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8900.1 CHG 556

VOLUME 3  General technical administration

CHAPTER 19  TRAINING PROGRAMS AND AIRMAN QUALIFICATIONS

Section 4  Safety Assurance System: Emergency Training Curriculum Segments Flightcrew General

3-1166    GENERAL. There are two types of emergency training that Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 121 and 135 operators must provide to flightcrew members. One type is aircraft‑specific training. This type of emergency training includes instruction and practice in emergency and abnormal procedures associated with aircraft systems, structural design, and operational characteristics. This training provides pilots and Flight Engineers (FE) with the knowledge and skills necessary to perform the emergency or abnormal procedures specified in the approved Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) or those AFM procedures incorporated in the operator’s aircraft operating manual. Examples of such procedures are those used when engine, landing gear, flight control, and/or pressurization problems occur. Aircraft-specific training also includes training on the location of specific items of emergency equipment on the aircraft, such as fire extinguishers, oxygen bottles, liferafts, life vests, and first aid kits. Aircraft-specific training must be included in the aircraft ground and flight training curriculum segments as described in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Sections 4 and 5. The other type of emergency training is referred to as “general emergency training.” General emergency training is required for crewmembers on each item specified in part 121, § 121.417 and part 135, § 135.331. This section provides direction and guidance on the content, methods of presentation, evaluation, and approval of flightcrew general emergency training. This section is related to Safety Assurance System (SAS) Element 2.1.1 (OP) Training of Flight Crew Members.

A.    Subject Areas. Two distinct subject areas of training are required in the conduct of general emergency training. These areas of training are emergency drill training and emergency situation training. The general emergency training curriculum segment must contain training modules that provide for training in both subject areas.

Indicates new/changed information.
1)    Sections 121.417 and 135.331 require instruction on various topics and emergency drills (hands‑on). Emergency drill training provides instruction and practice in the actual use of certain items of emergency equipment, such as fire extinguishers, life vests, oxygen bottles, and first aid equipment.
Indicates new/changed information.
a)    The risks and safety concerns of fighting fires caused by lithium type batteries in portable electronic devices (PED) are well documented. Air carrier flightcrew and flight attendant (F/A) training should harmonize procedures and drills that require moving a PED, including an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB), from the flight deck.
b)    Guidance for operators to consider when incorporating lithium battery firefighting drills includes the current editions of:

    Advisory Circular (AC) 20-42, Hand Fire Extinguishers for Use in Aircraft.

    AC 120-80, In-Flight Fires.

    Safety Alert for Operators (SAFO) 09013, Fighting Fires Caused by Lithium Type Batteries in Portable Electronic Devices, and Supplement.

    International Air Transport Association (IATA) Cabin Operations Safety Best Practices Guide, Appendix A, Cabin Crew Checklist for Fires Involving Batteries and Portable Electronic Devices (PED).

    IATA Lithium Batteries Risk Mitigation Guidance for Operators.

    International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Doc 9284, Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air, available at http://www.icao.int/Pages/default.aspx.

    ICAO Doc 9481 AN/928, Emergency Response Guidance for Aircraft Incidents Involving Dangerous Goods (refer to the Examples of Dangerous Goods Incidents Checklists).

NOTE:  The discharge of Halon extinguishing agents during firefighting drills is not appropriate unless a training facility is used that is specifically designed to prevent harm to the environment from the discharged Halon. When such facilities are not used, other fire extinguishing agents that are not damaging to the environment should be used during the drills.

2)    Emergency situation training consists of instruction on the factors involved, as well as the procedures to be followed, when emergency situations occur. Examples include passenger evacuations, ditching, rapid decompressions (RD), aircraft fires, and persons needing first aid.
Indicates new/changed information.
3)    Flightcrew members should receive hands-on drill training in firefighting techniques including lithium battery fires, and the air carrier’s manuals should contain adequate procedures for these subjects. The recommended procedures for fighting a lithium battery fire in a lithium-type-battery-powered PED consist of two phases: extinguishing the fire and cooling the remaining cells to stop thermal runaway.
a)    Utilize a Halon replacement or water extinguisher to extinguish the fire and prevent its spread to additional flammable materials.
b)    After extinguishing the fire, douse the device with water, an aqueous-based extinguishing agent, or other nonalcoholic liquids to cool the device and prevent additional battery cells from reaching thermal runaway.
c)    The procedure should state a warning for the crewmember not to pick up and move a smoking or burning device or to cover the device. Do not use ice to cool the device. Ice or other materials insulate the device, increasing the likelihood that additional battery cells will reach thermal runaway.

NOTE:  An aqueous-based extinguishing agent is a foam that tends to float on flammable liquids to tame the fire and help prevent reflash. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) does not require aqueous-based extinguishing agents to be carried on board.

B.    Type of Operation. The training modules for general emergency training must address the type of operation performed by an operator. For example, if a company operates aircraft above 25,000 feet, crewmembers must receive instruction in subjects such as respiration, hypoxia, decompression sickness (DCS), and any related procedures. As another example, a company that does not conduct extended overwater operations does not need to conduct training in the use of liferafts.

3-1167    JOINT PILOT/F/A EVACUATION TRAINING.

A.    Background.

1)    During a study, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) asked flightcrews who had participated in actual evacuations that received detailed investigations what changes could be implemented to improve emergency evacuation of passengers. Four flightcrew members mentioned joint training with F/As. In addition, two F/As recommended joint training with the flightcrew on evacuation procedures. Although many crewmembers had participated in joint Crew Resource Management (CRM) training, a much smaller percentage indicated that it included joint evacuation drills. NTSB recommendations A-92-74 and A-92-77 recommended joint evacuation and/or wet ditching drill training, and joint CRM training that included group exercises to improve crewmember communication and coordination.
2)    The FAA agreed with the intent of these safety recommendations. On February 8, 2001, the FAA issued AC 120-51D, Crew Resource Management Training, which states that F/As should conduct CRM training with flightcrews covering shared issues, such as evacuations and ditching. In addition, on February 12, 1995, the FAA issued Flight Standards Information Bulletin for Air Transportation (FSAT) 95-04, Emergency Evacuation and Ditching Drills, which expired on February 29, 1996. The bulletin directed principal operations inspectors (POI) to ensure that their assigned certificate holders are aware of the performance benefits that result when flightcrews and F/As perform emergency evacuation and ditching drills together.

B.    Policy. Giving crewmembers the opportunity to experience crew coordination and teamwork during required training drills is highly desirable. This is not always possible because of the difference in the numbers, the training schedules, and the training facilities of F/As and flightcrew members. Regardless of these challenges, airlines have used a variety of methods to ensure that crewmembers understand the procedures and actions of other crewmembers during emergency situations. These methods have included the use of videos that show the procedures for both flightcrew and F/As during a simulated emergency situation, and the timeframes required to complete those procedures. The simulation is especially helpful when followed by a discussion in which crewmembers are encouraged to discuss the role of fellow crewmembers.

Indicates new/changed information.
1)    The FAA recognizes the value of all activities that encourage communication and coordination between crewmembers. This would include joint CRM training, joint evacuation training, schedules that allow pilots and F/As to remain together as a crew for the duration of their trip sequence, preflight briefings that occur between the captain and the F/A crew, and coordination between flightcrew and F/A training departments to ensure standardization of procedures. Skill-based training should be conducted jointly to emphasize CRM. Crewmember performance should be evaluated for clear, concise communication, effective decisionmaking, and critical CRM skills including situational awareness and time management. As evidenced in previous guidance that the FAA has published, these activities are strongly encouraged, and air carriers routinely integrate one or more of these items into their operational procedures or training programs.
2)    POIs and cabin safety inspectors (CSI) (if applicable) should ensure that their assigned certificate holders are aware of the desirability of flightcrew and F/As performing emergency evacuation and ditching drills together. Furthermore, they should ensure that when this is not possible, air carriers are aware of the desirability of training programs that include information addressing the roles of other crewmembers during emergency evacuations and ditchings.

3-1168    GENERAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CURRICULUM SEGMENTS.

A.    Part 121. All part 121 operators must develop and obtain approval of a general emergency training curriculum segment for the initial new-hire category of training. Part 121 operators using both Group I (propeller‑driven) and Group II (turbojet-powered) aircraft must develop a general emergency training curriculum segment for flightcrew members required to receive initial equipment training on an aircraft in a different group for the first time. Part 121 operators may elect (or POIs may require them) to develop a separate general emergency training curriculum segment for flightcrew members required to receive initial equipment training on an aircraft in the same group. In this situation, the decision to develop a separate general emergency training curriculum segment should be based on the complexity of the operation, the extent of the differences in the flight regimes of the aircraft involved, and the extent of differences in the emergency equipment and procedures associated with the aircraft involved.

B.    Part 135. All part 135 operators must develop and obtain approval of a general emergency training curriculum segment for the initial new-hire category of training. Part 135 operators may elect (or POIs may require them) to develop a separate general emergency curriculum segment for flightcrew members required to receive the initial equipment category of training. In this situation, the decision to develop a separate general emergency training curriculum segment should be based on the complexity of the operation, the extent of the differences in the flight regimes of the aircraft involved, and the extent of differences in the emergency equipment and procedures associated with the aircraft involved. For example, an operator who operates both reciprocating-powered and turbojet-powered aircraft may need to develop separate general emergency training curriculum segments for incorporation into the initial equipment category of training appropriate for these types of aircraft.

C.    Related Aircraft Differences Training—Part 121. Aircraft-specific emergency training must be included in related aircraft differences ground and flight training curriculum segments, as specified by the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report. (See Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 12 for additional information regarding related aircraft designation and related aircraft differences training).

D.    Transition and Upgrade Training—Parts 121 and 135. There is not a requirement for a separate general emergency curriculum segment for the transition and upgrade categories of training. For these categories of training, flightcrew members will have previously received the appropriate general emergency training during initial new-hire training or, when appropriate, initial equipment training. Aircraft-specific emergency training must be included in the transition or upgrade aircraft ground and flight training curriculum segments.

E.    Recurrent Training—Parts 121 and 135. Part 121 and 135 operators must develop and obtain approval of a separate general emergency training curriculum segment for the recurrent category of training. Usually, for part 121, it will be appropriate to have two general emergency curriculum segments: one that reflects a 12-month cycle of emergency situation training, and another that reflects a 24-month cycle of emergency drill (actual hands-on) training (see paragraph 3-1169). However, for part 121, it is acceptable to incorporate the emergency drill (hands-on) training into a single curriculum segment provided it clearly requires that flightcrew members receive the emergency drill (hands-on) training at least once every 24 months.

F.    Requalification Training—Parts 121 and 135. Whether a general emergency curriculum segment is required for the requalification category of training is dependent on the purpose of the requalification training. In general, if the purpose of the requalification training is to requalify flightcrew members that have been unqualified for more than 1 year, a general emergency training curriculum segment should be required.

3-1169    RECURRENT GENERAL EMERGENCY TRAINING. Part 121 and 135 operators are required to conduct recurrent general emergency training. This curriculum segment is separate from the aircraft ground recurrent training curriculum segment. Recurrent general emergency training consists of emergency situation and emergency drill training modules.

A.    Requirements. Recurrent general emergency training for part 121 and 135 operators consists of all the items contained in §§ 121.417 and 135.331, respectively. This training must be conducted every 12 months, usually at the same time that aircraft ground recurrent training is conducted.

B.    Emergency Situation. The emergency situation training modules that are part of the recurrent general emergency training curriculum segment must include at least the following:

    RD (if applicable);

    In-flight fire (or on-the-surface) and smoke control procedures;

    Ditching and evacuation situations; and

    Illness, injury, the proper use of first aid equipment, and other abnormal situations involving passengers or crewmembers.

C.    Emergency Drill Training.

1)    Part 121. The emergency drill training modules, which require the crewmember to actually operate the items of emergency equipment (hands-on), must be conducted at least every 24 months. During the alternate 12-month periods, the emergency drill training may be accomplished by pictorial presentation or demonstration.
2)    Part 135. Emergency drill training modules must be completed at least every 12 months. Emergency drills must be hands-on, unless the POI has determined that for a particular drill, the crewmember can be adequately trained by demonstration. (Refer to § 135.331(c).)
3)    Modules. The emergency drill training modules that are part of the recurrent general emergency training curriculum segment must include at least the following:

    Operation of emergency exits (such as floor-level, overwing, and tailcone) in the normal and emergency modes;

    Operation of each type of hand-held fire extinguisher;

    Operation of each type of emergency oxygen system;

    Donning, use, and inflation of life preservers and other flotation devices (if applicable); and

    Ditching procedures (if applicable), including cockpit preparation, crew coordination, passenger briefing, cabin preparation, the use of lifelines, and boarding of passengers and crew into a liferaft or slide raft, as appropriate.

D.    Part 121 Chronology. Table 3-44 serves to clarify the chronological order of part 121 recurrent general emergency training requirements:

Table 3-44.  Chronological Order of Part 121 Recurrent General Emergency Training Requirements

TYPE OF RECURRENT GENERAL EMERGENCY TRAINING REQUIRED

MONTHS SINCE FIRST EMERGENCY TRAINING CURRICULUM SEGMENT WAS COMPLETED

12 MONTHS

24 MONTHS

36 MONTHS

48 MONTHS

Emergency Situation Training

X

X

X

X

Emergency Drill (either hands-on or pictorial presentation/demo)

X

X

X

X

Emergency Drill (hands‑on required)

 

X

 

X

3-1170    GENERAL EMERGENCY TRAINING MODULES.

A.    Number of Modules. A general emergency training curriculum segment must include as many training modules as necessary to ensure appropriate training. Each module outline must provide at least:

    A descriptive title of the training module; and

    A list of the related elements or events that will be presented during instruction on the module.

B.    Contents. The training module outline must contain sufficient elements or events to ensure that a student will receive training on the emergency equipment and procedures common to all of the operator’s aircraft and the type of operation being conducted.

C.    Outline. It is unnecessary to include detailed descriptions of each element within a training module outline. Such detailed descriptions are appropriate when included in the operator’s courseware, such as lesson plans. During the approval process, the POI should review courseware as necessary to ensure that the scope and depth of the training modules are adequate. Table 3-45 is an example of an acceptable method of presenting a general emergency training module outline:

Table 3-45.  An Acceptable Method of Presenting a General Emergency Training Module Outline

3.  AIRCRAFT FIRES

a.  Principles of combustion and classes of fires.

b.  Toxic fumes and chemical irritants.

c.  Use of Halon, CO2, and water extinguishers.

d.  Lavatory fires.

Indicates new/changed information.

e.  Lithium battery fires.

f.  Smoke masks and goggles.

NOTE:  In the preceding illustration, such items as engine fire procedures, electrical fire procedures, and the location of each fire extinguisher are intentionally not included. These elements or events are included in the aircraft ground and flight training curriculum segments.

D.    Interrelationship of Modules. Table 3-46, The Interrelationship of Training Modules in the Flightcrew Member General Emergency Training Curriculum Segment, illustrates the interrelationship of training modules in the flightcrew member general emergency training curriculum segment:

Table 3-46.  The Interrelationship of Training Modules in the Flightcrew Member General Emergency Training Curriculum Segment

Table 3-46. The Interrelationship of Training Modules in the Flightcrew Member General Emergency Training Curriculum Segment

3-1171    TRAINING HOURS. A minimum number of training hours for general emergency training curriculum segments is not specified in parts 121 and 135. When approving these curriculum segments, the FAA must consider the complexity of the type of operation and the complexity of the aircraft used. When approving general emergency training curriculum segments, POIs should use Table 3-47, Initial New-Hire Flightcrew Member General Emergency Training Hours, as a guide. The table includes a list of national norms for the initial new-hire general emergency training hours. The training hours for a complex type of operation may need to exceed the national norm, while training hours below the national norm may be acceptable for a less complex type of operation. National norms have not been established for initial equipment or recurrent general emergency training.

Table 3-47.  Initial New-Hire Flightcrew Member General Emergency Training Hours

AIRCRAFT FAMILY

TYPE OF OPERATION

TRAINING HOURS

Part 121 and 135 Transport and Commuter Category

All

8

General Purpose Multiengine Airplane

Land Operations

4

Extended Overwater

6

Uninhabited Environment

6

Single-Engine Airplanes

Land Operations

2

Extended Overwater

4

Uninhabited Environment

6

Helicopters

Land Operations

4

Extended Overwater

6

Uninhabited Environment

6

3-1172    COURSE COMPLETION REQUIREMENTS. Completion of the curriculum segment must be documented by an instructor’s or supervisor’s certification that the student has successfully completed the course. The certification is usually based on the results of a written examination given at the end of the course. With some training methods, the certification may be based on student progress checks administered during the course.

3-1173    CONTENT OF FLIGHTCREW MEMBER GENERAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CURRICULUM SEGMENTS. A general emergency training curriculum segment must indicate that training will be given, appropriate to the operator’s type of operation, in two distinct areas. These areas of training are “emergency situation” and “emergency drill.”

3-1174    EMERGENCY SITUATION TRAINING MODULES. Emergency situation training modules provide instruction, demonstration, and practice in the handling of emergency situations. The following are examples of recommended training modules for the emergency situation subject area:

A.    Flightcrew Member Duties and Responsibilities.

    Emergency assignments;

    Captain’s emergency authority; and

    Reporting incidents and accidents.

B.    Crew Coordination and Company Communication.

    Cabin crew notification procedures;

    Ground agency notification procedures (e.g., FAA or Airport Authority); and

    Company communication procedures.

C.    Aircraft Fires.

    Principles of combustion and classes of fire;

    Toxic fumes and chemical irritants;

    Use of appropriate hand-held extinguishers;

Indicates new/changed information.

    Lithium battery fires;

    Lavatory fires; and

    Smoke masks and goggles.

D.    First Aid Equipment.

    Contents of first aid kit;

    Requirements for first aid kit integrity; and

    Use of individual items.

E.    Illness, Injury, and Basic First Aid.

    Principles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR);

    Ear and sinus blocks;

    Seeking medical assistance;

    Treatment of shock; and

    Heart attack and pregnancy situations.

F.    Ground Evacuation.

    Aircraft configuration;

    Directing passenger flow;

    Blocked or jammed exit procedures;

    Fuel spills and other ground hazards; and

    Handicapped persons.

G.    Ditching.

    Cockpit and cabin preparation;

    Passenger briefing;

    Crew coordination;

    Primary swells, secondary swells, and sea conditions;

    Ditching heading and water landings; and

    Ditching at night.

H.    Rapid Decompression (RD).

    Respiration;

    Hypoxia, hypothermia, and hyperventilation;

    Time of useful consciousness (TUC);

    Gas expansion/bubble formation; and

    Physical phenomena and actual incidents.

I.    Previous Aircraft Accidents/Incidents.

    NTSB accident report reviews;

    Human factors (HF)/considerations; and

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) reporting system.

J.    Crewmember Incapacitation.

    Company procedures;

    Reporting requirements (NTSB); and

    Interference with crewmembers.

K.    Hijacking and Other Unusual Situations.

    Hijack procedures;

    Bomb threat procedures;

    Security coordinator responsibilities; and

    In-flight intercept signals and procedures.

3-1175    SITUATIONS REQUIRING EMERGENCY EVACUATIONS.

A.    Background.

1)    In a study, the NTSB examined what situations would cause a flightcrew to require an emergency evacuation, according to their company procedures. The most frequent event leading to an evacuation was an engine fire, accounting for 18 of the 46 evacuations (39 percent). At some air carriers, checklist procedures direct the flightcrew to initiate or consider ground evacuation procedures for emergency landing, fire (engine, auxiliary power unit (APU), avionics, and cargo), smoke (in cabin equipment, in air conditioning, and smoke removal), abnormal landing gear, ditching, and aircraft sabotage. However, other air carriers direct flightcrews to initiate or consider evacuation only for gear-up landings, ditchings, or forced landings.
2)    Based on this information, the NTSB concluded that pilots are not receiving consistent guidance, particularly in Flight Operations Manuals (FOM) and safety manuals, on when to evacuate an airplane. The NTSB believes that the FAA should require FOMs and safety manuals to include abnormal and emergency procedures checklists and a checklist item that directs flightcrews to initiate or consider emergency evacuation in all emergencies that could reasonably require an airplane evacuation (e.g., a cabin fire or an engine fire).

B.    Policy. Air carriers should evaluate the guidance and training that is given to their flightcrews regarding a crew’s decision to initiate or consider an emergency evacuation, and ensure that it addresses the majority of situations for which an emergency evacuation may be warranted, including smoke or fire in the cabin. In addition, each carrier should consider a checklist item that directs flightcrews to initiate or consider an emergency evacuation in all emergencies that could reasonably require an airplane evacuation.

3-1176    EMERGENCY DRILL TRAINING MODULES. The area of a general emergency training curriculum segment referred to as emergency drill training provides instruction, demonstration, and practice in the actual operation of certain items of emergency equipment. Examples of recommended training modules for the emergency drill training subject area are as follows:

A.    Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers.

    Inspection tags, dates, and proper charge levels;

    Removal and stowage of extinguishers;

    Actual discharge of each type of extinguisher; and

    Maintenance procedures and minimum equipment list (MEL).

B.    Portable Oxygen Systems.

    Inspection tags, dates, and pressures;

    Removal and stowage of oxygen bottles; and

    Actual operation of each type of bottle and each type of mask.

C.    Emergency Exits and Slides.

    Actual operation (open and close) of each exit in the normal and emergency modes;

    Instruction on slide or slide raft deployment, transfer from one door to another, and detachment from the aircraft or training device of each type of slide or slide raft (if applicable); and

    Actual use of slide or slide raft (this requirement needs to be accomplished only once during initial new-hire or initial equipment training).

D.    Ditching Equipment (if applicable).

    Actual donning, use, and inflation of individual flotation means (life preservers);

    Instruction on liferaft removal from the aircraft and inflation of each type of liferaft;

    Instruction on the use of lifelines;

    Actual boarding of a liferaft or slide raft; and

    Instruction on survival equipment.

3-1177    PLANNED EMERGENCY BRIEFINGS.

A.    Background. During a study, the NTSB reviewed both planned and unplanned evacuations. The majority of cases (31) in the study were reported to be unplanned evacuations and 14 were carried out following crew planning for a possible evacuation. For the planned evacuations, the amount of planning varied from case to case. Prior to landing in an A320 that had an unsafe nose gear, the F/As completed a comprehensive preparation for landing that included relocating the passengers and a detailed passenger briefing to prepare them for the evacuation. No passengers received injuries during the successful evacuation. In another case, passengers were informed that a maintenance problem had occurred and the airplane would be returning to the airport. F/As calmed and reassured the passengers, but did not prepare the cabin for an emergency evacuation. In this case, 11 passengers sustained minor injuries.

1)    Planning for evacuations involves more than just keeping passengers calm. Reviewing brace positions improves the chance that passengers will be properly braced for the emergency landing. Planned evacuations also allow the F/As to inform the passengers of what to expect, thereby avoiding surprises that could possibly delay the evacuation. For example, passengers who were flying on a Beech 1900 reported that they were surprised there were no slides at the exits.
2)    Inadequate time to prepare, no procedures for abbreviated briefings, and lack of communication from the flightcrew regarding the possibility of an evacuation prevented adequate passenger briefings in several cases studied.

B.    Policy. Passengers who are informed and briefed regarding the possibility of an evacuation are better prepared to handle an evacuation, should one occur. Air carriers should ensure that they have procedures in place to encourage communication from the flightcrew to the F/As regarding the possibility of an evacuation. In addition, air carriers should have procedures in place to ensure that passengers are provided with precautionary briefings when flightcrews anticipate an eventual evacuation.

1)    Furthermore, air carriers should develop procedures that are designed to accommodate abbreviated timeframes for cabin preparation for a planned evacuation or ditching. They should establish guidance and procedures for their F/As that specifically address reduced timeframes for cabin preparation, and give their F/As the opportunity to practice these procedures during emergency training. These procedures should prioritize the cabin preparation tasks and critical elements of passenger information that can have a maximum positive effect on an evacuation and can be delivered in an abbreviated timeframe. For example, a review of the brace position and a reminder to review the safety information card for exit location and operation provides passengers with information that they can use to prepare for a safer and more efficient evacuation.
2)    There are several methods that an air carrier may employ to accomplish this. For example, an air carrier could have one announcement/checklist and structure it so that tasks are completed in order of importance. Even an abbreviated timeframe would allow the most critical tasks to be completed first. Another method could be to have two different announcements/checklists to accomplish specific timeframes, such as “over 10 minutes to prepare/under 10 minutes to prepare.” Regardless of the method the air carrier chooses, POIs and CSIs (if applicable) should ensure that their assigned operators have procedures in place that are able to accommodate abbreviated timeframes for cabin preparation for an emergency landing.

3-1178    RECURRENT GENERAL EMERGENCY TRAINING MODULES. Recurrent general emergency training consists of emergency situation training elements and emergency drill training events (in the form of training modules) that are selected by the operator and approved by the POI.

A.    Pictorial Presentations or Demonstrations. During alternate 12-month periods, when (actual hands-on) emergency drill training is not required, operators may use approved pictorial presentations or demonstrations. When approving pictorial presentations, the POI must ensure that the presentation meets the following criteria:

    The equipment shown in each pictorial presentation must be functionally identical to the equipment on board the aircraft;

    The pictorial display of equipment must be large enough to be properly viewed by the whole class;

    All procedures must be accurately and logically presented; and

    All emergency equipment not actually demonstrated during the course of instruction must be presented pictorially.

B.    Hands-On Training. Every 24 months, each crewmember must receive (actual hands-on) emergency drill training. This means that each crewmember must actually perform each drill or procedure and must actually operate each piece of emergency equipment specified in paragraph 3-1176. Certain hands-on emergency drill events must be conducted in a static aircraft or in an approved cabin/exit mockup training device.

3-1179    CABIN AND EXIT MOCKUPS. Hands-on emergency drill training for items such as emergency exits and passenger oxygen systems should be conducted in a static aircraft, in an approved cabin mockup training device, or by use of an approved exit mockup training device. Cabin and exit mockup training devices should be representative of a full-scale section of an aircraft. Cabin mockups should include operational doors, window exits, slides, rafts, and other equipment used in emergency drill training. POIs should not approve cabin or exit mockup training devices without an inspection to determine the adequacy of the devices. Generally, cabin and exit mockup training devices are acceptable if they meet the following criteria:

    Cabin mockups should be representative of the operator’s aircraft with appropriate equipment installed;

    Cabin mockups should be full-scale, except for length;

    The forces required to open the exit mockups should duplicate normal and emergency conditions with the slides or slide raft installed; and

    The mechanisms and instructions required to operate the exits should be representative of the operator’s aircraft.

3-1180    EVALUATION OF FLIGHTCREW MEMBER GENERAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CURRICULUM SEGMENT OUTLINES FOR INITIAL APPROVAL. When evaluating a general emergency training curriculum segment for initial approval, inspectors must determine that the training modules contain information of sufficient quality, scope, and depth to ensure that the flightcrew member can perform emergency duties and procedures without supervision. Inspectors should use the appropriate SAS Element Design Data Collection Tool (ED DCT) or Element Performance Data Collection Tool (EP DCT) 2.1.1 (OP) Training of Flight Crew Members, and Table 3-48, Flightcrew Member General Emergency Training Job Aid, when evaluating the proposed curriculum segment outline.

3-1181    FLIGHTCREW MEMBER GENERAL EMERGENCY TRAINING JOB AID.

A.    Job Aid Contents. Table 3-48 is provided to assist the inspector when evaluating this curriculum segment. The regulatory requirements of parts 121 and 135 general emergency training are contained in this job aid. The job aid covers the two subject areas of general emergency training, emergency situation and emergency drill training, and is intended to assist the inspector in evaluating individual training modules.

B.    Using the Job Aid. When using this job aid, the inspector should make a side-by-side comparison of the operator’s proposal to make the following determinations:

    Whether training modules provide for training on the required elements and events in terms of flightcrew member duties and procedures; and

    Whether sufficient training module elements and events are outlined to ensure that the appropriate depth and scope of the material will be presented.

NOTE:  Although some elements and events in general emergency training are aircraft-specific (such as exits, slides, or slide rafts), the majority of the elements and events should apply to the operator’s aircraft fleet.

C.    Organization. The job aid is organized with the training subjects listed in the left column and evaluation criteria listed horizontally across the top. Inspectors may use the spaces within the matrix for items such as notes, comments, dates, and checkmarks. There are also blank columns and rows in the job aid that permit inspectors to add other training modules or evaluation criteria.

Table 3-48.  Flightcrew Member General Emergency Training Job Aid

SUBJECT AREA 1: EMERGENCY SITUATION TRAINING

TRAINING SUBJECTS

EVALUATION CRITERIA

ADEQUACY OF ELEMENTS/EVENTS

ADEQUACY OF COURSEWARE TRAINING

AIDS AND FACILITIES

 

Duties and Responsibilities

 

 

 

 

Crew Coordination

 

 

 

 

Aircraft Fires

 

 

 

 

First Aid Equipment Illness, Injury, and Basic First Aid

 

 

 

 

Ground Evacuation Ditching Procedures

 

 

 

 

Rapid Decompression Previous Accidents and Incidents

 

 

 

 

Basic Survival Training

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3-48.  Flightcrew Member General Emergency Training Job Aid (Continued)

SUBJECT AREA 2: EMERGENCY DRILL TRAINING

TRAINING SUBJECTS

EVALUATION CRITERIA

ADEQUACY OF ELEMENTS/EVENTS

ADEQUACY OF COURSEWARE TRAINING

AIDS AND FACILITIES

 

Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers

 

 

 

 

Emergency Oxygen System

 

 

 

 

Emergency Exits and Slides*

 

 

 

 

Life Preservers

 

 

 

 

Ditching Procedures**

 

 

 

 

*Each crewmember is only required to participate in one emergency evacuation using a slide during initial new-hire or initial equipment training.

**Crewmembers are not required to deploy, remove, detach, transfer, or inflate slides or slide rafts on the aircraft or training device.

3-1182    SMOKE GOGGLES AND OXYGEN MASKS.

A.    POI. POIs should:

1)    Discuss with each certificate holder the extreme importance of revising certificate holder’s checklists and expanded procedures in the appropriate operations manual to require that both smoke goggles and oxygen masks be donned at the first indication of any unidentified odor.
2)    Determine that each certificate holder’s approved training program provides sufficient hands-on training for all Protective Breathing Equipment (PBE). In addition, each training program must ensure that each flightcrew member is proficient in donning the oxygen mask and smoke goggles.
Indicates new/changed information.
a)    Flightcrew members should practice the procedures and/or techniques associated with use of oxygen mask/goggle sets, including the use of the regulator’s emergency selector and the venting of smoke goggles.
b)    Flightcrew members should practice the procedures and/or techniques associated with implementing smoke and fume elimination.
c)    To assist flightcrew members in maintaining internal cockpit communications when they don oxygen masks, they must know the aircraft-specific methods for establishing communication.
d)    Flightcrew members must know the importance of stowing their oxygen masks set to 100 percent.
e)    Flightcrew members must be able to don the smoke goggles and oxygen mask within the timeframe established in the current editions of Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C99A, Flight Deck (Sedentary) Crewmember Protective Breathing Equipment, and SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) 8031, Personal Protective Devices for Toxic and Irritating Atmospheres Air Transport Flight Deck (Sedentary) Crewmembers.
Indicates new/changed information.

NOTE:  The design objective is that the oxygen mask/smoke goggles are capable of being donned within 15 seconds.

3)    Determine that each certificate holder’s training program, checklists, operations manual, and amendments to those manuals and training programs are in compliance with § 121.337(c), which states:

Before each flight, each item of PBE at flightcrew member duty stations must be checked by the flightcrew member who will use the equipment.

4)    Work with the certificate holder to determine which PBE is universal fit and which is not. This information must then be made available to flightcrews.
5)    Ensure that each certificate holder locates flightcrew member PBE (i.e., smoke goggles and oxygen mask) in a ready position at each flightcrew member duty station in a manner that is immediately available. Smoke goggles must not impair the wearer’s vision and must allow corrective glasses to be worn without impairment of vision or loss of protection, as required by § 121.337.

B.    Aviation Safety Inspector (ASI). ASIs (Operations) conducting en route inspections should actively emphasize compliance with § 121.337.

RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-1183 through 3-1195.