11/27/17

 

8900.1 CHG 316

VOLUME 3  GENERAL TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATION

CHAPTER 19  TRAINING PROGRAMS AND AIRMAN QUALIFICATIONS

Section 5  Safety Assurance System: Flightcrew Aircraft Ground Training Curriculum Segments

Source Basis:

    Section 121.400, Applicability and Terms Used.

    Section 121.401, Training Program: General.

    Section 121.403, Training Program: Curriculum.

    Section 121.405, Training Program and Revision: Initial and Final Approval.

    Section 121.415, Crewmember and Dispatcher Training Program Requirements.

    Section 121.417, Crewmember Emergency Training.

    Section 121.418, Differences Training and Related Aircraft Differences Training.

    Section 121.419, Pilots and Flight Engineers: Initial, Transition, and Upgrade Ground Training.

    Section 121.427, Recurrent Training.

    Section 121.431, Applicability.

    Section 121.433, Training Required.

    Section 135.321, Applicability and Terms Used.

    Section 135.323, Training Program: General.

    Section 135.325, Training Program and Revision: Initial and Final Approval.

    Section 135.327, Training Program: Curriculum.

    Section 135.329, Crewmember Training Requirements.

    Section 135.330, Crew Resource Management Training.

    Section 135.331, Crewmember Emergency Training.

    Section 135.341, Pilot and Flight Attendant Crewmember Training Programs.

    Section 135.343, Crewmember Initial and Recurrent Training Requirements.

    Section 135.345, Pilots: Initial, Transition, and Upgrade Ground Training.

    Section 135.351, Recurrent Training.

3-1196    GENERAL. This section specifies the objectives of aircraft ground training. Structure and content of flightcrew aircraft ground training curriculum segments are discussed. Also, three distinct areas of aircraft ground training are identified: general operational subjects, aircraft systems, and systems integration training. This section is related to Safety Assurance System (SAS) Element 2.1.1 (OP) Training of Flight Crew Members.

3-1197    AIRCRAFT GROUND TRAINING OBJECTIVES. The primary objective of aircraft ground training is to provide flightcrew members with the necessary knowledge for understanding the basic functions of aircraft systems, the use of the individual system components, the integration of aircraft systems, and operational procedures. An important requirement of an aircraft ground training curriculum segment is that, upon completion, a student will be sufficiently prepared to enter the flight training curriculum segment. Aircraft ground training, as used in this section, is training for a specific aircraft type. Aircraft ground training may be conducted using many methods, including classroom instruction, ground training devices (GTD), computer‑based instruction (CBI), flight simulation training devices (FSTD), and static aircraft.

3-1198    AIRCRAFT GROUND TRAINING CURRICULUM SEGMENTS. Pilots and Flight Engineers (FE) must successfully complete an aircraft ground training curriculum segment for the appropriate category of training (initial new-hire, initial equipment, transition, upgrade, recurrent, or requalification training). Each aircraft ground training curriculum segment consists of training modules containing pertinent subject matter appropriate to the category of training. Training modules may be designed to be used interchangeably in the various categories of training. For example, a hydraulic system training module could be used in initial new‑hire, initial equipment, and transition training.

3-1199    AIRCRAFT GROUND TRAINING MODULES.

A.    Module Outline. An aircraft ground training curriculum segment must include as many training modules as necessary for appropriate training to occur. Each module outline must provide at least:

1)    A descriptive title of the training module.
2)    A list of the related elements or events that will be presented during instruction on the module.

B.    Module Contents. The training module outline must contain sufficient elements or events to ensure that a student will receive training on the main features of individual systems, the operation of individual systems, and the integration of those systems with other aircraft systems. It is unnecessary to include detailed descriptions of each element within a training module outline. However, such detailed descriptions are appropriate and should be included in the operator’s courseware. During the approval process, a principal operations inspector (POI) should review courseware as necessary to ensure that the scope and depth of the training modules are adequate. The following example illustrates one of the many acceptable methods of presenting an aircraft ground training module outline:

Figure 3-176.  Aircraft Ground Training Module Outline Example

Figure 3-176. Aircraft Ground Training Module Outline Example

C.    Scope and Depth of Training Modules. The job aid at the end of this section (see Table 3-55, Aircraft Ground Training Module Job Aid) is provided to assist inspectors when determining whether the scope and depth of the aircraft ground training modules are acceptable. The following example illustrates the interrelationship of curriculum segments and training module outlines:

Figure 3-177.  Interrelationship of a Ground Curriculum Segment and Training Modules

Figure 3-177. Interrelationship of a Ground Curriculum Segment and Training Modules

3-1200    TRAINING HOURS. The number of training hours must be specified on all aircraft ground training curriculum segment outlines. It is difficult to provide guidance on acceptable training hours for aircraft ground training curriculum segments because of the various situations that can be encountered. POIs must thoroughly study the operator’s proposals. Based on experience with the operator, past experiences with other operators, and their own training experiences, POIs must use reasonable judgment when determining whether the training can be adequately accomplished within the training hours specified in the curriculum segment. Certain training methods, such as CBI, allow students to progress through training at a rate that depends on each individual student’s ability to assimilate the required knowledge or abilities. For these kinds of training methods, the specified training hours should be indicative of the time an average student will progress through training.

A.    Ground Training Hours Norms. Table 3-52, Flightcrew Aircraft Ground Training Hours National Norms (Thresholds), provides direction and guidance for determining acceptable training hours for aircraft ground training curriculum segments. Generally, training hours listed in this table approximate training days or fractions of days. Periods for reasonable breaks during instruction are included in these training hours. The table provides two sets of training hours for the various categories of training and families of aircraft.

1)    The first set is considered to be the national norm and reasonable training support is presumed, such as proficient instructors, well-organized courseware, and modern training devices or aids. The national norm must not be construed as being always acceptable. When determining the adequacy of training hours, a POI should use the national norm as a point from which other factors shall be weighed. There may be many reasons why the training hours need to be greater than the national norm. The operator may need to specify more hours because of the complexity of the aircraft or types of operation. A POI may need to require more hours because of inadequate training support. Conversely, training hours less than the national norm may be fully acceptable due to the use of highly sophisticated and modern training methods, the use of less complex aircraft, or the use of a less complex type of operation.
2)    The second set of training hours, in parentheses, is an established threshold for training hours. Threshold training hours are established for particular categories of training and families of aircraft. Before granting initial approval to a curriculum segment with less than the established threshold training hours, a POI must ensure that the training to be given provides sufficient training and meets the objective of the curriculum segment.

B.    Upgrade Ground Training. Training hour national norms have not been established for upgrade ground training curriculum segments. Upgrade ground training requirements vary widely depending on a flightcrew member’s experience, previous duty position, and currency status in the aircraft for which training is being conducted. In cases when students have not served on the aircraft for a long time, upgrade ground training may need to be as extensive as initial equipment training. In other cases when students are currently qualified on the aircraft, either as FEs or seconds in command (SIC), the upgrade ground training may only be that training necessary to qualify them in the new duty position. In such cases, an operator may be able to expand or conduct upgrade flight training and qualify students for the new duty positions without a separate upgrade ground training curriculum segment.

1)    The following illustration provides several factors to be considered when evaluating upgrade ground training curriculum segments:

Table 3-51.  Factors of Upgrade Ground Training

UPGRADE GROUND TRAINING

FLIGHTCREW MEMBER STATUS

GENERAL OPERATIONAL SUBJECTS

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS

SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

Second in command (SIC) (current on aircraft) upgrade to pilot in command (PIC)

Training modules or elements pertaining to PIC duty position

May not be needed

Training modules or elements pertaining to PIC duty position

SIC (NOT current on aircraft) upgrade to PIC

Training modules or elements pertaining to PIC duty position

Appropriate training modules depending on time NOT current

Appropriate training modules depending on time NOT current

Flight Engineer (FE) (current on aircraft) upgrade to SIC

Training modules pertaining to SIC duty position

May not be needed

Training modules or elements pertaining to SIC duty position

FE (NOT current on aircraft) upgrade to SIC

Training modules or elements pertaining to SIC duty position

Appropriate training modules depending on time NOT current

Appropriate training modules depending on time NOT current

2)    Training hour thresholds for upgrade ground training curriculum segments have been established. For Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121, if the approved training hours are below the threshold training hours in Table 3-52, the POI must notify the Air Transportation Division (AFS‑200) by memo. The memo must describe the reasons and actions resulting in the approval and include a copy of the approved aircraft ground training curriculum segment outline and any additional supporting information submitted by the air carrier. This AFS-200 notification is necessary for tracking and standardization purposes.

C.    Related Aircraft Differences Training. Training hour national norms and thresholds have not been established for related aircraft differences ground training curriculum segments. The training hours required for designated related aircraft will vary based on the training methods and level of differences specified in the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report. (See Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 12 for additional information regarding related aircraft designation and related aircraft differences training.)

Table 3-52.  Flightcrew Aircraft Ground Training Hours National Norms (Thresholds)

 

 

CATEGORY OF TRAINING

 

Family of Aircraft

Initial New‑Hire

Initial Equipment

Transition

Upgrade

Recurrent

TRANSPORT & COMMUTER CATEGORY

Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) Part 121 Group I (Reciprocating)

66(48)

56(40)

56(40)

(16)

16.5(8)

Part 121 Group I (Turboprop)

82(56)

72(48)

64(48)

(16)

20.5(8)

Part 121 Group II (Turbojet)

122(64)

112(64)

80(64)

(24)

25.5(8)

14 CFR Part 135 Transport and Commuter Category

72(56)

64(48)

64(48)

(16)

16(8)

MULTIENGINE

Part 135 Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)/‌Visual Flight Rules (VFR)

32(16)

24(16)

24(16)

(8)

8(4)

Part 135 VFR Only

24(16)

20(8)

20(8)

(4)

4(4)

SINGLE-ENGINE

Part 135 IFR/VFR

20(8)

16(8)

16(8)

(4)

8(4)

Part 135 VFR Only

12(8)

8(4)

8(4)

(4)

4(4)

HELICOPTER

IFR/VFR

32(16)

24(16)

24(16)

(8)

8(4)

VFR Only

24(16)

20(8)

20(8)

(4)

4(4)

D.    Regulatory Programmed Hours. Part 121, §§ 121.419 and 121.427 specify 14 CFR programmed hour requirements for initial and recurrent aircraft ground training curriculum segments. The regulatory programmed hours for these categories of training are listed in Table 3-53 below.

Table 3-53.   Part 121 Regulatory Programmed Hours for Ground Training Curriculum Segments

Table 3-53. Part 121 Regulatory Programmed Hours for Ground Training Curriculum Segments

*The Airline Transport Pilot (ATP) Certification Training Program (CTP) requirements are outlined in 14 CFR part 61, § 61.156. The required initial programmed hours for pilots who have completed this course may be reduced as indicated.

1)    Under § 121.405(d), a POI is authorized to approve reductions to the 14 CFR programmed hour requirements of these three categories of training. When approving reductions to the 14 CFR programmed hours, a POI must determine that the training aids, devices, and methods and procedures used by the operator will increase the quality and effectiveness of the training. The initial or final approval of these part 121 aircraft ground training curriculum segments must contain a statement giving the basis for the reduced 14 CFR programmed hours (see Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 2, paragraphs 3-1106 and 3-1110). If the approved training hours are also below the threshold training hours in Table 3-52, the POI must notify AFS-200 by memo. The memo must describe the reasons and actions resulting in the approval and include a copy of the approved aircraft ground training curriculum segment outline and any additional supporting information submitted by the air carrier. This AFS-200 notification is necessary for tracking and standardization purposes.
2)    Under § 121.418(c), a POI is authorized to approve a modification to the 14 CFR programmed hour requirements for these three categories of training for designated related aircraft. When approving a modification to the 14 CFR programmed hours, the POI must determine that the training hours for the designated related aircraft are realistic based on the training methods and level of differences specified in the FSB report. Unless reduced in accordance with § 121.405(d), the 14 CFR programmed hour requirements for these three categories of training apply to the base aircraft. (See Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 12 for additional information regarding related aircraft designation and related aircraft differences training.)
3)    There are no other categories of training in part 121 that specify 14 CFR programmed hour requirements. Part 135 does not specify any 14 CFR programmed hour requirements.

3-1201    COURSE COMPLETION REQUIREMENTS. Completion of the curriculum segment must be documented by an instructor’s or supervisor’s certification that the student has successfully completed the course. This certification is usually based on the results of a written examination given at the end of the course. With some training methods, the certification may be based on student progress checks administered during the course.

3-1202    CONTENT OF AIRCRAFT GROUND CURRICULUM SEGMENTS.

A.    Training Subject Areas. An aircraft ground curriculum segment must show that training will be given in three distinct subject areas appropriate to the specific aircraft. These subject areas of training are “general operational subjects” (see paragraphs 3-1203 and 3-1204), “aircraft systems” (see paragraph 3-1205), and “systems integration” (see paragraph 3-1206). An operator should develop separate training modules for each of these distinct areas of training. Usually, training in systems integration should occur during the latter part of the course. However, other methods of training module development and sequencing of training may be fully acceptable.

B.    Modification of Subject Areas for Designated Related Aircraft. Under § 121.418(c), a POI is authorized to approve a modification to the ground training subject requirements of § 121.419 for designated related aircraft based on the FSB report. (See Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 12 for additional information regarding related aircraft designation and related aircraft differences training.)

3-1203    GENERAL OPERATIONAL SUBJECTS FOR PART 135 GROUND TRAINING. The subject area of ground training, referred to as “general subjects,” includes instruction on certain operational requirements that are specific to the operation in which the training is being conducted. The general subject area of a ground training curriculum segment may include instruction on many subjects but must include instruction in at least the following:

A.    Dispatch, Flight Release, or Flight-Locating Procedures. As applicable to the specific aircraft.

B.    Weight and Balance (W&B) Procedures. Specific to the aircraft, including computation of company W&B forms.

C.    Adverse Weather Practices. Includes procedures specific to the aircraft that must be followed when operating in the following conditions:

    Icing,

    Turbulence,

    Heavy precipitation,

    Thunderstorms with associated wind shear and microburst phenomena,

    Low visibility, and

    Contaminated runways.

Indicates new/changed information.

D.    Recognizing and Avoiding Flat-Light, Whiteout, and Brownout Conditions. For helicopter pilots, procedures for aircraft handling in flat-light, whiteout, and brownout conditions, including methods for recognizing and avoiding those conditions.

E.    Communication and Navigation Procedures. Procedures for operating specific aircraft communications and navigation equipment in accordance with the following:

    Specific company communications requirements,

    Air traffic control (ATC) clearance requirements,

    Area departure and arrival requirements,

    En route requirements, and

    Approach and landing requirements.

Indicates new/changed information.

F.    Performance Characteristics. Specific performance characteristics of the aircraft during all flight regimes, including:

    The use of charts, tables, tabulated data, and other related manual information;

    Normal, abnormal, and emergency performance problems;

    Meteorological and weight-limiting performance factors (such as temperature, pressure, contaminated runways, precipitation, and climb/runway limits);

    Inoperative equipment performance limiting factors (such as minimum equipment list (MEL)/Configuration Deviation List (CDL) and inoperative antiskid); and

    Special operational conditions (such as unpaved runways, high-altitude airports, and driftdown requirements).

Indicates new/changed information.

G.    Example Outline. Figure 3-178, Aircraft Ground Training General Operational Subjects Curriculum Segment Outline Example, illustrates one of many acceptable methods in which the “general operational subjects” area of an aircraft ground training curriculum segment could be outlined (including a typical training module):

Figure 3-178.  Aircraft Ground Training General Operational Subjects Curriculum Segment Outline Example

Figure 3-178. Aircraft Ground Training General Operational Subjects Curriculum Segment Outline Example

3-1204    GENERAL OPERATIONAL SUBJECTS FOR PART 121 GROUND TRAINING (§ 121.419). Part 121 ground training for pilots and FEs must contain the subject areas as applicable to their assigned duties noted in Table 3-54, Part 121 Ground Training Subject Areas for Pilots and FEs, below. In accordance with § 121.419, the subject areas for pilot initial ground training vary depending on whether the pilot has previously completed the ATP CTP. After July 31, 2016, all applicants for an ATP Certificate with a multiengine class rating will be required to complete the ATP CTP prior to starting initial training at a part 121 air carrier. As specified in § 121.419(b), the right column in Table 3-54 applies to initial ground training for pilots who have completed the ATP CTP. As specified in § 121.419(a), the left column applies to:

    Initial ground training for pilots who have not completed the ATP CTP because they held an ATP certificate with a multiengine class rating prior to July 31, 2016;

    Transition and upgrade ground training for pilots; and

    Initial and transition ground training for FEs.

Table 3-54.  Part 121 Ground Training Subject Areas for Pilots and FEs

Subject Area

Initial ground training for pilots who have not completed the ATP CTP, transition and upgrade ground training for pilots, and initial and transition ground training for FEs.

Initial ground training for pilots who have completed the ATP CTP in § 61.156. This ground training is specific to the certificate holder’s operation.

The certificate holder’s dispatch or flight release procedures.

X

X

Principles and methods for determining W&B, and runway limitations for takeoff and landing.

X

X

Method only (not principles)

Enough meteorology to ensure a practical knowledge of weather phenomena, including the principles of frontal systems, icing, fog, thunderstorms, and high-altitude weather situations.

X

 

Meteorology hazards applicable to the certificate holder’s areas of operation.

 

X

Air traffic control (ATC) systems, procedures, and phraseology.

X

 

Navigation and the use of navigation aids, including instrument approach procedures (IAP).

X

 

Approved departure, arrival, and approach procedures.

 

X

Normal and emergency communication procedures.

X

X

Visual cues prior to and during descent below decision altitude (DA)/decision height (DH) or minimum descent altitude (MDA).

X

 

Approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) initial training.

X

X

Other instructions as necessary to ensure competence.

X

 

3-1205    AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS. The second subject area of an aircraft ground curriculum segment is the “aircraft systems” area. This area is particularly adaptive to the use of training modules because of the modular nature of each system and its related components. Instruction on each aircraft system must be given in sufficient detail to ensure the student clearly understands system components, limitations, relevant controls, actuators, annunciators, and procedures for various system configurations. An example of one of the many acceptable methods in which the aircraft systems subject area of an aircraft ground curriculum segment outline could be presented is illustrated in subparagraph 3-1199C. It is not possible to list every conceivable aircraft system that should be included in the aircraft ground curriculum segment. However, the following descriptions of training modules (with typical elements) illustrate the depth and scope that should be provided for an operator’s submission to be acceptable.

A.    Aircraft General. Typical elements include an overview of the basic aircraft, such as dimensions, turning radius, panel layouts, flight deck and cabin configurations, and other major systems and components or appliances.

B.    Powerplants. Typical elements include a basic engine description, engine thrust ratings, and engine components such as accessory drives, ignition, oil, fuel control, hydraulic, and bleed air features.

C.    Electrical. Typical elements should include elements identifying the sources of aircraft power including engine-driven generators, auxiliary power unit (APU) generator, and external power. Other elements include the electrical buses and related components such as circuit breakers, fuses, the aircraft battery, and other standby power systems, if applicable.

D.    Hydraulic. Some typical elements are the hydraulic reservoirs, pumps, accumulators, and the means of routing hydraulic fluid through filters, check valves, and interconnects and to associated actuators and hydraulically operated components.

E.    Fuel. Elements include the fuel tank system (location and quantities), engine-driven pumps, boost pumps, system valves, crossfeeds, quantity indicators, and provisions (if applicable) for fuel jettisoning.

F.    Pneumatic. Typical elements include bleed air sources (such as engines, APU, or external ground air), and the means of routing, venting, and controlling bleed air via associated valves, ducts, chambers, and temperature- and pressure-limiting devices.

G.    Air Conditioning and Pressurization. Typical elements include heaters, air conditioning packs, fans, and other environmental control devices. Pressurization system components include elements such as outflow and negative pressure relief valves with associated automatic, standby, and manual pressurization controls and annunciators.

H.    Flight Controls. Elements in flight controls include primary (yaw, pitch, and roll devices) and secondary controls (leading/trailing edge devices, flaps, trim, and damping mechanisms). Elements that indicate the means of actuation (direct/indirect or fly-by-wire) should be included as well as applicable redundancy devices.

I.    Landing Gear. Typical elements should include the landing gear extension and retraction mechanism, including the operating sequence of struts, doors, and locking devices, and brake and antiskid systems, if applicable. Other elements are steering (nose or body steering gear), bogie arrangements, air/ground sensor relays, and visual downlock indicators.

J.    Ice and Rain Protection. Elements should include rain removal systems and each anti-icing and/or deicing system that prevents or removes the formation of ice from airfoils, flight controls, engines, pitot-static probes, fluid outlets, flight deck windows, and aircraft structures. Other elements should include system components such as pneumatic/electrical valves, sensors, ducts, electrical elements, or pneumatic devices. The content regarding Ice Contaminated Tailplane Stall (ICTS) should:

1)    For airplanes originally type certificated after 1994 and certain airplane models listed under “Susceptibility to Ice Contaminated Tailplane Stall (ICTS)” at http://www.faa.gov/aircraft/air_cert/design_approvals/small_airplanes/icing_protection_systems/training/:

    Emphasize Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) limitations and procedures in icing conditions (particularly maximum allowable flap deflection);

    Not include a tailplane stall recovery procedure; and

    Not include the 1998 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) “Tailplane Icing” video.

2)    For all other airplanes:

    Include any airplane manufacturer recommendations regarding operations in icing conditions;

    Not include the 1998 NASA/FAA “Tailplane Icing” video; and

    Include NASA Video GRC-508, “Ice Contaminated Stall,” dated October 1, 2016.

Indicates new/changed information.

NOTE:  The “Ice Contaminated Stall” video is available as part of the online course ALC-488, Ice Contaminated Stall Training, available at https://www.FAASafety.gov, under “Wings Courses.”

K.    Equipment and Furnishings. Typical elements are the aircraft exits, galleys, water and waste systems, lavatories, cargo areas, crewmember and passenger seats, bulkheads, seating and/or cargo configurations, and nonemergency equipment and furnishings.

L.    Navigation Equipment. Typical elements are flight navigation system components including flight directors (FD), horizontal situation, radio magnetic indicators (RMI), and navigation receivers (automatic direction finder (ADF), very high frequency omni-directional range (VOR), Area Navigation (RNAV), marker beacon, and distance measuring equipment (DME)) used on the aircraft. Other elements include applicable inertial systems (inertial navigation system (INS) and inertial reference system (IRS)), functional displays, fault indications, and comparator systems; aircraft transponders, radio altimeters, weather radar (WX), and cathode ray tube (CRT) or computer-generated displays of aircraft position and navigation information.

M.    Autoflight System. Typical elements include such items of equipment as the autopilot, autothrottles, and their interface with aircraft FD and navigation systems, including automatic approach tracking, autoland, and automatic fuel or performance management systems.

N.    Flight Instruments. Typical elements should include an overview of the panel arrangement and the electrical and pitot-static sources and alternate sources for the flight instruments. Other elements include attitude, heading (directional gyro (DG) and magnetic), airspeed, Vertical Speed (VS), altimeters, standby flight instruments, and other relevant instruments.

O.    Communication Equipment. Elements include very high frequency (VHF)/high frequency (HF) radios, audio panels, in-flight interphone and passenger address (PA) systems, the voice recorder, and air/ground passive communications systems (Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS)).

P.    Warning Systems. Typical elements are aural, visual, and tactile warning systems, including the character and degree of urgency related to each signal. Other elements include warning and caution annunciator systems, including ground proximity warning (GPW) and takeoff warning systems.

Q.    Fire Protection. Elements should include all fire and overheat sensors, loops, modules, or other means of providing visual and/or aural indications of fire or overheat detection. Other elements include procedures for the use of fire handles, automatic extinguishing systems, agents, and the power sources necessary to provide protection for fire and overheat conditions in the engines, APU, cargo bay/wheel well, flight deck, cabin, and lavatories.

R.    Oxygen. Typical elements are the aircraft oxygen system, including the installed passenger, crew, and portable systems. Other elements include sources of oxygen (gaseous or solid), flow and distribution networks, automatic deployment systems, regulators, pressure levels, gauges, and servicing requirements.

S.    Lighting. Typical elements are the flight deck, cabin, and external lighting systems, including power sources, switch positions, and spare light bulb locations.

T.    Emergency Equipment. Typical elements are the type, location, and purpose of each item of emergency equipment such as fire and oxygen bottles, first aid kits, liferafts, life preservers, crash axes, and emergency exits and lights. Other elements include each item of egress equipment such as slides, slide rafts, escape straps or handles, hatches, and ladders or movable stairs.

U.    APU. Elements should include installation of the APU, APU capacity, and operation, including its electrical and bleed air capabilities and how it interfaces with the aircraft’s electrical and pneumatic systems. Other elements include the APU components such as inlet doors, exhaust ducts, and fuel supply.

V.    Stall Prevention and Recovery. Beginning March 12, 2019, part 121 pilot initial, transition, and upgrade ground training curricula must include stall prevention and recovery in the clean configuration, takeoff and maneuvering configuration, and landing configuration. Refer to the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 120-109, Stall Prevention and Recovery Training, for recommended elements for this topic.

W.    Upset Prevention and Recovery. Beginning March 12, 2019, part 121 pilot initial, transition, and upgrade ground training curricula must include upset prevention and recovery. Refer to the current edition of AC 120-111, Upset Prevention and Recovery Training, for recommended elements for this topic.

3-1206    AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS INTEGRATION TRAINING.

A.    General. The third subject area of a ground training curriculum segment is referred to as “systems integration training.” This area provides the student with training on how aircraft systems interrelate with respect to normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures. This training includes procedures as basic as those for powering the aircraft electrical and pneumatic systems with the APU or as complex as those for programming computerized navigation and autoflight systems. System integration training should include flightcrew interaction in the use of checklists, CRM, and other operational procedures. It is normally conducted using GTDs portraying a specific flight deck layout, including the switch and indicator/annunciator logic. The FSTDs described in the flight training section (Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 6) may be used for systems integration training. Additionally, CBI or other interactive systems may be used for this training. System integration training may be conducted in conjunction with aircraft systems training or as a later phase of the aircraft ground training curriculum segment.

B.    Preparation for Flight Training. Effective systems integration training serves as a logical bridge between conventional ground training instructional delivery methods and flight training. This training allows students to become familiar with the flight deck layout, checklists, operator procedures, and other areas that are best learned before they conduct actual flight maneuvers and procedures. A POI should consider this type of training, and the quality and capability of the involved training devices, as factors in the decision for reducing training hours.

C.    Example Modules. The following examples are of aircraft systems integration training modules with typical elements:

1)    Use of Checklist. Typical elements include safety checks, flight deck preparation (switch position and checklist flows), checklist callouts and responses, and checklist sequence.
2)    Flight Planning. Elements should include performance limitations (e.g., meteorological, weight, and MEL/CDL items), required fuel loads, and weather planning (e.g., lower than standard takeoff minimums or alternate requirements).
3)    Display Systems. Typical elements include the use of weather radar and other CRT displays (e.g., checklist, vertical navigation (VNAV) or longitudinal navigation displays).
4)    Navigation Systems. Elements include preflight and operation of applicable receivers, onboard navigation systems, and flight plan information input and retrieval.
5)    Autoflight. Typical elements include the autopilot, autothrust, and FD systems, including the appropriate procedures, normal and abnormal indications, and annunciators.
6)    Flight Deck Familiarization. Typical elements include activation of aircraft system controls and switches, to include normal, abnormal, and emergency switches and control positions, and relevant annunciators, lights, or other caution and warning systems.

D.    Variations. Aircraft systems integration training may be as simplistic as a student learning checklist procedures in a single-engine aircraft or as complex as programming aircraft computer systems for an international flight. Integration training is particularly effective when an aircraft is equipped with relatively sophisticated computerized navigation, FD, performance, and autoflight systems. The key to effective training in this area is to use a training device that provides an accurate, real-time, and interactive medium for the students during the practice of procedures. The functional requirements of the training device do not necessarily require motion or visual systems or specific aircraft flight data characteristics. However, the training device should accurately portray relevant keyboards, switches, and CRTs and include air/ground and flightpath logic.

E.    Example Outline. Figure 3-179, Aircraft Systems Integration Outline Example, illustrates one of the many acceptable methods in which the “aircraft systems integration” subject area of an aircraft ground training curriculum segment could be outlined (including a typical training module):

Figure 3-179.  Aircraft Systems Integration Outline Example

Figure 3-179. Aircraft Systems Integration Outline Example

F.    Missed Approach/Go-Around Policy and Procedures. Training should also include the certificate holder’s policy and procedures regarding missed approach/go-around, including immediate compliance following a missed approach/go-around callout by the pilot flying (PF), pilot monitoring (PM), or the FE, as applicable.

G.    APU Announcement.

1)    Background.
a)    A National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) study of emergency evacuations cited an evacuation that occurred during the boarding of a Boeing 727. In preparation for flight, the flightcrew started the airplane’s APU. An orange flame appeared that extended from the APU exhaust port forward along the right side of the airplane as the APU “torched.”
b)    The flame was noticeable in the cabin; several passengers screamed “fire” and began to evacuate the airplane via the left overwing exit and the jetway. The flight attendant (F/A) in the rear of the airplane tried to stop the evacuation, but as the rush of passengers approached her, she decided that opening the tailcone exit was a more prudent action. Additionally, passengers also opened the L2 door. When the flightcrew learned of the situation, they issued an announcement over the PA system to remain seated. Control was finally reestablished in the cabin, but not before several passengers received injuries. The NTSB believes that the FAA should ensure that passengers are made aware of the possibility of APU torching just prior to use of the APU to preclude an unwarranted evacuation by passengers who only see “fire” outside the aircraft.
2)    Policy. The FAA agrees with the intent of this recommendation. Operators should emphasize emergency situation training modules and emergency evacuation procedures on unwarranted evacuations, including “appropriate” actions on aircraft that are equipped with an APU, which have a tendency to “torch.”
a)    The best way to address the issue of unwarranted evacuations is to take proactive steps to ensure that they do not occur. APU torching is a known possible outcome of starting the APU. Passenger information regarding the possibility of APU torching would eliminate the panic and confusion that results from passengers simply seeing “fire” outside the aircraft and attempting to evacuate.
b)    POIs should inform their assigned certificate holders who operate Boeing 727s to include in their APU procedures instructions stating that during normal operations when passengers are on board, the flightcrew make a PA announcement about the possibility of APU torching immediately prior to starting the APU.

3-1207    GTDs. GTDs are commonly used by operators in the conduct of aircraft ground training. The level of sophistication of these devices may range from a simple paper pictorial display to a static aircraft. They may include slide/tape presentations, CBI systems, aircraft system panels, models, mockups, FSTDs, and numerous other instructional delivery methods. POIs approve or accept each GTD for use when granting initial or final approval of a ground training curriculum segment for the operator. GTDs used for systems integration training must be individually evaluated by the POI.

3-1208    EVALUATION OF GROUND TRAINING CURRICULUM SEGMENT OUTLINES FOR INITIAL APPROVAL. When evaluating an aircraft ground training curriculum segment outline, an inspector must determine whether it meets the following criteria:

A.    Training Hours. The training hours specified in each curriculum segment outline must be examined. Inspectors should not attempt to measure the quality or sufficiency of training by the amount of training hours alone. Adequacy of quality and sufficiency of training can only be determined by direct observation of training and testing (or checking) in progress or by examination of surveillance and investigation reports. However, the specified training hours must be realistic in terms of the amount of time it will take to accomplish the training outlined in the curriculum segment. Any request and the appropriate justification for reductions to training hours must be submitted with the initial proposal.

B.    Appropriate Modules. The curriculum segment outline contains appropriate training modules for the specific aircraft. The training modules should have sufficient elements or events to ensure that the quality and depth of training given in a particular subject area will be provided.

3-1209    CREDITING DISTANCE LEARNING AS A COMPONENT OF GROUND TRAINING FOR FLIGHTCREW—PILOTS AND FEs.

A.    Background. In the so-called “information age,” many new information-sharing systems have been developed. These systems have been centered largely on digital technology involving desktop computers and the Internet. These systems include modern training products, many of which are being used effectively today in aviation courses conducted by accredited universities and in air carrier training programs approved by the FAA. Collectively, those products fall under a relatively new heading that has been called “distance learning.” As the quality of those products continues to improve, the training/learning process stands to benefit even more. Previous FAA guidance seemed to presume that traditional classroom training was inherently superior to other ground training. That presumption was reflected in this order and elsewhere. Besides the proven effectiveness of modern training products, distance learning affords a low-cost alternative to classroom ground training, an alternative that is timely and appropriate in today’s challenging economic environment. The updated guidance that follows should promote wider implementation of modern ground training methods apart from the traditional classroom.

B.    Applicability. This paragraph applies to flightcrew (pilot and FE) training programs subject to FAA approval under parts 121 and 135. It may also be useful to inspectors who oversee training related to operations under 14 CFR part 91 subpart K (part 91K) (fractional ownership programs), part 125, and part 142 (training centers). Creditability of hours spent in distance learning activities applies to the programmed hours of ground training specified in part 121 regulations and to the national norms shown in this order.

C.    Distance Learning Definition. Distance learning is a term currently not used in FAA regulations. It is a term used in the FAA and in the aviation industry with various meanings depending on context. For the purposes of this order, distance learning means learning that is accomplished by any training method not including an instructor and a gathering of trainees collocated in a traditional classroom. (Distance learning is known by other terms such as E-learning, home study, self-guided training, virtual classroom, distributed training, computer-based training (CBT), web-based training (WBT), and others.)

D.    Interim Guidance. Experts continue to develop a systematic approach for using the many effective training methods and products now available. It is unlikely that the last word will be written in the foreseeable future, if ever, since there is apparently no end to the prospects. The guidance contained in this paragraph applies until superseded and should be used to help implement and standardize distance learning among air carriers.

E.    Training Objectives and Proficiency. A training objective is a desired performance or behavior demonstrated under certain conditions with respect to specific standards. One way to identify training objectives, and to verify that they have been met (also known as validation), is by a three-tier scheme comprising knowledge, skill, and performance.

1)    Knowledge. Specific information required to enable a student to develop the skills and attitudes to effectively recall facts, identify concepts, apply rules or principles, solve problems, and think creatively. Because knowledge is covert, students must be assigned overt activities to demonstrate their knowledge base.
a)    Knowledge may be validated through written, electronic, or oral testing.
b)    Examples include learning facts by rote, such as an operator’s history, organization, and general policies; committing AFM limitations to memory; and getting a basic understanding of an airplane’s systems.
2)    Skill. An ability enabled by knowledge to perform an activity or action. Skills are often grouped into cognitive skill and psychomotor skill categories.
a)    Cognitive Skill. The ability to perform a task requiring the manipulation of words, numbers, and symbols. It requires the application of knowledge and usually involves classification, the application of (mental) rules, procedures or principles, the solution of problems, or the application of creative thinking.

1.    Cognitive skill may be validated through written, electronic, or oral testing, or through task performance.

2.    Examples include challenging a pilot trainee to apply knowledge of an airplane’s limitations to a W&B computation, and applying basic systems knowledge to operating aircraft systems and programming the flight management system (FMS).

b)    Psychomotor Skill. The ability to perform a task requiring dexterity, coordination, and muscular activity. It requires the application of knowledge and usually involves the manipulation of objects or materials and the use of fine and gross muscular movement in a coordinated manner.

1.    Psychomotor skill may be validated through performance of a task.

2.    An example is operation of an emergency exit by normal and alternative methods.

3)    Performance. Ability to accomplish useful work by combining knowledge, skill, and intangibles such as inference and judgment (sometimes called “soft skills”).
a)    Performance may be validated through performance of related tasks, sometimes called “event sets.”
b)    An example is demonstrating competence as pilot in command (PIC) during an instrument landing system (ILS) approach.

F.    Scope of Creditability of Distance Learning. Distance learning credit is appropriate for knowledge objectives and for cognitive skill objectives. Creditability of distance learning is more complicated in regard to psychomotor skills and performance and is not addressed in this paragraph.

G.    Limits on Creditability of Distance Learning. The FAA recognizes the great training potential of distance learning that is well planned and effectively validated. That potential is already being exploited under the Advanced Qualification Program (AQP). Ground training developed in accordance with an implementation plan (described in subparagraph 3-1209I) is subject to FAA approval. Distance learning may be as much as 100-percent creditable toward the knowledge and cognitive skill training objectives in all ground training, including the following training categories:

    Basic indoctrination,

    Initial new-hire,

    Initial equipment,

    Transition,

    Upgrade,

    Recurrent, and

    Requalification.

H.    Ground Training Media. The general nature and specific characteristics of training media used for distance learning vary widely. Examples include paper media, videotapes, CBT, CDs, WBT, and virtual classroom. The media used should meet the requirements of the respective training objective. Validation of training effectiveness is one of the most important components of the implementation plan described below.

I.    Implementation Plan. Any proposal for ground training to be accomplished by distance learning should include a plan for startup, validation, operation, and maintenance of that training. This plan should include at least the following elements:

1)    Startup. Identification of knowledge and cognitive training objectives.
a)    Ground training objectives can be reduced to simple terms, such as being able:

    To recall,

    To recognize,

    To comprehend, and

    To apply.

b)    Identification of the media to be used for ground training and testing.
c)    A validation strategy that addresses the effectiveness of the ground training itself, and the learning accomplished by each person trained. Key features of a validation strategy are shown below.
d)    Effectiveness of the ground training being conducted.

1.    Setting a reference. One validation method is to establish a performance baseline from which to measure the effectiveness of the ground training proposed. Baselines exist in most ongoing air carrier training programs. Examples of performance baselines include average ground training hours a trainee spends in learning a certain subject, average pass–fail rates for tests of ground training content, median scores, average pass–fail rates for flight checks, and many others. A performance baseline may be set by using an existing baseline or by referring to some other existing standard.

2.    Maintaining currency. Validation depends upon maintaining the currency of the ground training to be conducted. A reliable method to do so is an essential part of a ground training proposal.

3.    Tracking. A method for keeping test results and tracking overall performance.

e)    Learning accomplished by each person trained.

1.    A strategy for testing. Testing should be designed to determine that training objectives are being met by each trainee.

2.    Integrity of tests. A method should be developed to ensure integrity of tests, including integrity of test questions and test answers, and controlled access to tests and test results.

3.    Tracking. A method for keeping test results and tracking each individual’s performance.

2)    Validation. Validation of ground training is a determination that the training proposed actually succeeds in meeting the performance objectives for that training. Two essential assessments comprise validation of ground training.
a)    Systems Knowledge Validation. Assessment of a student’s technical knowledge, accomplished by written or oral test.
b)    Cognitive Skill Validation. Assessment of an individual’s application of knowledge in respect to operation of systems, which may be accomplished by written or oral test, or by a more subjective evaluation by a subject matter expert (SME) such as an authorized ground instructor or an approved check pilot or check FE.
3)    Passing Grade—80 Percent. If an electronic testing system (ETS) is used instead of an oral test or oral evaluation, the minimum passing score should be 80 percent. Any incorrect test answers should be addressed at the time of the test and should be corrected to 100 percent. A score less than 80 percent would require retraining in all substandard areas and retesting.
4)    Integrity of Test Questions. Integrity of test questions depends on several factors:
a)    Scope. A test for an initial or transition trainee should include at least one question for each element contained in each training module. Ground training and testing for trainees in other curriculum segments (e.g., upgrade, recurrent, and requalification) may be less comprehensive, but should cover significant and timely subjects, particularly new material and changes since one’s previous recurrent ground training.

NOTE:  An element is a subgroup of related content within a training module. It is the fourth level of curriculum detail—curriculum, curriculum segment, training module, element. For example, Hydraulic System is one training module; the yellow system, the green system, and the standby system are elements.

b)    Library. A library of questions should be developed that thoroughly cover the training objectives.
c)    Multiple Questions. Where possible, multiple questions should be developed for each training objective.
d)    Uniqueness. Tests should be generated by random selection of questions from the library, so that no two tests are alike.
e)    Currency. Test questions should be reviewed as often as necessary to ensure their relevancy and to incorporate new or changed material.
5)    Integrity of Test Answers. Trainers should develop measures by which the identity of a person taking the test may be confirmed, and printed or electronic test answers may not be reproduced and distributed among trainees so as to beat the test.
6)    Operations and Maintenance. Includes quality control (QC) procedures for the collection, protection, and analysis of data for tracking ground training effectiveness; also, a strategy for equipment upgrade, program update, and program adjustments driven by data and feedback from trainers and trainees.

J.    Interactivity. Training developers should provide for interactivity between trainees and authorized ground instructors and between the trainees themselves.

1)    When in the Field. In particular, a trainee should have ready access to an authorized ground instructor during normal business hours to resolve questions encountered during distance learning and pertinent testing.
2)    When at a Centralized Training Location. Before flight training, trainees should be convened in a proctored classroom setting with an authorized ground instructor to resolve any remaining issues arising during distance learning. This interactivity is particularly beneficial in respect to standardization of trainees in initial new-hire and initial equipment curricula.

3-1210    AIRCRAFT GROUND TRAINING CURRICULUM SEGMENT JOB AID. This job aid may be used in addition to completing appropriate Data Collection Tool (DCT) questions from SAS Element 2.1.1.

A.    Job Aid Subject Areas. The aircraft ground training curriculum segment job aid (Table 3-55) is provided to assist the inspector in evaluating curriculum segments. The job aid is provided for guidance only and must not be construed as a mandatory or regulatory requirement. The job aid focuses on the three subject areas of this segment: general operational subjects, aircraft systems, and systems integration training. It serves as an aid for evaluating individual training modules.

B.    Review of Operator’s Proposal. When using the job aid, an inspector should make a side-by-side comparison of the operator’s proposal to determine the following:

    Whether each subject is aircraft-specific in terms of description, company policy, and appropriate procedures; and

    Whether sufficient training module elements or events are listed to ensure the appropriate depth and scope of the material being presented.

C.    Using the Job Aid. The job aid is organized with the training modules listed in the left column and evaluation criteria or remarks listed horizontally across the top. Inspectors may use the spaces within the matrix for items such as notes, comments, dates, or checkmarks. There are also blank columns and rows in the job aid in which inspectors may include additional training modules for systems unique to a particular aircraft and methods or procedures unique to a particular operation.

Table 3-55.  Aircraft Ground Training Module Job Aid

SUBJECT AREA 1: GENERAL OPERATIONAL SUBJECTS

FOR PART 121 INITIAL FOR PILOTS WHO HAVE NOT COMPLETED THE ATP CTP REQUIRED BY 14 CFR PART 61, § 61.156; FOR PART 121 TRANSITION AND UPGRADE FOR PILOTS; FOR FEs; AND FOR PART 135

 

EVALUATION CRITERIA

TRAINING SUBJECTS

Adequacy of Elements/Events

Adequacy of Courseware

Training Aids and Facilities

 

Flight Control*

 

 

 

 

Weight and Balance (W&B)

 

 

 

 

OpSpec Authorizations/‌Limitations

 

 

 

 

Adverse Weather

 

 

 

 

Flight Planning

 

 

 

 

Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM)

 

 

 

 

Company Operations Manual

 

 

 

 

Performance

 

 

 

 

* Flight dispatch (part 121 domestic and flag), flight release (part 121 supplemental), or flight-locating (part 135), as applicable.

Table 3-55.  Aircraft Ground Training Module Job Aid (Continued)

FOR PART 121 INITIAL FOR PILOTS WHO HAVE COMPLETED THE ATP CTP REQUIRED BY § 61.156

 

EVALUATION CRITERIA

TRAINING SUBJECTS

Adequacy of Elements/Events

Adequacy of Courseware

Training Aids and Facilities

 

The Certificate Holder’s Dispatch or Flight Release Procedures

 

 

 

 

Methods for Determining W&B, and Runway Limitations for Takeoff and Landing

 

 

 

 

Meteorology Hazards Applicable to the Certificate Holder’s Areas of Operation

 

 

 

 

Approved Departure, Arrival, and Approach Procedures

 

 

 

 

Normal and Emergency Communication Procedures

 

 

 

 

Approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) Initial Training

 

 

 

 

Table 3-55.  Aircraft Ground Training Module Job Aid (Continued)

SUBJECT AREA 2: AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS

 

EVALUATION CRITERIA

TRAINING SUBJECTS

Adequacy of Elements/Events

Adequacy of Courseware

Training Aids and Facilities

 

Aircraft General Equipment and Furnishings

 

 

 

 

Emergency Equipment

 

 

 

 

Powerplants

 

 

 

 

Electrical

 

 

 

 

Pneumatic

 

 

 

 

Air Conditioning and Pressurization

 

 

 

 

Ice and Rain Protection

 

 

 

 

Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)

 

 

 

 

Hydraulics

 

 

 

 

Landing Gear and Brakes

 

 

 

 

Flight Controls

 

 

 

 

Fuel

 

 

 

 

Communications Equipment

 

 

 

 

Flight Instruments

 

 

 

 

Navigation Equipment

 

 

 

 

Autoflight

 

 

 

 

Warning Systems

 

 

 

 

Fire and Overheat Protection

 

 

 

 

Oxygen

 

 

 

 

Performance

 

 

 

 

Stall Prevention and Recovery (part 121)

 

 

 

 

Upset Prevention and Recovery (part 121)

 

 

 

 

Table 3-55.  Aircraft Ground Training Module Job Aid (Continued)

SUBJECT AREA 3: AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

 

EVALUATION CRITERIA

TRAINING SUBJECTS

Adequacy of Elements/Events

Adequacy of Courseware

Training Aids and Facilities

 

Use of Checklist

 

 

 

 

Flight Deck Familiarization

 

 

 

 

Preflight Planning

 

 

 

 

In-Flight Planning

 

 

 

 

Use of Weather Radar (WX)/‌Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT)

 

 

 

 

Navigation Systems

 

 

 

 

Communication Systems

 

 

 

 

Autoflight/Flight Director (FD)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-1211 through 3-1225.