12/13/16

 

8900.1 CHG 94

VOLUME 3  general technical administration

CHAPTER 19  Training programs and airman qualifications

Section 3  Safety Assurance System: Flightcrew Basic Indoctrination Curriculum Segments

3-1136    GENERAL. This section specifies the objectives and content of basic indoctrination curriculum segments. This training is required for all flightcrew members who are enrolled in an initial new-hire category of training. Basic indoctrination is normally the first curriculum segment of instruction conducted for newly hired flightcrew members. It serves as the initial introduction for the new-hire employee to the operator and, in many cases, to the operational requirements of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 and/or part 135. This section is related to Safety Assurance System (SAS) Element 2.1.1 (OP), Training of Flight Crew Members.

3-1137    OBJECTIVE OF BASIC INDOCTRINATION. The objective of basic indoctrination training is to introduce the new-hire flightcrew member to the operator and its manner of conducting operations in air transportation. It specifically acquaints the student with the operator’s policies, procedures, forms, and organizational and administrative practices, and ensures the student has acquired basic airman knowledge. The flightcrew member basic indoctrination curriculum segment consists of training modules which contain information applicable to the student’s specific duty position. Two general subject areas are required during basic indoctrination training. These subject areas are operator-specific and airman-specific training. These two areas serve to acquaint the student with the operator s means of regulatory compliance and to ensure that the student has acquired basic knowledge before entering aircraft ground and flight training. These two areas are not always mutually exclusive and, in many cases, may be covered in the same training module.

3-1138    OPERATOR-SPECIFIC INDOCTRINATION TRAINING.

A.    Operator-Specific. The first subject area, operator-specific, must include training modules in at least the following:

·    Duties and responsibilities of flightcrew members;

·    Appropriate provisions of the regulations; and

·    Contents of the certificate holder’s operating certificate and operations specifications (OpSpecs).

B.    Supplemental Information. Operator-specific training modules should also include information about the company which the student needs in order to properly perform his duties as an employee of the operator. This information may include such items as the operator’s history, organization, policies, scope of operation, administrative procedures, employee rules of conduct, compensation, benefits, and contracts.

3-1139    AIRMAN-SPECIFIC INDOCTRINATION TRAINING.

A.    Airman-Specific. The second subject area, airman-specific, must address appropriate portions of the certificate holder’s operating manual. Airman-specific training should also include other pertinent information that ensures the student will be prepared for aircraft ground and flight training. Airman-specific indoctrination training should include elements which show that training applicable to the duty position will be given on the general principles and concepts of the following:

·    Operational control (this includes dispatch or flight release for part 121 operators and flight‑locating procedures for part 135 operators);

·    Weight and Balance (W&B);

·    Aircraft performance and airport analysis;

·    Meteorology;

·    Navigation;

·    Airspace and air traffic control (ATC) procedures;

·    En route and terminal area charting and flight planning;

·    Instrument procedures;

·    Airport ground operational safety (refer to the current editions of Advisory Circular (AC) 120-74, Parts 91, 121, 125, and 135 Flightcrew Procedures During Taxi Operations, and AC 91-73, Parts 91 and 135 Single Pilot, Flight School Procedures During Taxi Operations); and

·    Normal and emergency communication procedures (refer to part 135, § 135.345(a)(6)).

B.    Parts 121 and 135. Airman-specific indoctrination training should address the kind of operation and the general capabilities of the operator’s aircraft. For example, a part 121 operator using transport-category turbojet aircraft should include high-altitude meteorological information (e.g., the jetstream) in the meteorology training module. A part 135 operator using single-engine reciprocating-powered aircraft will not normally need to address high-altitude meteorology in this module. It is important to note that airman-specific training is not aircraft-specific and is intended to ensure the student has a fundamental understanding of certain generalized areas before progressing into aircraft ground and flight training for a specific aircraft.

C.    Runway Safety Training. Training in runway safety and the specific standard operating procedures (SOP) contained in the current editions of AC 120-74, AC 91-73, and AC 120-35, Line Operational Simulations: Line-Oriented Flight Training, Special Purpose Operational Training, Line Operational Evaluation, should be incorporated in ground training and flight training conducted by air carriers under parts 121 and 135, by training centers under 14 CFR part 142, by pilot schools under 14 CFR part 141, and by all other persons conducting training and evaluation under 14 CFR parts 61 and 91.

3-1140    FLIGHTCREW BASIC INDOCTRINATION TRAINING MODULES.

A.    Training Modules. The flightcrew member basic indoctrination curriculum segments must include as many training modules as necessary to ensure appropriate training. Each module outline must provide at least the following:

·    A descriptive title of the training module; and

·    A list of the related module elements to be presented during instruction on that module.

B.    Training Module Outlines. The training module outlines must contain sufficient elements to ensure a student will receive training in both operator-specific and airman-specific subject areas to provide a suitable foundation for subsequent aircraft-specific curriculum segments. An operator has a certain amount of flexibility in the construction of these training modules. For example, the airman-specific training modules for students with significant experience in part 121 or 135 operations may be less comprehensive than the training modules for students without that experience. This is usually the case during acquisitions, mergers, or with operators who hire only highly qualified personnel with experience in part 121 or 135 operations.

C.    Training Module Sample. The following example illustrates one of the many acceptable methods in which a basic indoctrination training module could be presented:

Table 3-39.  Certificate and Operations Specifications

(a) Definitions, descriptions, and organization

Elements Within a Training Module

(b) Regulatory basis in 14 CFR/Title 49 of the United States Code (49 U.S.C.) (Formerly FA Act)

(c) Content of certificate and specifications

(d) Applicable limitations and authorizations

D.    Outlines. It is not necessary or desirable to include detailed descriptions of each element within a training module outline. Such detailed descriptions are more appropriate when included in the operator’s courseware such as lesson plans. During the approval process, principal operations inspectors (POI) should review lesson plans as necessary to ensure the scope and depth of the courseware is adequate. Table 3-40, Flightcrew Member Basic Indoctrination Training, illustrates the interrelationship of training modules in the flightcrew member basic indoctrination curriculum segment.

Table 3-40.  Flightcrew Member Basic Indoctrination Training

Table 3-40. Flightcrew Member Basic Indoctrination Training

3-1141    TRAINING HOURS.

A.    Part 121 Program Hours. Part 121, § 121.415 specifies a minimum of 40 programmed hours of instruction for basic indoctrination training. Normally, 40 hours should be the minimum number of training hours for basic indoctrination for part 121 operators who employ personnel with little or no previous part 121 experience. Reductions to the programmed hours in certain situations, however, may be appropriate for several reasons. One example would be a merger or acquisition situation where flightcrew members new to the surviving certificate holder may only require operator-specific training modules. Another example would be the operator’s enrollment prerequisites requiring a high level of part 121 experience.

B.    Reduction in Program Hours Request. Should an operator request a reduction in programmed hours, the POI should not approve the certificate holder’s crewmember indoctrination training unless it includes at least 32 programmed hours. This minimum should be maintained even if the reduction is based upon the provisions specified in § 121.405(d). Should additional guidance be necessary, contact the Air Transportation Division (AFS-200).

C.    Part 135 Program Hours. Part 135 does not specify programmed hours for flightcrew member basic indoctrination training. Table 3-41, Part 135—Initial New-Hire Flightcrew Member Basic Indoctrination Training Hours, provides direction and guidance to POIs on training hours when approving basic indoctrination curriculum segments for part 135 operators. This table provides national norms. When approving these curriculum segments, POIs must consider the complexity of the operation and aircraft. For example, training hours for a complex type of operation may need to exceed the national norm, while training hours below the national norm for a less complex type of operation may be acceptable.

Table 3-41.  Part 135—Initial New-Hire Flightcrew Member Basic Indoctrination Training Hours

PART 135 AIRCRAFT FAMILY

INITIAL NEW-HIRE FLIGHTCREW MEMBER BASIC INDOCTRINATION TRAINING HOURS

TYPE OF OPERATION

TRAINING HOURS

Transport and Commuter Category

ALL

32

Multiengine Airplanes

IFR/VFR

24

VFR ONLY

16

Single-Engine Airplanes

IFR/VFR

24

VFR ONLY

16

Helicopters

IFR/VFR

24

VFR ONLY

16

3-1142    COURSE COMPLETION REQUIREMENTS. Completion of this curriculum segment must be documented by an instructor’s or supervisor’s certification that a student has successfully completed the course. This certification is usually based on the results of a written examination given at the end of the course. With some training methods, the certification may be based on student progress checks administered during the course.

3-1143    CONTENT OF FLIGHTCREW BASIC INDOCTRINATION CURRICULUM SEGMENTS. A basic indoctrination curriculum segment should show that training will be given in at least two general subject areas appropriate to the operator’s type of operation. These subject areas of training are operator-specific (see paragraph 3-1144) and airman-specific (see paragraph 3-1145).

3-1144    OPERATOR-SPECIFIC TRAINING MODULES. The subject area of a basic indoctrination training curriculum segment referred to as operator-specific includes training modules that pertain to the operator’s methods of compliance with the regulations and safe operating practices. Examples of recommended training modules for the operator-specific subject area follow:

A.    Duties and Responsibilities.

·    Company history, organization, and management structure;

·    Operational concepts, policies, and kind of operation;

·    Company forms, records, and administrative procedures;

·    Employee standards and rules of conduct;

·    Employee compensation, benefits, and contracts;

·    Authority and responsibilities of duty position;

·    Company-required equipment; and

·    Company manual organization, revisions, and employee responsibilities concerning manuals.

B.    Appropriate Provisions of 14 CFR.

·    Flightcrew member certification, training, and qualification requirements;

·    Medical certificates, physical examination, and fitness-for-duty requirements;

·    Operational control requirements (dispatch, flight release, or flight-locating);

·    Flight duty and rest requirements;

·    Recordkeeping requirements;

·    Operational rules in parts 91 and 121 or 135 (as appropriate), and any other applicable regulations;

·    Regulatory requirements for company manuals; and

·    Other appropriate regulations, such as flightcrew emergency authority, interference with crewmembers, and reporting requirements.

C.    Applicable Portions of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR).

·    Part 830, Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records (National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)).

·    Part 1542, Airport Security (Transportation Security Administration (TSA)).

·    Part 1544, Aircraft Operator Security: Air Carriers and Commercial Operators (TSA).

D.    Contents of Certificate and OpSpecs.

·    Regulatory basis in part 121 or 135 (as applicable) and Title 49 of the United States Code (49 U.S.C.) (formerly the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (FA Act));

·    Definitions, description, and organization of OpSpecs;

·    Limitations and authorizations of OpSpecs;

·    Description of certificate; and

·    Description of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certificate-holding district office (CHDO) and responsibilities of FAA principal inspectors (PI).

3-1145    AIRMAN-SPECIFIC TRAINING MODULES. The airman-specific training modules of the basic indoctrination curriculum segment contain training to ensure a student will be able to enter subsequent ground and flight training curriculum segments. These modules address the appropriate portions of the operator’s manual and standard practices of airmanship and flight procedures in other documents such as the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM). The emphasis in airman-specific training is not aircraft-specific. It should relate to the operator’s kind of operation and the family or families of aircraft used by the operator. The objective of airman-specific training is to ensure the student has acquired the basic knowledge necessary for part 121 or 135 operations (as applicable). Examples of recommended training modules for the airman-specific subject area follow:

A.    Company Operational Control.

·    Dispatch, flight release, or flight-locating systems and procedures (as applicable);

·    Organization, duties, and responsibilities;

·    Weather and Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) information; and

·    Company communications.

B.    W&B.

·    Definitions (such as zero-fuel weight, moments, and inches of datum);

·    General loading procedures and center-of-gravity (CG) computations;

·    Effects of fuel burn and load shifts in flight; and

·    W&B forms, load manifests, fuel slips, and other applicable documents.

C.    Aircraft Performance and Airport Analysis.

·    Definitions (such as balanced field, visual meteorological conditions (VMC), obstruction planes, and maximum endurance);

·    Effects of temperature and pressure altitude;

·    General Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) criteria (obstacle clearance standards);

·    Airport analysis system as appropriate to the type of operation and family or families of aircraft; and

·    Effects of contaminated runways.

D.    Meteorology.

·    Basic weather definitions (such as forecasts, reports, and symbols);

·    Temperature, pressure, and winds;

·    Atmosphere moisture and clouds;

·    Air masses and fronts; and

·    Thunderstorms, icing, and wind shear.

E.    Navigation.

·    Definitions (such as Class I, Class II navigation);

·    Basic navigational instruments;

·    Dead reckoning (DR) and pilotage concepts and procedures;

·    Navigational Aids (NAVAID); and

·    Very high frequency (VHF), very low frequency (VLF), and self-contained systems (as applicable).

F.    Airspace and ATC Procedures.

·    Definitions (such as precision approaches, airways, and automated terminal information service (ATIS));

·    Description of airspace;

·    Navigation performance and separation standards;

·    Controller and pilot responsibilities;

·    ATC communications;

·    Air traffic flow control; and

·    Wake turbulence recognition and avoidance.

NOTE:  There have been several accidents and incidents related to Boeing B-757 wake turbulence. Although the B-757 does not fit into the “heavy” classification of aircraft, it is being treated as such until a new classification determination is made. Each of these events occurred when the trailing aircraft was not being provided instrument flight rule (IFR) traffic separation. To reduce the possibility of such occurrences, ATC started issuing “Wake Turbulence Cautionary Advisories” to visual flight rule (VFR) aircraft following B-757 aircraft. The FAA is studying wake turbulence to include pilot awareness, avoidance, and aircraft-specific procedures for a wake turbulence encounter. Pilots and operators should review information, procedures, and guidance contained in chapter 7, section 3 of the AIM and in the current edition of AC 90-23, Aircraft Wake Turbulence. The FAA is not aware of any wake turbulence accidents occurring when pilots have observed AIM-recommended procedures or have utilized IFR traffic separation. Therefore, pilots should be encouraged to maintain the prescribed wake turbulence separation distances. Since wake turbulence is not unique to the B-757, all pilots should exercise caution when operating behind and/or below all heavier aircraft.

G.    En Route and Terminal Area Charting and Flight Planning.

·    Terminology of charting services (such as Jeppesen or FAA National Aeronautical Charting Office (NACO));

·    Takeoff minimums, landing minimums, and alternate requirements;

·    General company flight-planning procedures;

·    Flight service and international procedures (as applicable);

·    Airport diagrams; and

·    Airport ground operational safety (AC 120-74 and AC 91-73).

H.    Concepts of Instrument Procedures.

·    Definitions (e.g., minimum descent altitude (MDA), height above airport (HAA), height above touchdown (HAT), decision height (DH), Category II (CAT II) instrument landing system (ILS), and no procedure turn required (NOPT));

·    Holding patterns, procedure turns;

·    Precision approaches (such as CAT I, CAT II, and CAT III);

·    Nonprecision Approaches (NPA); and

·    Circling, visual, and contact approaches (as applicable).

3-1146    EVALUATION OF FLIGHTCREW BASIC INDOCTRINATION CURRICULUM SEGMENT OUTLINES FOR INITIAL APPROVAL. When evaluating a basic indoctrination curriculum segment, inspectors must determine that the operator-specific and airman-specific subject areas are properly addressed. Operation-specific and airman-specific elements may be outlined in the same training module. Inspectors must determine that basic indoctrination curriculum segments meet the following two requirements:

A.    Review Criteria for Operator-Specific Training. The operator-specific training must contain information of sufficient quality, scope, and depth to ensure the crewmember fully understands the duties and responsibilities applicable to the duty position. Training modules must also provide enough information to acquaint the student with the operator’s policies, procedures, and practices.

B.    Review Criteria for Airman-Specific Training. Airman-specific modules must address appropriate portions of the certificate holder’s operating manual and other pertinent information. These modules should contain elements which address the operator’s type of operation and certain generalized areas, such as meteorology and the principles of W&B. It is essential that the inspectors and operators understand that airman‑specific training is not aircraft-specific training. Airman-specific training is intended to ensure that students have acquired fundamental aviation concepts before progressing into ground and flight training for a specific aircraft.

3-1147    FLIGHTCREW MEMBER BASIC INDOCTRINATION CURRICULUM SEGMENT JOB AID.

NOTE:  This job aid may be used in addition to completing appropriate Data Collection Tool (DCT) questions from SAS Element 2.1.1 (OP).

A.    Overview. The basic indoctrination curriculum segment job aid (Tables 3-42, Flightcrew Basic Indoctrination Training Job Aid—Subject Area 1: Operator-Specific Training, and 3-42A, Flightcrew Basic Indoctrination Training Job Aid—Subject Area 2: Airman-Specific Training) is provided to assist the inspector when evaluating this curriculum segment outline. This job aid is provided for guidance only and must not be construed as containing mandatory or regulatory requirements. This job aid focuses on the two subject areas of this curriculum segment (operator-specific and airman-specific training). It serves as an aid for inspectors when evaluating individual training modules.

B.    Job Aid/Operator’s Proposal Comparison. When using the job aid, inspectors should make a side‑by-side comparison of the operator’s proposal to make the following determinations:

·    The proposal provides for operator-specific and airman-specific instruction;

·    The proposal is generalized in nature, and serves to acquaint the student with the operator’s procedures, policies, and practices;

·    Normally, training modules should not contain elements which are aircraft-specific; and

·    Sufficient training module elements should be listed to ensure the appropriate depth and scope of the material will be presented.

C.    Organization. The job aid is organized with training subjects listed in the left column and evaluation criteria or remarks listed horizontally across the top. Inspectors may use the spaces within the matrix for items such as notes, comments, dates, or checkmarks. There are also blank columns and rows in each job aid which permit inspectors to include additional training modules or evaluation criteria.

3-1148    DRUG/ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM APPROVAL AND INCLUSION IN BASIC INDOCTRINATION TRAINING.

A.    Drug/Alcohol Testing Programs. The regulations require 14 CFR part 119 certificate holders operating under parts 121 and/or 135 to obtain OpSpec A449, Antidrug and Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program, to certify compliance with the drug and alcohol testing regulations. The operator’s drug testing program must include an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) that includes education and training on drug use and abuse for employees. Operators must distribute educational materials that explain the alcohol misuse program regulatory requirements and the operator’s policies and procedures.

Indicates new/changed information.

B.    Responsibility for Surveillance and Compliance/Enforcement of Operator Drug/Alcohol Training. The Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800) is responsible for the surveillance and compliance/enforcement of drug/alcohol testing programs that includes the training requirements under the regulations. POIs who receive drug/alcohol testing documentation other than information for the OpSpec A449 should return them to the operator with instructions to submit them promptly to the FAA at the following address:

Federal Aviation Administration

Office of Aerospace Medicine

Drug Abatement Division, AAM-800

800 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 806

Washington, DC 20591

202-267-8442

C.    Inclusion of Operator Drug/Alcohol Training Programs as a Module in Basic Indoctrination and Recurrent Training Curriculum Segments. Operators may, but are not required to, include EAP training (part of the operator’s overall drug/alcohol training program) as a module in the operator’s basic indoctrination and recurrent training. POIs are not to review the EAP training module content or to conduct surveillance of the training conducted in the EAP training module.

1)    Credit for EAP Training Module Hours. Operators who have currently approved training curriculums and who wish to receive credit for EAP training hours should submit a revised outline for the basic indoctrination and recurrent training curriculum segment, including the EAP module, to the POI. The operator’s outline must indicate the additional number of course hours required to include EAP training. POIs and operators may not count these hours in the total hours of the basic indoctrination and recurrent training curriculum segment. The POI will stamp the revised pages/control page of the curriculum segment outline according to the instructions in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 2.
2)    New Operator Awareness of EAP Training Requirements. Inspectors who are responsible for certifying new operators must ensure that the operators are aware that they may take credit for the training hours in the basic indoctrination curriculum segment. POIs must also ensure that the operators know of the EAP training requirements. POIs must ensure that an operator’s basic indoctrination and recurrent training curriculum segment outline lists the operator’s proposed training hours.

D.    Points of Contact (POC). Should operators or POIs have questions about EAP training program content, they should contact AAM-800. See Table 3-43, FAA Regional Aviation Drug/Alcohol Abatement Program Representative Addresses, Telephone Numbers, and States Covered.

Table 3-42.  Flightcrew Basic Indoctrination Training Job Aid—Subject Area 1: Operator-Specific Training

TRAINING SUBJECTS

EVALUATION CRITERIA

ADEQUACY OF ELEMENTS/ EVENTS

ADEQUACY OF COURSEWARE TRAINING

AIDS AND FACILITIES

 

 

Company History, Organization, and Description

 

 

 

 

 

Operational Concepts, Scope, and Policy

 

 

 

 

 

General Forms, Records, and Administrative Procedures

 

 

 

 

 

Employee Standards and Rules of Conduct, Including Drug and Alcohol Training

 

 

 

 

 

Employee Compensation and Benefits

 

 

 

 

 

Contracts

 

 

 

 

 

Overview of 14 CFR

 

 

 

 

 

Certificate and Operations Specifications

 

 

 

 

 

Company Manuals

 

 

 

 

 

Flight Control

 

 

 

 

 

Weight and Balance

 

 

 

 

 

Airport Ground Operational Safety

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3-42A.  Flightcrew Basic Indoctrination Training Job Aid—Subject Area 2: Airman-Specific Training

TRAINING SUBJECTS

EVALUATION CRITERIA

ADEQUACY OF ELEMENTS/ EVENTS

ADEQUACY OF COURSEWARE TRAINING

AIDS AND FACILITIES

 

 

Principles of Weight and Balance

 

 

 

 

 

Performance and Airport Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

Principles of Meteorology

 

 

 

 

 

Principles of Navigation

 

 

 

 

 

Airspace and ATC Procedures

 

 

 

 

 

En Route/ Terminal Charting and Flight Planning

 

 

 

 

 

Instrument Procedures

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3-43.  FAA Regional Aviation Drug/Alcohol Abatement Program Representative Addresses, Telephone Numbers, and States Covered

1. Eastern Compliance and Enforcement Center

FAA/Office of Aerospace Medicine

Drug Abatement Division

2895 SW 145th Avenue, Suite 148

Miramar, FL 33027

954-641-6251

Alabama

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Kentucky

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Mississippi

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

North Carolina

Pennsylvania

Puerto Rico

Rhode Island

South Carolina

Tennessee

Vermont

Virgin Islands

Virginia

Washington D.C.

West Virginia

2. Central Compliance and Enforcement Center

FAA/Office of Aerospace Medicine

Drug Abatement Division

2601 Meacham Boulevard

Fort Worth, TX 76137

817-222-5340

Arkansas

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Louisiana

Michigan

Minnesota

Missouri

Nebraska

New Mexico

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

South Dakota

Texas

Wisconsin

3. Western Compliance and Enforcement

FAA/Office of Aerospace Medicine

Drug Abatement Division

15000 Aviation Boulevard, Room 5012

Lawndale, CA 90261

310-725-3766

Alaska

American Samoa

Arizona

California

Colorado

Guam

Hawaii

Idaho

Montana

Nevada

Oregon

Saipan

Utah

Washington

Wyoming

RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-1149 through 3-1165.