following attachments.
Sectional of Area
List of Pilot Entries
Schedule of Events
Statement of Responsibility
Figure 3-41A. Preshow Briefing Guide
WHO SHOULD ATTEND:
Tow/Jump Aircraft Pilots
Military Flight Demo Pilots
Air and Ground Pyrotechnic Technicians
Jet Vehicle Drivers
Remotely Deployed Aircraft Pilots (via telecon)
At least one (1) representative pilot for each military team
KEY OPS/SUPPORT PERSONNEL:
Air Traffic Control
Smoke Oil/Refueling Chief
Aircraft Marshallers Chief
Crowd Control Chief
FAA (or assigned) MONITOR:
AIRSHOW DIRECTOR/EVENT SPONSOR:
(Including that person named on the waiver as being “responsible to ensure safety of the event”)
WHO SHOULD NOT ATTEND:
Anyone not directly associated with the performance
ROLLCALL: Those not attending the briefing MAY NOT participate in this performance!
INTRODUCE KEY OFFICIALS:
CURRENT WEATHER AND FORECAST: (Include regional
and national weather by quadrants on the last day, for departing aircraft)
REVIEW WAIVER AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS:
REVIEW AREA MAP:
Hold Points/Turn Directions Altitudes
Noise Abatement Procedures
Special Use Airspace
Remote Recovery Airports
Controlled/Emergency Bail Out/Ditching Procedures
Runways In Use
Sequence of acts and their cues for positioning
Spectator Areas (Primary/Secondary)
Ground Based Pyro
Crash Rescue Runway Watch Locations
Unique Local Items/Conditions
Figure 3-42. Circling the Jumpers Briefing
NOTE: An endorsement of “Circling the Jumpers” on FAA
Form 8710-7 is no longer required for the circling aircraft pilots.
In the event that a performance involves aircraft operating
in the vicinity of parachutists, whether in free fall or under deployed
canopies, all pilots and the jump master or team leader of the parachutists
involved shall be present at the airshow briefing. The air boss
or responsible person shall ensure that each participant understands
the details of the performance which shall include, at the minimum, the following information:
a) The number of jumpers performing,
b) The types of and/or colors of parachutes,
c) The exit altitude and deployment altitude,
d) The planned flight path prior to exit, as well as, the descent area of the jump aircraft,
e) The number, make(s)/model(s) and color of the aircraft involved, and
f) Procedures to be used in the event of an unexpected occurrence.
If at any time the air boss determines that the circling the
jumpers in not proceeding as briefed, the air boss must give a “Knock
It OFF” to the circling aircraft. Upon receiving a “Knock It Off”
the circling aircraft will make a cautious turn away from the jumpers
and go to the previously determined holding area and wait for instructions from the air boss.