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Volume 3  GENERAL TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATION

CHAPTER 18  OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS

Section 5  Part C Operations Specifications—Airplane Terminal Instrument Procedures and Airport Authorizations and Limitations

3-871    GENERAL. Part C is issued to operators who conduct Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, 91 subpart K (part 91K), 121, 125 (including 125 Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) holders), or 135 operations with fixed-wing airplanes. It is not issued to part 135 operators who only conduct helicopter operations. Instrument flight rules (IFR) helicopter operators are issued Part H. Part C is not usually issued to part 135 on-demand operators who are restricted to visual flight rules (VFR)-only operations. In rare situations, operations specification (OpSpec) C070 is issued to part 135 VFR-only operators who are authorized to conduct commuter operations.

NOTE:  All 300-series and nonstandard 500-series OpSpecs/management specifications

(MSpecs)/training specifications (TSpecs)/letters of authorization (LOA) (Parts A, B, C, D, E, and H) require approval by the appropriate headquarters (HQ) policy division. Title 14 CFR parts 61, 91, 91K, 125 (including the 125 LODA holders), 133, 137, and 141 operators’ nonstandard operational requests must be approved by the General Aviation and Commercial Division (AFS-800). Title 14 CFR parts 121, 135, and 142 nonstandard operational requests must be approved for issuance by the Air Transportation Division (AFS-200). Title 14 CFR parts 121, 135, and 145 repair station and all airworthiness nonstandard requests must be approved by the Aircraft Maintenance Division (AFS‑300). All Weather Operations (AWO) relating to instrument procedures must be approved by the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400) and AFS-200 or AFS-800, as appropriate. Nonstandard authorizations for 14 CFR part 129 foreign operators require approval from the International Programs and Policy Division (AFS-50).

NOTE:  All text added to an OpSpec/MSpec/TSpec or LOA through the use of nonstandard text entered in the nonstandard text block (sometimes referred to as “Text 99”) must also be approved by the appropriate HQ policy division. For detailed guidance on the process for obtaining HQ approval for nonstandard authorizations, principal inspectors (PI) must read the guidance contained in Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 2.

OPSPEC/MANAGEMENT SPECIFICATION (MSPEC)/LETTER OF AUTHORIZATION (LOA) C048, ENHANCED FLIGHT VISION SYSTEM (EFVS) USE ON STRAIGHT-IN INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES OTHER THAN CATEGORY II OR CATEGORY III.

A.    Authorization. The C048 authorization is optional for certificate holders/operators/program managers conducting airplane operations under 14 CFR parts 91 subpart K (part 91K), 121, 125 (including the Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) 125 operators), and 135. C048 authorizes approach to straight-in landing operations below Decision Altitude (DA) or minimum descent altitude (MDA) using a certified enhanced flight vision system (EFVS). C048 is applicable to certificate holders/operators/program managers conducting straight-in instrument approach procedures (IAP) other than Category II Approach (CAT II) or Category III Approach (CAT III), as follows:

1    OpSpec C048 is required to be issued to air carriers conducting operations under parts 121, 135, and 121/135 split certificates using the provisions specified in C048.
2)    OpSpec C048 is required to be issued to certificated operators that operate under part 125 using the provisions specified in C048.
3)    LOA C048 is required to be issued to operators conducting operations under part 125 that are issued a deviation from the certificate and OpSpec requirements of part 125 (125M) and who will use the provisions specified in C048.
4)    MSpec MC048 is required to be issued to those program managers conducting operations under part 91K who will use the provisions specified in C048.
5)    An LOA is not required to be issued to part 91 operators (except for part 91K operators who must be issued an MSpec). Part 91 operators are authorized by the regulations to conduct EFVS operations without being issued an LOA.

B.    Regulations. Part 91, § 91.175(l) and (m) authorize an EFVS to be used to descend below DA or MDA on straight-in IAPs, other than CAT II or CAT III. These regulations require that the EFVS have a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) type design approval (type certificate (TC) or Supplemental Type Certificate (STC)), or for foreign-registered aircraft, that the EFVS complies with all of the EFVS requirements of the U.S. regulations. An EFVS uses imaging sensor technologies to provide a real-time enhanced image of the forward external visual scene to the pilot. An EFVS is used by the pilot to determine that the enhanced flight visibility is not less than the visibility prescribed in the IAP to be flown and that the required visual references for descending below DA or MDA down to 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation (TDZE) are distinctly visible and identifiable using the sensor image when the runway environment is not visible using the pilot’s natural vision. EFVS also helps to verify proper runway alignment at night and in low visibility conditions.

NOTE:  The authorization associated with this OpSpec, MSpec, or LOA is in keeping with the intent of § 91.175(l) and (m) and does not authorize EFVS to be used to satisfy the § 91.175(e)(2) requirement that an identifiable part of the airport be distinctly visible to the pilot during a circling maneuver at or above MDA, or while descending below MDA. EFVS is permitted to be used to identify the required visual references in order to descend below DA or MDA on straight-in IAPs only. An instrument approach with a circle-to-land maneuver is not a straight-in IAP and does not have straight-in minima. While the regulations do not prohibit EFVS from being used during any phase of flight, they do prohibit it from being used for operational credit on anything but a straight-in IAP. EFVS may be used during a circle-to-land maneuver provided the visual references required at or above MDA and throughout the circling maneuver are distinctly visible using natural vision. Use of EFVS during a circling maneuver may enable a pilot to see much more of the external scene at night and in low visibility conditions than would be possible using natural vision, thereby enhancing situational awareness (SA).

C.    Descending Below DA or MDA. In order to descend below DA or MDA, the following visual references for the runway of intended landing must be distinctly visible and identifiable to the pilot using the EFVS:

1)    The Approach Light System (ALS) (if installed); or
2)    The following visual references in both subparagraphs C2)a) and b) below:
a)    The runway threshold, identified by at least one of the following:

1.    The beginning of the runway landing surface,

2.    The threshold lights, or

3.    The runway end identification lights (REIL).

b)    The touchdown zone (TDZ), identified by at least one of the following:

1.    The runway TDZ landing surface,

2.    The TDZ lights,

3.    The TDZ markings, or

4.    The runway lights.

3)    To descend below 100 feet above the TDZE of the runway of intended landing, the pilot must be able to see the visual references required by § 91.175 (l)(4) with his or her natural vision without relying on the EFVS. That is, the enhanced flight visibility observed by use of an EFVS is no longer applicable. At this point, the flight visibility only has to be sufficient for the pilot to distinctly see and identify the lights or markings of the threshold or the lights or markings of the TDZ using natural vision before continuing to a landing.

D.    Required Visual References. The required visual references in § 91.175(l) using EFVS to descend below DA or MDA are different from those required by § 91.175(c) using natural vision. Table 3-15 A, Required Visual References, Part 91, § 91.175(c) and (l), provides a comparison of visual reference requirements for both natural vision and EFVS. Generally, the visual reference requirements for EFVS are more stringent than those for natural vision. For example, § 91.175(c) allows descent below DA or MDA using natural vision when only one of the visual references listed can be seen. For EFVS, § 91.175(l) requires that a pilot either see the ALS or at least one visual reference listed for the threshold environment and one visual reference listed for the TDZ environment. When natural vision is used, the Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) is permitted to be used as a required visual reference for descent below DA or MDA. Under § 91.175(l) using EFVS, however, the VASI cannot be used as a visual reference for descent below DA or MDA using EFVS because the EFVS display is monochromatic. For descent below 100 feet above TDZE using natural vision, § 91.175(c)(3) permits the approach lights to be used as a reference only if the red terminating bars or the red side row bars are visible and identifiable. For EFVS operations below 100 feet above TDZE, the approach lights with red side row bars are not permitted to be used as a visual reference, even though the pilot is required to rely only on natural vision to descend below 100 feet above TDZE. The only visual references permitted to be used for EFVS operations below 100 feet above TDZE are the lights or markings of the threshold or the lights or markings of the TDZ.

Table 3-15A.    Required Visual References, Part 91, § 91.175(c) and (l)

Required Visual References Using

Natural Vision

(14 CFR 91.175(c))

Required Visual References Using an

Enhanced Flight Vision System

(14 CFR 91.175(l))

For operation below DA or MDA:

At least one of the following visual references:

Approach light system

Threshold

Threshold markings

Threshold lights

Runway end identifier lights

Visual approach slope indicator

Touchdown zone

Touchdown zone markings

Touchdown zone lights

Runway

Runway markings

Runway lights

For operation below DA or MDA:

The following references, using the EFVS:

Approach light system

OR

BOTH paragraphs A and B --

A. The runway threshold, identified by at least one of the following –

·                beginning of the runway landing surface,

·                threshold lights, or

·                runway end identifier lights

AND

B. The touchdown zone, identified by at least one of the following –

·                runway touchdown zone landing surface,

·                touchdown zone lights,

·                touchdown zone markings, or

·                runway lights.

 

 

Descent below 100 feet height above TDZE:

At least one of the following visual references:

Approach light system, as long as the red terminating bars or red side row bars are also distinctly visible and identifiable

Threshold

Threshold markings

Threshold lights

Runway end identifier lights

Visual approach slope indicator

Touchdown zone

Touchdown zone markings

Touchdown zone lights

Runway

Runway markings

Runway lights

Descent below 100 feet height above TDZE:

The following references, using natural vision:

The lights or markings of the threshold

OR

The lights or markings of the touchdown zone

E.    Conditions of Approval. Before issuing C048 based on aircraft equipment and operation, inspectors shall ensure that each certificate holder/operator/program manager meets the following conditions:

1)    The authorized aircraft must be equipped with an EFVS certified for conducting operations under § 91.175(l) and (m) and must either have an FAA type design approval (TC or STC) or, for a foreign-registered aircraft, the EFVS must comply with all of the EFVS requirements of the U.S. regulations. Field approvals for EFVS installations are not authorized. An EFVS is an installed airborne system and must include:
a)    A head-up display (HUD) or equivalent display.

1.    EFVS sensor imagery and aircraft flight symbology must be presented so that they are clearly visible to the Pilot Flying (PF) in his normal position, line of vision, and looking forward along the flightpath.

2.    The EFVS display must be conformal. That is, the sensor imagery, aircraft flight symbology, and other cues that are referenced to the imagery and external scene must be aligned with and scaled to the external view.

b)    Sensors that provide a real-time image of the forward external scene topography.
c)    Computers and power supplies.
d)    Indications and controls.
e)    Aircraft flight symbology that includes at least the following:

1.    Airspeed,

2.    Vertical Speed (VS),

3.    Aircraft attitude,

4.    Heading,

5.    Altitude,

6.    Command guidance as appropriate for the approach to be flown,

7.    Path deviation indications,

8.    Flight Path Vector (FPV) cue, and

9.    Flight Path Angle (FPA) reference cue.

NOTE:  The FPA reference cue must be displayed with the pitch scale and must be selectable by the pilot for the appropriate approach descent angle.

NOTE:  An EFVS must not be confused with an Enhanced Vision System (EVS). An EVS is an electronic means to provide the flightcrew with a sensor-derived or enhanced image of the external scene (e.g., millimeter wave radar, Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR)). Unlike an EFVS, an EVS does not necessarily provide the additional flight information/symbology required by § 91.175(m). An EVS might not use an HUD and might not be able to present the image and flight symbology in the same scale and alignment as the outside view. This system can provide SA to the pilot, but does not meet the regulatory requirements of § 91.175(m). As such, an EVS cannot be used as a means to determine enhanced flight visibility and descend below the DA or MDA.

2)    The pilot can continue the approach below DA or MDA to 100 feet above the TDZE if he or she determines that the enhanced flight visibility observed by the use of a certified EFVS is not less than the minimum visibility prescribed in the straight-in IAP being flown, and the pilot acquires the required visual references prescribed in § 91.175(l)(3). The pilot uses the EFVS to visually acquire the runway environment, confirm lateral alignment, maneuver to the extended runway centerline (RCL), and continue a normal descent from the DA or MDA to 100 feet above the TDZ.
a)    A pilot may continue the approach below 100 feet above the TDZE as long as the flight visibility, using natural vision, is sufficient for the required visual references to be seen. In addition, the aircraft must be continuously in a position from which a descent to landing can be made on the intended runway, at a normal rate of descent using normal maneuvers, and for part 121 and 135 certificate holders, at a descent rate that allows touchdown to occur within the TDZ.
b)    It should be noted that the rule does not require the EFVS to be turned off or the sensor image to be removed from the HUD in order to continue to a landing without reliance on the EFVS sensor image. In keeping with the requirements of the regulations, however, the decision to continue descending below 100 feet above the TDZE must be based on seeing the visual references required by the rule through the HUD by means of natural vision. An operator may not continue to descend beyond this point by relying on the sensor image displayed on the HUD.
c)    EFVS equipage may vary. Some aircraft may be equipped with a single EFVS display. Others may have an EFVS display and a separate repeater display located in or very near the primary field of view (FOV) of the non-flying pilot. Still others may be equipped with dual EFVS displays. The regulations do not require a repeater display or a separate EFVS for the non-flying pilot, but neither do they preclude it. Certificate holders, operators, or program managers should develop procedures for EFVS operations appropriate to the equipment installed and the operation to be conducted. In establishing these procedures, both normal and abnormal or failure modes must be addressed for the various phases of the approach (e.g., before final approach fix (FAF), FAF to DA or MDA, and after reaching DA or MDA).
d)    Procedures should support appropriate levels of crew coordination with special emphasis on the transition to and reliance on natural vision. Each EFVS has a specified limit to the FOV. An offset final approach or crosswinds may affect use of the EFVS as well as when the decision is made to rely on natural vision for the primary reference. Also, specific pilot/crew decisionmaking and coordination must be addressed in the segment from FAF to DA or MDA (or point that a decision to rely on natural vision is made) and the EFVS segment (from DA or MDA down to 100 feet height above TDZE). The transition from enhanced vision to natural vision for landing is an especially important segment. Certificate holders, operators, or program managers should describe how common SA will be achieved—either procedurally when a single EFVS is used or through a combination of procedures and equipment when a repeater display or dual EFVSs are used.
3)    Training requirements with respect to aircraft type (make, model, and series (M/M/S)) and EFVS model/version shall be accomplished in accordance with the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report for the aircraft and EFVS equipment to be used. If an FSB report was not issued for a specific aircraft type and EFVS model/version, initial EFVS training shall be accomplished in the aircraft type and EFVS model/version to be used, and additional training shall be accomplished when a different EFVS model/version is used on the same aircraft type or when the same EFVS model/version is used on a different make aircraft. It should be noted that the sensor image, fidelity, characteristics, and symbology may differ, necessitating additional training. The flightcrew must be trained in the use of EFVS and demonstrate proficiency conducting straight-in IAPs, other than CAT II or CAT III (e.g., Category I Approach (CAT I) instrument landing system (ILS), nonprecision, approach procedures with vertical guidance (APV), etc.). Part 91K, 121, and 135 operators must have approved training programs. Part 125 operators are not required to have an approved training program. However, pilots of part 125 operators must complete an EFVS training program and must be qualified for EFVS operations by a check airman or an FAA inspector.
a)    Pilots should demonstrate knowledge of the regulatory requirements of § 91.175 and part 121, § 121.651, part 125, § 125.381, or part 135, § 135.225, as appropriate, for approach to straight-in landing operations below DA or MDA using an EFVS.
b)    Pilots operating an EFVS should be able to demonstrate knowledge and proficiency in the use of this equipment through training and checking as required by the type of operation. As a minimum, pilots should be knowledgeable and proficient in the following areas:

1.    The specific sensor technology to include limitations that impact enhanced vision under various environmental conditions (weather, system resolution, external interference, thermal characteristics, variability and unpredictability of sensor performance, etc.).

2.    EFVS operational considerations:

·    Use of HUD symbology.

·    Preflight and warmup requirements, as applicable.

·    Controls, modes, adjustments, and alignment of the EFVS/HUD.

·    Importance of the Design Eye Position (DEP) in acquiring the proper EFVS image.

·    System limitations and normal and abnormal procedures, including visual anomalies such as noise, blooming, and thermal crossover.

·    Use of EFVS on precision, nonprecision, and APV approaches.

·    Use of caged and uncaged modes of the EFVS, if applicable, in crosswind conditions.

3.    Impact of EFVS on other aircraft systems, such as autopilot minimum use height limitations.

4.    Runway lightning systems and ALS.

5.    Crew briefings, callouts, and crew coordination procedures.

6.    Visual references required by § 91.175(l)(3) and (4).

7.    Transition from EFVS imagery to natural vision and recognition of the required visual references.

8.    Obstacle clearance requirements for approach and missed approach:

·    Flight planning for obstacle clearance on a missed approach (e.g., go-around or balked landing) below DA or MDA;

·    Use and significance of a published vertical descent angle (VDA) on IAPs;

·    Vertical Path (VPATH), VASI, precision approach path indicator (PAPI), published visual descent points (VDP), calculated VDPs; and

·    Use of the FPA reference cue and FPV cue.

9.    Missed approach requirements include: loss of required equipment, enhanced flight visibility, or required visual references for various phases of the approach (e.g., FAF to DA or MDA, and after passing DA or MDA).

c)    The flightcrew shall not conduct any operations authorized by this paragraph unless they are trained and qualified in the equipment and special procedures to be used. Each pilot in command (PIC) and second in command (SIC) must successfully complete an approved EFVS training program for parts 91K, 121, and 135 operators or a training program for part 125 operators, and must be certified as being qualified for EFVS operations by one of the certificate holder’s/operator’s/program manager’s check airmen who is properly qualified for EFVS operations or an FAA inspector.
4)    The Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) must contain EFVS provisions appropriate to the EFVS operation authorized.
5)    The minimum equipment list (MEL) should include EFVS provisions, if MEL relief for EFVS is sought.
6)    Part 121 and 135 operators must incorporate into their maintenance program the EFVS manufacturer’s requirements for maintenance and instructions for continued airworthiness. Part 91K and 125 operators must maintain the installed EFVS equipment in accordance with the aircraft manufacturer’s or the equipment manufacturer’s maintenance instructions.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C049, DESTINATION AIRPORT ANALYSIS.

A.    General. OpSpec C049 is an optional authorization for 14 CFR part 135 certificate holders that have been issued OpSpec A057 as an eligible on-demand operator for reducing effective runway length requirements for turbine-engine powered, large transport-category airplanes that must be met before a flight’s release, provided certain requirements are met by the operator. MSpec C049 is an optional authorization for 14 CFR part 91 subpart K (part 91K) fractional ownership operations program managers to reduce effective runway length requirements for turbine-engine powered, large transport-category airplanes that must be met before a flight’s release, provided the program manager meets certain requirements.

B.    Destination Airport Analysis. FAA regulations governing operations under parts 91K and 135 provide for reducing effective runway length requirements for turbine-engine powered, large transport-category airplanes that must be met before a flight’s release, provided the operator meets certain requirements. For destination airports, normal landing distance requirements for part 91K and 135 operations are 60 percent of the available runway length. For alternate airport landing distance requirements, part 91K remains at 60 percent, while part 135 allows for 70 percent of the effective runway length. If an operator desires to reduce such requirements below 60 percent of the available runway length, that operator must meet regulatory requirements in two areas:

1)    Part 135 eligible on-demand operator (OpSpec A057 must be issued) or part 91K program experience; and
2)    FAA-approved Destination Airport Analysis Program (DAAP). The DAAP must address specific regulatory requirements and be approved for use through that operator’s MSpecs or OpSpecs, as applicable.

C.    Experience Requirements. An eligible on-demand operator is defined in part 135, § 135.4. Fractional ownership programs must meet the same requirements and are identified in part 91, §§ 91.1053 and 91.1055. The requirements include an on-demand or fractional ownership program operation that meets the following requirements:

1)    Two-Pilot Crew. The flightcrew must consist of at least two qualified pilots employed or contracted by the certificate holder.
2)    Flightcrew Experience. The crewmembers must have met the applicable requirements of 14 CFR part 61 and have the following experience and ratings:
a)    Total flight time for all pilots:

·    Pilot in command (PIC)—A minimum of 1,500 hours.

·    Second in command (SIC)—A minimum of 500 hours.

b)    For multiengine, turbine-powered fixed-wing, and powered-lift aircraft, the following FAA certification and ratings requirements:

·    PIC—Airline transport pilot (ATP) and applicable type ratings.

·    SIC—Commercial pilot and instrument ratings.

c)    For all other aircraft, the following FAA certification and rating requirements:

·    PIC—Commercial pilot and instrument ratings.

·    SIC—Commercial pilot and instrument ratings.

3)    Pilot Operating Limitations. If the SIC of a fixed-wing aircraft has fewer than 100 hours of flight time as SIC flying in the aircraft make and model, a type rating is required in the type of aircraft being flown, and the PIC is not an appropriately qualified check pilot, the PIC will make all takeoffs and landings in any of the following situations:
a)    Landings at the destination airport when a Destination Airport Analysis is required by part 135, § 135.385(f); and
b)    In any of the following conditions:

·    The prevailing visibility for the airport is at or below three-quarters of a mile;

·    The Runway Visual Range (RVR) for the runway to be used is at or below 4,000 feet;

·    The runway to be used has water, snow, slush, ice, or similar contamination that may adversely affect aircraft performance;

·    The braking action on the runway to be used is reported to be less than “good”;

·    The crosswind component for the runway to be used is in excess of 15 knots;

·    Wind shear is reported in the vicinity of the airport; and

·    Any other condition in which the PIC determines it to be prudent to exercise the PIC’s authority.

4)    Crew Pairing. Either the PIC or the SIC must have at least 75 hours of flight time in that aircraft make or model and, if a type rating is required for that type aircraft, either as PIC or SIC.

D.    Deviations. The Administrator may authorize deviations from the total flight time requirements of § 91.1053(a)(1) or crew pairing requirements of § 91.1055(b) if the FAA office that issued the OpSpecs or MSpecs, as applicable, finds that the crewmember has comparable experience and can effectively perform the functions associated with the position in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. The Administrator may, at any time, terminate any grant of deviation authority issued under this provision. Grants of deviation may be authorized after consideration of the size and scope of the operation, the qualifications of the intended operating pilots, and the following circumstances:

1)    A newly authorized certificate holder does not employ any pilots who meet the minimum requirements of § 91.1055(b).
2)    An existing certificate holder adds to its fleet a new category and class aircraft not used before in its operation.
3)    An existing certificate holder establishes a new base to which it assigns pilots who will be required to become qualified on the aircraft operated from that base.

E.    DAAP Requirements. DAAP requirements are found in §§ 91.1025 and 135.23. Specifically, if required by § 91.1037(c) or § 135.385, as applicable, the Destination Airport Analysis establishing runway safety margins must include the following elements, supported by aircraft performance data supplied by the aircraft manufacturer for the appropriate runway conditions at the airport(s) to be used, if a reduction below 60 percent of the available runway length is planned:

1)    Pilot Qualifications and Experience. The operator is responsible for including all applicable regulatory requirements to establish a pilot’s eligibility to reduce effective runway planning requirements below 60 percent of the available runway length. Experience requirements address pilots with less than 100 hours of flight time in type (high minimum), total flight time, and crew pairing limitations (less than 75 hours in type).
2)    Aircraft Performance Data to Include Normal, Abnormal, and Emergency Procedures as Supplied by the Aircraft Manufacturer. Landing distance calculations should be completed using FAA-approved procedures and data. Consideration must be given to abnormal and emergency procedures, as some of these procedures may increase approach speeds and consequently, landing distance requirements. Additionally, planned takeoff weight for the departure from that airport should be evaluated before operating into that airport.
3)    Airport Facilities and Topography. Consider what services are available at the airport. Services such as communications, maintenance, and fueling may have an impact on operations to and from that airport. Terrain features may figure prominently in or near a particular airport. High, fast-rising terrain may require special approach or DPs, which may impact performance requirements. For example, an aircraft certification criterion uses a 3.5 degree glideslope angle in computing landing distance data. glideslope angles of 2.5 to 3 degrees are common and have the effect of lengthening actual landing distance. Airports that sit on top of hilly terrain or downwind of mountainous terrain may occasionally experience conditions that include gusty conditions or winds shifting from a headwind to a tailwind. Such conditions are an important consideration during the landing maneuver, particularly during the flare, and increase landing distance requirements.
4)    Runway Conditions (including contamination). Runway features, such as slope and surface composition, can cause the actual landing distance to be longer than the calculated landing distance. Wet or slippery runways may preclude reductions from being taken and, in fact, require 115 percent of the distance derived from calculations, whether a reduction was used or not. This distance is calculated by increasing the distance required under dry conditions by an additional 15 percent (i.e., if Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) data show the actual landing distance will be 2,000 feet, the effective runway length required is 3,334 feet using 60 percent in this example; if the runway is expected to be wet or slippery upon arrival, the effective runway length required is 3,834 feet). Braking action always impacts the landing distance required as it deteriorates. Always consider the most current braking action report and the likelihood of an update before the flight’s arrival at a particular airport.
5)    Airport or Area Weather Reporting. Some airports may not have current weather reports and forecasts available for flight planning. Others may have automated observations for operational use. Still others may depend on a nearby airport’s forecast for operations. Area forecasts are also very valuable in evaluating weather conditions for a particular operation. Comparing forecasted conditions to current conditions will lend insight to changes taking place as weather systems move and forecasts are updated. Longer flight segments may lean more heavily on the forecast for the estimated time of arrival (ETA), as current conditions may change significantly as weather systems move. For example, if a flight is planned for 5 hours en route, the current conditions may not provide as much insight as a forecast for the arrival time if a cold front is expected to pass through the area while the flight is en route.
6)    Appropriate Additional Runway Safety Margins, If Required. Displaced thresholds, airport construction, and temporary obstacles (such as cranes and drawbridges) may impact runway length available for landing. Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) must be consulted before conducting a flight and are a good source of information on items such as these.
7)    Airplane Inoperative Equipment. Thrust reversers, on airplanes so equipped, provide some effect of reducing landing rollout distance. However, they are not considered in landing distance performance requirements and data provided by airplane manufacturers during certification. Rather, they provide an added margin of safety when used. If thrust reversers are inoperable or not installed, that additional safety margin does not exist. Also, their effectiveness is directly related to many factors, including pilot technique, reverser deployment rates, engine speeds, and environmental conditions (e.g., wet or contaminated runways in conjunction with crosswinds). Their actual effectiveness varies greatly. Other airplane systems that directly impact landing distance requirements include antiskid and ground spoilers (if installed), brake and tire condition, and landing flap selection, to name a few.
8)    Environmental Conditions. Many environmental conditions directly and indirectly affect actual landing distance requirements. Frontal passage usually causes winds to shift, sometimes causing a tailwind component. Tailwinds generally have a significantly greater impact on landing distance than headwinds. Thunderstorms in the vicinity of airports can introduce wind gusts from different directions, including wind shear, to varying degrees that are difficult to predict in advance or during the actual landing maneuver itself. Density and pressure altitudes also directly impact landing distance requirements. Landing distance tables may take these factors into account. However, variations from planned conditions and actual conditions at time of landing can vary and impact actual landing distance requirements. Stronger-than-forecasted tailwinds en route can cause the airplane to weigh more than projected, causing the actual landing distance to be longer than planned. If icing conditions were encountered while en route and temperatures above freezing are not reached before landing, any ice remaining behind removal devices or on areas that are not protected add additional weight and drag to the airplane, which in turn requires higher airspeeds and longer landing distances.
9)    Other Criteria That Affect Aircraft Performance. Many other variables affect landing distance. Approach speed, flap configuration, airplane weight, tire and brake condition, airplane equipment, and environmental conditions, to name a few, all directly impact required landing distance. With these and many other factors considered, it is the pilot who must apply them through the use of procedures and technique, the latter being highly variable. While specific additives are provided by manufacturer’s landing data, a pilot usually applies techniques acquired through experience in dealing with similar circumstances. Pilots may opt for an especially smooth landing on longer runways by “floating” in ground effect, before touchdown. While possibly yielding a smooth landing, this technique will add to the landing distance requirement, as landing data provided by manufacturer’s data through the certification process assumes a touchdown rate of descent of 8 feet per second. The following tables provide additional insight into factors that affect landing distance requirements and policies and procedures addressing them should be included in the operator’s FAA‑approved DAAP.

Table 3-16.    Reduction of Landing Distance Planning Requirements

GENERAL OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

Certification Criteria

Operational Consideration

Effect on Safety Margin

3.5 degree glideslope angle

2.5 to 3 degrees typical.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

8 ft/s touchdown rate of descent

2 to 4 ft/s typical.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

Assumes all approach speed additives bled off before reaching the 50 ft height

5 to 10 knots exceedances not uncommon.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

Longer flare distance (“float”).

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Less-than-full braking effort.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Delays in obtaining full braking configuration.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Higher temperatures not accounted for (temperature accountability not required).

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Downhill runway slope not accounted for (runway slope accountability not required).

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Icy, slippery, or contaminated runway surface.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Airplane heavier at time of landing than predicted at time of dispatch.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Airplane higher than 50 ft over the threshold.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

 

Airport pressure altitude higher than predicted at time of dispatch.

Actual landing distance will be longer than calculated landing distance.

OTHER VARIABLE CONSIDERATIONS

Steady-State Variables

Non Steady-State Variables

Actual Operations vs. Flight Test

Actual vs. Forecast Conditions

Runway slope

Wind gusts/turbulence

Flare technique

Runway or direction (affecting slope)

Temperature

Flightpath deviations

Time to activate deceleration devices

Airplane weight

Runway surface condition (dry, wet, icy, texture)

 

Flightpath angle

Approach speed

Brake/tire condition

 

Rate of descent at touch down

Environmental conditions (for example, temperature, wind, pressure altitude)

Speed additives

 

Approach/touchdown speed

Engine failure

Crosswinds

 

Height at threshold

 

 

 

Speed control

 

F.    Operator Responsibility. Operators are responsible for preparing their DAAP if they desire to reduce landing distance planning requirements below 60 percent of the effective runway length. Operators must ensure that their policies and procedures reflect at least minimum regulatory requirements and adequate policies and procedures before submitting their program to the FAA for approval.

G.    Checklist. The checklist is available electronically in the guidance subsystem of the automated Operations Safety System (OPSS) in association with OpSpec/MSpec C049. The checklist should be used to ensure that the operator and its DAAP meet minimum regulatory requirements. This checklist should be completed by the operator and be provided to the FAA office having approval authority, along with the DAAP and request for approval and issuance of OpSpec C049 or MSpec C049, as applicable.

OPSPEC C050, SPECIAL PILOT IN COMMAND AIRPORT QUALIFICATIONS.

A.    General. OpSpec C050 is used to authorize 14 CFR part 121 air carrier certificate holders to conduct instrument flight rules (IFR) operations into special airports requiring special airport qualification in accordance with the provisions and limitations of the OpSpec and part 121, § 121.445. For detailed information refer to Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5, paragraph 4-602.

B.    Operations into Special Pilot in Command (PIC) Qualification Airports. Air carriers conducting domestic, flag, and supplemental operations require the PIC to be qualified for operations into special PIC qualification airports. These PICs must be qualified in accordance with § 121.445.

1)    OpSpec C050 is used to authorize special PIC qualification airports for domestic, flag, and supplemental part 121 air carriers.
2)    The list of special qualification airports can be found in the automated Operations Safety System (OPSS) guidance subsystem in association with OpSpec C050 and at http://fsims.faa.gov/PICResults.aspx?mode=Publication&doctype=OPSS Guidance.

C.    PIC Requirements. If both the ceiling and the visibility minimums are not satisfied as detailed in § 121.445(c), then the qualification requirements of § 121.445(b) apply. Section 121.445(b) specifies that for a pilot to serve as PIC on a flight to a special qualification airport, the PIC must have the benefit of one of the following:

1)    The PIC, within the preceding 12 calendar-months, has made a takeoff and landing at that airport while serving as a pilot flightcrew member;
2)    The second in command (SIC), within the preceding 12 calendar-months, has made a takeoff and landing at that airport while serving as a pilot flightcrew member; or
3)    Within the preceding 12 calendar-months, the PIC has qualified by using pictorial means acceptable to the Administrator for that airport.

D.    Operator Assessment of Airport Factors. The operator assesses the nature and complexity of certain factors associated with the airport (e.g., high altitude, foreign airport, specific terrain features, unique weather patterns may be present singly or in combination). This assessment determines whether the airport should be included in the air carrier’s airport listing in OpSpec C067 or the provisions of OpSpec C050 apply. For instance, an airport with an approved IFR and or visual flight rules (VFR) approach/departure procedure and an unusual characteristic, such as a nearby politically sensitive international boundary or high terrain, may require designation as a special PIC qualification airport. In this case, the airport would need to be listed in OpSpec C067 and the provisions of OpSpec C050 also apply. Refer to Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5, paragraph 4-602, and OpSpec C067.

E.    Addition and Removal From the Special Airport Qualification List. The air carriers, in conjunction with the Air Transportation Division (AFS-200), will determine any airport additions or deletions from the special airport qualification list. These changes will be made on a quarterly basis.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C051, TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES. C051 is issued to all airplane operators who conduct any flight operations under instrument flight rules (IFR). FAA Order 8260.31, Foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures, current edition, provides direction and guidance on acceptance of foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS). Additional information concerning TERPS is in Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 3. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec H101.

OPSPEC/MSPEC/LOA C052, STRAIGHT-IN NON-PRECISION, APV, AND CATEGORY I PRECISION APPROACH AND LANDING MINIMA—ALL AIRPORTS.

A.    Applicability. Paragraph C052 is applicable to all operators conducting airplane operations under 14 CFR parts 91 subpart K (part 91K), 121, 125 (including the Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) 125 operators), and 135. Paragraph C052 specifies the types of instrument approaches the operator is authorized to conduct under instrument flight rules (IFR) and prohibits the use of other types of instrument approaches, and authorizes the lowest straight-in, non-precision approach procedures with vertical guidance (APV), and Category I Approach (CAT I) precision approach and landing minima. Paragraph C052 is applicable to operators as follows:

1)    OpSpec C052 is required to be issued to operators conducting operations under part 121 or 125; OpSpec C052 is required to be issued to operators using turbojets in operations under part 135; and OpSpec C052 is optional for operators conducting operations under part 135 with all other aircraft.
2)    LOA C052 is required for operators conducting operations under part 125 that are issued a deviation from the certificate and OpSpec requirements of part 125 (125M).
3)    MSpec C052 is required to be issued to those program managers conducting operations under part 91K.
4)    For helicopter authorization, see OpSpecs H101, H103, and H117.

NOTE:  Questions regarding the issuance of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 should be directed to the Air Transportation Division (AFS-200) at 202-267-8166, the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400) at 202-385-4623, or the General Aviation and Commercial Division (AFS-800) at 202‑385-9600.

B.    Types of Instrument Approaches Authorized. In paragraph C052, Table 1 specifies the types of instrument approaches the operator is authorized to conduct under IFR and prohibits the use of other types of instrument approaches. In the Web-based Operations Safety System (WebOPSS), the principal operations inspector (POI) will select the approaches that apply to the operator. Reference the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) for a detailed description of each approach.

1)    Before authorizing a type of instrument approach procedure (IAP), the POI, principal maintenance inspector (PMI), and principal avionics inspector (PAI) must ensure that the operator has revised the training and operations manuals, established that flightcrew training and checking requirements have been met, and that the equipment and systems are appropriate for the types of approaches to be authorized.
2)    Refer to Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 1 for information on required training for various types of approaches.
3)    All the approaches approved by OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 must be published in accordance with 14 CFR part 97 or the Foreign State Authority.
4)    If the certificate holder/program manager/operator is authorized to conduct Global Positioning System (GPS) procedures as listed in Table 1 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052, the aircraft and equipment must be listed in Table 1 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA B034.
5)    Required Navigation Performance (RNP) approaches.
a)    Area Navigation (RNAV) (RNP) approaches are different from RNAV (GPS) approaches. Due to the equipment qualification and the associated procedures and training for the lower minima of the RNAV (RNP) approaches, they are labeled as “special aircraft and aircrew authorization required (SAAAR).” C052 does not authorize RNP SAAAR operations. Authorization for RNAV (RNP) approaches is through nonstandard OpSpecs (300-series OpSpecs, which requires FAA headquarters (HQ) approval), such as OpSpec C384. (Refer to the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 90-101, Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures with AR.)
b)    Foreign RNP-like procedures not designed to U.S. RNP SAAAR criteria are authorized with a nonstandard C358 authorization. This is a nonstandard OpSpec paragraph that requires FAA HQ approval.
6)    Three groups of IAPs may be authorized in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052:
a)    Column one specifies the Nonprecision Approaches (NPA) without vertical guidance that are authorized by OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. Operators must ensure the aircraft will not go below the minimum descent altitude (MDA) without the required visual references specified in part 91, § 91.175.

1.    Operators authorized OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C073, Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Instrument Approach Procedures (IAP) Using Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) as a Decision Altitude (DA)/Decision Height (DH) in conjunction with C052 may momentarily descend below the MDA when executing a missed approach.

2.    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) term for an airport surveillance radar (ASR) approach is surveillance radar approach (SRA). Belgium labels these approaches as “SRE.” Select “ASR/SRA/SRE” in column one to authorize these approaches.

b)    Column two of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 provides for the authorization of APV. These approaches provide vertical guidance, but do not meet the same standards as precision approach systems (e.g., instrument landing system (ILS), microwave landing system (MLS), and GPS Landing System (GLS)). These APVs are trained using an approved method that allows descent to a published decision altitude (DA).

1.    APV approaches may contain Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) minima requiring wide area augmentation system (WAAS) and LNAV/VNAV minima that may be flown with either barometric vertical navigation (baro-VNAV) or WAAS-based VNAV. These are authorized in column two of Table 1 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. See section C below to determine applicable lines of minima. The AIM and the approach chart legend also has this information.

2.    Aircraft accomplishing RNP approaches (RNAV (GPS) or RNAV (Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)) are required to monitor lateral and, if approved for operational credit, vertical guidance deviations. For baro-VNAV approach operations on an RNP approach using the LNAV/VNAV minimums, the current vertical deviation limits are +100/-50 feet. Aircraft qualified using the current edition of AC 20-138, Airworthiness Approval of Positioning and Navigation Systems, deviation display requirements for navigation, may use a vertical deviation limit of ±75 feet (or a smaller value). This information must be published in the AFM, a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) or verified by the Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG).

3.    To authorize RNAV APVs, select “RNAV (GPS)” (for part 97 approaches) or “RNAV Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)” (for foreign approaches) from the selectable menu for column two of the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 template Table 1.

c)    Column three of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 provides for the authorization of CAT I precision IAPs from an electronic glideslope (ILS, MLS, or GLS).

1.    “*RNAV/ILS” in column three may only be selected in C052 if the operator meets the requirements in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063. For example, the United Arab Emirates publishes approach plates for Dubai titled, “RNAV ILS” or “ILS RNAV.” The RNAV portion of the approach constitutes an RNAV Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR).

2.    For pilot qualifications, the initial qualification segment of the certificate holder’s approved ILS precision runway monitor (PRM) training program must be successfully completed prior to conducting ILS PRM approach and landing operations. Initial training materials must include published ILS PRM approach chart materials, the AIM, related Notices to Airmen (NOTAM), and the latest available FAA-produced and -approved ILS PRM video entitled “ILS PRM & SOIA Approaches Information for Air Carrier Pilots” that each pilot must view, and which appears on the FAA Web site at http://www.faa.gov/training_testing/training/prm/. Pilots trained in PRM operations under previous guidance are not required to retrain using the new version of the video. However, pilots are required to know the change in operations of Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) during PRM operations, as well as the required actions in response to a controller instruction. Testing of knowledge objectives is required as part of initial and recurrent qualification training. See subparagraph K.

Figure 3-66E.    Sample OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 Table 1

Table 1—Authorized Instrument Approach Procedures

Nonprecision Approaches Without Vertical Guidance

Approaches With Vertical Guidance

(APV)

Precision Approach Procedures

(ILS, MLS, & GLS)

ASR/SRA/SRE

LDA w/glideslope

ILS

AZI

RNAV (GPS)

ILS/PRM

AZI/DME

RNAV (GNSS)

MLS

AZI/DME Back Course

LDA PRM

PAR

GPS

LDA PRM DME

ILS/DME

LDA

SDF w/glideslope

*RNAV/ILS

LDA/DME

LOC BC w/glideslope

GLS

LOC

RNAV (GPS) PRM

 

LOC BC

 

 

LOC/DME

 

 

NDB

 

 

NDB/DME

 

 

RNAV (GPS)

 

 

VOR/DME RNAV

 

 

SDF

 

 

TACAN

 

 

VOR

 

 

VOR/DME

 

 

LOC/BC/DME

 

 

C.    GPS Authorization. Volume 4, Chapter 1, Section 2 provides more extensive guidance on GPS and GPS WAAS equipment. The applicant must show that it has the ability to safely conduct GPS operations.

1)    Background. GPS approach procedures have evolved from overlays of existing conventional approaches to standalone GPS approaches. (Overlay approaches are predicated upon the design criteria of the ground‑based Navigational Aid (NAVAID) used as the basis of the approach and do not adhere to the design criteria for standalone GPS approaches.) Due to this transition, the FAA has revised the titles of the approach procedures to reflect these upgrades. The titles of all remaining GPS overlay procedures have been revised on the approach charts to read “…or GPS” (e.g., VOR or GPS RWY 24). Therefore, all the approaches that can be used by GPS now contain “GPS” in the title (e.g., “VOR or GPS RWY 24,” “GPS RWY 24,” or “RNAV (GPS) RWY 24”). During these GPS approaches, underlying ground-based NAVAIDs are not required to be operational and associated aircraft avionics need not be installed, operational, turned on, or monitored (although monitoring of the underlying approach is suggested when equipment is available and operational). Existing overlay approaches may be requested using the GPS title. For example, request “GPS RWY 24” to fly the VOR or GPS RWY 24 approach.

NOTE:  VOR/DME RNAV approaches will continue to be identified as VOR/DME RNAV RWY (Number) (e.g., VOR/DME RNAV RWY 24). VOR/DME RNAV procedures which can be flown by GPS will be annotated with “or GPS” (e.g., VOR/DME RNAV or GPS RWY 24).

2)    WAAS. As the satellite navigation evolution continues, WAAS has been developed to improve the accuracy, integrity and availability of GPS signals. WAAS receivers support all basic GPS approach functions and will provide additional capabilities. One of the major improvements provided by WAAS is the ability to generate an electronic glidepath, independent of ground equipment or barometric aiding. There are differences in the capabilities of the WAAS receivers. Some approach-certified receivers will only support a glidepath with performance similar to baro‑VNAV, and are authorized to fly the LNAV/VNAV line of minima on the RNAV (GPS) approach charts. Receivers with additional capability such as update rate and integrity limits are authorized to fly the LPV or Localizer Performance (LP) line of minima. WAAS approach procedures may provide LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LP, and LNAV minimums, and are charted as RNAV (GPS) RWY (Number) (e.g., RNAV (GPS) RWY 24). For further guidance, please see the AIM or contact AFS-400 at FAA HQ.

NOTE:  Some WAAS installations do not support approaches at all, while some do not support LPV or LP lines of minima.

3)    Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS). An additional augmentation system, LAAS has been developed to provide precision approaches similar to ILS at airfields. These precise approaches are based on GPS signals augmented by ground equipment. The international term for LAAS is Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) and the approaches that use the equipment are referred to as GBAS Landing System (GLS) or GNSS Landing System approaches. LAAS equipment consists of a GBAS Ground Facility (GGF) supported by a minimum of four accurately surveyed reference stations and an uplink antenna called the VHF Data Broadcast (VDB) antenna, as well as an aircraft LAAS receiver. The GGF can support multiple runway ends or landing areas served by procedures that are within the service coverage.
a)    Similar to LPV and ILS approaches, GLS provides lateral and vertical guidance. By design, LAAS was developed as an “ILS look-alike” system from the pilot perspective. Unlike WAAS, LAAS may support approaches to Category III Approach (CAT III) minimums in the future due to its nearly identical performance standards to ILS in terms of accuracy, integrity, availability, and continuity. Portions of the GLS approach prior to and after the Final Approach Segment (FAS) may be based on RNAV or RNP segments. Therefore, a switch transition between RNAV or RNP and GLS modes may be required. In the future, the GGF may be able to support portions of the procedure outside the FAS.
b)    There are also a few differences from LPV, GLS, and ILS approaches in terms of charting, procedure selection, and identification. The LAAS procedure is titled “GLS Rwy XX” on the approach chart. In the aircraft, pilots will select a five-digit GBAS channel number or associated approach within the flight management system (FMS) menu. Selection of the GBAS channel number by pilot or FMS also tunes the VDB. The VDB provides information to the airborne receiver where the guidance is synthesized. The LAAS procedure is identified by a four alpha-numeric character field referred to as the Reference Path Indicator (RPI) or approach ID. This identifier is analogous with the IDENT feature of the ILS. The RPI is charted. Following procedure selection, confirmation that the correct LAAS procedure is loaded can be accomplished by cross-checking the charted RPI with the cockpit displayed RPI or audio identification of the RPI with Morse code (for some systems). Once selected and identified, the pilot will fly the GLS approach using the same techniques as an ILS.
c)    Additional training may be required to authorized GLS approach and landing operations for commercial operators. If the operator is authorized to fly GLS approaches, flightcrews must be able to tune, identify, and conduct all stages of a GLS approach, including different types of missed approaches. However, some or all of these requirements may be demonstrated when conducting other operations, and may require little or no additional training. For example, an RNAV Missed Approach Segment (MAS) on a GLS may be demonstrated on another required approach, and the actions required to tune and identify GLS may require nearly identical actions on the part of the crew, based on the type of avionics used. Inspector guidance will be updated as GLS policy and procedures continue to evolve. If you have any questions on GLS training issues, contact AFS-400 at 202-385-4586.

D.    Crew Training and Qualification. Crew training and qualification for all authorized instrument approach operations should meet the requirements in Volume 3, Chapter 19; the current edition of AC 120-53, Guidance for Conducting and Use of Flight Standardization Board Evaluations; 14 CFR parts 61, 91, 121, 125, and 135; and Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) requirements, if applicable.

E.    Authorized Criteria for Approved IAPs. For operations to all U.S. airports, operators are authorized to execute instrument approach operations on IAPs that have been published:

1)    Under part 97.
2)    Under criteria in the current edition of Order 8260.3, United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS).
3)    Under any other criteria authorized by AFS-400.
4)    By the U.S. military agency operating the U.S. military airport.

NOTE:  All published Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) in the United States meet this requirement.

F.    Runway Visual Range (RVR). Touchdown zone (TDZ) RVR is controlling for all operations authorized in paragraph C052. All other RVR reports are advisory. A mid-field RVR report may substitute for an inoperative TDZ RVR report, except for Special Authorization (SA) CAT I operations as described in subparagraph J.

G.    Continuous Descent Final Approach (CDFA) Technique. CDFA is a specific technique for flying the FAS of an IAP as a continuous descent, without level-off, from an altitude at or above the final approach fix (FAF) altitude, typically to a point approximately 50 feet above the runway threshold or the point where the flare will begin. For approaches that do not use LNAV/VNAV, LPV, or an ILS/MLS/GLS glidepath, a CDFA technique is recommended. When electronic or a prestored computed vertical guidance is not used, Vertical Speed (VS) or Flight Path Angle (FPA) may be used to achieve a CDFA profile. Compared to the “step down” descent approach technique, where the aircraft descends step-by-step prior to the next minimum altitude, a CDFA technique has safety and operational advantages, such as standardization of procedures, simplification of the decision process (one technique and one decision at one point), and use of a stable flightpath. However, precision approach (ILS, MLS, GLS) obstacle penetration is not provided. The continuous descent approach technique can be flown on almost any published approach when VNAV or ILS/MLS/GLS is not available.

1)    When using a CDFA technique, the decision point to determine if the flightcrew has the required visual references in sight to continue below the MDA may only be treated like a DA in reference to approach profiles and procedures. The operator must add an altitude increment to the MDA (e.g., 50 feet) to determine the altitude at which the missed approach must be initiated in order to prevent descent below the MDA or flight beyond the missed approach point (MAP).
2)    The operator should ensure that, prior to conducting CDFA, each flightcrew member intending to fly CDFA profiles undertakes training appropriate to the aircraft, equipment, and the different kinds of IAPs to be flown.

H.    Reduced Precision CAT I Landing Minima. Paragraph C052 specifies the equipment usage requirements and part 97 SIAP depiction required for reduced CAT I landing minima. Credit is given for flight director (FD), autopilot, and head-up display (HUD) usage. The POI should allow the use of 1800 RVR minima to runways without centerline (CL) lighting, or TDZ lighting, provided the SIAP contains a straight-in ILS minimum with the chart note, “RVR 1800 Authorized with use of FD or AP or HUD to DA.” Additionally, the operator issued C052 is allowed to continue to use 1800 RVR line of minima on SIAPs without the above procedural note when the TDZ and/or CL lights are inoperative, if the approach is conducted in accordance with the equipment requirements outlined in paragraph C052. This is also reflected in the published inoperative components table for IAPs.

1)    FAA Approval. Operators may continue to use the standard CAT I minima based solely on ground lighting systems without alteration of current authorizations or procedures. Operators can utilize reduced CAT I landing minima provided the SIAP contains a straight-in ILS minimum with the chart note, “RVR 1800 Authorized with use of FD or AP or HUD to DA.”
2)    Conditions of Approval. Before issuing the C052 authorization to use reduced CAT I minima based on aircraft equipment and operation, inspectors shall ensure that each operator meets the following conditions:
a)    Aircraft and Associated Aircraft Systems. The authorized aircraft must be equipped with an FD, autopilot, or HUD that provides guidance to DA. The FD, autopilot, or HUD must be used in approach mode (e.g., tracking the Localizer (LOC) and glideslope). Inspectors must establish that the FD, autopilot, or HUD are certified for use down to an altitude of 200 feet above ground level (AGL) or lower.
b)    Flightcrew Procedures. The flightcrew must use the FD, autopilot, or HUD to DA or to the initiation of a missed approach, unless visual references with the runway environment are established, thus allowing safe continuation to a landing.

1.    If the FD, autopilot, or HUD malfunctions or becomes disconnected, the flightcrew must execute a missed approach unless the runway environment is in sight.

2.    Single-pilot operators are prohibited from using the FD to reduced landing minima without the accompanying use of an autopilot or HUD.

c)    Flightcrew Qualification. Each member of the flightcrew must have demonstrated proficiency using the FD, autopilot, or HUD (as appropriate) on the most recent instrument proficiency check (IPC) required in Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 4, paragraph 4-259C and part 61, § 61.57(e)(2) and 61.58; § 91.1069; part 121, § 121.441; part 125, § 125.291; and part 135, § 135.297 (as applicable), or in an approved AQP.

I.    SA CAT I. Paragraph C052 contains selectable text which authorizes SA CAT I ILS approaches to runways without TDZ or runway centerline (RCL) lights with a radar altimeter decision height (DH) as low as 150 feet and a visibility minimum as low as RVR 1400 when using an HUD to DH. The operator must meet all of the following requirements:

1)    Aircraft Requirements. To be approved for SA CAT I, each airplane must be certified and maintained for Category II Approach (CAT II) operations. Those airplanes and equipment must be listed in Table 2 of OpSpec C059. The authorized airplane(s) must be equipped with an HUD that is approved for CAT II or CAT III operations.
2)    Training Requirements. The flightcrew must be current and qualified for CAT II operations. The flightcrew must demonstrate proficiency in ILS approaches and landings to this minimum or to a lower minimum using the HUD prior to commencing any SA CAT I operations. This requirement applies both to initial eligibility for SA CAT I as well as recurrent training.
3)    Operational Requirements:
a)    The flightcrew must use the HUD to DH in a mode used for CAT II or CAT III operations. This mode provides greater lateral and vertical flightpath accuracy and more sensitive alarm limits.
b)    The flightcrew must use the HUD to DH, or to the initiation of missed approach, unless adequate visual references with the runway environment are established that allow safe continuation to a landing. Should the HUD malfunction during the approach, the flightcrew must execute a missed approach unless visual reference to the runway environment has been established.
c)    The crosswind component on the landing runway must be 15 knots or less, unless the Airplane Flight Manual’s (AFM) crosswind limitations are more restrictive.
d)    The part 97 SIAP must have a published SA CAT I minimum. The first procedures with these minimums will be published in 2010.
e)    Unlike the other approaches authorized in C052, the mid RVR report may not be substituted for the TDZ RVR report when using SA CAT I minima.
f)    Single-pilot operators are prohibited from using SA CAT I landing minima.

J.    Instrument Approach Operations at Foreign Airports. Paragraph C052 specifies the requirements for non-precision, APV, and precision approach criteria at foreign airports.

1)    The procedure must be constructed by the foreign state using criteria that is derived from (or based on) U.S. Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) or ICAO Doc 8168, Procedures for Air Navigation Services—Aircraft Operations (PANS-OPS), or it must be based on other criteria approved by AFS-400.
2)    Visibility minima must be based on U.S. criteria, European Union (EU) or European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) criteria, or the criteria in ICAO DOC 9365, Manual of All Weather Operations.
3)    The MDA/H or DA/H must be at least 200 feet height above touchdown (HAT) or height above threshold (HATh) unless otherwise authorized by an OpSpec/MSpec/LOA.
4)    Sequenced flashing lights are not required when determining if the Approach Light System (ALS) is equivalent to U.S. standards.
5)    This section also specifies the requirements for determining DA/MDA when an Obstacle Clearance Limit (OCL) or Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OCA) is specified.

K.    PRM. The FAA began the Multiple Parallel Approach Program (MPAP) to research whether ILS approaches to parallel runways would improve capacity. The objective was to achieve improvements in airport arrival rates through the conduct of simultaneous, closely-spaced parallel approaches. That objective is being met using PRM.

1)    ILS PRM, LDA PRM and RNAV (GPS) PRM Approaches with Vertical Guidance. Where parallel RCLs are less than 4,300 feet apart, but not less than 3,000 feet apart, simultaneous ILS PRM approaches may be conducted. Similarly, where parallel RCLs are less than 3,000 feet apart, but no less than 750 feet, simultaneous offset instrument approaches (SOIA) may be conducted using an ILS and an LDA approach with glideslope. Those approaches are labeled “ILS PRM” and “LDA PRM,” respectively, on instrument approach charts. Air traffic control (ATC) provides one PRM monitor controller for each runway to provide intrusion protection for the No Transgression Zone (NTZ), located between the two final approach courses. Whenever the runway spacing (or in the case of SOIA the approach course spacing) is less than 3,600 feet and at least 3,000 feet, NTZ monitoring is accomplished using a special PRM radar. Utilization of vertical guidance is required for all PRM approaches. RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches may be substituted for the ILS PRM and/or the LDA PRM approach. Pilots must have completed PRM training prior to conducting any PRM approach. An ILS PRM and its overlayed RNAV (GPS) PRM approach are procedurally equivalent. LDA PRM and its overlayed RNAV (GPS) PRM approach are procedurally equivalent. Pilots may request the RNAV (GPS) PRM approach in lieu of the ILS PRM or LDA PRM approach; however, they may only conduct the approach when specifically cleared to do so by ATC.
2)    The Breakout Maneuver. Working with industry, the FAA conducted extensive analyses of simulation data and determined that the implementation of PRM and SOIA approach operations to closely spaced parallel runways requires additional crew training. The primary focus of this training is to raise each pilot’s situational awareness in ILS PRM, LDA PRM, and RNAV (GPS) PRM operations. The breakout maneuver must be flown manually.
a)    Traffic Alert. One important element of the additional training is the pilot’s understanding of the difference between a normal missed approach initiated by a pilot, and a breakout initiated by a PRM final monitor controller. It must be clear to flightcrews that the words “Traffic Alert,” when used by the final monitor controller, signal critical instructions that the pilot must act on promptly to preserve adequate separation from an airplane straying into the adjoining approach path.
b)    ATC Breakout Maneuver Command to Turn and/or Descend, Climb, or Maintain Altitude. The flightcrew must immediately follow the final monitor controller’s vertical (climb/descend/maintain altitude) and horizontal (turn) commands. If the flightcrew is operating the TCAS in the Traffic Advisory (TA)/Resolution Advisory (RA) mode and receives a TCAS RA at any time while following the final monitor controller’s command, the flightcrew will simultaneously continue to turn to the controller’s assigned heading and follow the vertical guidance provided by the TCAS RA.
c)    Time-to-Turn Standard. Regardless of airplane type, tests and data analysis revealed that pilots normally passed through an angle of bank of at least 3 degrees while rolling into a breakout turn within 10 seconds of receiving a breakout command. (Bank angles of between 20 and 30 degrees were normally achieved during the breakout.) The operator must show that its pilots can readily meet this time-to-initiate-turn standard prior to the POI authorizing ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM approaches in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. Flightcrews are required to manually fly the breakout maneuver unless otherwise approved by AFS-200 or AFS-800 as appropriate (AFS-200 and AFS‑800 must have concurrence from AFS-400 to approve breakout in auto modes). The air carrier should demonstrate its ability to meet this standard by having representative pilots perform the breakout maneuver while the POI or the POI’s designated representative observes. The demonstration should conform to procedures contained in the air carrier’s approved operating manual for its flightcrews. The commercial operator should submit procedures to its POI for this authorization.

NOTE:  In a breakout, ATC will never command a descent below the applicable minimum vector altitude (MVA), thus assuring that no flight will be commanded to descend below 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle during a breakout.

3)    ILS/PRM, LDA/PRM, RNAV (GPS) PRM and the Use of TCAS. TCAS may be operated in TA/RA mode while executing ILS PRM, LDA PRM or RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches. However, when conducting these operations, pilots must understand that the final monitor controller’s instruction to turn is the primary means for ensuring safe separation from another airplane. Pilots must bear in mind that TCAS does not provide separation in the horizontal plane; TCAS accomplishes separation by commands solely in the vertical plane. Therefore, during final approach only the final monitor controller has the capability to command a turn for lateral separation. Flightcrews are expected to follow any ATC instruction to turn.
a)    ATC Command to Turn with TCAS RA. In the unlikely event that a flightcrew should simultaneously receive a final monitor controller’s command to turn and a TCAS RA, the flightcrew must follow both the final monitor controller’s turn command and the TCAS RA’s climb or descent command.
b)    TCAS RA Alone. In the extremely unlikely event that an RA occurs without a concurrent breakout instruction from the final monitor controller, the pilot should follow the RA and advise the controller of the action taken as soon as possible. In this instance, it is likely that a breakout command would follow.
c)    TCAS Not Required. An operative TCAS is not required to conduct ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM approaches.
4)    Pilot Training. See Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 5 for information on pilot training required prior to authorizing PRM approaches.
5)    ILS PRM, LDA PRM, and RNAV (GPS) PRM Authorizations. Operators will be authorized ILS PRM, LDA PRM, and RNAV (GPS) PRM approaches in the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 templates. A definition of RNAV (GPS) PRM has been added to the A002 template.

OPSPEC/LOA C054, SPECIAL LIMITATIONS AND PROVISIONS FOR INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES AND IFR LANDING MINIMUMS.

A.    General. C054 is issued to all operators conducting operations under 14 CFR part 121, 125, and 125 (LODA A125). It is also issued to operators who conduct turbine-powered airplane operations under 14 CFR part 135. It is not issued to part 135 operators who do not operate turbine-powered airplanes unless that operator also conducts operations under part 121. C054 specifies the Runway Visual Range (RVR) landing minimum equivalent to the published RVR landing minimum that must be used by high-minimum pilots (less than 100 hours in aircraft type).

B.    PIC Qualifications. For part 121 and part 135 operations, C054 also specifies that before a pilot in command (PIC) of a turbojet can conduct an instrument approach with visibility conditions reported to be below ¾ statute mile or RVR 4000 (basic turbojet landing minimums), the pilot must be specifically qualified and authorized to use standard landing minimums. See Volume 4, Chapter 2 for information on the qualification and authorization requirements to use the standard landing minimums.

C.    PIC Takeoff Guidance. Further, for part 121 and part 135 operations, after the PIC has been qualified to use lower landing minimums, and the destination visibility conditions are forecast to be less than ¾ statute mile or RVR 4000, the pilot of a turbojet airplane shall not take off unless:

1)    The destination runway length has been determined prior to takeoff to be at least 115 percent of the runway field length required by the provisions of part 121, § 121.195(b) or part 135, § 135.385(b), as appropriate, and
2)    Precision instrument (all weather) runway markings or runway centerline (RCL) lights must be operational on that runway.
3)    Once airborne, additional consideration of landing field length by the flightcrew is not required for normal operations. If unforecasted adverse weather or failures occur, the crew and aircraft dispatchers should consider any adverse consequences that may result from a decision to make a landing. The runway length needed in these changed circumstances must be determined considering the runway in use, runway conditions, current weather, Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) limitations, operational procedures, and aircraft equipment status at the time of landing.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C055, ALTERNATE AIRPORT IFR WEATHER MINIMUMS.

A.    Applicability. OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C055 is an optional authorization available to all operators conducting airplane operations under 14 CFR parts 91 subpart K (part 91K), 121, 125 (including the Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) 125 operators), and 135. C055 provides a table from which the operator, during the initial dispatch or flight release planning segment of a flight, derives alternate airport instrument flight rules (IFR) weather minimums in those cases that require an alternate airport.

NOTE:  Direct questions regarding the issuance of C055 to the Air Transportation Division (AFS-200) at 202-267-8166, the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400) at 202-385-4625, or the General Aviation and Commercial Division (AFS-800) at 202-267-8212.

B.    Airports With At Least One Operational Navigation Facility. The first part of the table is for airports with at least one operational navigation facility providing a straight-in Nonprecision Approach (NPA) procedure, a Category (CAT) I precision approach, or, when applicable, a circling maneuver from an instrument approach procedure (IAP). Operators obtain the required ceiling and visibility by adding 400 feet to the minimum descent altitude/height (MDA/H) or, when applicable, the authorized decision altitude/height (DA/H) and by adding 1 statute mile or 1,600 meters to the authorized landing minimum. Additives are applied only to the height value to determine the required ceiling.

C.    Airports With at Least Two Operational Navigation Facilities. The second part of the table is for airports with at least two operational navigation facilities, each providing a straight-in NPA procedure or a straight-in CAT I precision approach procedure to different suitable runways. Operators obtain the required ceiling and visibility by adding 200 feet to the higher MDA/H or DA/H of the two approaches used and by adding one-half statute mile or 800 meters of visibility to the higher authorized landing minimum of the two approaches used. Additives are applied only to the height value to determine the required ceiling.

D.    Higher Alternate Minimums When Using Two Operational Navigation Facilities. In some cases, it is possible to have higher alternate minimums when using two operational navigation facilities than when using one.

1)    For example, an airport with one straight-in NPA procedure with an MDA/H of 400 feet and 1 statute mile visibility would have alternate minimums of 800 feet and 2 statute mile visibility (400 feet + 400 feet and 1 statute mile + 1 statute mile).
2)    On the other hand, an airport with two straight-in approaches, one a straight-in precision approach with a DA/H of 200 feet and one-half statute mile visibility, and the other a straight-in NPA with an MDA/H of 700 feet and 1 statute mile visibility would have alternate minimums of 900 feet and 1 1/2 statute mile visibility (200 feet + 700 feet and one-half statute mile + 1 statute mile).
3)    Since the OpSpecs require that operators use the higher ceiling and visibility, the minimums for the airport with two straight-in approaches are higher than for the airport with only one straight-in approach. When this situation exists, the operator may elect to consider the airport as having only one straight-in approach procedure and may add the higher buffer requirement (400 feet and 1 statute mile) to whichever straight-in approach procedure provides for the lowest possible ceiling and visibility minimums.

E.    Using Two Different Runways. Two different runways may be the different ends of the same physical runway surface (for example, runway 4 and runway 22 are two different runways). When determining the suitability of a runway, wind, including gust, must be forecast to be within operating limits, including reduced visibility limits, and should be within the manufacturer’s maximum demonstrated crosswind. All conditional forecast elements below the lowest applicable operating minima must be taken into account. The operator should also take into account any other potential runway limitations, such as Notices to Airmen (NOTAM), which may affect the landing at the estimated time of arrival (ETA).

F.    Credit for Alternate Minimums. OpSpec/MSpec C055 (see revision history in the automated Operations Safety System (OPSS) guidance subsystem) now allows credit for alternate minimums based on engine inoperative CAT II or CAT III capability. This change is in the third row of the Alternate Airport Table. Flightcrews having that capability may take credit for engine inoperative CAT II/III qualified aircraft and adjust minimums accordingly. The alternate minimums are based on CAT III engine inoperative requirements. The following are some, but not all, of those requirements. See criteria in the current edition of AC 120-28, Criteria for Approval of Category III Weather Minima for Takeoff, Landing, and Rollout, for further engine inoperative requirements.

1)    Aircraft receives approval for engine inoperative CAT III.
2)    Operators establish appropriate procedures.
3)    The flightcrew receives performance and obstruction clearance information.
4)    The flightcrew receives appropriate aircraft configuration information, wind limits, and other appropriate information.

G.    Use of Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Minima at a Destination Alternate. Pilots may plan to use any instrument approach authorized for use with wide area augmentation system (WAAS) avionics at a required alternate if the aircraft has GPS WAAS equipment certified in accordance with Technical Standard Order (TSO) C145a, Airborne Navigation Sensors Using The Global Positioning System (GPS) Augmented By The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), TSO/C146a, Stand-Alone Airborne Navigation Equipment Using The Global Positioning System (GPS) Augmented By The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), or a later revision that meets or exceeds the accuracy of this TSO/revision, as approved by the Administrator. When using WAAS at an alternate airport, flight planning must be based on flying the RNAV (GPS) lateral navigation (LNAV) minimums line, minimums on a GPS approach procedure, or a conventional approach procedure with “or GPS” in the title. Also, RNAV (GPS)—or RNAV Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)—is based on a single navigational facility when determining the approach facility configuration in Table 1, even if there are two or more RNAV (GPS) approaches to different suitable runways. Upon arrival at an alternate, when the WAAS navigation system indicates that LNAV/vertical navigation (VNAV) or localizer performance with vertical guidance (LPV) service is available, operators may use vertical guidance to complete the approach using the displayed level of service. The FAA is removing the NA (alternate minimums not authorized) symbol from select RNAV (GPS) and GPS approach procedures so that operators with approach-approved WAAS receivers may use them at alternate airports. Some approach procedures will still require the NA symbol for other reasons (e.g., no weather reporting); therefore, the FAA cannot remove it from all procedures. Because every procedure must receive individual evaluations, removal of NA from RNAV (GPS) and GPS procedures will take some time.

H.    Definition of “Two Operational Facilities.” Question: “Does the FAA consider an ILS facility that contains a single transmitter frequency for an ILS, but with two different ILS identifications (depending on which runway is used), as one or two navigational facilities?”

1)    The words “two operational facilities” mean that in the event there is a single failure of one facility, the other would be operational. In the situation where both instrument landing system (ILS) facilities share a single transmitter, they are “one operational navigational facility” because both ILSs would become inoperative in the event of a single transmitter failure.
2)    The two ILS identifiers would have to be different even though the ILS transmitter frequency is the same for both. The instrument approach charts indicate to the pilot whether there is one frequency or two. Thus, one or two navigational facilities.

I.    Selectable Text and Tables. There are two selectable rows that can be loaded into Table 1 and the two paragraphs of selectable text in C055:

1)    The two selectable rows in Table 1 authorize lower alternate minimums when planning to use either a CAT II or CAT III approach at the alternate airport. If a CAT II or CAT III credit is authorized, the first selectable text paragraph must be loaded as well.
2)    The first selectable text paragraph states requirements for CAT II and CAT III credit applicable to alternate airport flight planning, and must be loaded if the operator has the CAT II or CAT III credit authorization described in subparagraph I1).
3)    The second selectable text paragraph authorizes operators equipped with WAAS to use GPS approaches when determining an alternate, and lists the restrictions associated with using GPS approaches in alternate planning.
4)    There are three selectable text options:
a)    “1(a). Load this text if the operator is authorized CAT II or III alternate mins; OR”
b)    “1(b). Load this text if the operator is authorized GPS/WAAS alternate mins; OR”
c)    “1(c). Load this text if the operator is authorized CAT II or III AND GPS/WAAS alternate mins.”

J.    Helicopter Authorizations. For helicopter authorizations, see OpSpec/MSpec H105.

OPSPEC C056, IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS, PART 121 OPERATIONS—ALL AIRPORTS. C056 is issued to all operators who conduct operations under 14 CFR part 121.

A.    General. C056 did not change in policy but was split into two paragraphs for programming purposes in the new automated Operations Safety System (OPSS): C056 and C078/C079.

B.    Using Lower-Than-Standard Takeoff Minimums. If an operator is not authorized to use lower-than-standard takeoff minimums, C078 will not be issued. See Volume 4, Chapter 2 for information concerning requirements an operator must meet before being authorized to use lower–than-standard takeoff minimums. If an operator conducts operations under both 14 CFR parts 121 and 135, C056 and C057 may need to be issued. For more information, see the following:

·    Part 121, §§ 121.649 and 121.651(a)(1).

·    Title 14 CFR part 91, § 91.175(f).

·    Volume 4, Chapter 2.

·    Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report for specific aircraft.

C.    Availability to Part 91 Subpart K (Part 91K) Program Managers. This is not available or applicable to part 91K program managers. See § 91.1039(e).

OPSPEC C057, IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS, PART 135 OPERATIONS—ALL AIRPORTS. C057 is issued to all 14 CFR part 135 operators who conduct instrument flight rules (IFR) airplane operations to authorize an operator to use takeoff minimums equal to the lowest straight-in landing minimums (part 135, § 135.225(h)).

A.    Issuance for Conducting IFR Standard Takeoff Minimums. C057 is issued for conducting IFR standard takeoff minimums, which are defined as 1 statute mile visibility or Runway Visual Range (RVR) 5,000 for airplanes having two engines or fewer, and one-half statute mile visibility or RVR 2,400 for airplanes having more than two engines. RVR reports, when available for a particular runway, must be used for all takeoff operations on that runway. All takeoff operations, based on RVR, must use RVR reports from the locations along the runway specified in this paragraph.

B.    Single Engine IFR (SEIFR) Authorization. The principal operations inspector (POI), principal maintenance inspector (PMI), and principal avionics inspector (PAI) must coordinate the issuance of OpSpecs A046, C057, and D071 once the operator has met the requirements for SEIFR operations. All three OpSpec paragraphs must be issued for SEIFR authorization.

1)    OpSpec A046 contains specific maintenance and operational limitations and provisions necessary for the authority to operate under IFR while carrying passengers in a single-engine airplane.
2)    The standard OpSpec paragraph C079 is not authorized for SEIFR operations. SEIFR part 135 passenger-carrying operations are not authorized lower-than-standard takeoff minimums at any airport without concurrence and authorization from FAA headquarters (HQ). Thus, for SEIFR operations there is no automatic relief from the requirements of § 135.225(e).
3)    OpSpec D071 contains requirements for airplanes operated in SEIFR operations.

C.    Subparagraph Selectable for Issuance of C057. The following subparagraph is selectable for issuance in C057, if applicable:

“c. When takeoff minimums are equal to or less than the applicable standard takeoff minimum, the certificate holder is authorized to use a takeoff minimum equal to the lowest authorized straight in CAT I IFR landing minimum applicable to the certificate holder for that particular airport. The Touchdown Zone RVR report, if available, is controlling.”

D.    Subparagraph Selectable for Issuance of C057 for Turbine-Powered, Single-Engine Airplanes. The following subparagraph is selectable for issuance in C057 for turbine-powered, single-engine airplanes only:

“d. Notwithstanding the requirements of the “NOTE” in subparagraph b above, the certificate holder is authorized lower than standard takeoff minimums for its part 135 single engine passenger carrying operations in its turbine powered single engine airplanes only per the limitations and provisions of C057 including subparagraph c.”

E.    Authorizing Part 135 Operators to Use Takeoff Minimums Lower Than One-Half Mile or RVR 1,800. OpSpec C079 is applicable for authorizing the part 135 operator to use takeoff minimums lower than one-half mile or RVR 1,800. See the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 120-29, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minima for Approach, for information concerning requirements an operator must meet before being authorized to use lower-than-standard takeoff minimums.

F.    Other Applicability and Authorizations. C057 is not applicable or available for 14 CFR part 91 subpart K (part 91K) program managers. See part 91, § 91.1039(e). For helicopter authorizations, see OpSpecs H106 and H116.

OPSPEC C058, SPECIAL RESTRICTIONS FOR FOREIGN TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES.

A.    General. C058 is issued only when the principal operations inspector (POI) (or region responsible for the geographic area where a foreign airport is located) finds it necessary to place special restrictions on a foreign terminal instrument procedure.

B.    Purpose and Applicability of Restrictions. These special restrictions to foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) are applicable to U.S. air 14 CFR part carriers (14 CFR parts 121 and 135) and program managers (91 subpart K (part 91K)). The purpose of these special restrictions is to establish an equivalency between the foreign terminal instrument procedure and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Procedures for Air Navigation Services Aircraft Operations (PANS-OPS) or TERPS criteria.

C.    Other Guidance. FAA Order 8260.31, Foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures, current edition, provides direction and guidance on how to place restrictions on foreign instrument procedures. This order also contains a list of foreign TERPS that are currently restricted. If an operator conducts flights to any airport listed in the appendices of this order, the POI must issue C058 with the name of the airport, airport identification, procedure identification, and special restrictions listed.

D.    Considerations and Procedures for Chek Lap Kok Airport. On July 6, 1998, Hong Kong’s new airport (Chek Lap Kok) opened; at the same time, Hong Kong’s old airport (Kai Tak) closed. Since there has been no revision to the appendices of Order 8260.31, we recommend removing the reference to Kai Tak airport from C058 and referencing the Chek Lap Kok airport. Consideration and procedures will be established for the following at the new Chek Lap Kok airport:

1)    Loss of navigation capability;
2)    Severe reduction of aircraft climb performance due to engine or aircraft system failures; and
3)    Escape paths for the above situations.

E.    Helicopter Authorization. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec/MSpec H107.

OPSPEC/MSPEC/LOA C059, CATEGORY II INSTRUMENT APPROACH AND LANDING OPERATIONS (OPTIONAL: 14 CFR PARTS 91, 121, 125, 125M, 135, AND 91K OPERATORS) AND SPECIAL AUTHORIZATION CATEGORY I INSTRUMENT APPROACH AND LANDING OPERATIONS (OPTIONAL: PART 91 OPERATORS).

NOTE:  NextGen Tracking. Applications for approvals for this paragraph must be entered in the Regional NextGen Tracker as indicated in the General Procedures Section (Volume 3, Chapter 1, Section 1).

A.    General. Category (CAT) II operations are approved by issuance of OpSpec C059 to certificate holders for 14 CFR parts 121, 125, and 135; MSpec C059 to program managers for 14 CFR part 91 subpart K (part 91K) fractional ownership operations; and LOA C059 to operators for parts 91 and 125M operations. Guidance for authorizing helicopter CAT II/CAT III operations can be found in Volume 4, Chapter 2, Sections 2 and 3.

B.    Authorization for CAT II Airplane Operations. All initial CAT II authorizations for each operator/program manager and each airplane type used by that operator/program manager require regional Flight Standards division (RFSD) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) branch review and concurrence before issuing OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059. RFSD concurrence is also required before amending OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 to include an airplane make, model, and series (M/M/S) new to the operator/program manager. CAT II operations are evaluated for authorization with reference to the following:

1)    Advisory Circular (AC) 120-29, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minima for Approach (current edition).
2)    Approval of U.S. Operators for Special Authorization Category I and All Category II/III Operations—Parts 91 (Large Aircraft), 91K, 121, 125, and 135.
3)    Approval of Small Category A Aircraft for Category II Operations—Part 91.
4)    Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 6, Category II Operations.
5)    Applicable Lower Landing Minimums (LLM) maintenance program approved by the assigned avionics inspector in accordance with Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 10.

C.    Approved Airplanes. Each airplane type (M/M/S) used in CAT II operations must be listed in Table 1 of C059 and have an acceptable LLM maintenance program. The approach/landing system used, lowest decision height (DH), lowest touchdown zone (TDZ) Runway Visual Range (RVR) authorized for each airplane type, and any special equipment and other limitations must also be specified. The example in Table 3-17, Example of Category II Approach and Landing Minimums, illustrates the method for authorizing each airplane in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059.

Table 3-17.    Example of Category II Approach and Landing Minimums

Airplane M/M/S

Approach/Landing System

DH

TDZ RVR

Special Operational Equipment and Limitations

DC-9-31

Autopilot

100 ft

1,600

N/A

B 727-217

Autopilot

100 ft

1,600

 

ERJ-190-100

Manual (HUD)

100 ft

1,200

Dual HUD A3 Mode

All engines and autothrottle operating

CL-600-2D24

Autopilot

100 ft

1,200

AFM supplement 4 equipment operating

A-320-12

Autopilot

100 ft

1,200

N/A

DHC-8-402

Manual (HUD)

100 ft

1,000

N/A

B-737-200

Autoland

100 ft

1,000

 

B-777-F

Autopilot

100 ft

1,000

Autoland required for RVR 1000 (300m)

NOTE:  Refer to Table 1 of OpSpec C059.

D.    CAT II Approach and Landing Systems. The equipment required to conduct either manually or automatically flown CAT II operations is specified in Table 1 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 (see sample in Table 3‑17 above). The equipment required is established in accordance with the applicable regulations, the approved Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) (if applicable), and AC 120-29. There are two acceptable methods of demonstrating that an airplane meets the technical qualifications and is eligible for CAT II operations. These acceptable methods are by approval under the type certificate (TC) or Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) holder, or an operation demonstration conducted by an operator/program manager. Type design approval is discussed in AC 120-29, paragraphs 5.19 through 5.19.3, and paragraph 10.5.

1)    TC or STC Approval. The approved AFM (or Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS)) identified in the airplane type design typically contains a statement that the airborne systems and equipment meet performance requirements, a statement regarding reliability and/or redundancy, and affirmation that such systems and equipment have been demonstrated to be eligible for CAT II operations. The AFM or AFMS also may specify that certain equipment is required for airworthiness approval of the various kinds of CAT II operations. Some AFMs or AFMSs also may indicate that acceptable CAT II performance was demonstrated, both with and without certain equipment (e.g., “autothrottles w/wo”). AC 120-29 also specifies that certain types of equipment are required for operations approval of the various kinds of CAT II operations (manual/autopilot). Therefore, the approved AFM or AFMS and AC 120-29 must be considered in determining if the additional equipment requirement meets the criteria. The equipment must be listed (specified) in Table 1 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059. See Table 3-17.
a)    Equipment that is explicitly required by the airplane certification regulations (14 CFR parts 23 and 25)), the operating regulations (parts 91, 91K, 121, 125, and 135)) and/or the approved AFM or AFMS should not be listed in Table 1 of the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA. The standard text of C059 requires that this equipment be installed and operational. The additional equipment or operational requirement that must be listed (specified) in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 is determined by cross-checking the equipment required by regulations and the approved AFM or AFMS against the equipment required by AC 120-29 for the kinds of proposed CAT II operations.
b)    Enter into Table 1 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 all additional equipment for the M/M/S and kind(s) of CAT II operations authorized. Include additional equipment required by any of the following (current editions):

·    AC 120-29, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minima for Approach,

·    TC or STC, and

·    FAA Order 8400.13, Procedures for the Evaluation and Approval of Facilities for Special Authorization Category I Operations and All Category II and III Operations.

c)    If the AFM or AFMS describes acceptable performance both with and without certain items of equipment (that are not explicitly required by AC 120-29), it must be determined how the operator/program manager intends to conduct CAT II operations and train flightcrews with those items of equipment. If the operator/program manager proposes to conduct operations both with and without certain equipment (such as autothrottle, autopilot), flightcrews must be trained for both situations and the equipment does not need to be listed in Table 1 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059.
2)    Operational Demonstration of Equipment Eligibility. This method is used when equipment eligibility is not stated in the AFM, the AFMS, or the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report. The operational demonstration method is only appropriate for airplanes and equipment that do not have CAT II reflected in the TC or STC. If the operational demonstration method is used:
a)    Conduct the operational demonstration as described in AC 120-29. A part 121, 125, or 135 operator, or a part 91K program manager should request that its Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) provide assistance in the eligibility assessment.
b)    The operator or program manager should provide the FSDO with the aircraft make, model, and serial number; any evidence of instrument flight rules (IFR) approach approval; and pertinent information from flightcrew operating procedures.
c)    If the FSDO cannot determine equipment eligibility from the provided documentation (e.g., TC, STC, or AFM), it should forward the request and supporting data through its RFSD to the appropriate Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG). The AEG will verify that the aircraft, its landing system, and equipment meet the criteria for CAT II operations, and that the system can safely fly the CAT II approach procedures. The AEG will provide written documentation (e.g., amended FSB report or other official documentation) to verify the eligibility of that equipment.
d)    The equipment determined by an operational demonstration to be eligible and required to conduct either manually or automatically flown CAT II operations should be listed in Table 1.

E.    Specify the Approach/Landing System in Table 1 of OpSpec/MSpec C059. The kind of CAT II approach/landing system (manual head-up display (HUD), i.e., manual control using a HUD to touchdown; autopilot, i.e., approach coupler used to DH, followed by manual control landing; or autoland) must be specified for each airplane listed in Table 1 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059. The principal operations inspector (POI) will select the appropriate phrase to place in the Approach/Landing System column: Manual (HUD), Autopilot, or Autoland.

F.    Operational RVR Minimums. Table 2 in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059, shown as Table 3-18, Example of Category II Runway Visual Range Minimums, below, is a summary of the required RVR minimums for each type of CAT II operation.

1)    Row 1 of Table 3-18 shows that for Standard CAT II operations at 1600 RVR, only the touchdown RVR report is required. During the 6-month Operator Use Suitability Demonstration, 1600 RVR is commonly authorized for new CAT II operators. Also, if the rollout RVR is out of service, CAT II approaches may still be flown to 1600 RVR. Note, the intention of this requirement is not that rollout and mid RVR reports may be ignored and CAT II approaches may still be flown to 1600 RVR. If these reports are available, minimum RVR values shown in the lower rows of Table 3-18 must be used (i.e., if mid or rollout RVR reports are available, they must be equal to or greater than the values shown in the lower rows of Table 3-18.).
2)    Rows 2–4 of Table 3-18 show the TDZ RVR requirements for other, lower visibility CAT II operations. While TDZ RVR report requirements remain unchanged, mid and rollout RVR report requirements are new as of May 2013. Mid RVR equal to 600 and rollout RVR equal to 300 are the lowest values that may be reported to conduct Standard CAT II, CAT II to 1000 RVR (TDZ), or Special Authorization (SA) CAT II operations. All available RVR reports are now controlling, and a TDZ and rollout report are required in order to conduct CAT II operations below 1600 RVR. If the rollout report is not available, the mid or far-end report may be substituted. Midfield reports substituted for unavailable rollout reports must report 600 RVR or greater; far-end reports substituted for unavailable rollout reports must report 300 RVR or greater.

Table 3-18.    Example of Category II Runway Visual Range Minimums

CAT II RVR Minimums

Type of Operation

TDZ RVR

Mid RVR

Rollout RVR

Standard CAT II

1600 (500 m)

NR

NR

Standard CAT II

1200 (350 m)

600 (175 m)#

300 (75 m)

CAT II to 1000 RVR

1000 (300 m)

600 (175 m)#

300 (75 m)

Special Authorization CAT II

1200 (350 m)

600 (175 m)#

300 (75 m)

NOTE:  NR = Not Required; # = If available.

G.    Runway Field Length Requirements.

1)    For all CAT II operations, the required field length (determined prior to takeoff) is at least 1.15 times the field length required by:

·    Part 91K, § 91.1037(b) and the AFM,

·    Part 121, § 121.195(b),

·    The AFM for parts 91 and 125, or

·    Part 135, § 135.385(b).

2)    Once airborne, additional consideration of CAT II landing field length by the flightcrew is not required for normal operations. If unforecasted adverse weather or failures occur, the crew and aircraft dispatchers should consider any adverse consequences that may result from a decision to make a CAT II landing. The runway length needed in these changed circumstances must be determined considering the runway in use, runway conditions, current weather, AFM limitations, operational procedures, and aircraft equipment status at the time of landing.
3)    Runway field length requirements for parts 121 and 135 are no longer contained in OpSpec C059. They have been moved to OpSpec C054, and any part 121 or 135 operators issued OpSpec C059 must also be issued OpSpec C054.

H.    Airplane Maintenance. For CAT II authorization, the operator or program manager must have an approved LLM maintenance program, as described in subparagraph B5). The maintenance program should detail a specific maintenance interval, periodic tests, and inspections required on systems and equipment used for LLM. The maintenance program should identify or contain system and equipment reliability tracking methods derived from 14 CFR part 119 requirements.

I.    Flightcrew Qualifications. A pilot in command (PIC) who has not met the requirements of part 91, § 91.1039(c), part 121, § 121.652, part 125, § 125.379, or part 135, § 135.225(e), as appropriate, must use the high minimum pilot RVR landing minimum equivalents, as determined from the table in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C054. For the PIC to conduct the part 121 CAT II operations at the lower authorized minimums, he or she must have currently accumulated the hours required by § 121.652 in the aircraft type that he or she will fly for that carrier. The provision of Air Transport Association of America (A4A) Exemption 5549 for part 121 air carriers may also apply.

J.    Authorized CAT II Approach and Landing Minimums. To determine the applicable minimums for an approach, the pilot must first compare the DH shown on the 14 CFR part 97 approach chart with the operator’s lowest authorized DH for the airplane being flown. The higher minimum is applicable. Therefore, considering RVR sensor reports available, the RVR to be used for the approach is the highest RVR value in the approach chart, Table 1, or subparagraph f of the OpSpec/MSpec part 125 LOA or subparagraph 6 of the part 91 LOA.

K.    Authorized CAT II Approaches, Airports, and Runways.

1)    CAT II Operations. If the airport and runways are approved for CAT II operations in part 97, they should not be routinely listed in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 unless the POI determines there is a need to specify a special limitation for an operator at a particular airport.
a)    Standard CAT II approaches are published as CAT II procedures in the National Aeronautical Navigation Services (AeroNav Services), Air Traffic Products and Publications Group, instrument approach procedure (IAP) Flight Information Publication (FLIP). They are identified by the procedure name “ILS RWY 16C (CAT II)” and by the note in the minimums section stating “CATEGORY II ILS—SPECIAL AIRCREW & AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION REQUIRED.”
b)    Special Authorization (SA) CAT II (formerly called reduced-lighting CAT II) approaches are published by AeroNav Services with the identifier “(SA CAT II),” and they also have a note in the Procedure Notes section stating “Reduced Lighting: Requires specific OPSPEC, MSPEC, or LOA approval and use of Autoland or HUD to touchdown.” Some SA CAT II approaches were published without the “(SA CAT II)” identifier, but will have the same or similar note.
2)    Standard CAT II. The operator may be authorized for up to three different minimums for use with published part 97 approaches: 1600 RVR, 1200 RVR, and 1000 RVR. Allowable minimums depend on the availability of RVR sensors and availability and use of required airplane equipment.
a)    Minimums of TDZ 1600 RVR and TDZ 1200 RVR require the flightcrew to use an approach coupler or to fly at least to DH under manual control using a HUD for flight guidance. A manually flown landing is assumed and need not be specified. Autoland or HUD-to-touchdown operations for Standard CAT II may be authorized if the operators are also authorized OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C061 or C062.
b)    Minimums of 1000 RVR require the flightcrew to use autoland or to fly under manual control using a HUD to touchdown.

1.    For operations to touchdown, the airplane and its automatic flight control guidance system (AFCGS), autoland system, or manually flown guidance system (HUD), are approved for approach and landing operations as specified by AC 120-29.

2.    For manual control using a HUD to touchdown, the HUD must be flown in the AIII Approach mode.

3.    The flightcrew has been trained at the lower visibilities before they can be authorized. If the flightcrew is currently authorized CAT III operations, no further training is required for this authorization in C059.

c)    CAT II operations, with a DH of 100 feet and 1000 RVR (300 meters), may be authorized at certain foreign airports. Table 3-19, Example List of Authorized Foreign Airports and Runways for Category II Instrument Approach and Landing Operations, illustrates an example for listing authorized foreign airports and runways.

Table 3-19.     Example List of Authorized Foreign Airports and Runways for Category II Instrument Approach and Landing Operations

Airport Name/Identifier

Runways

Limitations and Provisions

Mirabel, Canada CYMX

06

NA

Taipei—

Chiang Kai Shek, Taiwan RCTP

10, 28

NA

Tokyo Narita, Japan RJAA

16

NA

Athens, Greece

Eleftherios Venizelos LGAV

03L

03R

21L

21R

RVR 350 m

NOTE:  Refer to Table 3 in OpSpec C059.

d)    Operators authorized SA CAT II, as described in subparagraph K3) below, may also be authorized to conduct approaches to standard CAT II facilities when the TDZ and/or centerline (CL) lights are inoperative. They must comply with all requirements in paragraph K3), using minimums appropriate to the RVR available and using autoland or manual (HUD) to touchdown.
3)    SA CAT II. In addition to the standard CAT II operations authorized by OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059, SA CAT II operations can be authorized to qualifying runways that do not meet the performance or ground equipment requirements normally associated with a compliant CAT II operation (e.g., TDZ lighting, CL lighting, or Approach Lighting System with Sequenced Flashing Lights (ALSF) 1 and 2).
a)    Approval criteria for SA CAT II approaches are given in FAA Order 8400.13. The instrument landing system (ILS) facilities used are CAT I ILS installations that meet the glideslope (GS) and localizer signal quality requirements of CAT II facilities. The required increase in aircraft capabilities of HUD or autoland to touchdown mitigates the reduced-lighting requirements.
b)    RVR requirements and available minimums are the same as standard CAT II and in accordance with Table 3-18, but these minimums require the flightcrew to use autoland or to fly under manual control using a HUD to touchdown.
c)    Aircraft operation approval, HUD usage, and flightcrew training requirements are the same as for standard CAT II to 1000 RVR.
4)    Lists. The lists “Foreign Facilities Approved for Category II/III Operations,” “Restricted U.S. Facilities Approved for Category II/III Operations,” and “U.S. Runways Approved for Special Authorization CAT II Operations” are located on the Flight Operations Branch (AFS-410) Web site at: http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs410/status_lists/.

NOTE:  CAT II or III approaches in foreign states at airports that are controlled by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and that meet FAA CAT II/III criteria do not need to be included on the approved foreign facilities list and do not need to be listed in Table 3 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059.

L.    Missed Approach Requirements. The missed approach decision point has been changed from 1,000 feet above touchdown to the final approach fix (FAF). After passing the FAF, if the required visual landing references are not acquired and any failure of required equipment occurs, or if the primary guidance system in use (autopilot/autoland or HUD) is disengaged or disabled for any reason, the flightcrew must execute the missed approach. The exception to this requirement is that if both guidance systems are properly briefed and engaged before reaching the FAF and one system is disengaged or fails inside the FAF, the remaining guidance system is considered the primary and the approach may be continued.

M.   CAT II Runway Restrictions. The requirement to conduct automatic landings in reduced lighting and 1,000 RVR operations implies that autoland restrictions imposed by prethreshold terrain must be considered. Approaches that have prethreshold terrain characteristics that may cause abnormal performance in flight control systems will have a note on the approach chart requiring a special autoland evaluation. Approved runways will be on the AFS‑410 restricted facilities list in subparagraph K4) above, and must be listed in Table 4 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059.

N.    SA CAT I for Part 91. The part 91 LOA contains selectable text that authorizes SA CAT I ILS approaches to runways without TDZ or runway centerline (RCL) lights with a radar altimeter (RA) DH as low as 150 feet and a visibility minimum as low as RVR 1400 when using a HUD to DH. This selectable text is only available in the part 91 LOA. SA CAT I authorization for operators under other 14 CFR parts is available in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. The operator must meet all of the following requirements:

1)    Aircraft Requirements. To be approved for SA CAT I, each airplane must be certified and maintained for CAT II operations. Those airplanes and equipment must be listed in Table 1 of OpSpec C059. The authorized airplane(s) must be equipped with a HUD that is approved for CAT II or CAT III operations.
2)    Training Requirements. The flightcrew must be current and qualified for CAT II operations. The flightcrew must demonstrate proficiency in ILS approaches and landings to this minimum or to a lower minimum using the HUD prior to commencing any SA CAT I operations. This requirement applies both to initial eligibility for SA CAT I as well as recurrent training.
3)    Operational Requirements.
a)    The flightcrew must use the HUD to DH in a mode used for CAT II or CAT III operations. This mode provides greater lateral and vertical flightpath accuracy and more sensitive alarm limits.
b)    The flightcrew must use the HUD to DH, or to the initiation of missed approach, unless adequate visual references with the runway environment are established that allow safe continuation to a landing. Should the HUD malfunction during the approach, the flightcrew must execute a missed approach unless visual reference to the runway environment has been established.
c)    The crosswind component on the landing runway must be less than the AFM crosswind limitations, or 15 knots or less, whichever is more restrictive.
d)    The part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) must have a published SA CAT I minimum.
e)    Unlike other CAT I approaches, the mid-RVR report may not be substituted for the TDZ RVR report when using SA CAT I minima.
f)    Single-pilot operators are prohibited from using SA CAT I landing minima.

OPSPEC/MSPEC/LOA C060, CATEGORY (CAT) III INSTRUMENT APPROACH AND LANDING OPERATIONS.

NOTE:  NextGen Tracking. Applications for approvals for this paragraph must be entered in the Regional NextGen Tracker as indicated in the General Procedures Section (Volume 3, Chapter 1, Section 1).

A.    General. Category (CAT) III is an optional authorization. The following issuances are required for authorizing CAT III operations: OpSpec C060 for 14 CFR parts 121, 125, 121/135, and 135; MSpec C060 for 14 CFR part 91 subpart K (part 91K); and LOA C060 for parts 91 and 125M. For 14 CFR part 129 operations, see Volume 12, Chapter 2.

1)    CAT III operations are evaluated in accordance with the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 120-28, Criteria for Approval of Category III Weather Minima for Takeoff, Landing, and Rollout.
2)    The initial CAT III authorization must be coordinated through the regional Flight Standards division (RFSD) Next Generation (NextGen) branch (see Volume 4, Chapter 2).
3)    RFSD NextGen branch concurrence is also required before amending OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060 to include an additional airplane make, model, and series (M/M/S) for an operator.
4)    All reductions in CAT III operating minimums for each operator and aircraft also require RFSD NextGen Branch concurrence.
5)    Initial CAT III authorizations may require the operator to use higher minimums for a period of time or number of operations. The principal operations inspector (POI) should issue an initial, interim authorization using the higher minimums, and reissue OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060 authorizing lower minimums upon completion of the approval demonstration phases as shown in Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 2, paragraph 4-194.

B.    Applicability. The authorization is applicable to operations conducted by:

·    Part 121 certificate holders,

·    Part 125 certificate holders,

·    Part 135 certificate holders,

·    Part 121/135 certificate holders,

·    Part 91K program managers,

·    Part 91 operators, and

·    Part 125M operators/companies.

C.    Airplanes Approved for CAT III Operations. Airplanes with an approved Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) entry authorizing CAT III may be approved for CAT III. In accordance with the AFM, CAT III operations may be conducted with either fail operational (FO) or fail passive (FP) systems. Table 3-20, Fail Operational Landing Systems, and Table 3-21, Fail Passive Landing Systems, classify all CAT III landing and rollout systems as either FP or FO and show the associated lowest Runway Visual Range (RVR) minimums. The type of landing and rollout system is specified (listed) in Table 1 (see Figure 3-67F, Example OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060, Table 1) for each airplane M/M/S.

1)    Each airplane type M/M/S and the equipment authorized to conduct CAT III operations must be listed in Table 1 (see Figure 3-67F). In order to select an operator’s M/M/S in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060, Table 1, ensure that “CAT III” is selected under “Authorizations” on the “Edit Aircraft” page of “Operator Data.” Aircraft (including wide-body aircraft such as the DC-10, L-1011, and B-747, which are authorized for FO CAT III, but which have not been demonstrated to meet the FP provisions of AC 120-28, Appendix 3) may be approved for FP operations with landing minimums of RVR 1000. (See AC 120-28 for further details.)
2)    The equipment required to conduct CAT III operations is established in accordance with the applicable 14 CFR parts, the approved AFM, and AC 120-28.
a)    The only acceptable method of demonstrating that an airplane is Airworthy for CAT III operations is through a type design approval obtained by a manufacturer.
b)    The approved AFM (or Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS)) for airplanes that have CAT III type design approval contains a statement to the effect that the airborne systems have demonstrated the reliability and redundancy necessary for CAT III operations in accordance with AC 120-28.
c)    The AFM also specifies that certain equipment is required for airworthiness approval of the various kinds of CAT III operations.
d)    Some AFMs also indicate that acceptable CAT III performance was demonstrated both with and without (“w/wo”) certain equipment (for example, “autothrottles w/wo”). AC 120-28 also specifies that certain types of equipment are required for operational approval of the various kinds of CAT III operations. Therefore, both the approved AFM and AC 120-28 must be considered in determining the additional equipment that must be listed in Table 1 (see Figure 3-67F).
3)    Equipment that is explicitly required by the airplane certification regulations (14 CFR parts 23 and 25)), the operating regulations (parts 91, 121, 125, and 135)), and/or the approved AFM should not be listed in Table 1 (see Figure 3-67F).
a)    Additional equipment that must be listed in Table 1 (see Figure 3-67F) is determined by cross‑checking the types of equipment required by AC 120-28 for the kind(s) of CAT III operations proposed against the equipment required by the regulations and the approved AFM.
b)    Also, the equipment required by the guidance and direction in the RFSD NextGen branch concurrence letter is listed in Table 1 (see Figure 3-67F) as additional equipment.
c)    The standard text of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060 requires this equipment to be installed and operational.
4)    When the AFM indicates acceptable performance, both with and without certain items of equipment (that are not explicitly required by AC 120-28 or the RFSD NextGen branch concurrence letter), it must be determined how the operator intends to conduct CAT III operations and train flightcrews with those items of equipment.
a)    If the operator proposes to conduct operations both with and without certain equipment (such as autothrottle), the operator must train flightcrews for both situations, and the item of equipment does not need to be listed in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060.
b)    If the operator proposes to conduct operations only when those items of equipment (with and without) are functional, then those items of equipment must be listed in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060.
5)    The authorizations for a decision height (DH)/alert height (AH), the lowest RVR (see subparagraph I), and the FP/FO landing systems must be specific for each airplane type. In general, Tables 3-20 and 3-21 summarize RVR and other requirements for different landing and rollout systems.

Table 3-20.    Fail Operational Landing Systems

Fail Operational Landing Systems—General

1. Utilize an AH (typically 50 ft).

2. Must go-around if any system failure occurs above AH.

3. Could land safely if a failure occurs after AH.

Fail Operational Without a Rollout System

Fail Operational with a Fail Passive Rollout System

Fail Operational with a Fail Operational Rollout System

1.   No visual necessary.

2.   Lowest allowable RVR 600/600/300.

1.   No visual necessary.

2.   Lowest allowable RVR 400/400/300.

1.   No visual necessary.

2.   Lowest allowable RVR 300/300/300.

Table 3-21.    Fail Passive Landing Systems

Fail Passive Landing Systems—General

1. Utilize a DH (no less than 50 ft).

2. Must have visual references NLT DH to land, otherwise missed approach.

3. System not capable of autoland if a failure occurs after DH.

4. If visual references are lost after DH or a failure after DH (prior to touchdown), missed approach.

Fail Passive Without a Rollout System

Fail Passive with a Fail Passive or Fail Operational Rollout System

Lowest allowable RVR 600/600/300.

Lowest allowable RVR 600/400/300.

D.    Runway Field Length Requirements.

1)    For all CAT III operations, the required field length (determined prior to takeoff) is at least 1.15 times the field length required by:

·    Part 91K, § 91.1037(b) and the AFM,

·    Part 121, § 121.195(b),

·    The AFM for parts 91 and 125, or

·    Part 135, § 135.385(b).

2)    Once airborne, additional consideration of CAT III landing field length by the flightcrew is not required for normal operations. If unforecasted adverse weather or failures occur, the crew and aircraft dispatchers should consider any adverse consequences that may result from a decision to make a CAT III landing. The runway length needed in these changed circumstances must be determined considering the runway in use, runway conditions, current weather, AFM limitations, operational procedures, and aircraft equipment status at the time of landing.
3)    Runway field length requirements for parts 121 and 135 are no longer contained in OpSpec C060. They have been moved to OpSpec C054, and any part 121 or 135 operators issued OpSpec C060 must also be issued OpSpec C054.
4)    The “Special Operational Equipment and Limitations” column in Table 1 (see Figure 3-67F) is provided for equipment that is in addition to that required by 14 CFR and not included in the AFM. For example, additional equipment may be required to meet the field length requirement where “procedural” means alone is not acceptable.

E.    Operators Authorized for CAT IIIa (RVR 700) Operations Can be Approved for RVR 600. Some aircraft were certified in the AFM for CAT IIIa operations. These operations are limited by regulation to no lower than RVR 700. If the AFM or AFMS also contains a statement that the CAT III systems are FP or have been demonstrated to meet the airworthiness criteria of AC 120-28 for FP systems, the aircraft may be approved for operations no lower than RVR 600. Most CAT III operations authorized for RVR 700 prior to issuance of AC 120-28 are now eligible for authorization to RVR 600, upon request of the operator for issuance of a revision to that operator’s pertinent OpSpecs. Operators authorized RVR 700 may be approved for RVR 600/600/300 or RVR 600/400/300 operations in accordance with Table 3-21 when:

1)    The AFM or AFMS contains a statement that the aircraft systems are FP.
2)    The operator has incorporated changes reflecting RVR 600 into the approved training program (when applicable), bulletins, aircraft placards, etc., as appropriate.
3)    A check airman or an FAA inspector has certified the flightcrews to fly to these reduced minimums.

F.    Approval for RVR 600. An operator currently using RVR 600 or lower in its approved training for FP operations may be approved for RVR 600 without further checking. Approval may be given when the operator has updated the approved training program (when applicable) and flightcrew bulletins to reflect the RVR 600 authorization.

G.    CAT III Approach and Landing Minimums. Figure 3-67F is an example of Table 1 with data inserted. If an operator is not authorized to conduct those kinds of CAT III operations with a particular airplane, or if the operator does not need special operational equipment, put “NA” under the appropriate column (do not delete or leave any cells blank).

NOTE:  Include only the equipment that is not explicitly required by the regulations and/or the AFM. For new CAT III operators, inspectors must coordinate the operational equipment requirements with the RFSD NextGen branch during normal review processing.

Figure 3-67F.    Example OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060, Table 1

Airplane M/M/S

Landing System*

Rollout System*

DH/AH

TDZ/Mid/RO RVR

Special Operational Equipment and Limitations

B-737-232

FP

NA

50 DH

600/600/300

NA

B-737-35B

FP

NA

50 DH

600/600/300

Either autoland or HGS must be operable

B-737-832

FP

NA

50 DH

600/600/300

Either autoland or HGS must be operable.

A-320-214

FO

FO

100 AH

300/300/300

NA

B-737-400

FP

FP

50 DH

600/400/300

1. Two EADI displays (EFI switch in NORMAL).

2. First Officer Flight Director Display.

3. Operational antiskid.

4. Cockpit LWMP status placard indicating CAT IIIa

HGS capable.

B-747-47UF

FO

FO

100 AH

300/300/300

Antiskid and thrust reverser system must be fully operative for operations below RVR 600.

DASAULT FALCON-900EX

FP

FP

50

600/600/300

NA

B-757-225

FO

FO

50AH

300/300/300

1.30 required if thrust reverser or antiskid inoperative below RVR 600.

B-727-277

FP

NA

DH 50

600/600/300

NA

B-757-236

FO

FO

50 AH

300/300/300

NA

B-767-222

FO

FO

100 AH

300/300/300

Use 1.3 if autobrake is inoperative.

A319-112

FO

FO

100 AH

300/300/300

1.30 required if thrust reverser or antiskid inoperative below RVR 600.

B-777-236

FO

FO

50AH

300/300/300

NA

DC-10-10F

FO

FO

100 AH

300/300/300

Ground speed indicating system.

MD-11F

FO

FO

100 AH

300/300/300

Ground speed indicating system.

NOTE:  Enter: “NA” for not applicable; “FP” for FP landing or rollout control system; and “FO” for FO landing or rollout control system (i.e., “FP/FO” systems include autoland and head-up display (HUD) guidance systems (also referred to as Head-Up-Guidance Systems (HGS))).

H.    Additional Information. Some European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) Member States apply a DH (as opposed to an AH) to operations at or below RVR 600 because of instrument landing system (ILS) facility integrity concerns.

I.    Required RVR Reporting Equipment. The RVR reporting equipment authorizations were expanded to enable the use of new and more robust EASA approval and AC 120-28 certification criteria for autoflight or a guidance landing system(s) with FP rollout control or flight guidance landing systems. A summary of these authorizations is shown in Figure 3-67G, OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060, Table 2.

1)    OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060 allows touchdown RVR 600; mid RVR 400; rollout RVR 300 (600/400/300) for appropriate FP landing and FP or FO rollout systems; and RVR 400/400/300 for FO landing systems with FP rollout control or flight guidance (HUD) landing systems.
2)    Note that to use the touchdown RVR 600 with mid RVR 400 and rollout RVR 300, a published runway landing minimum of RVR 400 or lower is required—that is, mid RVR 400 and rollout RVR 300 cannot be used at runways where RVR 600 is the lowest published RVR minimum.
3)    RVR 300/300/300 is allowed for FO landing systems with FO rollout control or flight guidance (HUD) landing systems.
4)    The operator or program manager is not authorized to conduct operations using an RVR lower than the published minimums at any runway (domestic or foreign), even if the operator or program manager is authorized to conduct CAT III operations at a lower RVR than is published for that approach.

Figure 3-67G.    OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060, Table 2

Landing System

Rollout System

TDZ RVR

Mid RVR

Rollout RVR

FP or FO

None

600 (175 m)

600 (175 m)

300 (75 m)

FP

FP or FO

600 (175 m)

400 (125 m)

300 (75 m)

FO

FP

400 (125 m)

400 (125 m)

300 (75 m)

FO

FO

300 (75 m)

300 (75 m)

300 (75 m)

J.    Crosswind Limitations. The crosswind component on the landing runway must be 15 knots or less, unless the AFM’s crosswind limitations are more restrictive. This should be reflected in the approved training program and flightcrew bulletins.

K.    Authorized CAT III Airports and Runways. With the issuance of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060, the operator/program manager is authorized to conduct CAT III operations at all domestic airports and runways using an approved 14 CFR part 97 CAT III instrument approach procedure (IAP), unless the runway is on the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division’s (AFS-400) Restricted U.S. Facilities Approved for Special Authorization Category II & Category III Operations list ( http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs410/status_lists), or unless a restrictive Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) is issued for that approach. Domestic airports and runways that have no restrictions do not have to be individually listed in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060. All foreign airports and runways approved for CAT III operations and restricted U.S. airports and runways approved for CAT III operations must be specifically identified and listed in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060, Tables 3 and 4, respectively. The list of approved foreign CAT III airports and runways can be found at http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs410/status_lists.

1)    Foreign Airports and Runways. CAT III operations may be authorized at the foreign airports and runways listed in Table 3 (see Figure 3-67H, Example OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060, Table 3) from the selection list provided for in Table 3.
2)    U.S. Facilities with Restrictions or Conditions. The U.S. ILS facilities provided in Table 4 (see Figure 3-67I, Example OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060, Table 4) are approved for CAT III operations only for the specific aircraft listed. The characteristics of the prethreshold terrain, runway touchdown zone (TDZ) slope, or steep glideslope (GS) at these facilities may cause abnormal performance in flight control systems. Additional analysis and/or flight demonstrations are typically required for each aircraft type before approval of CAT III minimums at each runway. Publication of a part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) or additional operators and their aircraft may be approved by the regional NextGen branch as provided in AC 120-28, Appendix 8. Approved aircraft are equipped with either autoland or HUD flight guidance equipment. The restrictions at U.S. facilities for the certificate holder are provided as selectables for listing in Table 4.

Figure 3-67H.   Example OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060, Table 3

Foreign Airports and Runways Approved for CAT III Operations

Airport Name/Identifier & Runway(s)

Special Limitations

London/Gatwick, England; EGKK; 8R/26L

None

Luxembourg, Luxembourg; ELLX; 24

None

Madrid/Barajas, Spain; LEMD; 18L/18R/33L/33R

None

Almaty, Kazakhstan; UAAA; 23R

None

Figure 3-67I.     Example OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C060, Table 4

Runway and Aircraft Restrictions and Limiting Conditions for Part 97 CAT III Operations

Airport Name/Identifier, Runway(s) & CAT III Minimums

Restrictions & Limitations

Pittsburgh/Greater Pittsburgh Intl, PA; KPIT

RY10L; RVR 300

Aircraft approved:

A319, A320, B-757, and B-767

Pittsburgh/Greater Pittsburgh Intl, PA; KPIT

RY10R; RVR 600 and RVR 300

Restricted to 600 RVR until less-than 600 RVR

SMGCS operations are approved.

Aircraft approved RVR 600: B-757 and B-767.

Aircraft approved RVR 300: A319 and A320.

L.    Inoperative Lights. If CAT III operations are planned at a runway, but TDZ and/or centerline (CL) lights are inoperative, CAT II operations may be conducted if weather permits and the operator has the authorization described below in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059. OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 authorizes specific CAT II minimums for part 97 CAT II approaches when the TDZ and centerline lights are inoperative. These CAT II minimums (RVR 1200) are authorized under the selectable subparagraph g(2) in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C059 , and are the lowest minimums available to a runway with inoperative TDZ and/or centerline lights.

M.    Lower Landing Minimums Maintenance Program. The operator/program manager must maintain the aircraft and equipment listed in Table 1 (see Figure 3-67F) in accordance with its approved Lower Landing Minimums (LLM) maintenance program or inspection program, as applicable.

N.    Engine-Inoperative Operations. The operator may be authorized for engine-inoperative CAT III operations in accordance with the AFM and AC 120-28. Airplane M/M/S, operational requirements, and limitations must be listed in Table 5 (see Figure 3-67J, Example OpSpec/MSpec C060, Table 5 (LOA C060, Table 6)).

1)    With preplanned engine-inoperative CAT III capability, airports and minimums that otherwise may not be considered acceptable for use could be selected by the pilot or operator without having to subsequently justify its use based on emergency authority. This capability also has the advantage of allowing for full preassessment of the aircraft capability and engine inoperative aircraft configurations (e.g., flap settings, electrical system capability, hydraulic system capability, etc.), approach procedure characteristics, missed approach performance, and other factors that may be difficult to assess in real time if not previously assessed.
2)    This capability can also permit an operator some additional flexibility in selecting alternate airports. Authorization to use CAT III alternate airport weather minimums is given in OpSpec C055, and should be based on the authorization in Table 5 (see Figure 3-67J).
3)    Authorization to conduct engine-inoperative CAT III operations is based on the AFM and approved operator procedures and training. AC 120-28 describes in detail the requirements and considerations necessary for authorization. These include aircraft performance, configuration and systems requirements, crew training (if applicable), and dispatcher and crew preflight and en route planning and decisionmaking.
4)    Operational authorizations are in accordance with AC 120-28. With preflight planning authorization, the operator may consider engine-inoperative CAT III capability in planning flights for a takeoff alternate, en route (Extended Operations (ETOPS) or Extended-Range Operations (ER-OPS)) alternate, redispatch alternate, destination, or destination alternate. With landing after engine failure en route authorization, the operator may initiate an engine-inoperative CAT III approach under the conditions specified in AC 120-28. With landing after engine failure during approach authorization, the operator may continue a CAT III approach after passing the final approach fix (FAF), unless required by the AFM to discontinue the approach in order to reconfigure the aircraft.

Figure 3-67J.    Example OpSpec/MSpec C060, Table 5 (LOA C060, Table 6)

Engine Inoperative CAT III Operations

Airplane M/M/S

Operational Authorization

Limitations

B-777

Preflight planning.

Landing after engine failure en route.

Landing after engine failure during approach.

Flaps 20 or 30.

Minimum TCH: 40 feet.

B-747

Preflight planning.

Landing after engine failure en route.

Flaps 25 or 30.

Minimum TCH: 42 feet.

Rudder trim or manual control required until below 1500 feet RA with LAND 3.

5-kt crosswind limit with rudder ratio system inoperative and engine inoperative.

O.    Nonstandard Requests. All requests for operational nonstandard OpSpec/MSpec/LOA authorizations must be submitted to the Air Transportation Division (AFS-200) using the nonstandard request policy outlined in Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 2, paragraph 3-713.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C061, FLIGHT CONTROL GUIDANCE SYSTEMS FOR AUTOMATIC LANDING OPERATIONS OTHER THAN CATEGORIES II AND III.

A.    General. C061 authorizes an operator to use a flight control guidance system with automatic landing capabilities to touchdown. Title 14 CFR part 121, §§ 121.579(c) and 14 CFR part 135, § 135.93(d) specify that this type of operation must be authorized by OpSpecs. A part 91 subpart K (part 91K) program manager is issued MSpec C061, if applicable. Before issuing C061, the principal operations inspector (POI) must determine the following:

1)    The Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) permits use of the flight control guidance system (autoland system) to touchdown;
2)    Training on the use of the flight control guidance system and autoland procedures to touchdown is provided to flightcrew members; and
3)    The operator continually maintains flight control guidance and autoland systems in accordance with an approved maintenance program for autoland operations.

B.    Listing Flight Control Guidance Systems. The airplanes (make/model) and the flight control guidance systems (manufacturer/model) authorized for this type of operation must be listed in C061a.

C.    Additional Information. AC 120-67, Criteria for Operational Approval of Auto Flight Guidance Systems, current edition, provides additional information.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C062, MANUALLY FLOWN FLIGHT CONTROL GUIDANCE SYSTEM CERTIFIED FOR LANDING OPERATIONS OTHER THAN CATEGORY II AND III.

A.    General. OpSpec/MSpec C062 is optional for 14 CFR part 91 subpart K (part 91K), 121, and 135 operations to authorize operators to use manually flown flight control guidance systems to conduct approach and landing operations to fly a Category (CAT) I instrument landing system (ILS) using a head-up guidance system (HGS). C062 is issued to use an HGS just as C061 is issued to use an autoland system for other than CAT II or CAT III operations.

1)    This authorization is independent of CAT II/III authorizations. Typically this authorization is issued prior to CAT II/III authorizations and is kept after the issuance of CAT II/III authorizations.
2)    FAA Order 8400.13, Procedures for Category I Approach Operations at 1800 RVR and Approval of Special Authorization for Category II Approach Operations on Type I ILS, current edition, also provides credit for lower-than-standard CAT I minimums using HGS or an autoland system to touchdown.rocedures for Category I Approach Operations at 1800 RVR and Approval of Special Authorization for Category II Approach Operations on Type I ILS, current edition, also provides credit for lower-than-standard CAT I minimums using HGS or an autoland system to touchdown.
3)    It is required to list series of aircraft in addition to make/model due to the distinct differences in series of models (especially in the newer aircraft). The aircraft listed must have a manual flight control guidance system installed and certified for manually flown landings (HGS).

B.    Exceptions to Issuance of C062. C062 is not required to be issued to fly a CAT I ILS when the HGS CAT III guidance is not used to touchdown. Neither C061 or C062 is required when the autoland or HGS are disconnected before, or not used to, touchdown.

C.    Requirements for Operators Conducting Operations in MD-11 Aircraft. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) safety recommendation A-99-40 recommends the FAA “issue a flight standards information bulletin that directs principal operations inspectors to ensure that MD-11 training programs provide simulator instruction in the proper procedure for autopilot disengagement and the subsequent manual control of the airplane.” As a result, Flight Standards recommends that principal operations inspectors (POI) ensure that each operator conducting operations in an MD-11:

1)    Has included in its Company Flight Manual (CFM) information regarding the potential for pitch attitude upsets caused by improper operation of the autopilot and disseminate that information to each flightcrew member of the MD-11; and
2)    Has included simulator instruction in the proper operating procedure for autopilot disengagement and subsequent manual control of the airplane in its MD-11 initial, upgrade, recurrent, transition, and requalification training programs.

D.    Helicopter Authorization. See OpSpec/MSpec H111 for the helicopter equivalent of this authorization.

OPSPEC/MSPEC/LOA C063, AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV) AND REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE (RNP) TERMINAL OPERATIONS.

A.    General. The authorization provided by OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 is applicable to certificate holders/operators/program managers conducting operations under 14 CFR parts 91K), 121, 125 (including the 125 Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) A125 holders (125M)), and 135. (For 14 CFR part 129, see Volume 12, Chapter 2, Section 5.)

1)    OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 authorizes certificate holders/operators/program managers to conduct operations using 14 CFR part 97 U.S. instrument flight rules (IFR) terminal Area Navigation 1 (RNAV 1) and/or Required Navigation Performance 1 (RNP 1) departure procedures (DP) and RNAV 1 and/or RNP 1 Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STAR) in the National Airspace System (NAS). This guidance addresses RNAV 1, RNP 1, and other RNAV flight operations. It also provides guidance authorization for certificate holders/operators/program managers to conduct RNP 1 procedures that include radius to a fix (RF) path terminators and tailored arrivals (TA). Part 91 operators do not need to obtain an LOA for RNAV 1 or RNP 1 approval.
2)    The term “RNAV 1 DP” or “RNP 1 DP” includes Standard Instrument Departures (SID) and Obstacle Departure Procedures (ODP).

NOTE:  If a certificate holder’s/operator’s/program manager’s aircraft are not eligible (properly equipped) and/or its flightcrews are not appropriately trained to conduct RNAV 1 and/or RNP 1 DPs and STARs, then the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 authorization should not be issued. RNP 1 requires Global Positioning System (GPS) and additional requirements for operating on procedures that contain RF legs, as outlined in the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 90-105, Approval Guidance for RNP Operations and Barometric Vertical Navigation in the U.S. NAS.

3)    RF legs are an optional capability rather than a minimum requirement for RNP 1 operations. For RNP 1 systems incorporating RF leg capability, the systems must comply with the requirements in AC 90-105, appendix 2 for RNP 1 terminal operations, and AC 90-105, appendix 5 for RNP 1 operations with RF leg capability.

B.    RNAV 1 and/or RNP 1 DPs and STARs. The current edition of AC 90-100, U.S. Terminal and En Route Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations, provides detailed guidance for certificate holders/operators/program managers regarding operations on RNAV 1 DPs and STARs.

1)    AC 90-105 provides guidance for system and operational approval for conducting RNP 1 DPs and STARs.
2)    For current ACs, policy, guidance, and compliance tables, see http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs470/policy_guidance. For further questions, contact the Performance Based Flight Systems Branch (AFS-470) at 202-385-4623. Based on the information supplied by the certificate holder/operator/program manager, the principal operations inspector (POI) must coordinate with the principal avionics inspector (PAI) to determine equipment eligibility. For TAs, a Future Air Navigation System (FANS)-1/A is required, as indicated in OpSpec/MSpec/LOA A056.
3)    Additional information may also be found in the Web-based Operations Safety System (WebOPSS) guidance associated with OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 by clicking on “Guidance.”

C.    Outlining Procedures Using This Approval. Procedures used under this approval should be outlined in the appropriate operations manual or within the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 template for certificate holders/operators/program managers conducting operations under parts 91K, 125 (including 125 LODA A125 holders (125M)), and 135 who do not have an operations manual. Part 91 operators do not need to obtain an LOA for RNAV 1 or RNP 1 approval; any additional authorizations will require an LOA for these procedures.

D.    Designation of RNAV 1 RNP 1. U.S. RNAV DPs and STARs throughout the NAS are designated as RNAV 1 and published in accordance with part 97. Charting specifications for part 97 U.S. RNP 1 DPs and STARs are currently under development.

E.    Definitions Related to This Authorization. Some important definitions as they relate to this authorization are as follows:

1)    Instrument Departure Procedure (DP). Instrument DPs are published IFR procedures that provide obstruction clearance from the terminal area to the en route structure. There are two types of DPs: SIDs and ODPs.
a)    A SID is a published IFR air traffic control (ATC) DP that provides obstacle clearance and a transition from the terminal area to the en route structure. SIDs are primarily designed for air traffic system enhancement to expedite traffic flow and to reduce pilot/controller workload.
b)    An ODP is a published IFR DP that provides obstruction clearance via the least onerous route from the terminal area to the appropriate en route structure. ODPs are recommended for obstruction clearance unless an alternate DP (such as a SID or radar vector) has been specifically assigned by ATC. The RNAV 1 or RNP 1 ODP must be retrievable from the flight management system (FMS) database and included in the filed flight plan.
2)    >Climb Via. An ATC instruction in development that will be issued to pilots flying RNAV 1 DPs and RNP 1 DPs. The instruction is issued to enable pilots to vertically and laterally navigate (i.e., climb in accordance with published speed and/or altitude constraints) on a DP as published.
3)    Descend Via. An ATC instruction issued to pilots flying RNAV 1 STARs, RNP 1 STARs, or Flight Management System Procedures (FMSP). The instruction is issued to enable pilots to vertically and laterally navigate (i.e., descend in accordance with published speed and/or altitude constraints) on an arrival procedure as published.
4)    Flight Management System Procedure (FMSP). An RNAV arrival, departure, or approach procedure developed for use by aircraft equipped with an FMS.

NOTE:  The number of FMSPs in the NAS is limited and FMSP criteria are no longer preferred for the design of RNAV procedures.

5)    Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR). An RNAV STAR is a published IFR ATC arrival procedure that provides a transition from the en route structure to the terminal area.
6)    Area Navigation 1 (RNAV 1) DPs and STARs. RNAV 1 terminal procedures require that the aircraft’s trackkeeping accuracy remain bound by + 1 nautical mile (NM) for 95 percent of the total flight time. RNAV 1 terminal procedures require, at a minimum, a distance measuring equipment (DME)/DME/Inertial Reference Unit (IRU)-based and/or GPS-based RNAV system satisfying the criteria of AC 90-100.
7)    Required Navigation Performance 1 (RNP 1) DPs and STARS. RNP 1 procedures meet a specific navigation accuracy performance value for a particular phase of flight or flight segment for 95 percent of the total flight time, and incorporate associated onboard performance monitoring and alerting features to notify the pilot when the RNP for a particular phase or segment of a flight is not being met. GPS is required for RNP 1 flight operations.
8)    Tailored Arrival (TA). A TA is an unpublished instrument arrival that consists of an arrival clearance that is transmitted via data link to the aircraft while in oceanic airspace to a FANS-1/A-equipped aircraft. The transmitted RNAV 1 path contains altitudes and speed restrictions, and connects to a published instrument approach from the aircraft’s FMS database.

F.    Training. A certificate holder’s/operator’s/program manager’s FAA-approved training program should include subject areas and frequency in accordance with the following:

NOTE:  Certificate holders/operators not required to have approved training programs must include an RNAV 1 or RNP 1 DP, or an RNAV 1 or RNP 1 STAR, on each 14 CFR part 61 qualification check. If the certificate holder/operator receives authorization for an RNP 1 procedure with an RF leg, they must demonstrate this procedure.

1)    General. Training and qualification should be conducted in the specific equipment being used and type of procedure(s) approved under OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063. Training and qualification for RNAV 1 and RNP 1 are alike in many respects and credit should be considered where no differences are found between the two. Training should include the following subject areas for the type of operation requested, where applicable:
a)    Procedures for verification that the correct procedure and runway are entered into the navigation system database prior to departure.
b)    Recognition that some manually selectable aircraft bank-limiting functions might reduce the ability to satisfy ATC path expectations, especially during turns of 70 degrees or greater.
c)    The importance of reducing Flight Technical Error (FTE) on RNAV 1 or RNP 1 procedures via use of equipment such as flight director (FD) and/or autopilot.
d)    The meaning and proper use of aircraft equipment/navigation suffixes.
e)    Procedure characteristics as determined from chart depiction and textual description.

·    Depiction of waypoint type.

·    Required navigation equipment.

·    Phraseology.

f)    Recognition of altitude and speed restrictions on RNAV 1 and RNP 1 procedures.
g)    Use of autopilot/FD on RNAV 1 or RNP 1 procedures.
h)    RNAV system-specific information:

·    Levels of automation, mode annunciations.

·    Functional integration with other aircraft systems.

·    The meaning and appropriateness of route discontinuities.

·    Verification and monitoring procedures for each phase of flight.

·    Types of navigation sensors.

·    Turn anticipation with consideration to speed and altitude effects.

·    Interpretation of electronic displays and symbols.

i)    RNAV system operating procedures, as applicable, including how to perform the following actions:

·    Verify currency of aircraft navigation data.

·    Verify successful completion of system self-tests.

·    Initialize navigation system position.

·    Retrieve and fly a STAR procedure or DP.

·    Adhere to speed and/or altitude constraints associated with DP or STAR operations.

·    Make a runway change associated with a DP or STAR.

·    Verify waypoints and flight plan programming.

·    Perform a manual or automatic runway update.

·    Fly direct to a waypoint.

·    Fly a course/track to a waypoint.

·    Intercept a course/track to a waypoint.

·    Be vectored off and rejoin a procedure from “heading” mode.

·    Determine cross-track error/deviation.

·    Insert and delete/clear route discontinuity.

·    Remove and reselect navigation sensor input(s).

·    When required, confirm exclusion of a specific Navigational Aid (NAVAID).

·    Insert and delete a lateral offset.

·    Change arrival airport and alternate airport.

·    Insert and delete a holding pattern.

j)    Operator-recommended levels of automation:

·    Levels of automation, mode annunciations.

·    Functional integration with other aircraft systems.

·    Monitoring procedures for each phase of flight.

·    Types of navigation sensors.

·    Turn anticipation with consideration to speed and altitude effects.

·    Interpretation of electronic displays and symbols.

k)    Flightcrew contingency procedures for a loss of RNAV 1 or RNP 1 capability. Due to the lack of navigation guidance, the training should emphasize the flightcrew contingency actions that achieve separation from terrain and obstacles.
l)    Procedures to obtain a receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) prediction. (Systems are only required to provide Nonprecision Approach (NPA) RAIM predictions.) The operator can demonstrate compliance based on the information listed below:

1.    A GPS RAIM prediction. As described in AC 90-100 and AC 90-105, if Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C129( ), Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using the Global Positioning System (GPS), equipment is used to solely satisfy the RNAV requirement, GPS RAIM availability must be confirmed for the intended route of flight (route and time) using current GPS satellite information. The availability of Satellite-based Augmentation System (SBAS) or Aircraft-Based Augmentation System (ABAS) fault detection can be determined through Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) (if available), or through prediction for the intended RNAV 1 or RNP 1 operation.

NOTE:  For multisensor aircraft with operating GPS and DME/DME/IRU positioning, a RAIM check is not required as long as critical DMEs are functioning normally.

2.    Certificate holders/operators/program managers may satisfy the predictive RAIM requirement through any one of the following methods:

a.    Operators may monitor the status of each satellite in its plane/slot position by accounting for the latest GPS constellation status (e.g., NOTAMs or Notice: Advisory to Navstar Users (NANU)), and compute RAIM availability using model-specific RAIM prediction software;

b.    Operators may use the FAA en route and terminal RAIM prediction Web site (http://www.raimprediction.net or http://www.raimprediction.faa.gov);

c.    Operators may contact a Flight Service Station (FSS) (not Direct User Access Terminal System (DUATS)) to obtain NPA RAIM;

d.    Operators may use a third-party interface, incorporating FAA/Volpe Center RAIM prediction data without altering performance values, to predict RAIM outages for the aircraft’s predicted flightpath and flight times;

e.    Operators may use the receiver’s installed RAIM prediction capability (for TSO‑C129a/Class A1/B1/C1 equipment) to provide NPA RAIM, accounting for the latest GPS constellation status (e.g., NOTAMs or NANUs). Receiver NPA RAIM should be checked at airports spaced at intervals not to exceed 60 NM along the RNAV 1 or RNP 1 procedure’s flight track. Terminal or approach RAIM must be available at the estimated time of arrival (ETA) over each airport checked; or

f.    Operators not using model-specific software or FAA/Volpe Center RAIM data will need FAA operational approval.

3.    In the event of a predicted, continuous loss of RAIM of more than 5 minutes for any part of the intended flight, the flight should be delayed, canceled, or rerouted to where RAIM requirements can be met. Pilots should assess their capability to navigate (potentially to an alternate destination) in case of failure of GPS navigation.

4.    If TSO-C145, Airborne Navigation Sensors Using the Global Positioning System Augmented by the Satellite Based Augmentation System/TSO-C146, Stand-Alone Airborne Navigation Equipment Using the Global Positioning System Augmented by the Satellite Based Augmentation System, equipment is used to satisfy the RNAV requirement, the pilot/operator need not perform the prediction if wide area augmentation system (WAAS) coverage is confirmed to be available along the entire route of flight.

NOTE:  Outside the United States or in areas where WAAS coverage is not available, operators using TSO-C145/TSO-C146 receivers are required to check GPS RAIM availability.

5.    The current RAIM prediction Web site is graphic-based and the FAA is developing automation improvements to this prediction service.

m)    RNAV Departure.

1.    Takeoff Clearance. Pilots can expect a takeoff clearance from ATC that will provide instructions to depart the runway either via an RNAV path or via an assigned heading to be maintained. Special emphasis should be placed on common pilot errors on an RNAV departure. (See subparagraph F1)n).)

2.    Equipment-Specific Training Considerations.

a.    RNAV DP Engagement Altitudes. For DPs, the pilot must be able to engage RNAV equipment to follow flight guidance for lateral RNAV no later than 500 feet above airport elevation.

b.    Lateral Navigation Mode. Pilots must use a lateral deviation indicator (LDI) (or equivalent navigation map display), FD, and/or autopilot in lateral navigation mode on RNAV 1 or RNP 1 routes. The full-scale course deviation indicator (CDI) deflection value of ±1 NM is acceptable.

c.    DME/DME/IRU Aircraft. Pilots of aircraft without GPS/Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), using DME/DME/IRU, must ensure that the aircraft navigation system position is confirmed, within 1,000 feet, at the start point of the takeoff roll. The use of an automatic or manual runway update is an acceptable means of compliance (AMC) with this requirement. A navigation map may also be used to confirm aircraft position if pilot procedures and display resolution allow for compliance with the 1,000-foot tolerance requirement.

d.    GNSS Aircraft. When using GNSS, the signal must be acquired before the takeoff roll commences.

NOTE:  For aircraft using TSO-C129/C129a, the departure airport must be loaded into the flight plan in order to achieve the appropriate navigation system monitoring and sensitivity. For aircraft using TSO‑C145a/TSO-C146a avionics, if the departure begins at a runway waypoint, then the departure airport does not need to be in the flight plan to obtain appropriate monitoring and sensitivity.

n)    Pilot Errors. Typical pilot errors should be included in the operator’s training program. The following are examples of RNAV FMS entry errors:

1.    Proper Interpretation of Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC) and Printed Clearance Routes. Pilots of operators using PDC and printed routes must be able to properly interpret their assigned clearance. Specifically, pilots must be able to recognize direct routings, assigned altitudes, revised clearances, SIDs, and en route transitions. As an example, some pilots incorrectly inferred that the absence of a period (“.”) in their PDC or printed clearance meant a direct routing. By making this assumption, their navigation system missed waypoints on the assigned en route transition segment. In the case of the NOBLY2 SID at Dallas/Fort Worth, a PDC with the routing of “NOBLY2 LIT” did not mean direct from NOBLY to LIT. In summary, pilots must understand their operator’s PDC notation, and must request clarification from ATC if any doubt exists with regard to their clearance.

2.    Correct Entry of Runway and En Route Transitions into RNAV System/FMS Prior to Takeoff. Prior to commencing takeoff, pilots must verify that their aircraft navigation system is operating correctly and that the correct airport, runway, and DP (including any applicable en route transition) have been entered and are properly depicted by their navigation system. Pilots who are assigned an RNAV 1 DP and who subsequently receive a change of runway, procedure, or transition must verify that the appropriate changes are entered and available for navigation. A final check of proper runway entry and correct route depiction, shortly before takeoff, is recommended.

3.    Verification of Assigned Route and Correct Entry of Transitions into RNAV System/FMS.

a.    DPs. Before flight, pilots must verify that their aircraft navigation system is operating correctly and that the correct runway and DP (including any applicable en route transition) are entered and properly depicted. Pilots who are assigned an RNAV 1 DP and who subsequently receive a change of runway, procedure, or transition must verify that the appropriate changes are entered and available for navigation. A final check of proper runway entry and correct route depiction, shortly before takeoff, is recommended.

b.    STARs. Pilots must verify that their aircraft navigation system is operating correctly and that the correct arrival procedure and runway (including any applicable transition) are entered and properly depicted.

4.    Use of Navigation Map Displays. Before takeoff, pilots of aircraft with a navigation map display should verify that the relationship of the aircraft position symbol to their assigned runway and route on their display matches external visual cues as well as charts. Specifically, once on or near their assigned runway, pilots should ensure that their navigation display reflects the same relative position to the runway, and that the route depiction reflects that of the respective chart. During flight, these displays should be used in concert with textual displays for route verification.

5.    Manually Selectable Bank-Limiting Functions. Pilots should recognize that manually selectable aircraft bank-limiting functions might reduce their ability to satisfy ATC path expectations, especially when executing turns of 70 degrees or greater. Do not construe this request for awareness as a requirement to deviate from Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) procedures; rather, pilots should be encouraged to limit the selection of such functions within accepted procedures.

2)    RNAV 1—Additional Training. For multisensor aircraft with operating DME/DME/IRU positioning, critical DMEs should be checked via NOTAM for normal function. This could be checked by the flightcrews or a dispatcher.
3)    RNP 1—Additional Training. Understand:
a)    The required minimum equipment to operate on RNP 1 procedures.
b)    The importance of identifying on RNP 1 charted procedures that contain RF legs and associated equipment capability.
c)    The importance of maintaining the published path and maximum airspeeds while performing RNP operations with RF legs.
4)    TA—Additional Training. Pilots must verify that the TA loaded correctly with no discontinuities or other obvious errors. If errors or discontinuities exist, pilots must reject the TA and request that it be resent, or must transition to another arrival. See subparagraph I for additional TA information.
5)    Recurrent Training and Continuing Qualification. Recurrent training and continuing qualification should be based upon the following:
a)    These RNAV 1 and/or RNP 1 procedures should be trained to proficiency during the flightcrew member’s first training sequence in the specific airplane type with equipment being used by the certificate holder/operator/program manager.
b)    Pilot proficiency should be validated during each recurrent training or continuing qualification cycle (i.e., every 12 months) in the use of RNAV 1 or RNP 1 DPs and STARs that the operator is approved to use, in accordance with the certificate holder’s/operator’s/program manager’s FAA-approved training program. This may be accomplished during Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), a Line-Operational Simulation (LOS), or another course of training, as appropriate. For training and checking, the pilot need only demonstrate RNAV 1 or RNP 1.

NOTE:  Certificate holders/operators/program managers not required to have approved training programs must include an RNAV 1 or RNP 1 DP, or an RNAV 1 or RNP 1 STAR, on each part 61 qualification check. If the certificate holder/operator receives authorization for an RNP 1 procedure with an RF leg, they must demonstrate this procedure.

G.    Aircraft Eligibility for RNAV 1 and RNP 1. Certificate holders/operators/program managers and pilots should use the guidance in AC 90-100 to determine their eligibility for domestic U.S. RNAV 1 terminal procedures. Certificate holders/operators/program managers should use the guidance in AC 90-105 to identify if their aircraft’s system performance meets the performance requirements for RNP 1 operations. For the purpose of this authorization, “compliance” means meeting operational and functional performance criteria.

NOTE:  Aircraft compliant with the current edition of AC 90-45, Approval of Area Navigation Systems for Use in the U.S. National Airspace System, may not be compliant with the criteria in AC 90-100.

NOTE:  Per AC 90-100 and AC 90-105, data suppliers and avionics data suppliers must have an LOA in accordance with the current edition of AC 20-153, Acceptance of Aeronautical Data Processes and Associated Databases. Operators must ensure that data supplier(s) are compliant. Aircraft/equipment with approval under AC 90-100 for use of GPS are approved under AC 90-105 for RNP operations.

1)    RNAV 1 procedures require DME/DME/IRU sensors and/or GPS inputs. Due to gaps in the DME infrastructure of the NAS, RNAV 1 procedures require IRU sensor inputs to augment DME/DME, which is often referred to as DME/DME/IRU.
2)    The certificate holder/operator/program manager is responsible for providing equipment eligibility documented by the AFM or other FAA-recognized means. If the operator is unable to determine that the aircraft is eligible, it must provide the following required documentation for RNAV 1 terminal procedures to the certificate-holding district office (CHDO):

·    RNAV system make, model, and part number(s);

·    Evidence of compliance with AC 90-100 or AC 90-105 criteria;

·    Crew operations procedures;

·    Evidence of control of operation procedures;

·    Crew training program;

·    Evidence of control of Navigation Database (NDB) processes; and

·    Any other pertinent information.

NOTE:  AC 90-100 includes terminology harmonized with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) procedures. Formerly classified as either Type A or Type B procedures, they are now referred to as RNAV 1 procedures.

3)    Based on the information supplied by the operator, the POI must coordinate with the PAI to determine equipment eligibility in accordance with the RNAV 1 DPs and STARs compliance table. An aircraft equipment compliance table is also available in the WebOPSS guidance associated with all OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 templates and via the AFS-470 Web site at http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs470.
a)    As described in the AC 90-100 and AC 90-105, the term “compliance” means meeting the operational and functional performance criteria. For the intended purpose of this policy, “compatible” means equipment and systems that perform their intended function and that meet performance requirements for RNAV 1 and RNP 1 operations.
b)    The PAI determines the proper nomenclature of the equipment manufacturer’s make, model, and software version, and that the RNAV equipment and system is installed in accordance with approved data and meets the criteria of the most recent version of AC 90-100 or AC 90-105. To ensure the proper configuration control of the approved RNAV operating system, it is required to list both the hardware and the software part numbers or version/revision numbers in Table 1 of OpSpec C063.
c)    If the CHDO is unable to determine equipment eligibility for RNAV 1 or RNP 1 DPs and STARs via the AFS-470 Web site, contact AFS-470 for guidance.
4)    Based on the information supplied by the certificate holder/operator/program manager, the POI must coordinate with the PAI to determine if the aircraft’s system meets the performance and functionality requirements for RNP 1 operations. The equipment shall not permit the flightcrew to select a procedure or route that is not supported by the equipment, either manually or automatically (e.g., a procedure is not supported if it incorporates an RF leg and the equipment does not provide RF leg capability).The system must also restrict pilot access to procedures requiring RF leg capability if the system can select the procedure, but the aircraft is not otherwise equipped (e.g., the aircraft does not have the required roll steering autopilot or FD installed).
5)    Some RNAV equipment and systems may not be able to perform multiple STAR runway transitions, sometimes known as route Type 3, because of database limitations. Operators of such RNAV systems must procure a tailored database and charts to allow the use of multiple runway transitions in order to qualify for RNAV 1 approval.
6)    After the POI and PAI agree that the certificate holder’s/operator’s/program manager’s navigation equipment, procedures, and flightcrew training are eligible for RNAV 1, RNP 1, or RNP with RF DP and STAR operations, the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C063 template may be issued, indicating the appropriate authorizations in the “Authorizations” column of Table 1.

H.    Certificate Holders and Program Managers Authorized European Precision Area Navigation (P‑RNAV) Operations. The criteria in AC 90-100, required for U.S. RNAV procedures, are generally consistent (but there are exceptions) with the criteria for P-RNAV operations in Europe.

1)    P-RNAV terminal and en route operations require a trackkeeping accuracy of ± 1 NM for 95 percent of the flight time.
2)    If an operator has met the requirements for and is authorized P-RNAV (OpSpec/MSpec/LOA B034), that operator may also be eligible for RNAV 1 after consideration of the issues listed below regarding equipment. POIs should still evaluate their operator’s procedures and training to ensure compliance with AC 90-100.
a)    If approval for the P-RNAV included the use of very high frequency (VHF) omni-directional range station (VOR)/DME, then RNAV system performance must be based on the GNSS, DME/DME, or DME/DME/IRU for RNAV 1. However, VOR/DME inputs do not have to be inhibited or deselected.
b)    If approval for the P-RNAV included the use of DME/DME, the operator can ask the manufacturer or check the FAA Web site for a list of compliant systems. However, DME/DME-only systems are not authorized to conduct RNAV 1 operations.
c)    Operators must be able to follow RNAV guidance no later than 500 feet above field elevation (AFE).
3)    Appropriate P-RNAV references.
a)    The current edition of AC 90-96, Approval of U.S. Operators and Aircraft to Operate Under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) in European Airspace Designated for Basic Area Navigation (B-RNAV) and Precision Area Navigation (P-RNAV);
b)    Joint Aviation Authority (JAA) temporary guidance leaflet (TGL) Number 10, Airworthiness and Operational Approval for Precision RNAV Operations in Designated European Airspace; and
c)     Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 4, OpSpec/MSpec/LOA B034.

I.    TAs. Currently, the TA model is limited and TAs are preplanned fixed routes received via data link from ATC’s Ocean21 system to FANS-1/A-equipped aircraft. Except for the instrument approach portion of the operation, these routes are neither stored in the aircraft NDB nor published.

1)    TAs Consist of Three Elements.

·    Delivery of the TA clearance through the ATC Ocean21 system via data link to FANS‑1/A‑equipped aircraft;

·    An RNAV lateral, vertical, and speed profile; and

·    Connection to a published instrument approach stored in the aircraft NDB.

2)    TA Clearances. Because TAs are complex clearances, only aircraft with an FMS autoload/uplink function can request a TA. Pilots may not manually enter a TA procedure into the FMS. ATC issues TA clearances. Pilots fly the TA procedure according to the operator’s standard operating procedures (SOP).
3)    Approval. The POI should contact the Air Transportation Division (AFS-200) and AFS-470 at FAA headquarters (HQ) for concurrence prior to issuing the appropriate OpSpec, MSpec, or LOA. If the POI, AFS-200, and AFS-470 agree that the operator is authorized to conduct TA operations, authorization should be given by adding TA into the “Authorization” column of Table 1.
4)    Certificate holders/operators/program managers must have all the following OpSpecs/MSpecs/LOAs for TA authorization:
a)    OpSpec A056. OpSpec A056 will include FANS-1/A equipment in Table 1.
b)    OpSpec B050.
c)    OpSpec C063. In the “Limitations and Provisions” column of Table 1 add the following phrase: “Operator is authorized to conduct TAs with FANS-1/A-equipped aircraft listed in OpSpec A056.” If the POI wishes to restrict the authorization to only specific airports, this may also be added to the “Limitations and Provisions” column of Table 1.

J.    References (current editions):

·    Title 14 CFR Part 91, §§ 91.123, 91.205, and 91.503.

·    Title 14 CFR Part 95.

·    Title 14 CFR Part 121, § 121.349.

·    Title 14 CFR Part 125, § 125.203.

·    Title 14 CFR Part 135, § 135.165.

·    Order 1050.1, Environmental Impacts: Policies and Procedures.

·    Order 7100.9, Standard Terminal Arrival Program and Procedures.

·    Order JO 7110.65, Air Traffic Control.

·    Order JO 7400.2, Procedures for Handling Airspace Matters.

·    Order 8260.3, United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS).

·    Order 8260.19, Flight Procedures and Airspace.

·    AC 20-153, Acceptance of Aeronautical Data Processes and Associated Databases.

·    AC 90-45, Approval of Area Navigation Systems for Use in the U.S. National Airspace System.

·    AC 90-96, Approval of U.S. Operators and Aircraft to Operate Under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) In European Airspace Designated for Basic Area Navigation (B-NAV)/RNAV 5 and Precision Area Navigation (P-RNAV).

·    AC 90-100, U.S. Terminal and En Route Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations.

·    AC 90-105, Approval Guidance for RNP Operations and Barometric Vertical Navigation in the U.S. National Airspace System.

·    ICAO Global Operational Data Link Document (GOLD).

OPSPEC C064, TERMINAL AREA IFR OPERATIONS IN CLASS G AIRSPACE AND AT AIRPORTS WITHOUT AN OPERATING CONTROL TOWER—NONSCHEDULED PASSENGER AND ALL CARGO OPERATIONS. C064 authorizes an operator to conduct nonscheduled passenger and all cargo (scheduled and nonscheduled) terminal area instrument flight rules (IFR) operations in Class G airspace or into airports without an operating control tower, with the following limitations and provisions:

A.    Operation Information. Before authorizing C064, the principal operations inspectors (POI) must ensure that the operator has sufficient content in its manual(s) and training program to cover common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF) and pilot controlled lighting (PCL) information and procedures. The POI must also determine that the operator has a method or procedure for obtaining and disseminating necessary operation information. This operation information must include the following:

1)    The airport is served by an authorized instrument approach procedure (IAP) (and departure procedure when applicable);
2)    Applicable charts for crewmember use;
3)    Operational weather data from an approved source for control of flight movements and crewmember use;
4)    Status of airport services and facilities at the time of the operation;
5)    Suitable means for pilots to obtain traffic advisories (TA); and
6)    Sources of TA and airport advisories.

B.    Radio Sources of Air TA Information. Certificate holders may be authorized to use any two-way radio source of air TA information listed in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) (for operations in U.S. airspace) or equivalent Aeronautical Information Publications (AIP) (for foreign operations).

1)    These sources include CTAFs, Aeronautical Advisory Stations (UNICOM), Aeronautical Multicom Stations (MULTICOM), and Flight Service Stations (FSS).
2)    In those cases where two sources are listed at the same airport, inspectors must ensure that the operator’s manuals have procedures that require pilots to continuously monitor and use the TA frequency when operating within 10 nautical miles (NM) of the airport. The procedures should require communication concerning airport services and facilities to be completed while more than 10 NM from the airport.
3)    At some airports, no public use frequencies may be available. In those cases, a certificate holder must arrange for radio communication of essential information including surveillance of local or transient aircraft operations by ground personnel. Ground personnel who operate a company radio for airport status and TA must be able to view airspace around the airport.

C.    Issuance of C064 for C081 Authorization. OpSpecs C064 and/or C080 may need to be issued to the certificate holder in order for the OpSpec C081 to be issued. C081 authorizes the use of special (non-14 CFR part 97) IAPs or departure procedures (DPs).

D.    Other Authorizations. C064 is applicable to 14 CFR part 121, 125, 121/135, and 135 certificate holders. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec H121. Title 14 CFR part 91 subpart K (part 91K) program managers should use MSpec A014 for Class G operations.

OPSPEC C065, POWERBACK OPERATIONS WITH AIRPLANES.

A.    General. C065 authorizes the use of powerplant reversing systems for rearward taxi operations. Before issuing C065, the principal operations inspector (POI) must determine whether the operator meets requirements discussed in AC 120-29, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minima for Approach, current edition. Airplane types’ make, model, and series (M/M/S) authorized for powerback operations must be listed in C065. Airports where powerback operations are authorized must also be listed. If the POI and/or operator determine that restrictions to powerback operations are required at certain gates or ramp areas, the restrictions must be described (adjacent to the airport name) in the “Restrictions and Limitations” column. OpSpecs worksheets provide a template for listing authorized airplanes, airports, and restrictions.

B.    Policies and Procedures for Ground Personnel During Ground Operations. Title 14 CFR part 121, §§ 121.133 and 121.135, part 134, § 134.23, and part 135, § 135.21, require certificate holders to prepare manuals setting forth procedures and policies that must be used by ground and maintenance personnel in conducting their ground operations. Sufficient procedures must be established to maintain an adequate level of passenger and company ground personnel safety during ramp operations. Procedures should emphasize safety during boarding and deplaning of passengers or cargo, specifically during times when an engine(s) may be running or a propeller(s) is turning during ground operations. Procedures should include, as a minimum, a means for defining no access areas around the propeller(s), as well as the landing gear and tugs, during push and ground marshaling operations. Policies should provide that an adequate number of ground personnel are assigned to ensure safety of company personnel and passengers.

C.    Pushback and Ground Marshaling. Procedures for pushback and ground marshaling activities should be clearly defined and should include safety precautions and signals, and should ensure adequate visibility of assigned personnel during the time of aircraft movement.

D.    Increased Awareness. FAA air carrier surveillance programs should emphasize increased awareness by inspectors and the strict need to follow safety procedures around turning propellers, in marshalling and pushback procedures, and/or other ground activities.

E.    Other References. Additional references can be found in National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Recommendations 91-297, 91-298, and 93-146, and Air Carrier Operating Bulletin (ACOB) 8-94-2, Safety in Ground Operations.

OPSPEC C067, SPECIAL AIRPLANE AUTHORIZATIONS, PROVISIONS, AND LIMITATIONS FOR CERTAIN AIRPORTS.

A.    General. OpSpec C067 authorizes certificate holders to operate airplanes into certain airports. The authorizations include the following:

1)    Title 14 CFR part 121 air carriers to conduct passenger-carrying operations into uncertificated airports (see subparagraph C);
2)    Part 121 air carriers to conduct operations at airports that require curfew limitations for flights into or out of specific airports (see subparagraph D);
3)    Part 121 or 14 CFR part 135 air carriers to conduct operations into airports that have operational considerations such as special aircraft performance charts and equipment, special lighting (flare pots, etc.), or unpaved runways (see subparagraph D);
4)    Part 121 or 135 air carriers to conduct operations using the Reginald Bennett International Runway (RBI) Reflectorization System in Alaska (see subparagraph D); and
5)    Part 135 transport category airplane deviations from part 135, § 135.376(a)(3) or § 135.379(d). (See subparagraph D and Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5.)

B.    Authorizations Where Other OpSpecs Are Applicable.

1)    OpSpec C050 for “special PIC qualification airports” is applicable to the authorization described in part 121, § 121.445. Do not list special pilot in command (PIC) qualification airports in OpSpec C067 unless one of the items in subparagraph A also applies.
2)    OpSpec C081 should be used for listing the airports/runways where the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400) has approved specific “special” instrument procedures for a certificate holder.
3)    OpSpec C058 is used for authorizing specific foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS).
4)    OpSpec C064 and C080 are used for authorizing a certificate holder to conduct airplane operations in airport terminal areas in Class G and E airspace.
5)    OpSpec C070 is used for authorizing airports where certificate holders conduct scheduled operations.

C.    Uncertificated Airports.

1)    In accordance with § 121.590(c) and (e), a certificate holder may be authorized to conduct passenger‑carrying airplane operations into an airport (nonmilitary) operated by the U.S. Government that is not certificated under 14 CFR part 139 if those airports meet:
a)    The equivalent safety standards for airports certificated under part 139, and
b)    The equivalent airport classification requirements under part 139 to serve the type airplanes to be operated and the type of operations to be conducted.
2)    Authorization to use such airports may be granted by entering the location/identifier of each airport, and the make and model (if applicable) of the airplanes to be operated in Table 3-24, Sample of Airports and Special Provisions:
a)    Operators should obtain permission from the airport manager of nonmilitary airports to operate at these airports before starting operations.
b)    This permission is not needed for operations at joint-use civil and military airports.
3)    The FAA may authorize a certificate holder to conduct passenger-carrying airplane operations into a domestic military airport that is not certificated under part 139 (by selecting this text in the OpSpec) if the certificate holder ensures the following in advance of starting operations into that airport:
a)    Certificate holders should obtain permission from the base commander of military airports that are not certificated under part 139 in advance of commencement of operations.
b)    In accordance with the requirements of § 121.590, certificate holders must ensure that the airport:

1.    Meets the equivalent safety standards for airports certificated under part 139, and

2.    Meets the equivalent airport classification requirements under part 139 to serve the type airplanes to be operated and the type of operations to be conducted.

D.    Other Special Authorizations.

1)    Other special authorizations include those that may require special operational considerations and special flightcrew member training. (See guidance in Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5, paragraph 4-601.) These authorizations may include but are not limited to:
a)    Operations into airports with special runway markings, such as flare pots or trees;
b)    High-altitude airports with special airplane performance requirements;
c)    Airports in or near precipitous terrain (§ 135.363(h)); and
d)    Airports with unpaved runways or runways constructed on frozen lakes and rivers.
2)    Special authorization for conducting operations at airports in Alaska. For authorization to conduct airplane operations using the RBI Runway Reflectorization System in Alaska:
a)    The air carrier must provide a station agent at the airport trained to give wind information to the flightcrew, and
b)    The air carrier must train its flightcrews on this specific system in accordance with an approved training program. The training program must be approved in accordance with the following criteria:

1.    Each pilot must receive initial and follow-on recurrent training in accordance with the company approved training program.

2.    Ground and flight personnel must complete initial training before participation with this authorization.

3.    Recurrent training must be completed every 12 calendar-months following completion of initial training.

4.    Whenever a person who is required to take this recurrent training completes the training in the calendar-month before or the calendar-month after the month in which this recurrent training is required, that person is considered to have completed it in the calendar-month in which it was required.

NOTE:  The sample Table 3-24 shows how to provide authorization for conducting operations after curfew hours at specific airports or use of the RBI Runway Reflectorization system at specific airports in Table 3-24 of OpSpec C067.

3)    Unpaved runways for turbojet operations. To use an airport with unpaved runways, an operator is required to have special operational procedures and flightcrew member training. For approval of operations at an airport with unpaved runways, the principal operations inspector (POI) must identify the airport and reference the appropriate section of the operator’s manuals in Table 3-24 of OpSpec C067. See Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5.
4)    You may list in OpSpec C067 flag or supplemental destination airports that do not have an available alternate airport (in accordance with § 121.621(a)(2) or § 121.623(b)), for use by airplanes that are dispatched in accordance with the required fuel reserves set forth in § 121.641(b) or § 121.645(c).
5)    Although the FAA does not encourage operators to list aircraft limitations at certain airports during curfew hours in their OpSpecs, if an airport authority requires operators to list these limitations in their OpSpecs, then operators may list them in Table 3-24 of OpSpec C067. A sample of Table 3-24, below, shows an example of limitations for air carrier operations into specific airports during curfew hours.

Table 3-24.    Sample of Airports and Special Provisions

Airport Location/Identifier

Aircraft M/M (enter N/A if not applicable)

Special Provisions and Limitations and Special Flightcrew Member Training

PKEK, Ekwok, Alaska

N/A

A station agent is required to give wind information to the flightcrews and the flightcrew must have completed the required approved training on the RBI Runway Reflectorization System.

DCA, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport

Boeing 737-800

Limitations during the curfew hours.

Boeing 737-800

Max Takeoff—159,000 pounds.

Max Landing—137,600 pounds.

Tahiti Island, Society IS; PPT/NTAA

N/A

Approved as destination airport without an available alternate.

6)    Deviation from the requirement to obtain obstacle clearance data for takeoff. This OpSpec provides for the authorization of certain transport category airplanes a deviation from § 135.367(a)(3) or § 135.379(d). Guidance for this deviation authorization is contained in Volume 4, Chapter 3, Section 5, paragraph 4-599. To authorize this deviation, it must be listed in OpSpec A005 and the following statement must be selected in OpSpec C067:

“The certificate holder is authorized to conduct takeoff operations using transport category airplanes weighing no more than 19,000 pounds and having a seating configuration of no more than 19 passenger seats without showing compliance with part 135, §§ 135.367(a)(3) and 135.379(d). This authorization is limited to only the following operations conducted:

·    At airports of 4,000 feet mean sea level or less field elevation;

·    On runways on which the available length of runway is equal to or greater than 150 percent of the runway required by part 135, § 135.367(a)(1) and (2) or part 135, § 135.379(c), as applicable; and

·    In weather conditions equal to or greater than straight-in Category I landing minimums for the runway being used.”

OPSPEC C068, NOISE ABATEMENT DEPARTURE PROFILES (NADP) ITEM 7K.

A.    General. C068 authorizes an operator to conduct Noise Abatement Departure Profiles (NADP) using aircraft with a maximum certificated gross takeoff weight (GTOW) of more than 75,000 pounds. Operators may use either or both of two standard NADPs as described in Advisory Circular (AC) 91-53, Noise Abatement Departure Profiles, current edition.

B.    Compliance of Vertical Departure Profiles. Before authorizing this paragraph, the principal operations inspector (POI) must ensure that all airplane vertical departure profiles described in the certificate holder operations and/or training manuals comply with the minimums criteria established in AC 91-53 for NADPs (close-in and distant) before approving paragraph C068 for the certificate holder’s OpSpecs. The certificate holder must not use any other departure profile (except as stated in 14 CFR part 91) that is not defined within the AC.

NOTE:  Use of part 91 procedures does not require OpSpecs authorization. If the operator does not meet the criteria established in AC 91-53, then OpSpec C068 will not be issued.

C.    Proposed Exceptions to This OpSpec. Proposed exceptions to the criteria as stated in this OpSpec, which would be less limiting (less than 800 feet above field elevation (AFE)), must be addressed by the certificate holder to the certificate holder’s POI for concurrence by the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400) of the Flight Standards Service (AFS).

D.    Criteria for Close-In and Distant NADPs. AC 91-53, effective July 22, 1993, established minimum acceptable criteria for speed, thrust settings, airplane configurations, and the criteria for both the close-in and distant NADPs. These NADPs can be combined with preferential runway selection and flightpath techniques to minimize noise impact. For helicopter information, see the current edition of AC 91-66, Noise Abatement for Helicopters.

NOTE:  The distant departure profile requires an initiation of flaps/slats retraction prior to thrust cutback initiation with the thrust cutback initiation at an altitude of no less than 800 feet AFE. Configuration changes necessary to meet regulatory performance or operations requirements will not be affected by this procedure. For those airplanes that have a performance requirement to reduce takeoff flaps to an intermediate takeoff flap setting at 400 feet AFE or above, the next flap/slats retraction should be initiated at an altitude of no less than 800 feet AFE.

OPSPEC C070, AIRPORTS AUTHORIZED FOR SCHEDULED OPERATIONS.

A.    General. Under 14 CFR part 119, § 119.49, the OpSpecs must prescribe the authorizations and limitations for each type of operation. All regular airports shall be listed in the OpSpecs of all operators conducting scheduled operations. This includes domestic operations, flag operations, and commuter operations. Provisional and refueling airports will be listed for 14 CFR part 121 domestic and flag operations:

·    Airport name,

·    Three-letter identifier of the airport,

·    Airplanes authorized to use the airport, and

·    A notation as to whether the airport is regular (R), refueling (F), or provisional (P) for each type of airplane authorized (refueling and provisional airports are not applicable to part 135 operators).

NOTE:  If an airport is designated as provisional, the regular airport or airports for which it serves as a provisional airport must be annotated. (Except in unique situations, an airport should not be designated as a provisional airport if it is located more than 100 statute miles outside of the metropolitan area served by the regular airport.)

B.    Requirements for List of Airports. If the operator provides a list of airports to be incorporated into C070, this list must provide the same type of information discussed in subparagraph A. This list must be annotated with the effective date of the listing.

C.    List of Alternate Airports. C070 specifies that the operator must maintain a list of alternate airports that can be used. This list of alternates may be integrated into the list provided by the operator, if desired. The principal operations inspector (POI) should occasionally inspect the list of alternates to determine airport and airplane compatibility.

OPSPEC/LOA C071, AUTOPILOT MINIMUM USE ALTITUDES/HEIGHTS (MUH)

A.    Applicability. OpSpec/LOA C071 is a mandatory authorization for certificate holders/operators who want to operate an autopilot below 500 feet above ground level (AGL), during takeoff or approach operations. Autopilot minimum use altitudes/heights (MUHs) in this OpSpec/LOA are applicable to 14 CFR parts 121, 125 (including 125 Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) holders), and 135. OpSpec/LOA C071 will base its authorization on part 121, § 121.579; part 125, § 125.329; and part 135, § 135.93. OpSpec/LOA C071 does not replace or override OpSpec/LOA C059, Category II Instrument Approach and Landing Operations (Optional: 14 CFR Parts 121, 125, 125M, and 135 Operators) and Special Authorization Category I Instrument Approach and Landing Operations; OpSpec/LOA C060, Category (CAT) III Instrument Approach and Landing Operations; or OpSpec C061, Flight Control Guidance Systems For Automatic Landing Operations Other Than Categories II and III authorizations. The Administrator has authorization to require an altitude higher than the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM).

1)    Approved Airplanes and Equipment. Table 1 lists the airplane configuration and the associated MUHs approved for each individual phase of flight. Airplanes with same M/M/S, but equipped with a different autopilot model/version and MUHs must be listed separately.

NOTE:  This OpSpec/LOA uses “altitude/height” when referencing MUHs. AFMs use “altitude” or “height” in referencing MUH.

Table 1 Approved Airplanes, Equipment and MUHs

Airplane Type

(M/M/S)

Autopilot Manufacturer

Autopilot

Model/Version

Minimum Use Heights/Altitudes (feet)

Takeoff/Initial Climb

Enroute

Approach

 

 

 

 

 

 

2)    Determining MUHs. Specified MUHs and/or specified altitude/height losses published in the AFM will be the basis for this OpSpec/LOA. The following criteria will be used by this OpSpec/LOA to authorize any alternatives to these altitudes:
a)    If the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report recommends a higher altitude than the AFM, the higher FSB (Administrator) altitude will be the authorized altitude.
b)    If an FSB report is not available, or does not address autopilot use altitudes, the lowest authorized altitude in the AFM will be used.
c)    If an FSB report is not available and the AFM does not address autopilot use altitudes/heights, the lowest authorized altitude/height shall be the basic MUH for a given phase of flight.
3)    Takeoff/Initial Climb and Go-Around/Missed Approach Engagement Height. The basic minimum engagement height for an autopilot on takeoff/initial climb and go-around/missed approach is 500 ft. The following exceptions to the 500 ft. basic engagement height are:
a)    A higher altitude/height if doubling the “altitude/height loss” specified in the AFM is greater than 500 ft.,
b)    A minimum engagement altitude is specified in the AFM, or
c)    An altitude/height recommended by FSB, that is no lower than the AFM or double the “altitude/height loss.”
4)    Enroute MUHs. The lowest MUH during enroute operations is 500 ft. above the ground, except as follows:
a)    If doubling the “altitude/height loss” specified in the AFM results in an altitude/height greater than 500 ft., or
b)    A greater altitude recommended by FSB.
5)    Approach MUHs. The MUH during approach operations is no lower than 50 ft. below the lowest DA/H or MDA/H for the instrument procedure being flown, except as follows:
a)    For autopilots with an AFM specified altitude/height loss for approach operations:

1.    An altitude no lower than twice the specified altitude/height loss if greater than 50 ft. below the DA/H or MDA.

2.    An altitude no lower than 50 ft. higher than the altitude loss specified in the AFM when:

a.    Reported weather conditions are less than the basic VFR weather conditions in 14 CFR part 91, § 91.155,

b.    Suitable visual references specified in § 91.175 have been established on the instrument approach procedure (IAP), and

c.    The autopilot is coupled and receiving both lateral and vertical path references.

3.    An altitude no lower than the greater of the altitude loss specified in the AFM or 50 ft. when:

a.    Reported weather conditions are equal to or better than the basic VFR weather conditions in § 91.155, and

b.    The autopilot is coupled and receiving both lateral and vertical path references.

4.    A greater altitude recommended by FSB.

b)    For autopilots with AFM specified approach altitude/height limitations, and the autopilot is coupled and receiving both lateral and vertical path references, the greater of:

1.    The MUH specified for the coupled approach mode selected,

2.    Fifty feet, or

3.    An altitude recommended by FSB.

c)    For autopilots with an AFM specified negligible or zero altitude loss for an autopilot approach mode malfunction, and the autopilot is coupled and receiving both lateral and vertical path references, the greater of:

1.    Fifty feet, or

2.    An altitude specified by Administrator.

6)    Types of Certificates. Airplanes with specified MUHs, specified negligible or zero height loss, or specified height loss will meet the following criteria:
a)    Will be published in the AFM and the autopilot approved in accordance with an FAA type certificate (TC).
b)    &Will be published in an AFM supplement and issued as a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC).
7)    AFM. The AFM and its supplements are the primary resource for establishing autopilot MUHs and issuing OpSpec/LOA C071. The AFM contains operational procedures and limitations approved by Aircraft Certification Offices (ACO).
8)    Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG). The principal operations inspector (POI) may use the AEG as a liaison between the PI and ACO during the AFM approval process when there are any questions regarding the AFM, FSB, or any other subject found in the list above.
9)    Operator Produced Manuals. An Airplane Operations Manual (AOM), General Operations Manual (GOM), or Flightcrew Operating Manual (FCOM) is an operator published document. Although produced in accordance with parts 121, 125, and 135, use information directly from AFM to issue OpSpec/LOA C071. Do not solely use information from operator produced manuals to issue OpSpec/LOA C071. The AFM establishes the basis for the limitations, operational procedures, and performance sections published in these documents.
10)    Manuals with Takeoff Procedures. Some AOMs, GOMs, or FCOMs contain procedures for systems not specifically designed with a takeoff or approach mode. Do not use these types of procedures as a basis for approving procedures and training programs that relate to achieving necessary takeoff or approach performance.
a)    Principal inspectors (PI) approving, or who have approved, performance-related takeoff or approach procedures and training for systems not specifically designed with these modes should coordinate with the responsible AEG.
b)    The AEG, in coordination with the responsible ACO, should be able to provide inputs on the procedure, and propose conditions and limitations, if any, as appropriate.

B.    Training Program. Flightcrews must be trained in accordance with the certificate holder’s/operator’s training program. Certificate holder/operator training programs should specifically address the following topics:

1)    Autopilot function, use, and limitations relative to approach and navigational source used.
2)    Flight management system (FMS) function, use, and limitations relative to approach and navigational source used.
3)    Procedures, modes, and configurations for flying an autopilot coupled approach.
4)    Applicable monitoring and cross check requirements.
5)    Suitable accuracy checks using control display unit (CDU) pages or flight instrument displays.
6)    Display use, including deviation indications and display scaling.
7)    Pilot Flying (PF) and pilot monitoring (PM) duties and callouts during: descent, approach, landing, and missed approach.
8)    Understanding and interpretation of U.S. terminal procedures (e.g., departure procedures, Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STAR), and IAPs).
9)    Understanding, interpretation, and proper response to appropriate failure indications prior to initiation of an approach or during an approach.
10)    Proper techniques to accomplish any special flight deck procedure specified by the certificate holder/operator for the approach type used or for the particular approach to be flown.
11)    Any unique issues particular to a specific approach or family of approach procedures, airplane or FMS.
12)    Proper techniques for executing a missed approach during any segment of the approach with the autopilot engaged or disengaged.
13)    The flightcrew must have successfully completed training for Auto Flight Guidance System (AFGS) operations at the MUHs.
14)    Understanding the limitations of navigational systems used for approach operations (e.g., Instrument Landing System (ILS) facility performance classification codes and their expected performance found in the Airport Facility Directory (AFD)).

C.    Maintenance Program. The certificate holder/operator shall conduct operations in accordance with the airworthiness certification of the autopilot found in 14 CFR part 25, § 25.1329. The certificate holder/operator must also review the established maintenance and reliability program. The design of the program should ensure the equipment functions to the prescribed levels as delivered by the manufacturer, and include maintenance and preventative maintenance. Reference appropriate manuals for compliance with manufacturers’ recommendations.

OPSPEC C072, ENGINE-OUT DEPARTURE PROCEDURES WITH APPROVED 10 MINUTE TAKEOFF THRUST TIME LIMITS.

A.    General. OpSpec C072 is optional and authorizes the certificate holder to use engine-out departure procedures (DPs) under the provisions of 14 CFR parts 121, 125, and/or 135, as appropriate, using airplanes that are equipped with powerplants that are approved 10-minute takeoff thrust time limits in accordance with the provisions of this guidance and OpSpec C070.

B.    Takeoff Obstacle Climb Data in the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). The manufacturer’s AFM must include takeoff obstacle climb data for use with a 10-minute, engine-out takeoff thrust time limit. This AFM data must be applied to the certificate holder’s airplane engine-out takeoff obstacle analysis to provide critical obstacle clearance in the event of an engine failure during takeoff.

1)    The FAA Transport Airplane Directorate and the Engine and Propeller Directorate have developed a procedure to certify and revise airplane manufacturers’ AFMs to include takeoff obstacle climb data for use with a 10‑minute, engine-out takeoff thrust time limit.
2)    Previously, airplane operators’ AFM takeoff data only provided data for a 5-minute takeoff thrust time limit. Airplane operators may obtain revised AFMs from airplane manufacturers for specific airplane/engine combinations. This AFM data may then be applied to the airplane operator’s engine-out takeoff obstacle analysis to provide critical obstacle clearance in the event of an engine failure during takeoff.

C.    Airplane Thrust Limit Restrictions. Because it is assumed that not all airplanes operated by an air carrier will have their AFMs revised for 10-minute takeoff thrust data, some operators’ airplane takeoff thrust limits may be restricted to 5 minutes, while other airplanes in the same fleet may have the 10-minute restriction. Certain criteria must be addressed to inform the pilot which limit is applicable in the event of an engine failure during takeoff.

D.    Engine-Out DPs. The certificate holder’s approved operations manual and training program must include the engine-out DPs specifically designed to use the 10-minute takeoff thrust time limits. These DPs require that airplane operator’s training programs, manuals, and procedures address the following areas:

1)    Air carrier performance engineers’ evaluation of engine-out DPs specifically designed to use the 10‑minute takeoff thrust time limit.
2)    An FAA AFM revision outlining operational procedures with specific airplane/engine lists that involve the 10-minute takeoff thrust time limit.
3)    An FAA-approved dispatch or similar acceptable system that provides specific 10–minute, engine-out takeoff thrust departure procedure information to the pilot for the impending flight concerning the airport, aircraft weight, and departure path.
4)    Information readily available to the pilot that indicates airplanes authorized for 10-minute takeoff thrust operations in the event of an engine failure on takeoff.
5)    Pilot knowledge of the designed engine-out departure procedure that uses the 10-minute takeoff thrust time limit.
6)    Pilot training of the 10-minute takeoff thrust time limit departure flight procedure.

OPSPEC/MSPEC/LOA C073, VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNAV) INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES (IAP) USING MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE (MDA) AS A DECISION ALTITUDE (DA)/DECISION HEIGHT (DH).

A.    Applicability. OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C073 is applicable to all certificate holders/operators/program managers conducting airplane operations under 14 CFR parts 91, 91 subpart K (part 91K), 121, 125 (including part 125 Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) holders), and 135. OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C073 will be used in conjunction with OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052 (not applicable to part 91 operators). OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C073, in accordance with part 91, § 91.175, which states “unless otherwise authorized by the FAA,” authorizes certificate holders/operators/program managers to use a minimum descent altitude (MDA) as a decision altitude (DA)/decision height (DH) using vertical navigation (VNAV).

B.    VNAV Operating Concept. The VNAV operating concept is to fly approach procedures using VNAV guidance with a defined Vertical Path (VPATH) that provides a continuous descent final approach (CDFA). All 14 CFR part 97 Nonprecision Approach (NPA) straight-in IAPs may be flown using an MDA as a DA/DH.

NOTE:  The use of MDA as a DA/DH does not ensure obstacle clearance from the MDA to the landing runway. Operators must see and avoid obstacles between the MDA and the runway when § 91.175 requirements are met and the approach is continued below the MDA for landing.

C.    Airplane Type and Area Navigation (RNAV) System. OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C073, Table 1 will list the airplane type by make, model, and series (M/M/S) and the RNAV system by model and version.

1)    The installed navigation equipment with VNAV must be certified and documented in accordance with FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 20-129, Airworthiness Approval of Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Systems for use in the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) and Alaska, or AC 20-138 (revision A and later), Airworthiness Approval of Positioning and Navigation Systems. The types of certification include: type certificate (TC), amended TC, Supplemental Type Certificate (STC), and amended STC. An FAA equivalent approval may also include a Service Bulletin (SB) installation with approved data by the air carrier. The following are accepted ways to determine certification:
a)    A statement in the FAA-approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) showing that the aircraft is equipped with a VNAV system certified in accordance with AC 20-129 or AC 20-138 (revision A and later).

NOTE:  AC 20-129 applies only to barometric vertical navigation (baro-VNAV), while AC 20‑138A applies only to Satellite-based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) and Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS). AC 20-129 was cancelled when guidance information for baro-VNAV, SBAS, and GBAS was combined into AC 20-138B and later versions.

b)    An Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG) verification that the applicant’s aircraft and flight management system (FMS) meets AC 20-129 or AC 20-138 (revision A or later) criteria for VNAV operations. This may replace the requirement for an FAA-approved AFM statement or an applicable Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report.
2)    The certificate holder/operator/program manager is required to provide documentation proving that airworthiness maintenance practices and procedures are being accomplished.
3)    The certificate holder/operator/program manager must review and revise the minimum equipment list (MEL), as necessary, to address any pertinent VNAV or FMS operating requirements.

D.    Public Vertically Guided IAP Assessment. Obstacle clearance surface (OCS) assessments protect the instrument procedure, including the missed approach. Glidepath Qualification Surface (GQS) assessments protect the landing area and are accomplished on part 97 IAPs with a published DA/DH. These approaches conform to the U.S. standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) and include instrument landing system (ILS), Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) Landing System (GLS), RNAV (Required Navigation Performance (RNP)), and RNAV Global Positioning System (GPS)) IAP with a localizer performance with vertical guidance (LPV) DA and/or lateral navigation (LNAV)/VNAV DA.

E.    Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI)/Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) Requirements. VASI/PAPI lighting systems are normally set at a descent angle of 3.0 degrees or with the electronic ILS glideslope (GS), if applicable. Variances to the normal requirements are issued by a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) and permanently published in the Airport/Facility Directory. A note in the profile view will state if the VASI/PAPI descent angle is not coincident with the published VDA or GS. VASI/PAPI is referenced as Visual Glide Slope Indicator (VGSI) in the C073 template and subparagraph F3).

F.    Authorized Approaches. The certificate holder/operator/program manager may fly all part 97 nonprecision straight-in IAPs listed as authorized in their OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052, Table 1, columns 1 and 2 (C052 not applicable to part 91 operators), using an MDA as a DA/DH if the approach meets one of the following requirements and its subcomponents:

1)    Serves a runway that has a published RNAV IAP (“RNAV (GPS),” “RNAV (RNP),” or “GPS” in the title) with a published LNAV/VNAV or RNP DA, and:
a)    Has the exact published final approach course as the RNAV IAP.
b)    Has a published VDA coincident with or higher than the the barometric vertical guidance GS on the published RNAV IAP.

NOTE:  A published VDA is not required when using the LNAV minima line on an RNAV approach that has a published LPV or LNAV/VNAV DA. Use the published GS. The VNAV path must be at or above all stepdown fixes.

c)    Is selected from an approved and current database and the FMS displays a final approach Flight Path Angle (FPA) in tenths or hundredths. The displayed FPA may have a maximum difference of minus .04 from the IAP VDA or GS. The displayed FPA may always be rounded up to the next tenth. The range for a given FPA will be 2.9 to 3.0, 3.1 to 3.2, 3.2 to 3.3, 4.0 to 4.1, etc. See examples below.

1.    For FMS FPAs displayed in tenths, 3.1 may be displayed for a published IAP with a VDA or GS of 3.10 to 3.14. An FPA of 3.2 may be displayed for a published IAP with a VDA of 3.10 to 3.20.

2.    For FMS FPAs displayed in hundredths, 3.10 may be displayed if the FMS FPA does not match the published IAP with a VDA or GS of 3.10 to 3.14. An FPA of 3.20 may be displayed for a published IAP with a VDA of 3.10 to 3.20.

NOTE:  Aircraft without an FMS FPA display meeting previous AC 20-129 criteria may have been approved for LNAV/VNAV approaches using baro-VNAV. Certificate holders/operators/program managers currently approved C073, using AC 20-129 criteria, may continue C073 operations.

2)    Serves a runway that has a published ILS, GLS, or RNAV IAP with LPV minima and:
a)    Has the exact published final approach course as the ILS, GLS, or RNAV IAP.
b)    Has a published VDA or GS coincident with or higher than the GS on the published ILS, GLS, or RNAV IAP.

1.    A published VDA is not required on a LOC-only approach when the ILS GS is out of service. Use the published GS. VNAV path must be at or above all stepdown fixes.

2.    A published VDA is not required when using the LNAV minima line on an RNAV approach that has a published LPV or LNAV/VNAV DA. Use the published GS. VNAV path must be at or above all stepdown fixes.

c)    Is selected from an approved and current database and the FMS displays a FPA in tenths or hundredths. The displayed FPA may have a maximum difference of minus .04 from the IAP VDA or GS. The displayed FPA may always be rounded up to the next tenth. The range for a given FPA will be 2.9 to 3.0, 3.1 to 3.2, 3.2 to 3.3, 4.0 to 4.1, etc. See examples below.

1.    For FMS FPAs displayed in tenths, 3.1 may be displayed for a published IAP with a VDA or GS of 3.10 to 3.14. An FPA of 3.2 may be displayed for a published IAP with a VDA or GS of 3.10 to 3.20.

2.    For FMS FPAs displayed in hundredths, 3.10 may be displayed if the FMS FPA does not match the published IAP with a VDA or GS of 3.10 to 3.14. An FPA of 3.20 may be displayed for a published IAP with a VDA of 3.10 to 3.20.

NOTE:  Aircraft without an FMS FPA display meeting previous AC 20-129 criteria may have been approved for LNAV/VNAV approaches using baro-VNAV. Certificate holders/operators/program managers currently approved C073, using AC 20-129 criteria, may continue C073 operations.

3)    Serves a runway to an airport operating under 14 CFR part 139 with a VGSI.
a)    The VDA or GS on the published final approach course must be coincident with or higher than the published VGSI descent angle.
b)    The published final approach course is within plus or minus 4 degrees of the runway centerline (RCL) course.

G.    Approach Design Requirements. The IAP must conform to the following procedural design:

1)    Be published with a VDA or GS found in the profile view.
2)    Have a VNAV path angle greater than 2.75 and less than 3.77 degrees for Category A, B, and C aircraft, and a VNAV path angle greater than 2.75 and less than 3.50 degrees for Category D/E aircraft.
3)    Steeper descent paths may be authorized in accordance with the current edition of AC 120-29. Submit aircraft capability and supporting procedures to the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400) via the principal operations inspector (POI).

H.    Database. Waypoint and procedure data must be retrievable from an approved and current database. Source data or database providers must provide for the specification of a VPATH that ensures operation above stepdown fixes between the threshold and the final approach fix (FAF).

NOTE:  The procedure must be loaded from the database and cannot be modified.

I.    Operational Considerations. The certificate holder/operator/program manager will comply with the following operational conditions:

1)    They will follow the lateral flightpath to the missed approach point (MAP) before beginning any turns, unless air traffic control (ATC) has provided alternate climb-out instructions when executing a missed approach before the MAP. He or she will comply with published altitude restrictions between the FAF and the MAP and continue on or climb to the altitude specified in the missed approach procedure. He or she will ensure that the altitude at the published MAP is equal to or greater than the published MDA.
2)    They will not use an MDA as a DA/DH if the requirements specified in this guidance are not met. The certificate holder/operator/program manager may use a CDFA, but will begin the missed approach at an altitude above the MDA that will not allow the aircraft to descend below the MDA.

J.    Flightcrew Training. Flightcrews must be trained in accordance with the certificate holder’s/operator’s/program manager’s OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C052. Part 91 operators must be proficient with VNAV and the IAP to be flown.

OPSPEC C075, CAT I IFR LANDING MINIMUMS—CIRCLING APPROACHES. (SPLIT FROM C053).

A.    General. OpSpec C075 is issued to operators who conduct 14 CFR part 121, 125, and 135 operations with fixed-wing airplanes. OpSpec C075 specifies the lowest minimums that can be used for Category (CAT) I circling approach maneuvers. It also provides special limitations and provisions for instrument approach procedures (IAP) at foreign airports. See Volume 4, Chapter 2 for more information on required training for circling maneuvers.

B.    Circle-to-Land Maneuver. For the purpose of this OpSpec authorization, any operator issued this paragraph is authorized to conduct circle-to-land maneuvers. In any weather condition, a certificate holder that permits its pilots to accept a “circle to land” or a “circle to runway (runway number)” clearance from air traffic control (ATC) conducts circle-to-land maneuvers. The term “circle-to-land maneuver” includes the maneuver that is referenced in various regulations, publications, and documents as “circle to land maneuver,” “circling,” “circling maneuver,” “circle,” “circling approach,” and “circling approach maneuver.” With regard to pilots, “conducting” a circle-to-land maneuver means to act as the Pilot Flying (PF) when a circle-to-land maneuver is being conducted.

C.    Operations Under IFR During Circle-to-Land. Aircraft operating under instrument flight rules (IFR) during all circle-to-land maneuvers are required to remain clear of clouds. If visual reference to the airport is lost while conducting a circle-to-land maneuver, the missed approach procedure specified for the applicable instrument approach must be followed, unless an alternate missed approach procedure is specified by ATC.

D.    Documenting Maneuver Descriptions and Procedures. Each certificate holder who is issued OpSpec C075, and who is also required to have maneuver descriptions/procedures, must publish in its training manual, or must incorporate in its training manual by reference to another approved manual, a detailed description of the procedures used to conduct a circle to land maneuver. Pilots must conduct circle-to-land maneuvers using those procedures.

E.    Provisions for Part 121 Certificate Holders to Perform Circle-to-Land Maneuvers. Part 121 certificate holders may conduct circle-to-land maneuvers under two separate provisions within OpSpec C075.

1)    Part 121 Operations with Flight Training and Flight Checking. Part 121 certificate holders whose pilots have been trained and checked for the circling maneuver in accordance with part 121 appendices E and F, or in accordance with an Advanced Qualification Program (AQP), may conduct a circle-to-land maneuver:

·    At the published circling landing minimums for the instrument approach to be used; or

·    At the minimums specified in the chart contained within the OpSpec paragraph, whichever is higher.

a)    Appendix E does not require a part 121 certificate holder to train a second in command (SIC) in the circling maneuver if the certificate holder prohibits the SIC from performing/conducting (acting as PF) a circling maneuver. However, an SIC must be trained and can be checked in those functions specific to the circle-to-land maneuver that the SIC is required to perform while acting as pilot-not-flying (PNF).
b)    Any pilot who possesses a pilot certificate restricting circling approaches to visual meteorological conditions (VMC) is not eligible to conduct circle-to-land maneuvers, except as provided in subparagraph E.
2)    Part 121 Operations Without Flight Training and Flight Checking. Certificate holders conducting circle-to-land maneuvers without training and checking must use a minimum descent altitude (MDA) of 1,000 feet height above airport (HAA) or the MDA of the published circling landing minimums for the instrument approach to be used, whichever is higher. Certificate holders that conduct a circle-to-land maneuver under this provision remain under an IFR clearance and must comply with those procedures otherwise required for circle-to-land maneuvers. Certificate holders must ensure that pilots are familiar with those procedures. Part 121 pilots who have not been trained and checked for the circling maneuver in accordance with part 121 appendices E and F, or in accordance with an AQP, may conduct a circle-to-land maneuver when:

·    The reported ceiling is at least 1,000 feet and the visibility is at least 3 statute miles (see part 121 appendices E and F); or

·    The reported weather is at least equal to the published circling landing minimums for the instrument approach to be used, whichever is higher.

F.    Circle-to-Land Maneuvers Regarding Part 125. Part 125 certificate holders are not permitted to conduct circle-to-land maneuvers in airplanes without their pilots having been checked in that maneuver.

1)    Part 125, § 125.291(b) States: “The IAP or procedures must include at least one straight in approach, one circling approach, and one missed approach. Each type of approach procedure demonstrated must be conducted to published minimums for that procedure.”
2)    Required Part 125 SIC. The SIC must complete the annual competency check required by § 125.287. The circle-to-land maneuver is not part of the § 125.287 competency check. However, each SIC is evaluated for flightcrew coordination.
3)    PNF Duties. Each crewmember can be checked in those functions specific to the circle-to-land maneuver that the pilot is required to perform while acting as PNF.

G.    Circle-to-Land Maneuvers Regarding Part 135. Part 135 certificate holders are not permitted to conduct circle-to-land maneuvers in aircraft without their pilots having been checked in that maneuver. (Helicopter IFR circle-to-land maneuvers are authorized in OpSpec H118.)

1)    Part 135, § 135.297.
a)    Section 135.297(a) does not allow “any person to serve, as pilot in command of an aircraft under IFR unless, since the beginning of the 6th calendar month before that service, that pilot has passed an instrument proficiency check under this section….”
b)    Section 135.297(b) requires, “The IAP or procedures must include at least one straight in approach, one circling approach, and one missed approach. Each type of approach procedure demonstrated must be conducted to published minimums for that procedure.” The requirement to demonstrate a circle-to-land maneuver applies to both airplanes and helicopters.
c)    Part 135 single-pilot and single pilot-in-command (PIC) operators are not required to have training programs. However, the circle-to-land maneuver must be successfully demonstrated in every § 135.297 instrument proficiency check (IPC).
2)    In accordance with § 135.293, a part 135 IFR operator must ensure that each IFR SIC has an annual competency check. In accordance with Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 7, paragraph 3-1279, an SIC need not be evaluated in “circling approaches” when an operator’s procedures restrict an SIC from conducting (acting as PF) this event in revenue service. However, each required IFR SIC is evaluated for flightcrew coordination.
3)    PNF duties. Each pilot must be trained and can be checked in those functions specific to the circle‑to‑land maneuver that the pilot is required to perform while acting as PNF.
4)    The standard of competence for part 135 IPCs is specified in § 135.293(d). This standard is also specified in the Airline Transport Pilot and Aircraft Type Rating Practical Test Standards for Airplane (FAA S-8081-5) and the Instrument Rating Practical Test Standards for Airplane Helicopter Powered Lift (FAA S-8081-4).

H.    Helicopter Authorization. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec H118.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C076, CAT I IFR LANDING MINIMUMS—CONTACT APPROACHES. (SPLIT FROM C053.) The certificate holder must not use any instrument flight rules (IFR) Category (CAT) I landing minimum lower than that prescribed by the applicable published instrument approach procedures (IAP). The IFR landing minimums prescribed in paragraphs C053 for nonprecision “other than ILS, MLS, or GLS” approaches and C074 for precision “ILS, MLS, or GLS” approaches of these OpSpecs are the lowest CAT I minimums authorized for use at any airport. Those paragraphs must also be issued, as applicable. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec H119.

OPSPEC C077, TERMINAL FLIGHT RULES LIMITATIONS AND PROVISIONS.

A.    OpSpec C077. OpSpec C077 is an optional authorization that is applicable to all operators conducting operations under the provisions for 14 CFR part 135 on-demand turbojet, all 14 CFR part 121 certificate holders, and 14 CFR part 129 foreign air carriers (except for rotorcraft operations). Information on C077 for part 129 foreign air carriers is contained in Volume 12, Chapter 2, Section 5 of this handbook. Information regarding C077 contained in this section applies only to certificate holders conducting part 121 and part 135 operations.

B.    Charted Visual Flight Procedure (CVFP). OpSpec C077 provides for operations under a CVFP unless operating under the provisions of 14 CFR part 93, Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 50-2. The minimums in the CVFP may not be lower than those required by part 121, § 121.649 or part 135, § 135.205, as applicable.

C.    Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Weather Condition Minimums. The VFR weather conditions specified in part 91, § 91.155 may be used. However, where § 91.155(c) and (d) refers to § 91.157, the minimums set forth in § 121.649 or § 135.205, as applicable, take precedence for operations conducted under part 121 or 135.

D.    Subparagraph c.(2)(b). Uncontrolled airports can be in either controlled or uncontrolled airspace. As long as the provisions listed in this subparagraph are met, the operator may operate VFR in uncontrolled airspace in the terminal area in accordance with this OpSpec. For the purpose of direct communication at uncontrolled airports, a common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF) may be utilized as long as it is associated with an air/ground communication facility. The CTAF may be an Aeronautical Advisory Station (UNICOM), Aeronautical Multicom System (MULTICOM), Flight Service Station (FSS), or a tower frequency. Acceptable air/ground communication is a demonstrated reliable means to directly relay traffic advisories (TA) and information that is pertinent to conditions on and around the landing surface during the terminal phase of flight. For example, if the certificate holder adequately demonstrates to the principal operations inspector (POI) its reliability to relay essential information, via radio or another type of communication, through an agent located near the landing surface, it is considered to be a “demonstrated reliable means” of communication.

E.    Subparagraph c.(3). In lieu of a published CVFP, an authorized visual guidance procedure such as the use of RNAV Visual Flight Procedures (RVFP) is highly recommended for all terminal VFR departures/arrivals that fall under this OpSpec. The proximity of obstacles to the departure flightpath, the visibility, the accuracy of the guidance and control systems, the pilot’s proficiency, and the operator’s training should determine the size of the area in which obstacle clearance or avoidance must be considered. The POI should also take into account the airplane performance data described in Volume 4, Chapter 3 of this handbook.

F.    Terminal Departures VFR. At airports that do not have an operating air traffic control (ATC) facility, subparagraph d. of C077 allows a flightcrew on an instrument flight route (IFR) flight to take off and depart under VFR without obtaining an IFR clearance, provided all of the conditions and limitations of C077 subparagraph d.(1) through d.(4) are met. The flightcrew must obtain an IFR clearance as soon as it is practical after takeoff, but under no circumstances farther than 50 nautical miles (NM) from the departure airport. In the case where a certificate holder is issued OpSpec B051 for VFR en route operations in conjunction with C077, the flightcrew may apply the provisions B051, where applicable, in lieu of obtaining an IFR clearance.

G.    Terminal Departure IFR Requirements in Subparagraph e. This subparagraph allows the flightcrew to accept an IFR clearance that contains a takeoff and climb in VFR conditions to a specified point in the clearance. The certificate holder must ensure that the obstacle performance requirements are met.

H.    Special Limitations and Provisions for All VFR Operations. C077 subparagraph f. provides special limitations and provisions for all VFR operations. This subparagraph is applicable to all the provisions and limitations of C077.

1)    Subparagraph f.(1). In order for the certificate holder or operator to conduct terminal VFR operations under C077, they must have in place either a procedure or program which can identify obstacles and the airport obstacle data. Further, they must ensure use of that information by the flightcrew.
2)    Subparagraph f.(2). Although each subparagraph has specific details and minimums regarding VFR, the requirements for sufficient visibility to identify and avoid obstacles is required for all VFR operations.

OPSPEC C078/C079, IFR LOWER THAN STANDARD TAKEOFF MINIMA, 14 CFR PART 121 AIRPLANE OPERATIONS—ALL AIRPORTS.

A.    General. C078 and C079 are optional for authorizing lower-than-standard takeoff minimums. The authority for lower-than-standard takeoff minimums is contained in 14 CFR part 91, § 91.1039(e); 14 CFR part 121, § 121.651(a)(1); 14 CFR part 125, § 125.381(a)(1); and 14 CFR part 135, § 135.225(g) and (h). When appropriate, principal operations inspectors (POI) will issue OpSpec C078 to part 121 or 125 operators, LOA C078 to part 125M operators, OpSpec C079 to part 135 operators, and MSpec C079 to part 91 subpart K (part 91K) operators. These authorizations contain specific criteria regarding pilots, training and qualifications, aircraft, and airports when lower-than-standard takeoff minimums are used.

NOTE:  C078 and C079 are applicable to all airports utilized by the operator.

NOTE:  There may be additional limitations and guidance for specific airplanes in Flight Standardization Board (FSB) reports, which are binding upon all parts 121 and 135 operators.

NOTE:  For the purpose of this OpSpec/MSpec/LOA, the word “sensor” is used to indicate all approved Runway Visual Range (RVR) systems.

B.    Lower-Than-Standard Takeoff Minimums for Part 121 or 125. C078 allows for lower-than-standard takeoff minimums for operators conducting operations under part 121 or 125 (including Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) holders operating under part 125)) with the following limitations and provisions:

1)    Takeoff operations without runway centerline (RCL) lighting are not allowed at less than RVR 1000 (300 meters),
2)    Takeoff operations using only visual references are not allowed at less than RVR 500 (150 meters),
3)    Takeoff operations with visibility down to, but not lower than, RVR 300 (75 meters) using approved head-up display (HUD) takeoff guidance systems,
4)    Authorization for pilot assessment of touchdown zone (TDZ) RVR for takeoff when the installed RVR sensor is inoperative (see subparagraph H), and
5)    Lower-than-standard takeoff minimums include paragraphs addressing takeoffs down to RVR 1600 (500 meters), RVR 1200 (350 meters), RVR 1000 (300 meters), RVR 600 (175 meters), and RVR 500 (150 meters).

C.    Lower-Than-Standard Takeoff Minimums for Part 91K or 135. C079 allows for lower‑than‑standard takeoff minimums for operators conducting operations under parts 91K and 135 with the following limitations and provisions:

1)    Lower-than-standard takeoff minimums down to RVR 1600 (500 meters), RVR 1200 (350 meters), RVR 1000 (300 meters), or RVR 500 (150 meters) for part 135 domestic operations. Section 135.225(f) restricts part 135 domestic operators to 1-mile visibility for takeoffs at foreign or military airports.
2)    Lower-than-standard takeoff minimums down to RVR 1600 (500 meters), RVR 1200 (350 meters), RVR 1000 (300 meters), or RVR 600 (175 meters) for part 91K operations at all airports.
3)    Each aircraft must be operated with a flightcrew consisting of at least two pilots. Use of an autopilot in lieu of a required second in command (SIC) is prohibited.
4)    There are some circumstances in which an Operations inspector for a part 121 or 135 air carrier may consider issuing this OpSpec for airplanes certificated under Civil Air Regulations (CAR) 3 or 14 CFR part 23. Those airplanes have to meet the 14 CFR part 25 avionics equipment requirements necessary to hold a C079 authorization. The following statement becomes binding on such aircraft and must be added using the “Remarks” paragraph selection for C079 to be issued:
a)    Each pilot station must have operational equipment that displays a reliable indication of the following:

1.    Aircraft pitch and bank information (attitude) (from a gyroscopic or attitude heading reference system source);

2.    Aircraft heading (from a gyroscopic or magnetic direction indicating source);

3.    Vertical Speed (VS);

4.    Airspeed; and

5.    Altitude.

b)    Each pilot station must have an independent source of power for the equipment required by subparagraph C4)a)1 and C4)a)2.
5)    Each pilot in command (PIC) must have at least 100 hours of flight time as PIC in the specific make and model airplane used under this authorization. Each PIC must have satisfactorily completed the operator’s approved training program (as applicable) and a qualification check for the minimums approved by this authorization. This includes the methods to be used to ensure compliance with the aircraft performance limitations during takeoffs with RVR less than RVR 1000 (300 meters), when applicable.
6)    Any part 91K or 135 SIC authorized to manipulate the flight controls during lower-than-standard takeoff minimums must have at least 100 hours of flight time as a pilot in the specific make and model airplane, and must have satisfactorily completed the operator’s approved training program and qualifications check for those minimums, when applicable.
7)    For takeoffs when the RVR is less than RVR 1000 (300 meters), each airplane used must be operated at a takeoff weight that permits the airplane to achieve the performance equivalent to the takeoff performance specified in § 135.367 (for reciprocating-powered airplanes), § 135.379 (for turbine-powered airplanes), or § 135.398 (for commuter category airplanes).

D.    Lower-Than-Standard Takeoff Minimums Using HUD Systems. C078 and C079 provide for the authorization of lower-than-standard takeoff minimums using HUD systems with certain limitations and provisions. Although RVR 500 (150 meters) is the lowest authorized minimum when the takeoff is based upon outside visual references (with the exception of operations conducted under part 91K and operations to foreign or military airports conducted under part 135)), RVR 300 (75 meters) is the lowest authorized minimum when using an HUD system on a runway that has been determined to be served by a localizer providing Category (CAT) III rollout guidance, as indicated by a III/E/4 facility classification. As the HUD systems use the localizer signal for steering commands, the localizer needs to be III/E/4 certified (III=CAT III, E=accurate to at least 2,000 feet from the departure end of the runway, and 4=4,000 hours mean time between failures for the localizer signal). A listing of runways with III/E/4 localizer classifications is available on the Flight Operations Branch (AFS-410) Web site at http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs410.

E.    Lower-Than-Standard Takeoff Minimums for TDZ RVR. C078 and C079 authorize lower-than-standard takeoff minimums for TDZ RVR 1600 (500 meters). If TDZ RVR is inoperative, mid-point RVR may substitute for TDZ RVR. Below RVR 1600, two operating RVR sensors are required and controlling. If more than two RVR sensors are installed, all operating RVR sensors are controlling, with the exception of a fourth, far-end RVR sensor that may be installed on extremely long runways. A far-end RVR sensor is advisory only. C078 and C079 allow the selection of the following lower-than-standard takeoff minimums based on flightcrew training, checking, and allowed authorizations:

1)    TDZ RVR 1200 (350 meters), mid-point (if installed) RVR 1200 (350 meters), and rollout RVR 1000 (300 meters).
2)    TDZ, mid-point (if installed), and rollout RVR 1000 (300 meters).
3)    TDZ, mid-point (if installed), and rollout RVR 600 (175 meters) (part 91K).
4)    TDZ, mid-point (if installed), and rollout RVR 500 (150 meters) (part 121, 125, or 135)). Part 91K program managers are limited by regulation to RVR 600 (175 meters) takeoff authorization without an exemption. The RVR 500 (150 meters) and RVR 300 (75 meters) authorization will not be available in the part 91K MSpec C079. Tables 3-24A, Runway Equipment Requirements for Lower-Than-Standard Takeoff Minimums, and 3-26A, Runway Equipment Requirements for Lower-Than-Standard Takeoff Minimums, provide examples of tables that may be included in flightcrew manuals, such as the Flight Operations Manual (FOM).

Table 3-24A.    Runway Equipment Requirements for Lower-Than-Standard Takeoff Minimums

Serviceable

Runway Visual Aid Required

Lowest Allowable Takeoff Minimum Authorization

If an RVR sensor is not available:

 

Adequate visual reference, or any one of the following:

HIRL/CLL/RCLM

¼ sm (400 m)

If an RVR sensor is available:

Note: Below RVR 1600, two operating RVR sensors are required. All operating RVR sensors are controlling (except per the note below for far-end sensors).

Adequate visual reference, or any one of the following:

HIRL/CLL/RCLM

RVR 1600 (500 m)/NR/NR

Mid-point can substitute for an unavailable touchdown.

Day: CLL or RCLM or HIRL

Night: CLL or HIRL

RVR 1200 (350 m)/1200 (350 m)/1000 (300 m)

RCLM and HIRL, or CLL

RVR 1000/1000/1000 (300 m)

HIRL and CLL

RVR 600/600/600 (175 m) or RVR 500/500/500 (150 m)

With an approved HUD takeoff guidance system, HIRL, and CLL

RVR 300/300/300(75 m)

NOTE:  Extremely long runways (e.g., DEN 16R) utilize four RVR sensors (i.e., TDZ, mid, rollout, and far-end). When a fourth far-end RVR value is reported, it is not controlling and is not to be used as one of the two required operative RVR sensors.

Table 3-26A.    Runway Equipment Requirements for Lower-Than-Standard Takeoff Minimums

Runways with 1 RVR Sensor

 

RCLM or CLL or HIRL or Adequate Visual Reference

Standard

 

TDZ RVR 16

or 1/4

3 & 4 Eng

1 & 2 Eng

 

RVR 24 or 1/2

RVR 50 or 1

 

 

Runways with 2 RVR Sensors

Both RVR sensors are required and controlling.

RCLM or CLL or HIRL or Adequate Visual Reference

Standard

HUD & CLL & HIRL

CLL & HIRL

CLL, or RCLM & HIRL

RCLM (day only) or CLL or HIRL

TDZ RVR 3

Rollout RVR 3

TDZ RVR 5

Rollout RVR 5

TDZ RVR 10

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 12

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 16

or 1/4

3 & 4 Eng

1 & 2 Eng

RVR 24 or 1/2

RVR 50 or 1

 

Runways with 3 RVR Sensors

Two operating RVR sensors are required. All operating RVR sensors are controlling.

RCLM or CLL or HIRL or Adequate Visual Reference

Standard

HUD & CLL & HIRL

CLL & HIRL

CLL, or RCLM & HIRL

RCLM (day only) or CLL or HIRL

TDZ RVR 3

Mid RVR 3

Rollout RVR 3

TDZ RVR 5

Mid RVR 5

Rollout RVR 5

TDZ RVR 10

Mid RVR 10

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 12

Mid RVR 12

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 16

(if TDZ inop)

Mid RVR 16

or 1/4

3 & 4 Eng

1 & 2 Eng

RVR 24 or 1/2

RVR 50 or 1

 

Runways with 4 RVR Sensors

Two RVR sensors below must be operational. All operating RVR sensors are controlling except far end, which is advisory only.

RCLM or CLL or HIRL or Adequate Visual Reference

Standard

HUD & CLL & HIRL

CLL & HIRL

CLL, or RCLM & HIRL

RCLM (day only) or CLL or HIRL

TDZ RVR 3

Mid RVR 3

Rollout RVR 3

TDZ RVR 5

Mid RVR 5

Rollout RVR 5

TDZ RVR 10

Mid RVR 10

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 12

Mid RVR 12

Rollout RVR 10

TDZ RVR 16

(if TDZ inop)

Mid RVR 16

or 1/4

3 & 4 Eng

1 & 2 Eng

RVR 24 or 1/2

RVR 50 or 1

F.    RVR Applicability to Lower-Than-Standard Takeoff Minimums.

1)    Other than the authorization for RVR 1600 (500 meters), which permits use of Runway Visibility Values (RVV) under the appropriate authorization for an operator issued C078 or C079, all the authorizations in C078 and C079 are based on RVR reports that are generated by RVR sensors.
a)    “Controlling” RVR means that RVR reports are used to determine operating minimums whenever operating minimums are specified in terms of RVR, and that RVR reports are available for the runway being used.
b)    All CAT I operating minimums below one-half statute mile (RVR 2400) and all CAT II and III operating minimums are based on RVR. The use of visibility is prohibited because the reported visibility may not represent the seeing-conditions on the runway. (See Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 3, paragraphs 4-208 and 4-213.)
c)    All takeoff minimums below ¼ statue mile visibility require RVR values, and the use of RVV for takeoff clearances is prohibited. In these situations, RVR is said to be “controlling”; that is, RVR must be operating and reporting (by requirement, High Intensity Runway Lights (HIRL) also must be working) and at a value equal to or greater than the lowest authorized RVR for the particular clearance. Takeoffs or approaches and landings in these conditions require actual RVR values to be authorized by the controlling agency.

C078 Lower Than Standard Takeoff Visibility Quick Reference Chart

NOTE:  The diagram above is intended as a memory aid intended to help in remembering the various RVR breakdowns and associated requirements within each grouping. For example, two RVR sensors are required for all takeoffs at RVR values less than 1600 (500 meters) (shown above the runway).

2)    The following requirements and restrictions apply to the use of RVR values below 1600 feet (500 meters) (in the C078 and C079 templates, simplified wording is used):
a)    Where only two RVR sensors are installed, the TDZ and rollout RVR sensors are both required and controlling.
b)    Where three RVR sensors are installed on the runway to be used:

1.    The TDZ, mid, and rollout RVR reports are controlling for all operations.

2.    The failure of any one RVR will not affect operations provided the remaining two RVR sensors are reporting values at or above the appropriate minimums in this subparagraph.

NOTE:  Extremely long runways (e.g., DEN 16R) utilize four RVR sensors (e.g., TDZ, mid, rollout, and far-end). When a fourth far-end RVR value is reported, it is not controlling and is not to be used as one of the two required operative RVR systems.

G.    Flightcrew Training and Qualification Requirements. If an operator requests authorization to conduct lower-than-standard takeoffs, the flightcrew must be trained and qualified in their respective crew positions for the applicable takeoff minimums requested. The PIC is ultimately responsible for ensuring that the flightcrew members are appropriately qualified before conducting an authorized lower-than-standard takeoff.

1)    Individual pilots must be trained in their respective crew positions (parts 91K, 121, and 135) and checked (parts 91K, 121, 125, and 135) in takeoffs using the appropriate requested minimums before being approved for conducting such takeoffs.
2)    Pilot qualification must consist of an initial check that includes one takeoff at the lowest requested takeoff minimums (simulator or simulated in the aircraft with a view limiting device). It is also required during each pilot’s recurrent qualification cycle.
3)    Additional crew qualification for a check airman or a qualified FAA inspector, beyond that shown herein for regular flightcrews, is not required.
4)    POIs must ensure that operators requesting lower-than-standard takeoff minimums provide appropriate training for flightcrews, including the procedures listed below, as appropriate:

·    Confirming the takeoff runway alignment (Safety Alert for Operators (SAFO) 07003 includes guidance and/or advisory information about acceptable techniques);

·    Rejected takeoffs in a low-visibility environment;

·    Low-visibility instrument takeoff cross-check priorities;

·    Engine failure during critical phases of takeoff in low visibility;

·    Acceleration and climb disorientation factors and illusions;

·    Use of HUD takeoff guidance systems (when installed in aircraft for RVR 300 authorization only);

·    Taxiing in a low visibility environment with emphasis on preventing runway incursion, and Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (SMGCS) training Advisory Circular (AC) 120-57, Surface Movement Guidance and Control System, current edition, includes guidance and/or advisory information about acceptable techniques;

·    Taxiway critical areas;

·    Crew coordination and planning;

·    Required ground-based visual aids (such as stop bars and taxi holding position lights);

·    Required ground-based electronic aids (such as instrument landing system (ILS)/microwave landing system (MLS) and transmissometers); and

·    Determination of takeoff alternate airports.

H.    Pilot Assessment of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Lower-Than-Standard Takeoff Minimums. C078 and C079 allow pilots to make an assessment of the touchdown RVR when the TDZ RVR sensor is inoperative, is not reported, or the pilot determines that the reported TDZ RVR report is in error. This assessment, when equal to or greater than the TDZ RVR requirement for takeoffs made with only outside visual references, or for takeoffs using HUD systems, can be used for takeoff when mid and rollout RVR sensors are available, and are equal to or greater than the required minimums. To be authorized for this pilot assessment, each operator must meet the following requirements:

1)    For each specific runway for which the assessment is allowed, have an FAA-approved procedure for assessing RVR values that includes:
a)    Identification of actual distances between runway lights (from 160 feet to 200 feet) on the particular runway for the takeoff in question.
b)    Identification of an appropriate number and type of runway lights that matches the particular RVR minimums or required visual distance for the takeoff being made.
c)    Identification of runway markings of known spacing with corresponding distances that must be visible to the pilot from the flight deck when the aircraft is in the takeoff position.
2)    This procedure must include the effects of variability of runway light intensity settings and changing ambient lighting (day or night). Flightcrew training and checking must assess knowledge of this specific subject area by requiring crews to relate runway markings and number of lights visible to specific known distances.
3)    For each type of runway where an assessment is allowed, have an FAA-approved procedure for describing the actions to be taken when local visibility conditions, as determined by the pilot, indicate that a significantly different visibility exists from that reported for the TDZ recorded by RVR sensor. The procedure will address types of runway markings, runway lights and distances between lights, and any other runway environmental cues that permit precise distance evaluations by flightcrews.
4)    For each runway where an assessment is allowed, have an FAA-approved procedure for coordinating release with air traffic control (ATC) and dispatch for part 121 operations.
5)    For part 135 air carriers, the operator must have an FAA-approved procedure for conducting pilot assessment of takeoff visibility contained in its manual, as defined by § 135.21. That procedure will cover the following requirements:
a)    How to determine actual visibility measured in number and type of runway lights that are seen, or markings of known spacing that are visible to the pilot when viewed from the cockpit in the takeoff position.
b)    How all flightcrew members will be trained and checked in the procedures used to determine visibilities, as described above.
6)    Have FAA-approved procedures for RVR assessment, for determining that TDZ RVR sensor reports are in error, and for takeoff and flight release coordination in operating manuals and in such materials that are readily available to the flightcrew in the cockpit.
7)    Have an FAA-approved training and validation program of the FAA-approved procedures for all flightcrews authorized to participate. No flightcrew member may participate in these operations until this portion of the approved training program is accomplished satisfactorily.

OPSPEC C080, TERMINAL AREA IFR OPERATIONS IN CLASS G AIRSPACE AND AT AIRPORTS WITHOUT AN OPERATING CONTROL TOWER FOR SCHEDULED PASSENGER OPERATIONS. C080 is used to authorize terminal-area instrument flight rules (IFR) operations for scheduled passenger operations in Class G airspace or at airports without an operating control tower.

A.    Authorizing Scheduled Terminal-Area IFR Operations in Class G Airspace. Before authorizing scheduled terminal-area IFR operations in Class G airspace, or at airports without an operating control tower, the principal operations inspector (POI) must ensure the operator has sufficient content in its manual(s) and training program to cover common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF) and pilot controlled lighting (PCL) information and procedures. The POI must also obtain and list the following information in C080.

1)    Names of airports.
2)    Sources of weather information to be used by flightcrews (see Volume 3, Chapter 26, Section 3; and Volume 3, Chapter 2).
3)    Source of traffic advisories (TA) and airport advisories.

B.    Sources of TAs and Airport Advisories. Certificate holders may be authorized to use any two-way radio source of air TA information listed in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) (for operations in U.S. airspace) or equivalent Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) (for foreign operations).

1)    These sources include CTAFs, Aeronautical Advisory Stations (UNICOM), Aeronautical Multicom Stations (MULTICOM), and Flight Service Stations (FSS).
2)    If an air TA source is also suitable for determining the status of airport services and facilities, it is the only source which needs to be listed in C080.
3)    When airport services and facilities information is on a different frequency, both sources should be listed in C080.
4)    In cases where two sources are listed at the same airport, inspectors must ensure the operator’s manuals have procedures that require pilots to continuously monitor and use the TA frequency when operating within 10 nautical miles (NM) of the airport. The procedures should require communication concerning airport services and facilities to be completed while more than 10 NM from the airport.
5)    At some airports, no public use frequencies may be available. In those cases, a certificate holder must arrange for radio communication of essential information including surveillance of local or transient aircraft operations by ground personnel. Ground personnel, who operate a company radio for airport status and traffic advisory, must be able to view airspace around the airport.
6)    OpSpec C080 may need to be issued to the certificate holder authorized scheduled passenger operations in order for the C081 to be issued.

C.    Part 125 Operators. C080 is not applicable for part 125 operators.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C081, SPECIAL NON 14 CFR PART 97 INSTRUMENT APPROACH OR DEPARTURE PROCEDURES. C081 authorizes special 14 CFR part non-97 instrument approach procedures (IAP) or departure procedures (DPs) and is applicable to 14 CFR part 121, 125/135, 125, and 135 certificate holders. C081 may require the authorization of OpSpec C064 and/or C080, as applicable.

A.    Special Terminal IAPs or DPs. (See Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 10 or contact your regional flight procedures branch for more information.)

B.    Helicopter Authorization. For helicopter authorization, see OpSpec H122.

OPSPEC C091, OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS AIRPLANE DESIGN GROUP VI (ICAO GROUP F) (OPTIONAL).

A.    Applicability. OpSpec C091 must be issued to U.S. certificate holders who conduct takeoff and landing operations using Airplane Design Group VI (ADG-VI), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Group F, within or outside the United States on runways as narrow as 150 feet (45 meters) wide.

B.    Operational Requirements. OpSpec C091 specifies the runway width, Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ), and other airport requirements for these aircraft. ADG-VI are airplanes with a wingspan from 214 feet (65 meters) up to 262 feet (80 meters). It closely parallels ICAO Group F criteria. However, where the ICAO Code designation is also dependent on main gear track width, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) criteria is dependent on the wingspan of the aircraft and tail height. The current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 150/5300-13, Airport Design, establishes airport requirements for the different airplane design groups, including runway width requirements, taxiway width requirements, OFZ dimensions, and other airport considerations. Historically, the FAA has authorized deviations from these established standards on an air carrier-by-air carrier basis after evaluating the specific air carrier’s operational procedures and flightcrew training program and standards. Operational limitations were typically part of the air carrier’s operational authorization to operate as per the specific deviation granted to the air carrier.

NOTE:  In order to allow ADG-VI aircraft operations on existing infrastructure, U.S. Airplane Design Group V (ADG-V) airports accepting scheduled service of ADG-VI aircraft are required to undergo a special modification of standards (MoS). The MoS applies to those portions of the airport that do not comply with ADG-VI standards.

C.    U.S. Certificate Holders and Principal Operations Inspector (POI) Actions. Prior to initiating service to any ADG-V/ICAO Group E airport with an aircraft designed for ADG-VI/ICAO Group F, the certificate holder must supply the POI with the following:

·    Evidence that the requirements of OpSpec C091 are met for the proposed runway(s) of operations at those airports, including potential alternates.

·    For destination airports, U.S. airport MoS approval for that make and model (e.g., A-380 or
B-747-8).

·    For alternate airports, the process the operator used to evaluate the airport to ensure it could accommodate the aircraft.

1)    It is the air carrier’s responsibility to confirm that they can comply with the requirements of OpSpec C091 and to supply the POI sufficient documentation to verify their compliance. The air carrier is responsible for any necessary coordination and letters of understanding with applicable air traffic control (ATC) facilities and/or airport operators to meet the requirements of OpSpec C091 (e.g., taxi routes to be used and procedures to follow applicable to the specific certificate holder).
2)    Flightcrew and dispatch training and qualification program.
3)    The POI should provide the air carrier, ATC facility, or airport operator support, as necessary, to comply with the requirements of OpSpec C091. PIs may find a list of airports with MoS, for the A-380 and B-747-8 at http://www.faa.gov/airports/engineering/nla_mos/.

NOTE:  The air carrier’s compliance with the requirements of OpSpec C091 eliminates the air carrier from having to demonstrate its capability to operate to the lower criteria specified in OpSpec C091 prior to being issued OpSpec C091 for that aircraft and airport combination.

D.    ADG-VI/ICAO Group F Aircraft. ADG-VI/Group F specifies that the required runway width be at least 200 feet (60 meters) while ADG-V/Group E specifies that the runway width be at least 150 feet (45 meters). Currently, the A-380 and the B-747-8 are the only commercial aircraft in regular airline service that fit into the ADG‑VI/ICAO Group F criteria and are therefore subject to the C091 requirements to takeoff and land on ADG‑V/ICAO Group E runways.

Indicates new/changed information.

E.    B-747-8 Limitations. The following limitations apply to B-747-8 operations:

1)    Runways for takeoffs and landings shall be at least 150 feet (45 meters) wide;
2)    Operators must comply with all limitations and procedures specified in the applicable B-747-8 Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for lightweight and aft center of gravity (CG) takeoffs.

NOTE:  In accordance with FAA Airports Engineering Brief #74A, Use of 150-Foot (45-M) Wide Runways and Blast Pads for Boeing 747-8 Operations, the 35-foot standard stabilized runway shoulder width for ADG-V does not need to increase to the ADG-VI standard of 40 feet.

F.    A-380 Limitations. The following limitations apply to A-380 operations:

1)    The overall runway plus shoulder width is of 280 feet (85 meters) for ADG-VI and 250 feet (75 meters) for ICAO Group F. In order to reduce the jet blast impact to 150 feet (45 meters) runway surface, the FAA recommends stabilized shoulders beyond the runway edge. The FAA 150 foot runway width evaluation for the A‑380, along with the recommendations for these operations contained in ICAO Annex 14, Aerodromes, and A-380 AFM have led to the following runway width authorization for A-380 operation in the United States:
2)    Runways for takeoffs and landings shall be at least 150 feet (45 meters) wide with stabilized runway shoulders on both sides of the runway extending an additional 50 feet (15 meters) outward from the runway edge.
3)    Runways as narrow as 150 feet (45 meters) wide without stabilized shoulders may be used for takeoff and landings, provided applicable flight manual procedures for takeoffs on 150 foot wide runways without stabilized runway shoulders are followed and procedures are implemented for the full length of the runway to be inspected for foreign object damage (FOD) after the takeoff prior to successive aircraft operations.

NOTE:  Only the airport operator conducts runway inspections for FOD. Hence, the air carrier should make sure, or have some documentation, that the airport operator will do it. The document is the Federally required Airport Certification Manual under 14 CFR part 139.

4)    The hold short lines or hold position must be expanded outward from the 280 foot point by 1 foot for every 100 feet the runway threshold elevation is above sea level. (For example, a threshold elevation of 5,000 feet mean sea level (MSL) requires an additional 50 feet. Thus, the hold short lines or hold position can be no closer than 330 feet (280 feet + 50 feet) from the runway centerline (RCL).

NOTE:  This is to address the hold position of aircraft when an A-380 is on final approach and is as required per the current edition of AC 150/5300-13. Specifically, so that if the A-380 has to go-around (balked landing) then the lateral area on both sides of the runway is clear of obstacles so that if the A‑380 deviates left or right during the go-around maneuver (balked landing) its wing tips will not strike anything.

OpSpec C300, 14 CFR Part 97 NDB, NDB/DME, VOR, and VOR/DME Instrument Approach Procedures using substitute means of navigation.

A.    C300 Nonstandard Authorization. The nonstandard template OpSpec C300 authorizes qualified operators to substitute specific Area Navigation (RNAV) equipment for non-directional radio beacon (NDB), NDB/distance measuring equipment (DME), very high frequency omni-directional range station (VOR), and VOR/DME instrument approaches.

1)    The OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C300 authorization covered by this subparagraph applies to operators conducting operations under 14 CFR parts 121 and 135. The airplane’s make/model/series, the manufacturer and model, and the software part/version of the RNAV navigation systems authorized for this type of navigation must be listed in Table 1 along with any limitations and provisions. (See sample table in Figure 3-66F, Sample Table 1—Aircraft and Navigation Systems Eligible for Instrument Approach Procedures Using Substitute Means of Navigation.)

Figure 3-66F.    Sample Table 1—Aircraft and Navigation Systems Eligible for Instrument Approach Procedures Using Substitute Means of Navigation

 

RNAV System(s) and Software

 

Aircraft M/M/S

Manufacturer

Model

Software Part/Version

Limitations and Provisions

B-717-200

Honeywell

Pegasus

PS4081642-909

NDB, NDB/DME IAP N/A

2)    Before a principal operations inspector (POI) can issue a nonstandard OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C300, the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400) and the Air Transportation Division (AFS-200) must concur with the POI’s recommendation to issue the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA.
3)    The POI must use the request process as illustrated in Figure 3-66G, Instrument Approach Procedures Using Substitute Means of Navigation Application Flowchart, when the operator submits an application package.
a)    The POI submits the application package to the regional NextGen program branch manager.
b)    The regional NextGen program branch manager forwards the application to AFS-400 for review.
c)    AFS-400 will review the application in consultation with AFS-200 and forward a written concurrence to the regional NextGen program branch manager.
d)    The regional NextGen program branch manager will forward the written concurrence to the POI.
e)    The POI will issue OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C300 to the operator.

Figure 3-66G.    Instrument Approach Procedures Using Substitute Means of Navigation Application Flowchart

Figure 3-66G, Instrument Approach Procedures Using Substitute Means of Navigation Application Flowchart

B.    Aircraft Qualification. Use the guidelines in OpSpec C300 for aircraft qualification.

C.    Operating Considerations. This authorization to conduct NDB, NDB/DME, VOR, and VOR/DME instrument approach procedures (IAP) using substitute means of navigation applies when the underlying Navigational Aid (NAVAID) (NDB, VOR, or DME) is out of service, and/or compatible aircraft avionics are either not installed (automatic direction finder (ADF) or DME) or not operational (VOR, ADF, or DME).

1)    Navigation Data and Flyability Validation. The operator must establish a process to ensure that each IAP intended to be flown under this authority has been checked to confirm flyability with aircraft RNAV systems. The structure of this process is left to the operator’s discretion as long as compliance with OpSpec C300 is met. The operator’s process must also ensure that any lateral path changes that occur during the 28-day update cycle are examined to confirm the flyability of procedures and that the flyability and validation are documented.
2)    Dispatching to Airports with Out-of-Service NAVAIDs. Operators planning to dispatch to an airport with an out-of-service NAVAID may need to coordinate with air traffic control (ATC). In order to receive a clearance for certain procedures, this coordination should include, but is not limited to, the operators’ intent to use their RNAV system as a substitute means of navigation guidance and their capability and operational authorization.

D.    Training. The flightcrew must complete the operator’s approved training program, to include training specific to the RNAV manufacturer/model/software and software version, and IAPs using substitute means of navigation. Guidance in OpSpec C300 must be addressed in the training program.

OPSPEC/MPEC/LOA C358, SPECIAL RESTRICTIONS FOR FOREIGN RNAV TERMINAL INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES WITH RNP LINES OF MINIMUMS.

NOTE:  To obtain the nonstandard authorization C358, the operator must use the nonstandard request process. See Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 2, paragraphs 3-712 to 3-713, for the nonstandard request process. For operators conducting operations under 14 CFR part 121 or 135, the formal request must be requested through the Air Transportation Division (AFS-200). For operators conducting operations under 14 CFR part 125, including part 125 Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) holders, or under 14 CFR part 91 subpart K (part 91K), the same nonstandard request process must be used and submitted through the General Aviation Division (AFS-800). The airplane qualification package should be sent simultaneously to the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400) for evaluation. AFS-400 will coordinate with the appropriate policy division for final approval of this nonstandard authorization for all operator requests.

A.    Nonstandard Authorization. The nonstandard template C358 authorizes a qualified operator to conduct certain “RNP-like” foreign Area Navigation (RNAV) Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) with required navigation procedures (RNP) lines of minimums. These “RNP-like” foreign RNAV approaches are not designed to the same criteria as U.S. 14 CFR part 97 RNAV RNP special aircraft and aircrew required (SAAAR) procedures. Only the selectable procedures in Table 1 of the C358 template may be authorized. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) uses the term Authorization Required (AR) rather than SAAAR. AR may appear on “RNP-like” foreign RNAV procedures with RNP lines of minimums regardless of the design criteria.

NOTE:  “RNP-like” foreign RNAV procedures with RNP minimums that meet part 97 RNAV RNP SAAAR procedure design criteria are not available for selection in the C358 template, Table 1, and require authorization via the authorization of template C384.

1)    C358 authorization is granted through the nonstandard authorization request process (see Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 2).
2)    C358 authorization is applicable to operators conducting operations under 14 CFR parts 91, 91K, 121, 125 (including those with a LODA 125M), and 135.
3)    Procedures with RNP lines of minimums. These “RNP-like” foreign RNAV procedures have RNP lines of minimums of 0.3 or less, and/or a radius to a fix (RF) leg required, and/or the missed approach requiring an RNP less than 1.0. RNP less than 0.3 specified in the line of minimums (RNP line of minimums refers to the minimum altitude for the approach and has an RNP requirement associated with it; e.g., there may be minimums of 250 feet for RNP 0.11 and a separate line of minimum of 350 feet for RNP 0.20).
4)    U.S. RNAV RNP SAAAR procedures are authorized (nonstandard template C384) using the guidance in Advisory Circular (AC) 90-101, Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures with SAAAR, current edition. The foreign “RNP-like” RNAV procedures in Table 1 are authorized using the portions of AC 90-101 that apply to the particular RNP procedure design criteria for each approach.

Figure 3-66A.   Sample Table 1—Special Restrictions for “RNP-like” Foreign RNAV Terminal Instrument Procedures with RNP Lines of Minimums

(Only those procedures allowed for authorization will be available as selectables in the C358 template.)

Airport

Procedure Identification

Procedure Requirements

QUITO , Ecuador (SEQU-UIO) / RNAV (RNP) Rwy 17 / VNAV path required, RF leg required, RNP 0.15, Missed approach RNP < 1.0

QUITO , Ecuador (SEQU-UIO) / RNAV (RNP) Rwy 35 / VNAV path required, RF leg required, RNP 0.15, Missed approach RNP < 1.0

B.    Airplane Qualification. The airplane qualification must meet the guidelines established in AC 90-101, appendix 2, with the following exceptions:

1)    Principal operations inspectors (POI) should send the formal nonstandard request to the appropriate headquarters (HQ) division stating that the airplane qualification and operating procedures have been sent to the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400) for evaluation. POIs should simultaneously submit the airplane qualification and operating procedures package to AFS-400, as described in the AC 90-101, appendix 7 checklist.
2)    The vertical accuracy requirement as written in AC 90-101, appendix 2, paragraph 2c is not required for this authorization. Vertical guidance in these foreign “RNP-like” procedure(s) is based on barometric vertical navigation (baro-VNAV). Eligible aircraft are those with an Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) or Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS) that explicitly states that the vertical navigation (VNAV) system is approved for approach operations in accordance with the current edition of AC 20-129, Airworthiness Approval of Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Systems for use in the U.S. National Airspace System and Alaska, or those with written documentation (e.g., Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report or other official documentation) verifying eligibility.
3)    Airspace Containment AC (90-101, appendix 2, paragraph 2d). The airspace containment requirement as written in AC 90-101 is not required for this authorization. Airplanes that are qualified to conduct RNAV operations in accordance with applicable directives and which have the proper RNAV capability (e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS), RF leg capability) for the procedure(s) listed may be authorized.

C.    Operating Considerations. The operator must establish operating procedures that meet the applicable guidelines of AC 90-101, appendix 4. Operating procedures must incorporate all operational mitigations based on equipment authorization. For example, if RF leg is authorized, an operational mitigation is required if the equipment engages in “track hold” mode when a go-around is selected. (Track hold would not follow the lateral navigation (LNAV) path when a go-around is initiated in or shortly after an RF leg.) Submit the operating procedures package to AFS-400 as described in the AC 90-101 checklist in appendix 7. The operating procedures must meet the guidelines established in AC 90-101, appendix 4, with the following exceptions.

1)    Vertical track deviation monitoring limit of 75 feet AC (90-101, appendix 4, paragraph 3g.). The track deviation monitoring limit of 75 feet vertically, as written in AC 90-101, is not required for this authorization. Eligible airplanes, in accordance with baro-VNAV requirements, must be equipped with and operationally using either a flight director (FD) or autopilot capable of following the Vertical Path (VPATH).
2)    Verification of the most current airport altimeter is set prior to the final approach fix (FAF) but no earlier than the initial approach AC fix (IAF) (90-101, appendix 4, paragraph 3k). The altimeter setting requirement as written in AC 90-101 is not required for this authorization. Although the listed procedure(s) require(s) the current altimeter setting for the airport of intended landing, the flightcrew is not required to verify the setting between the IAF and the FAF. Normal flight deck procedures must meet this requirement.

D.    Training. The flightcrew must complete the operator’s approved RNP instrument approach procedure (IAP) training program for these procedures and qualify for RNP instrument approach operations by one of the operator’s check airmen/check pilot, as applicable, or by an FAA inspector. The guidance of AC 90-101, appendix 5, must be addressed in the training program.

1)    For operators authorized RNP SAAAR instrument approaches for the aircraft equipment listed in Table 2 of the C358 authorization, only the specific differences from RNP SAAAR procedures that apply to the “RNP‑like” foreign RNAV instrument procedures listed in Table 1 of the C358 authorization, must be trained.
2)    Flightcrew members of operators that are not authorized for RNP SAAAR for the aircraft equipment listed in Table 2 of the C358 authorization, the applicable subjects of AC 90-101, appendix 5 must be trained:
a)    Guidance of AC 90-101, appendix 5, must be followed except where a task analysis has shown that the crew knowledge and skills for RNP SAAAR do not apply to the “RNP-like” foreign RNAV instrument procedure(s) authorized in Table 1.
b)    Unique RNP approach criteria that apply to the “RNP-like” foreign RNAV instrument procedure(s) authorized in Table 1.

E.    Listing Airplanes and Navigation Systems Approved for “RNP-Like” Foreign RNAV TERPS. The airplane(s) and navigation systems approved for “RNP-like” foreign RNAV TERPS with RNP lines of minimums must be listed in Table 2 of the C358 authorization as follows:

1)    The approved navigation systems and the specific software version must be listed.
2)    The table must identify the authorized use of a coupled autopilot or an FD which is provided as a selectable in the automated Operations Safety System (OPSS) in processing the authorization.
3)    The lowest RNP authorized must be listed.

Figure 3-66B.    Sample Table 2—Airplanes and Navigation Systems Eligible for “RNP-like” Foreign RNAV Terminal Instrument Procedures with RNP Lines of Minimums

Airplane M/M/S

Navigation System M/M/Software/ Version

Limitations and Restrictions

Autopilot Coupled or Flight Director Required

Lowest RNP

B-737-490

Smiths FMCS/FMC 2907A4 or 2907C1 with U10.5A.

Not authorized to exceed temperature limits of the approach.

Not authorized RNP parallel approach operations (RPA).

Not authorized RNP parallel approach runway transitions (RPAT).

Either FD or Autopilot only

RNP-0.15

RNP-0.11

F.    Execution of an “RNP-Like” Foreign RNAV Instrument Procedure. Execution of an “RNP-like” foreign RNAV instrument procedure requires the current, local altimeter setting for the airport of intended landing. Remote altimeter settings are not allowed.

G.    VNAV Path Requirements. An airplane(s) with an airworthiness approval for baro-VNAV approach operations in accordance with AC 20-129 must be equipped with and operationally use either an FD or autopilot capable of following the VPATH.

H.    Approval Requirements. Unlike RNP SAAAR C384 authorization, there is no interim approval required for this nonstandard authorization in C358. The operator must submit the following information on a continuous basis every 30 days to the POI for his or her evaluation of the continuing use of AC the authorization (90-101, appendix 6, paragraph 1):

1)    Total number of the “RNP-like” foreign RNAV approach procedures conducted;
2)    Number of satisfactory approaches by aircraft/system (satisfactory if completed as planned without any navigation or guidance system anomalies); and
3)    Unsatisfactory approaches must be included in the report and must include, but are not limited to, the following:
a)    UNABLE REQ NAV PERF, NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD, or other RNP messages during any approach;
b)    Excessive lateral or vertical deviation;
c)    Terrain Awareness and Warning Systems (TAWS) warning;
d)    Autopilot system disconnect;
e)    Navigation data errors; and
f)     Pilot report of any anomaly.

OPSPEC/MSPEC C359, DECOMMISSIONED.

OPSPEC/MSPEC/LOA C384, REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE PROCEDURES WITH AUTHORIZATION REQUIRED.

A.    OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C384 Nonstandard Authorization. The nonstandard template C384 authorizes qualified operators to conduct 14 CFR part 97 Area Navigation (RNAV) Required Navigation Performance (RNP) instrument approach procedures (IAP) with Authorization Required (AR). This template also authorizes foreign RNP IAPs with AR.

1)    OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C384 authorization covered by this paragraph applies to operators conducting operations under 14 CFR parts 91 (including part 91 subpart K (part 91K)), 121, 121/135, 125 (including Letter of Deviation Authority (LODA) A125 operators), and 135.
2)    Complete operational approval guidance material for RNP IAPs with AR is found in the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 90-101, Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures with AR. The AC also includes application preparation and processing guidance.
3)    Before a principal operations inspector (POI) may issue nonstandard OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C384, the Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400) and either the Air Transportation Division (AFS-200) or the General Aviation and Commercial Division (AFS-800), as appropriate, must concur with the POI’s recommendation to issue the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA.
4)    Figure 3-71, RNP AR Application Flowchart, illustrates the preferred flow for reviewing RNP AR applications within the FAA. Volume 3, Chapter 1, Section 1 describes the recommended general process to be used by Flight Standards Service (AFS) inspectors in the course of evaluating an operator’s request for operational approval. Nothing in this C384-specific guidance is intended to contradict the recommended general process.
a)    The POI would typically be the first FAA official to receive and review the application. The POI would provide feedback to the operator, as needed, to produce an application that meets the requirements of the current edition of AC 90-101. The POI would then submit his or her recommendation for approval to the regional Next Generation (NextGen) Branch (e.g., AEA-220).

NOTE:  Volume 3, Chapter 1, Section 1 instructs the inspector to upload an electronic version of the RNP AR application to the NextGen application tracking SharePoint site associated with his or her region. The inspector should notify the regional All Weather Operations (AWO) specialist (within the NextGen Branch) and the Performance Based Flight System Branch (AFS-470) when the application has been uploaded. This will allow the AWO specialist and AFS-470 personnel to concurrently review the application and save time in the overall process. The POI, AWO specialist, and AFS-470 representatives should collaborate on the application review and thereby avoid duplication of effort in resolving any issues with the application.

b)    The AWO specialist will review the application and, if necessary, seek additional information or clarification from the operator through the POI. Upon completion of the AWO specialist’s review, the regional NextGen Branch manager should forward his or her recommendation, and that of the POI, to AFS-400.
c)    AFS-400 will review the application in consultation with AFS-200 or AFS-800, as appropriate. Upon completion of this review, the coordinating offices will jointly provide written concurrence with the POI and AWO specialist recommendations to approve the application. The headquarters (HQ) concurrence memo will be sent to the POI through the regional NextGen Branch manager.

NOTE:  If AFS-200, AFS-400, or AFS-800 does not concur with the recommendations to approve the application, they will provide a memo stating the reasons for this position.

d)    The POI will issue the OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C384 to the operator in accordance with the limitations and/or provisions stipulated in the HQ concurrence memo. The HQ memo will, at a minimum, stipulate the specific aircraft make, model, and series (M/M/S), the lowest RNP value authorized, the related flight management system (FMS) software version, and whether the operator is authorized to fly radius to a fix (RF) legs and/or approaches requiring less than RNP 1.0 nautical mile (NM) on the Missed Approach Segment (MAS) (i.e., “additional aircraft capabilities”).
5)    A listing of foreign RNP AR procedures approved for U.S. operators is maintained on the AFS-470 Web site. In addition, each approved foreign RNP AR procedure is added to the C384 template as a selectable item in Table 2. Operators may have any of those approved foreign procedures added to OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C384, Table 2 at the time C384 is issued, or at a later date, by requesting such action of their POI. No additional application process, or HQ approval, is required. The AFS-470 Web site also includes any limitations or restrictions associated with the foreign RNP AR procedures. Should the inspector have any questions regarding the suitability of an operator for any foreign RNP AR approach procedure, he or she should contact AFS-470.

NOTE:  The AFS-470 Web site may be found at http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs470/rnp.

6)    If an operator wants a new (i.e., not currently approved) foreign RNP AR approach to be added to the approved list, they must send a separate application package to the POI. That application package must include a letter of request, the applicable state’s Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) (in English), and the applicable procedure charts. The POI should forward the package, along with his or her recommendations, to AFS-400 via the regional NextGen Branch. AFS-400 will evaluate the foreign RNP AR procedure and determine whether it is suitable for U.S. operators’ use.

NOTE:  The response to this specific request will likely be provided via separate means following completion of the procedure review process described in Figure 3-71 and, if approved, would result in the foreign RNP AR procedure being added to the C384 template and the foreign procedures list on the AFS-470 Web site.

B.    OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C384 Tables 1 and 2. The POI should complete Table 1 and, if applicable, Table 2 of OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C384 in accordance with the following guidelines.

1)    Table 1 should reflect the complete M/M/S of the aircraft qualified for RNP AR operations, as provided in the HQ concurrence memo. Table 1 should also fully identify the navigation system (FMS) make and model, as well as software version(s). The HQ memo will also stipulate this information.
2)    Table 1 should list any limitations specifically addressed in the HQ memo, as well as any limitations identified by the POI. Table 1 should indicate the lowest permissible RNP value for both flight director (FD)-only and autopilot operations, as provided in the HQ concurrence memo. The inspector should also select, in Table 1, those additional aircraft capabilities specifically identified in the HQ memo. See Figure 3-66C, Sample Table 1—Aircraft and Navigation Systems Eligible for RNP Procedures with AR, for a sample OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C384, Table 1.

NOTE:  The POI must ordinarily obtain HQ concurrence before making changes to the contents of Table 1, unless specifically authorized in the HQ RNP AR concurrence memo. For example, the inspector would need HQ concurrence prior to adding aircraft or amending the FMS software version. Alternatively, the inspector would not need HQ concurrence prior to amending the “lowest RNP” value if the HQ concurrence memo authorized a lower RNP value at the end of a specified period or upon the operator’s completion of a number of RNP AR approaches.

3)    Table 2 is used to name the specific foreign RNP AR approaches and any associated limitations for which the individual operator is authorized to fly. All foreign RNP AR procedures approved for U.S. operators will be available for selection within the C384 template. The operator should identify for the POI which foreign RNP AR procedures they want listed in Table 2 of their C384. See Figure 3-66D, Sample Table 2—Foreign Approaches Authorized for RNP AR Operations, for a sample OpSpec/MSpec/LOA C384, Table 2.

Figure 3-66C.    Sample Table 1—Aircraft and Navigation Systems Eligible for RNP Procedures with AR

Aircraft

M/M/S

Navigation System

M/M/Software Version

Limitations

Lowest

RNP

Additional Aircraft Capabilities

B-737-700/800

GE Aerospace FMC (2),

p/n 171497-05-01,

U 10.8A

None

With flight director: RNP .15

 

With autopilot:

RNP .11

1) RF legs.

 

2) Missed approach requiring less than RNP 1.0.

Figure 3-66D.    Sample Table 2—Foreign Approaches Authorized for RNP AR Operations

Approach Name/Identifier

Special Limitations

Tegucigalpa, Honduras (MHTG) RNAV RNP 02

Flightcrews must coordinate missed approach holding instructions with ATC prior to commencing the approach.

Figure 3-71.    RNP AR Application Flowchart

Figure 3-71. RNP AR Application Flowchart

RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-872 through 3-920.