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VOLUME 3  Technical Administration

CHAPTER 12  Introduction to 14 CFR Part 91 Related Tasks

Section 1 General

3-311    GENERAL. Volumes 3 through 6 provide the general guidance on particular inspector tasks related to Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, General Operating and Flight Rules. The chapters cover the issuance of waivers and authorizations and surveillance related to compliance with those waivers and authorizations, general 14 CFR part 91 surveillance, approving minimum equipment lists (MEL), and Category II/III operations.

3-312    REVISION OF 14 CFR PART 91, GENERAL OPERATION AND FLIGHT RULES.

A.    Background. In August 1989 the revision of 14 CFR part 91, based on a petition for rulemaking from the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA), went to the Federal Register for publication.

1)    The revision reorganized and realigned the sections and subsections of 14 CFR part 91 to make them more understandable and easier to use. To identify where “old” 14 CFR part 91 sections are relocated and renumbered in the revision, this chapter includes a cross-reference table in Table 3-3, Part 91 Cross-Reference Table of Old and Revised to New Sections.
2)    The revision became effective in August 1990 with the following exception: part 91, § 91.203(a)(2) became effective in August 1989 but remained numbered as part 91, § 91.27(a)(2) until August 1990.
a)    Section 91.203(a)(2) was amended to reflect current United States (U.S.) law and practice concerning operations of aircraft outside the United States when the aircraft have been applied for registration but the permanent registration certificate has not been received.
b)    The regulations do not authorize operation outside the United States unless an actual registration certificate is in the aircraft. However, the Aircraft Registration Branch (AFS-750) will, upon request from the owner, fax a copy of the registration to the individual whose name appears on the application as the registered owner. The faxed copy may be used as a temporary registration until the owner receives original registration. As with the original registration certificate, the copy must be carried in the aircraft.

B.    Substantive Change. The revision contains four substantive changes to 14 CFR part 91.

1)    Part 91, § 91.117 restricts the operation of aircraft below 10,000 mean sea level (MSL) at an indicated airspeed of more than 250 knots (288 mph), unless authorized by the Administrator. If the minimum safe airspeed for any particular operation is greater than the speed described in § 91.117(a), (b), and (c), the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed.
a)    No person may operate aircraft at or below 2,500 feet above the surface within 4 nautical miles of the primary airport of a Class C or Class D airspace area at an indicated airspeed of more than 200 knots (230 mph).
b)    No person may operate an aircraft in the airspace underlying a Class B airspace area designated for an airport or in a visual flight rules (VFR) corridor designated through such a Class B airspace area, at an indicated airspeed of more than 200 knots (230 mph).
2)    Part 91, § 91.905 allows operators with authorization to deviate from part 91, § 91.135(a), (b), and (c) provision under the authorization from air traffic control (ATC). Such request for deviation must be submitted in writing at least 4 days before the proposed operation.
3)    Part 91, § 91.409 allows operators of turbine-powered rotorcraft to use an alternate inspection program, such as annual, progressive, or other Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-approved inspection program.
4)    Part 91, §§ 91.205, 91.509, and 91.511 define “shore” as it is used in these sections to exclude tidal flats.

Table 3-3.  Part 91 Cross-Reference Table of Old and Revised to New Sections

Indicates new/changed information.

Old Section and Title

New Section and Title

Subpart A—General

§ 91.1, Applicability

§ 91.1 and § 91.701, Applicability

§ 91.2, Certificate of Authorization for Certain Category II Operations

§ 91.193, Certificate of Authorization for Certain Category II Operations

§ 91.3, Responsibility and Authority of the Pilot in Command

Unchanged

§ 91.4, Pilot in Command of Aircraft Requiring More Than One Pilot

§ 91.5, Pilot in Command of Aircraft Requiring More Than One Required Pilot

§ 91.5, Preflight Action

§ 91.103, Preflight Action

§ 91.6, Category II and III Operations: General Operating Rules

§ 91.189, Category II and III Operations: General Operating Rules

§ 91.7, Flightcrew Members at Stations

§ 91.105, Flight Crewmembers at Stations

§ 91.8, Prohibition Against Interference with crewmembers

§ 91.11, Prohibition on Interference with Crewmembers

§ 91.9, Careless or Reckless Operation

§ 91.13, Careless or Reckless Operation

§ 91.10, Careless or Reckless Operation Other Than for the Purpose of Air Navigation

§ 91.13, Careless or Reckless Operation

§ 91.11, Alcohol and Drugs

§ 91.17, Alcohol or Drugs

§ 91.12, Carriage of Narcotic Drug, Marijuana, Depressant or Stimulant Drugs or Substances

§ 91.19, Carriage of Narcotic Drugs, Marijuana, and Depressant or Stimulant Drugs or Substances

§ 91.13, Dropping Objects

§ 91.15, Dropping Objects

§ 91.14, Use of Safety Belts and Shoulder Harnesses

§ 91.107, Use of Safety Belts, Shoulder Harnesses, and Child Restraint Systems

§ 91.15, Parachutes and Parachuting

§ 91.307, Parachutes and Parachuting

§ 91.17, Towing: Gliders

§ 91.309, Towing: Gliders

§ 91.18, Towing: Other than Under § 91.17

§ 91.311, Towing: Other than Under § 91.309

§ 91.19, Portable Electronic Devices

§ 91.21, Portable Electronic Devices

§ 91.20, Operations within the North Atlantic Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications Airspace

 

§ 91.21, Flight Instruction: Simulated Instrument Flight and Certain Flight Tests

§ 91.109, Flight Instruction; Simulated Instrument Flight and Certain Flight Tests

§ 91.22, Fuel Requirements for Flight Under VFR

§ 91.151, Fuel Requirements for Flight in VFR Conditions

§ 91.23, Fuel Requirements Flight in IFR Conditions

§ 91.167, Fuel Requirements for Flight in IFR Conditions

§ 91.24, ATC Transponder and Altitude Reporting Equipment Use

§ 91.215, ATC Transponder and Altitude Reporting Equipment and Use

§ 91.25, VOR Equipment Check IFR Operations

§ 91.171, VOR Equipment Check for IFR Operations

§ 91.26, Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System Equipment and Use

§ 91.221, Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System Equipment and Use

§ 91.27, Civil Aircraft: Certifications Required

§ 91.203, Civil Aircraft: Certifications Required

§ 91.28, Special Flight Authorizations For Foreign Civil Aircraft

§ 91.715, Special Flight Authorizations for Foreign Civil Aircraft

§ 91.29, Civil Aircraft Airworthiness

§ 91.7, Civil Aircraft Airworthiness

§ 91.30, Inoperable Instruments and Equipment for Multiengine Aircraft

§ 91.213, Inoperative Instruments and Equipment

§ 91.31, Civil Aircraft Flight Manual, Marking, and Placard Requirements

§ 91.9, Civil Aircraft Flight Manual, Marking, and Placard Requirements

§ 91.32, Supplemental Oxygen

§ 91.211, Supplemental Oxygen

§ 91.33, Powered Civil Aircraft with Standard Category U.S. Airworthiness Certificates: Instrument and Equipment Requirements

§ 91.205, Powered Civil Aircraft with Standard Category U.S. Airworthiness Certificates: Instrument and Equipment Requirements

§ 91.34, Category II Manual

§ 91.191, Category II and Category III Manual

§ 91.35, Flight Recorders and Cockpit Voice Recorders

§ 91.609, Flight Data Recorders and Cockpit Voice Recorders

§ 91.36, Data Correspondence Between Automatically Reported Pressure Altitude Data and the Pilot’s Altitude Reference

§ 91.217, Data Correspondence Between Automatically Reported Pressure Altitude Data and the Pilot’s Altitude Reference

§ 91.37, Transport Category Civil Airplane Weight Limitations

§ 91.605, Transport Category Civil Airplane Weight Limitations

§ 91.38, Increased Maximum Certificated Weights for Certain Airplanes Operating in Alaska

§ 91.323, Increased Maximum Certificated Weights for Certain Airplanes Operated in Alaska

§ 91.39, Restricted Category Civil Aircraft: Operating Limitations

§ 91.313, Restricted Category Civil Aircraft: Operating Limitations

§ 91.40, Limited Category Civil Aircraft: Operating Limitations

§ 91.315, Limited Category Civil Aircraft: Operating Limitations

§ 91.41, Provisionally Certificated Civil Aircraft: Operation Limitation

§ 91.317, Provisionally Certificated Civil Aircraft: Operation Limitations

§ 91.42, Aircraft Having Experimental Certificates: Operating Limitations

§ 91.319, Aircraft Having Experimental Certificates: Operating Limitations

§ 91.43, Special Rules for Foreign Civil Aircraft

§ 91.711, Special Rules for Foreign Civil Aircraft

§ 91.45, Authorization for Ferry Flights with One Engine Inoperative

§ 91.611, Authorization for Ferry Flight with One Engine Inoperative

§ 91.47, Emergency Exits for Airplanes Carrying Passengers For Hire

§ 91.607, Emergency Exits for Airplanes Carrying Passengers for Hire

§ 91.49, Aural Speed Warning Device

§ 91.603, Aural Speed Warning Device

§ 91.50, Reserved

Deleted

§ 91.51, Altitude Altering System or Device: Turbojet Powered Civil Airplanes

§ 91.219, Altitude Alerting System or Device: Turbojet-Powered Civil Airplanes

§ 91.52, Emergency Locator Transmitter

§ 91.207, Emergency Locator Transmitters

§ 91.53, Reserved

Deleted

§ 91.54, Truth in Leasing Clause Requirement in Leases and Conditional Sales Contracts

§ 91.23, Truth-in-Leasing Clause Requirement in Leases and Conditional Sales Contracts

§ 91.55, Civil Aircraft Sonic Boom

§ 91.817, Civil Aircraft Sonic Boom

§ 91.56, Agricultural and Firefighting Airplanes: Noise Operating Limitations

§ 91.815, Agricultural and Fire Fighting Airplanes: Noise Operating Limitations

§ 91.57, Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition Against Using Reports for Enforcement Purposes

§ 91.25, Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition Against Use of Reports for Enforcement Purposes

§ 91.58, Material for Compartment Interiors

§ 91.613, Materials for Compartment Interiors

§ 91.59, Carriage of Candidates in Federal Elections

§ 91.321, Carriage of Candidates in Federal Elections

Subpart B—Flight Rules

§ 91.61, Applicability

§ 91.101, Applicability

§ 91.63, Waivers

§ 91.903, Policy and Procedures, and

§ 91.905, List of Rules Subject to Waivers

§ 91.65, Operating Near Other Aircraft

§ 91.111, Operating Near Other Aircraft

§ 91.67, Right of Way Rules; Except Water Operations

§ 91.113, Right-of-Way Rules: Except Water Operations

§ 91.69, Right of Way Rules; Water Operations

§ 91.115, Right-of-Way Rules: Water Operations

§ 91.70, Aircraft Speed

§ 91.117, Aircraft Speed

§ 91.71, Acrobatic Flight

§ 91.303, Aerobatic Flight

§ 91.73, Aircraft Lights

§ 91.209, Aircraft Lights

§ 91.75, Compliance with ATC Clearances and Instructions

§ 91.123, Compliance with ATC Clearances and Instructions

§ 91.77, ATC Light Signals

§ 91.125, ATC Light Signals

§ 91.79, Minimum Safe Altitude: General

§ 91.119, Minimum Safe Altitudes: General

§ 91.81, Altimeter Settings

§ 91.121, Altimeter Settings

§ 91.83, Flight Plan: Information Required

§ 91.153, VFR Flight Plan: Information Required, and

§ 91.169, IFR Flight Plan: Information Required

§ 91.84, Flights Between Mexico or Canada and the U.S.

§ 91.707, Flights Between Mexico or Canada and the United States

§ 91.85, Operating on or in the Vicinity of an Airport: General rules

§ 91.126, Operating On or in the Vicinity of an Airport in Class G airspace

§ 91.87, Operation at Airports with Operating Control Towers

§ 91.130, Operations in Class C Airspace

§ 91.131, Operations in Class B Airspace

§ 91.88, Airport Radar Service Areas

§ 91.129, Operations in Class D Airspace

§ 91.89, Operation at Airports without Control Towers

Removed

§ 91.90, Terminal Control Areas

§ 91.127, Operating On or in the Vicinity of an Airport in Class E Airspace

§ 91.91, Temporary light restrictions

§ 91.137, Temporary Flight Restrictions in the Vicinity of Disaster/Hazard Areas

§ 91.93, Flight Test Areas

§ 91.305, Flight Test Areas

§ 91.95, Restricted and Prohibited Areas

§ 91.133, Restricted and Prohibited Areas

§ 91.97, Positive Control Areas and Route Segments

§ 91.135, Operations in Class A Airspace

§ 91.100, Emergency Air Traffic Rules

§ 91.139, Emergency Air Traffic Rules

§ 91.101, Operations to Cuba

§ 91.709, Operations to Cuba

§ 91.102, Flight Limitations in the Proximity of Space Flight Recovery Operations

§ 91.143, Flight Limitation in the Proximity of Space Flight Operations

§ 91.103, Operation of Civil Aircraft of Cuban Registry

§ 91.713, Operation of Civil Aircraft of Cuban Registry

§ 91.104, Flight Restrictions in the Proximity of the Presidential and Other Parties

§ 91.141, Flight Restrictions in the Proximity of the Presidential and Other Parties

(Visual Flight Rules)

§ 91.105, Basic VFR Weather Minimums

 

§ 91.155, Basic VFR Weather Minimums

§ 91.107, Special VFR Weather Minimums

§ 91.157, Special VFR Weather Minimums

§ 91.109, VFR Cruising Altitude or Flight Level

§ 91.159, VFR Cruising Altitude or Flight Level

§ 91.111

None

§ 91.113

None

(Instrument Flight Rules)

§ 91.115, ATC Clearance and Flight Plan Required

 

§ 91.173, ATC Clearance and Flight Plan Required

§ 91.116, Takeoff and Landing Under IFR

§ 91.175, Takeoff and Landing Under IFR

§ 91.117, Reserved

Deleted

§ 91.119, Minimum Altitudes Operations

§ 91.177, Minimum Altitudes for IFR Operations

§ 91.121, IFR Cruising Altitude or Flight Level

§ 91.179, IFR Cruising Altitude or Flight Level

§ 91.123, Course to be Flown

§ 91.181, Course to be Flown

§ 91.125, IFR Radio Communications

§ 91.183, IFR Communications

§ 91.127, IFR Operations: Two Way Radio Communications Failure

§ 91.185, IFR Operations: Two-Way Radio Communications Failure

§ 91.129, Operation Under IFR in Controlled Airspace: Malfunction Reports

§ 91.187, Operation Under IFR in Controlled Airspace: Malfunction Reports

§ 91.131-91.159, Previously not in use

 

Subpart C—Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations

§ 91.161, Applicability

§ 91.401, Applicability

§ 91.163, General

§ 91.403, General

§ 91.165, Maintenance Required

§ 91.405, Maintenance Required

§ 91.167, Operation After Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Rebuilding, or Alteration

§ 91.407, Operation After Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Rebuilding, or Alteration

§ 91.169, Inspections

§ 91.409, Inspections

§ 91.170, Changes to Aircraft Inspection Programs

§ 91.415, Changes to Aircraft Inspection Programs

§ 91.171, Altimeter System & Altitude Reporting Equipment Tests and Inspections

§ 91.411, Altimeter System and Altitude Reporting Equipment Tests and Inspections

§ 91.172, ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections

§ 91.413, ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections

§ 91.173, Maintenance Records

§ 91.417, Maintenance Records

§ 91.174, Transfer of Maintenance Records

§ 91.419, Transfer of Maintenance Records

§ 91.175, Rebuilt Engine Maintenance Records

§ 91.421, Rebuilt Engine Maintenance Records

§ 91.177-91.179 Previously not in use

 

Subpart D—Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes

§ 91.181, Applicability

§ 91.501, Applicability

§ 91.183, Flying Equipment Operating Information

§ 91.503, Flying Equipment and Operating Information

§ 91.185, Familiarity with Operating Limitations and Emergency Equipment

§ 91.505, Familiarity with Operating Limitations and Emergency Equipment

§ 91.187, Equipment Requirements: Over the Top or Night VFR Operations

§ 91.507, Equipment Requirements: Over-the-Top or Night VFR Operations

§ 91.189, Survival Equipment for Over-Water Operations

§ 91.509, Survival Equipment for Overwater Operations

§ 91.191, Radio Equipment for Over-Water Operations

§ 91.511, Radio Equipment for Overwater Operations

§ 91.193, Emergency Equipment

§ 91.513, Emergency Equipment

§ 91.195, Flight Altitude Rules

§ 91.515, Flight Altitude Rules

§ 91.197, Smoking and Safety Belt Signs

§ 91.517, Passenger Information

§ 91.199, Passenger Briefing

§ 91.519, Passenger Briefing

§ 91.200, Shoulder Harness

§ 91.521, Shoulder Harness

§ 91.201, Carry-On Baggage

§ 91.523, Carry-On Baggage

§ 91.203, Carriage of Cargo

§ 91.525, Carriage of Cargo

§ 91.205, Transport Category Airplane Weight Limitations

Deleted

§ 91.207, None

Deleted

§ 91.209, Operating in Icing

§ 91.527, Operating in Icing Conditions

§ 91.211, Flight Engineer Requirements

§ 91.529, Flight Engineer Requirements

§ 91.213, Second in Command Requirements

§ 91.531, Second in Command Requirements

§ 91.215, Flight Attendant

§ 91.533, Flight Attendant Requirements

§ 91.217-91.299, Previously not in use

 

§ 91.301, Applicability: Relation to Part 36

§ 91.801, Applicability: Relation to Part 36

§ 91.302, Part 125 Operators: Designation of Applicable Regulations

§ 91.803, Part 125 Operators: Designation of Applicable Regulations

§ 91.303, Final Compliance: Subsonic Airplanes

§ 91.805, Final Compliance: Subsonic Airplanes

§ 91.305, Phased Compliance Under Parts 121 and 135: Subsonic airplanes

§ 91.807, Reserved

§ 91.306, Replacement Airplanes

§ 91.809, Reserved

§ 91.307, Service to Small Communities Exemption: Two- Engine, Subsonic Airplanes

§ 91.811, Reserved

§ 91.308, Compliance Plans and Status: U.S. Operators of Subsonic Airplanes

§ 91.813, Reserved

§ 91.309, Civil Supersonic Airplanes that Do Not Comply with Part 36

§ 91.819, Civil Supersonic Airplanes that Do Not Comply with Part 36

§ 91.311, Civil Supersonic Airplanes: Noise Limits

§ 91.821, Civil Supersonic Airplanes: Noise Limits

RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-313 through 3-330.