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8900.1 CHG 492

VOLUME 3  GENERAL TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATION

CHAPTER 19  TRAINING PROGRAMS AND AIRMAN QUALIFICATIONS

Section 7  Safety Assurance System: Flightcrew Qualification Curriculum Segments

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Source Basis:

    Section 61.157, Flight Proficiency.

    Section 61.159, Aeronautical Experience: Airplane Category Rating.

    Section 61.160, Aeronautical Experience—Airplane Category Restricted Privileges.

    Section 121.400, Applicability and Terms Used.

    Section 121.401, Training Program: General.

    Section 121.403, Training Program: Curriculum.

    Section 121.407, Training Program: Approval of Airplane Simulators and Other Training Devices.

    Section 121.409, Training Courses Using Airplane Simulators and Other Training Devices.

    Section 121.415, Crewmember and Dispatcher Training Program Requirements.

    Section 121.418, Differences Training and Related Aircraft Differences Training.

    Section 121.425, Flight Engineers: Initial and Transition Flight Training.

    Section 121.431, Applicability.

    Section 121.433, Training Required.

    Section 121.434, Operating Experience, Operating Cycles, and Consolidation of Knowledge and Skills.

    Section 121.436, Pilot Qualification: Certificates and Experience Requirements.

    Section 121.439, Pilot Qualification: Recent Experience.

    Section 121.440, Line Checks.

    Section 121.441, Proficiency Checks.

    Section 121.445, Pilot in Command Airport Qualification: Special Areas and Airports.

    Section 121.453, Flight Engineer Qualifications.

    Appendix F to Part 121, Proficiency Check Requirements.

    Appendix H to Part 121, Advanced Simulation.

    Section 135.243, Pilot in Command Qualifications.

    Section 135.244, Operating Experience.

    Section 135.245, Second in Command Qualifications.

    Section 135.247, Pilot Qualifications: Recent Experience.

    Section 135.291, Applicability.

    Section 135.293, Initial and Recurrent Pilot Testing Requirements.

    Section 135.297, Pilot in Command: Instrument Proficiency Check Requirements.

    Section 135.299, Pilot in Command: Line Checks: Routes and Airports.

    Section 135.301, Crewmember: Tests and Checks, Grace Provisions, Training to Accepted Standards.

    Section 135.321, Applicability and Terms Used.

    Section 135.323, Training Program: General.

    Section 135.327, Training Program: Curriculum.

    Section 135.329, Crewmember Training Requirements.

    Section 135.335, Approval of Aircraft Simulators and Other Training Devices.

    Section 135.341, Pilot and Flight Attendant Crewmember Training Programs.

3-1271    GENERAL. This section contains direction and guidance concerning qualification curriculum segments and qualification modules. A qualification curriculum segment is the final segment of each of the six categories of training defined in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 1. A qualification curriculum segment is composed of the testing, checking, and experience modules that a flightcrew member must successfully complete after formal training and before being qualified to serve unsupervised as a required flightcrew member in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 or 135 operations. This section is related to Safety Assurance System (SAS) Element 2.1.5 (OP) Appropriate Airmen/Crewmember Checks and Qualifications.

A.    Primary Objectives. A qualification curriculum segment has the following primary objectives:

    To ensure that each flightcrew member has reached an acceptable level of proficiency in all assigned duties before being released from training and supervision; and

    To provide a means for measuring the effectiveness of the training program, and for identifying and correcting training deficiencies.

B.    Guidance Application. The guidance in this section applies to the development and approval of qualification curriculum segments for both parts 121 and 135 training curricula. In general, equivalent qualification modules are required by both of these regulatory parts. Differences do exist, however, between parts 121 and 135 curriculum segments in both terminology and details. When the guidance in this section applies specifically to one flightcrew member duty position or regulatory part, the duty position or regulatory part will be specified.

3-1272    TYPES OF QUALIFICATION MODULES. Qualification curriculum segments are composed of qualification modules. Qualification modules are generally divided into testing, checking, and experience modules.

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A.    Definitions. Definitions of terms are located in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 1, Scope, Concepts, and Definitions.

B.    Experience Modules. Title 14 CFR requires that experience modules be completed before a flightcrew member performs unsupervised and without restriction in revenue service. Other experience modules are required for special authorizations or to reestablish recency of experience. One or more of the following experience modules may be required in a qualification curriculum segment:

Indicates new/changed information.

    Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) (part 121 appendix H),

    Operating Experience (OE) and operating cycles (part 121, § 121.434 or part 135, § 135.244),

    Line operating flight time for consolidation of knowledge and skills (§ 121.434),

    Pilot-in-command (PIC) experience (required to use standard landing minimums),

    Special operations experience (such as Class II long-range navigation), and/or

    Recent experience (to reestablish recency of experience for takeoffs and landings or instrument experience).

3-1273    FORMAT OF QUALIFICATION CURRICULUM SEGMENTS. The content of a qualification curriculum segment for part 121 operations is almost entirely controlled by regulation. A part 121 operator may, however, use more than one means of accomplishing these requirements. For example, an operator could conduct checks for most categories of training in a level C full flight simulator (FFS). In such a case, the operator would be required to conduct a LOFT module after the completion of the basic checking module. An operator that uses a level A FFS would be required to conduct the basic checking module in the FFS and a second module in the airplane. The requirements of a part 135 competency check are not specified in 14 CFR, but are left to the discretion of the Administrator and the check pilot conducting the check. To ensure that a clear understanding exists between the operator and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the principal operations inspector (POI) should require that the operator list each element or event in a qualification module along with the flight simulation training device (FSTD) or aircraft to be used. The operator’s format may either be a simple outline, a table such as those contained in Table 3-70, Part 135 Checking Modules—Airplanes, and Table 3-71, Part 135 Checking Modules—Helicopters, or any other format that the POI finds clearly establishes the methods to be used and elements and events to be checked.

3-1274    PART 121 REQUIRED CERTIFICATES AND RATINGS (§ 121.436). All flightcrew members must hold specific certificates and ratings before performing duties in part 121 revenue service. If a flightcrew member does not hold the required certificates and/or ratings, they must be obtained when the flightcrew member completes the qualification curriculum segment.

A.    PIC. A PIC in part 121 operations must hold the following:

    Airline Transport Pilot (ATP) Certificate,

    Appropriate aircraft type rating, and

    First-class medical certificate.

B.    Second in Command (SIC).

1)    An SIC in part 121 domestic operations must hold the following:

    An ATP Certificate (or an ATP Certificate with restricted privileges),

    Appropriate aircraft type rating, and

    At least a second-class medical certificate.

2)    An SIC in part 121 flag or supplemental operations requiring only two pilots must hold the following:

    An ATP Certificate (or an ATP Certificate with restricted privileges),

    Appropriate aircraft type rating, and

    At least a second-class medical certificate.

3)    An SIC in part 121 flag or supplemental operations requiring three or more pilots must hold the following:

    An ATP Certificate (In this scenario, a pilot must hold an ATP Certificate issued per the requirements of 14 CFR part 61, § 61.159. An ATP Certificate issued per the reduced flight hours in § 61.160 is not sufficient.);

    Appropriate aircraft type rating; and

    A first-class medical certificate.

C.    Flight Engineer (FE). An FE must hold the following:

    FE Certificate,

    Applicable class rating, and

    At least a second-class medical certificate.

3-1275    PART 135 REQUIRED CERTIFICATES AND RATINGS (§ 135.243). All pilots must hold specific certificates and ratings before performing duties in part 135 revenue service.

A.    Pilot Certification Requirements—Airplanes. Pilot certification requirements for part 135 airplane operations depend on the kind of operation being conducted and the type of airplane used.

1)    PICs conducting passenger-carrying operations in a turbojet airplane or any airplane having 10 or more passenger seats (excluding any crewmember seat), or any commuter flight in a multiengine airplane regardless of the number of passenger seats must hold the following:
a)    ATP Certificate.
b)    Airplane category rating.
c)    Class rating (as appropriate):

    Airplane Single-Engine Land (ASEL),

    Airplane Multiengine Land (AMEL),

    Airplane Single-Engine Sea (ASES), or

    Airplane Multiengine Sea (AMES).

d)    Type rating (as appropriate).
e)    First-class medical certificate.
2)    PICs conducting part 135 flight operations in airplanes other than those described in subparagraph 3-1275A1) must hold the following:
a)    ATP Certificate or Commercial Pilot Certificate with instrument–airplane rating.
b)    Airplane category rating.
c)    Class rating (as appropriate):

    ASEL,

    AMEL,

    ASES, or

    AMES.

d)    At least a second-class medical certificate.
3)    SICs conducting any part 135 airplane operations must hold the following:
a)    ATP Certificate or Commercial Pilot Certificate with instrument–airplane rating.
b)    Airplane category rating.
c)    Class rating (as appropriate):

    ASEL,

    AMEL,

    ASES, or

    AMES.

d)    At least a second-class medical certificate.

NOTE:  Certain pilots conducting part 135 visual flight rules (VFR)-only operations with single‑engine reciprocating-powered airplanes in isolated areas, not a commuter operation, and not transporting contract mail, may be relieved of the requirement to hold an instrument rating in accordance with § 135.243(d) and authorized by operations specification (OpSpec) A020.

B.    Pilot Certification Requirements—Helicopters. The pilot certification requirements for pilots conducting part 135 helicopter operations are as follows:

1)    All PICs and SICs must hold at least the following:

    Commercial Pilot Certificate or ATP Certificate, as appropriate;

    Rotorcraft category rating;

    Helicopter class rating; and

    At least a second-class medical certificate.

2)    All PICs must hold a type rating, if a type rating is required.
3)    PICs conducting part 135 instrument flight rules (IFR) or VFR over-the-top operations in helicopters must hold a helicopter instrument rating or an ATP Certificate that is not limited to VFR.

3-1276    PART 121 MINIMUM PIC FLIGHT EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS (§ 121.436). A PIC in part 121 operations must have a minimum of 1,000 flight hours in air carrier operations as an SIC in part 121 operations, a PIC in operations under either § 135.243(a)(1) or 14 CFR part 91, § 91.1053(a)(2)(i), or any combination of these. In addition, military PIC time (up to 500 hours) in a multiengine turbine-powered, fixed‑wing airplane in an operation requiring more than one pilot may also be credited towards the 1,000 hours.

3-1277    PART 135 MINIMUM PIC FLIGHT EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS. Section 135.243(b) and (c) require that a PIC who does not hold an ATP Certificate and who conducts operations that do not require an ATP Certificate must have acquired a minimum number of flight hours before serving as a PIC.

A.    VFR Requirements. Before serving as a PIC in a VFR operation, the pilot must have accumulated at least the following flight hour experience:

    500 total pilot flight hours,

    100 cross-country flight hours, and

    25 night, cross-country flight hours.

B.    IFR Requirements. Before serving as a PIC in an IFR operation, the pilot must have accumulated at least the following flight hour experience:

    1,200 total pilot flight hours,

    500 cross-country flight hours,

    100 night flight hours, and

    75 actual or simulated instrument flight hours, 50 of which must have been in actual flight.

NOTE:  See Volume 5, Chapter 3 for guidance concerning the crediting of flight time in airplanes and helicopters to meet these requirements.

3-1278    THE BASIC CHECKING MODULE. The basic checking modules for both parts 121 and 135 are composed of two parts: one part consists of the written or oral test elements, and the other part consists of the flight check events. Although they are distinct and separate parts, when combined, they make up a single checking module.

A.    Basic Checking Module Content. The subject areas that must be addressed in the written or oral test for the part 121 basic checking module are described in part 121 appendix F. The subject areas that must be addressed in the written or oral test for the part 135 basic checking module are described in § 135.293(a) and, for those PICs conducting IFR operations, in § 135.297(c). These regulations require a written or oral test element as a distinct part of the basic checking module. The basic checking modules required for parts 121 and 135 are further discussed in paragraphs 3-1279 and 3-1280, respectively.

B.    Performance Standards. In parts 121 and 135 operations, a higher standard of proficiency may be required than that required for initial pilot certification. The standard required for basic checks is at least that required for obtaining the certificate which must be held to act as a PIC. For example, an SIC holding a commercial certificate with an instrument rating who is making an instrument landing system (ILS) approach in a G-V must perform to the same standard of proficiency as the PIC seated in the left seat who holds an ATP Certificate and a G-V type rating. POIs should bring the following guidance in Volume 5 pertaining to proficiency and competency checks (Table 3-69, Guidance Pertaining to Proficiency and Competency Checks) to the operator’s and check pilot’s attention:

Table 3-69.  Guidance Pertaining to Proficiency and Competency Checks

Section

Paragraph

Volume 5, Chapter 1, Section 1

Subparagraphs 5-7B–D and Paragraph 5-8

Volume 5, Chapter 1, Section 3

Subparagraphs 5-57A–E and
Subparagraphs 5-58A–H

Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 2

Subparagraphs 5-827A–D

Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 3

Subparagraphs 5-858C–H and Paragraphs 5–859 through 5-862

Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 4

Paragraphs 5-886 through 5-892

Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 5

Paragraphs 5-907 through 5-916

Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 6

Paragraphs 5-937 and 5-939 through 5-944

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C.    Use of FSTDs. An operator may take maximum advantage of FSTDs in designing qualification curriculum segments. For example, an operator may evaluate a PIC and an SIC simultaneously on many normal, non-normal, and emergency procedures when an FFS is used. POIs should encourage operators to design qualification modules accordingly.

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D.    LOFT. A LOFT module is considered to be part of the qualification curriculum segment, but it is a training event, not a checking event. A pilot who qualifies for a certificate or rating in a level C or D FFS is issued the certificate or rating immediately after satisfactorily completing the basic check. The pilot is not qualified to either exercise the privileges of the certificate or rating or enter revenue service until the pilot has successfully completed the LOFT module.

3-1279    PART 121 BASIC CHECKING MODULE. The basic checking module required in part 121 is referred to as a proficiency check for pilots and a flight check for FEs. Unless the Air Transportation Division (AFS-200) has authorized a deviation in accordance with § 121.441(f), a proficiency check for pilots consists of the written or oral elements and the flight events specified in part 121 appendix F. Figure 3-80, Pilot Proficiency Check (Part 121), summarizes the elements and events that make up a proficiency check. A proficiency check qualifies pilots for both VFR and IFR Class I navigation and instrument approaches to standard minimums (Category (CAT) I Approach, if approved for the operator). Operations such as CAT II Approach or CAT III Approach require additional checking modules. For an FE, the flight check consists of the flight events summarized in Figure 3-81, Flight Engineer Flight Check (Part 121). Although part 121 does not specifically require a written or oral test element as part of the FE flight check, it is an FAA safety policy that a written or oral test be part of the FE flight check. POIs must ensure the test is included as an element of the basic checking module.

Figure 3-80.  Pilot Proficiency Check (Part 121)

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ORAL OR WRITTEN EQUIPMENT EXAM                Both

GROUND OPERATIONS

    Preflight inspection...................................................Both

    Taxiing/runway operations.......................................Both1

    Powerplant checks....................................................Both

    Pretakeoff procedures.............................................. Both2

TAKEOFFS

    Normal.....................................................................Both

    Instrument................................................................Both

    Crosswind................................................................Both3

    With powerplant failure...........................................Both

    Rejected takeoff.......................................................Both*4

INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES

    Area departure.........................................................Both*

    Area arrival..............................................................Both*

    Holding....................................................................Both*

    Normal ILS approach..............................................Both

    Manually Controlled Engine-out ILS......................Both

    Coupled ILS approach.............................................Both4

    Nonprecision approach............................................Both

    Second nonprecision approach...............................Both

    EFVS approach.......................................................Both5

    Missed approach from an ILS..................................Both

    Second missed approach..........................................PIC

    Circling approach.....................................................Both*6

IN-FLIGHT MANEUVERS

    Steep turns.................................................................PIC*

    Specific flight characteristics.....................................Both

    Stall prevention (approaches to stalls)......................Both*

    Powerplant failure.....................................................Both

LANDINGS

    Two-engine inoperative landing................................ Both

(three- and four-engine aircraft)

    Normal landing..........................................................Both

    Landing from an ILS.................................................Both

    Crosswind landing..................................................... Both7

    Landing with engine out.............................................Both

    Landing from circling approach.................................Both*6

    Rejected landing........................................................Both

    EFVS landing............................................................Both8

NORMAL, ABNORMAL, NON-NORMAL, and EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

    At check pilot’s discretion.........................................Both*9,10

NOTES:

“Both:” The term “both” applies to pilots in command (PIC) and seconds in command (SIC).

*    May be waived under certain conditions. (See Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 2.)

1    Beginning March 12, 2019, the taxiing maneuver must include (1) use of airport diagram (surface movement chart); (2) obtaining appropriate clearance before crossing or entering active runways; and (3) observation of all surface movement guidance control markings and lighting.

2    Beginning March 12, 2019, pretakeoff procedures must include (1) receipt of takeoff clearance and confirmation of aircraft location; and (2) flight management system (FMS) entry, if appropriate, for the departure runway prior to crossing hold-short line for takeoff.

3    Beginning March 12, 2019, crosswind takeoffs must include crosswind takeoffs with gusts. For training conducted in an airplane in flight, crosswind takeoffs with gusts are only required if practicable under the existing meteorological, airport, and traffic conditions.

4    PIC and SIC may both simultaneously take credit for this event.

5    For each type of enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) operation the certificate holder is authorized to conduct, at least one instrument approach must be made using an EFVS. Therefore, if the certificate holder is authorized to conduct operations under both 14 CFR part 91, § 91.176(a) EFVS operations to touchdown and rollout and § 91.176(b) EFVS operations to 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation (TDZE), two instrument approaches must be made using an EFVS in each condition.

6    When the operator is authorized by OpSpec C075 to conduct circling approaches. (This is not required for SICs if the operator’s manual prohibits SICs from making this approach.)

7    Beginning March 12, 2019, crosswind landings must include crosswind landings with gusts. For training conducted in an airplane in flight, crosswind landings with gusts are only required if practicable under the existing meteorological, airport, and traffic conditions.

8    If the certificate holder is authorized to conduct EFVS operations to touchdown and rollout, at least one instrument approach to a landing must be made using an EFVS, including the use of enhanced flight vision from 100 feet above the TDZE to touchdown and rollout. If the certificate holder is authorized to conduct EFVS operations to 100 feet above the TDZE, at least one instrument approach to a landing must be made using an EFVS, including the transition from enhanced flight vision to natural vision at 100 feet above the TDZE.

9    See guidance contained in Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 2.

10    The check pilot is authorized to evaluate any event required for the ATP Certificate. (See Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 2.)

Figure 3-81.  Flight Engineer Flight Check (Part 121)

NORMAL PROCEDURES

    Oral or written examination;

    Exterior preflight;

    Interior preflight;

    Panel setup;

    Fuel load;

    Engine start procedures;

    Taxi and before-takeoff procedures;

    Takeoff and climb;

    Pressurization;

    Cruise and fuel management;

    Descent and approach;

    After landing and securing;

    Crew coordination;

    Situational awareness, traffic scan, etc.;

    Performance computations; and

    Anti-ice, deice.

NON-NORMAL AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

Sample as many non-normal and emergency procedures as needed to evaluate performance:

    Troubleshooting;

    Knowledge of checklist;

    Ability to perform procedures;

    Crew coordination; and

    Minimum equipment list (MEL) and Configuration Deviation List (CDL).

3-1280    PART 135 BASIC CHECKING MODULE. The flight test required to qualify a pilot for revenue service is termed a basic checking module when listed in a curriculum outline. Operators must design the basic checking module of a part 135 curriculum to satisfy the requirements of § 135.293. In addition, operators must satisfy the requirements of § 135.297 for PICs conducting IFR operations. Those operators whose PICs are authorized to use an autopilot in lieu of an SIC in IFR operations must include a demonstration of these skills in the basic checking module. This paragraph contains guidance POIs will use to review and approve basic checking modules and to conduct these checks.

Indicates new/changed information.

A.    Section 135.293(a) Requirements. All pilots who are qualifying in an aircraft type are required by § 135.293(a) to satisfactorily complete a written or oral test before entering revenue service and annually thereafter. The test must evaluate the pilot’s knowledge in the following areas:

1)    The appropriate provisions of parts 61, 91, and 135 and the OpSpecs and manual of the air carrier/operator.
2)    For each type of aircraft to be flown by the pilot, the aircraft powerplant, major components and systems, major appliances, performance and operating limitations, standard and emergency operating procedures, and the contents of the approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) or Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM), as applicable.
3)    For each type of aircraft to be flown by the pilot, the method of determining compliance with Weight and Balance (W&B) limitations for takeoff, landing, and en route operations.
4)    Navigation and use of air navigation aids appropriate to the operation or pilot authorization, including, when applicable, instrument approach facilities and procedures.
5)    Air traffic control (ATC) procedures, including IFR procedures when applicable.
6)    Meteorology in general, including the principles of frontal systems, icing, fog, thunderstorms, and wind shear, and, if appropriate for the operation of the air carrier/operator, high altitude weather.
7)    Procedures for:

    Recognizing and avoiding severe weather situations;

    Escaping from severe weather situations, in case of inadvertent encounters, including low‑altitude wind shear (except that rotorcraft pilots are not required to be tested on escaping from low altitude wind shear); and

    Operating in or near thunderstorms (including best penetrating altitudes), turbulent air (including clear air turbulence), icing, hail, and other potentially hazardous meteorological conditions.

8)    New equipment, procedures, or techniques, as appropriate.
9)    For rotorcraft pilots, procedures for aircraft handling in flat-light, whiteout, and brownout conditions, including methods for recognizing and avoiding those conditions.

B.    Section 135.293(b) Requirements. All pilots who are qualifying in an aircraft type are required by § 135.293(b) to satisfactorily complete a competency check in that type of aircraft before entering revenue service and annually thereafter.

1)    For the purposes of the flight competency check required by § 135.293(b), type, as to an airplane, means any one of a group of airplanes determined by the FAA to have a similar means of propulsion, the same manufacturer, and no significantly different handling or flight characteristics. (See Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 1, paragraph 3-1073, Aircraft Families, for lists of the specific makes and models in each aircraft family that the FAA has determined belong to the same group.)
2)    Except as specified below, § 135.293(b) does not specify the maneuvers (events) that must be accomplished on a competency check. The rule authorizes the Administrator or check pilot to make this determination. To ensure standardization and an adequate level of safety, the minimum acceptable content of competency checks for a part 135 curriculum is established by this paragraph and is listed in Tables 3-70 and 3-71.
Indicates new/changed information.
a)    Section 135.293(c) requires each rotorcraft competency check to include a demonstration of the pilot’s ability to maneuver the rotorcraft solely by reference to instruments. The check must determine the pilot’s ability to safely maneuver the rotorcraft into visual meteorological conditions (VMC) following an encounter with inadvertent instrument meteorological conditions (IIMC). For competency checks in non‑IFR‑certified rotorcraft, the pilot must perform such maneuvers as are appropriate to the rotorcraft’s installed equipment, the certificate holder’s operations specifications, and the operating environment. See Table 3-71 for more information.

NOTE:  If a part 135 helicopter air carrier/operator’s OpSpec A003 only authorizes day VFR operations for a specific make and model (M/M) helicopter that is not equipped with attitude reference instrumentation, the requirement for recovery from IIMC may not be applicable. However, if an air carrier/operator operates multiple variations of the same M/M helicopter–some with attitude reference instrumentation and some without attitude reference instrumentation–pilots must be checked in the variation in which they will serve. For example, if a pilot will only serve in the variation without attitude reference instrumentation, the requirement for recovery from IIMC is not applicable. However, if a pilot will serve in both variations, then the requirement for recovery from IIMC must be completed in the variation with attitude reference instrumentation.

b)    Section 135.293(i) requires each competency check to include tasks appropriate to the EFVS operations the part 135 air carrier/operator holder is authorized to conduct. Therefore, the competency check must include EFVS operations to touchdown and rollout if the air carrier/operator is authorized to conduct operations under § 91.176(a) in the aircraft type. The competency check must include EFVS operations to 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation (TDZE) if the air carrier/operator is authorized to conduct operations under § 91.176(b) in the aircraft type.
3)    Because operators may be authorized to conduct VFR-only operations or a combination of VFR and IFR operations, separate requirements have been established for VFR-only competency checks and for combined VFR and IFR operations competency checks. These requirements are indicated in columns marked “VFR COMP” and “IFR COMP” in each table.
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a)    As a matter of national safety policy, some demonstration of competency of the pilot’s ability to maneuver the aircraft solely by reference to instruments will be included on each airplane competency check. For VFR competency checks, this demonstration will be appropriate to the aircraft’s installed equipment and the operating environment. (See note 4 to Table 3-70.)
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b)    In accordance with § 135.293(b), competency checks must be completed in each type of aircraft, which for helicopters means each basic M/M. Therefore, night vision enhancement device (NVED)/Night Vision Goggle (NVG) competency must be evaluated in each basic M/M of helicopter in which a pilot will serve and use NVG. Specific NVG models may only be used in accordance with aircraft Supplemental Type Certificates (STC). Competency checks are not NVG model-specific. Therefore, a satisfactory demonstration of the use of one model of NVGs is all that is required, regardless of the number of models of NVGs the operator uses; it may be used in several different types of appropriately NVG-modified aircraft. Once an initial § 135.293 check and NVG competency has been completed in the basic M/M of helicopter, a flightcrew member is only required to demonstrate annual NVED/NVG competency in one M/M of helicopter. However, it is recommended that the NVED/NVG recurrent competency be alternated between helicopter M/Ms to ensure an adequate level of competency in each M/M.

C.    Section 135.297 Requirements. Section 135.297 requires that PICs complete an instrument proficiency check (IPC) prior to conducting IFR revenue operations. Thereafter, the PIC must have completed an IPC within the preceding 6 months to continue IFR revenue operations. The requirements of § 135.297 are not aircraft-specific; that is, a single check fulfilling the requirements of § 135.297 is sufficient to qualify a PIC to conduct IFR operations in all types of aircraft in which the PIC is qualified according to § 135.293. Section 135.293(c) specifies that the check conducted to satisfy § 135.297 simultaneously satisfies the requirements of § 135.293 for the type of aircraft in which the check is accomplished.

NOTE:  The oral or written test requirements of § 135.293(a) must be completed.

1)    Operations Requiring an ATP Certificate. Section 135.297(c)(1) requires that for operations requiring an ATP Certificate, the IPC must consist of the maneuvers required for original issuance of that certificate and any applicable type rating.
2)    Operations Requiring Commercial Certificates. Section 135.297(c)(1) also requires that for operations requiring a commercial certificate and an instrument rating, the IPC must consist of the maneuvers required for the original issuance of a commercial certificate, an instrument rating, and any applicable type rating.
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D.    Basic Checking Modules for § 135.293 VFR Competency Check.

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1)    The minimum events for a § 135.293 VFR competency check are listed in the columns marked “VFR COMP” in Table 3-70 for airplanes and in Table 3-71 for helicopters.
2)    The minimum events for a § 135.293 VFR competency check utilizing NVG are listed in the columns marked “NVG COMP” in Table 3-70 for airplanes and in Table 3-71 for helicopters.
Indicates new/changed information.

E.    Basic Checking Modules for § 135.293 IFR Competency Check. The minimum events for a § 135.293 IFR competency check are listed in the column marked “IFR COMP” in Table 3-70 for airplanes and in Table 3-71 for helicopters.

1)    PIC Requirements. PICs being trained in initial equipment and transition curriculum for IFR operations have normally completed the requirements of § 135.297 within the preceding 6 months. If this is the case, the qualification module for these categories of training need only satisfy the requirements of § 135.293. The columns marked “IFR COMP” in Tables 3-70 and 3-71 reflect this assumption. When this assumption is not true, the operator must ensure that PICs meet the requirements of § 135.297.
Indicates new/changed information.
2)    Multiengine General Purpose Family. Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 1, subparagraph 3-1073C, Multiengine General Purpose Airplane Family, lists airplanes of the multiengine general purpose family that the Administrator has determined to belong to the same group for purposes of the § 135.293(b) competency check. Table 3-70 is constructed on the assumption that pilots in the transition category are qualifying in airplanes that are not of the same group. The basic qualification module of a transition training course for airplanes of the same group consists of the oral or written test required by § 135.293(a)(2) and (a)(3).
Indicates new/changed information.
3)    Single-Engine General Purpose Family. All single-engine general purpose airplanes are considered to be a single type for the purpose of the § 135.293(b) competency check. The qualification module of the transition category of training for single-engine general purpose airplanes is the written or oral test required by § 135.293(a)(2) and (a)(3).

F.    Requalification Category. The minimum events of the requalification checking module are dependent upon whether the pilot is requalifying for VFR or IFR operations and the duty position. PICs who conduct IFR operations and have completed a § 135.297 check in the past 6 months but are overdue for a check required by § 135.293 may regain qualification by completing the items listed in the columns marked “IFR COMP” in Table 3-70 for airplanes and Table 3-71 for helicopters. PICs overdue in respect to the requirements of § 135.297 must complete the items listed in the columns marked “INST PROF” in Table 3-70 for airplanes and Table 3-71 for helicopters.

Indicates new/changed information.

G.    Recurrent Category. The minimum events of the “recurrent” checking module are dependent upon whether the pilot is maintaining currency for VFR or IFR operations and the duty position. PICs who conduct IFR operations and have completed a § 135.297 check in the past 6 months must complete a § 135.293 competency check to remain current. Complete those items listed in the columns marked “IFR COMP” in Table 3-70 for airplanes and Table 3-71 for helicopters. PICs due both a competency check and an IPC must complete the items listed in the columns marked “INST PROF” in Table 3-70 for airplanes and Table 3-71 for helicopters. Section 135.297 requires PICs to complete IPCs by rotating aircraft types. When one airplane is multiengine and the other a single-engine airplane, § 135.297(f) requires that this rotation begin with the multiengine airplane.

NOTE:  Section 135.301 allows pilots and operators to consider a check conducted in the month before it is due or the month after it is due to have been accomplished in the month due.

Indicates new/changed information.

H.    SIC Qualification in Aircraft Not Requiring an SIC. The basic qualification module for an SIC in any operation (VFR or IFR) for which no SIC is required by regulation is either an instrument proficiency or VFR competency check in any aircraft of the same category and class and the written or oral test required by § 135.293(a)(2) for the type of aircraft involved.

Indicates new/changed information.

I.    Listing Module Events. To ensure that the content of the basic checking module is adequate and appropriate, the operator may choose (or the POI may require) that the minimum required events of each basic checking module be listed on the curriculum outline.

Indicates new/changed information.

J.    Recording Checks. Record the checks for those operators whose flightcrew members get all their checks from FAA inspectors (single pilot, single PIC, and basic operators) on FAA Form 8410-3, Airman Competency/Proficiency Check, or equivalent form. POIs should encourage all other operators to create specifically tailored forms to record these checks which reflect the requirements listed in the operator’s curriculum outline. When multiple events, such as VFR and NVG, are demonstrated during the same flight, separate indications should be annotated on the checking form for the completion of an event and the conditions under which it was completed.

Table 3-70.  Part 135 Checking Modules—Airplanes

Indicates new/changed information. Indicates new/changed information. Indicates new/changed information.

EVENTS

VFR COMP.

IFR COMP.

INST. PROF.

NVG

TASKS

NOTES

WRITTEN OR ORAL TEST

 

 

 

 

 

14 CFR part 135, § 135.297

 

 

P

 

 

§ 135.293

B

B

 

B

 

GROUND OPERATIONS

 

 

 

 

 

Preflight inspection

B(c)

B

P

B

1

Start procedures

B(c)

B

P

B

1

Taxiing/runway operations

B(c)

B

P

B

1

Pretakeoff checks

B(c)

B

P

B

1

TAKEOFF AND DEPARTURES

 

 

 

 

 

Normal

B(c)

B

P

B(d)

 

Crosswind

B(c)

B

P

B(d)

2

Instrument

 

P

P

 

2

With powerplant failure

B

B

P

B(d)

ME Only

Rejected takeoff

P(c)

P

P

B(d)

2, ME Only

Short field

P

P

P(b)

B(d)

SE Only

Area departure

 

 

P(a)

 

 

IN-FLIGHT MANEUVERS

 

 

 

 

 

Steep turns

P(b)

P(b)

P(b)

B

 

Stall prevention (approaches to stalls)

B(c)

P

P

B

2

Powerplant failure

P

P

P

B

 

Two-engine-inoperative approach

P(c)

P

P

 

3 and 4 Engine Airplanes

INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES

 

 

 

 

 

Area arrival

 

 

P(a)

 

 

Holding

 

 

P(b)

 

 

Normal ILS approach

 

B

P

 

3, 2

Engine-out ILS

 

P

P

 

2, ME Only

Coupled approach

 

P

P

 

3, 2

Nonprecision approach

 

B

P

 

6

Second nonprecision approach

 

 

P

 

6

Missed approach from an ILS

 

 

P

 

 

Second missed approach

 

 

P

 

 

Circling approach

 

 

P

 

7

EFVS approach

 

B

 

 

8

LANDINGS AND APPROACHES TO LANDINGS

 

 

 

 

 

Normal

B(c)

B

P

B(d)

2

Crosswind

B(c)

B

P

B(d)

2

Landing from an ILS

 

 

P

 

 

Landing with engine out

B

B

P

B(d)

ME Only

Circling approach

 

 

P

 

7

Rejected landing

 

 

P

B

 

Two-engine-inoperative landing

P(c)

P

P

B(d)

3 and 4 Engine Airplanes

Short Field landing

P

P

P

B(d)

SE Only

No-flap approach

P(c)

P

P

B

2, 9

EFVS landing

 

B

 

 

8

SEA & SKI OPERATIONS (if applicable)

 

 

 

 

 

Normal takeoff & landing

B

B

P

 

 

Steep turns

P(b)

P(b)

P(b)

 

 

Glassy & rough water

P(b)

P(b)

P(b)

 

 

Sailing

P(b)

P(b)

P(b)

 

 

Docking

P(b)

P(b)

P(b)

 

 

NON-NORMAL AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

 

 

 

 

 

System malfunction

B(c)

B

P

B

1

NVG malfunction

 

 

 

B

 

Maneuver by partial panel

B

B

P

 

5

Unusual attitude recovery

B

B

P

B

 

Emergency landing

B

B

P

B

SE Only

Use of external lighting

 

 

 

B

 

Instrument approach

B

 

 

 

4

Indicates new/changed information. Indicates new/changed information.

NOTES TO TABLE 3-70, PART 135 CHECKING MODULES—AIRPLANES

P

Pilot in command (PIC).

B

Both the PIC and second in command (SIC).

ME

Multiengine

SE

Single-engine

(a)

May be waived at the discretion of the principal operations inspector (POI) and the check pilot when the check is not simultaneously conducted for certification. (See Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 2.)

(b)

May be waived at the discretion of the POI and the check pilot when the check is not conducted in conjunction with initial new-hire or initial equipment training.

(c)

Accomplishment Unaided may be combined at the discretion of the POI or the check pilot when conducting a Night Vision Goggle (NVG) competency concurrent with a VFR competency check.

(d)

Only required if operator authorized takeoff and landing Airplane Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) operations on Operations Specification (OpSpec) A051.

1

Both PIC and SIC may be evaluated performing their assigned duties in these events simultaneously when the check pilot is not seated at the controls.

2

See Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 2.

3

The applicant must demonstrate the ability to use all installed equipment including autopilots and flight directors (FD). In multiengine airplanes, an engine-out instrument landing system (ILS) may be substituted for the normal ILS at the option of the inspector or check pilot administering the check.

4

POIs must ensure applicants accomplish this event in an aircraft the operator uses in revenue operations (or in an appropriately equipped flight simulation training device (FSTD)). The event should reflect a realistic course of action the pilot might take to escape from an encounter with inadvertent instrument meteorological conditions (IIMC). POIs should approve methods appropriate to the aircraft, equipment, and facilities available. When the pilot is authorized to operate an appropriately equipped aircraft and the check is conducted at a location where an ILS is operational, demonstrate an ILS approach. POIs may also approve a letdown on partial panel when this would be an appropriate course of action.

5

Airplanes not having standby instrumentation.

6

See Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 2. Any two nonprecision approaches authorized by the OpSpecs may be accomplished at the discretion of the inspector or check pilot conducting the check.

7

A pilot need not be evaluated in circling approaches when the operator’s procedures restrict that pilot (PIC or SIC) from conducting this event in revenue service.

8

If the certificate holder is authorized to conduct enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) operations to touchdown and rollout, at least one instrument approach to a landing must be made using an EFVS, including the use of enhanced flight vision from 100 feet above the TDZE to touchdown and rollout. If the certificate holder is authorized to conduct EFVS operations to 100 feet above the TDZE, at least one instrument approach to a landing must be made using an EFVS, including the transition from enhanced flight vision to natural vision at 100 feet above the TDZE.

9

Required only for transport, commuter, turboprop, and Special Federal Aviation Regulations (SFAR) aircraft families as described in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 1.

Table 3-71.  Part 135 Checking Modules—Helicopters

Indicates new/changed information. Indicates new/changed information. Indicates new/changed information.

EVENTS

VFR COMP.

IFR COMP.

INST. PROF.

NVG TASKS

NOTES

WRITTEN OR ORAL TEST

 

 

 

 

 

14 CFR part 135, § 135.297

 

 

P

 

 

§ 135.293

B

B

 

B

 

GROUND OPERATIONS

 

 

 

 

 

Preflight inspection

B

B

P

B

1

Start procedures

B

B

P

B

1

Taxiing and ground hover

B

B

P

B

1

Pretakeoff checks

B

B

P

B

1

TAKEOFF AND DEPARTURES

 

 

 

 

 

Normal

B

B

P

B

 

Instrument

 

P

P

 

 

With powerplant failure

B

B

P

B

ME Only

Rapid deceleration

P

P

P

B

2

Area departure

 

 

P(a)

 

 

IN-FLIGHT MANEUVERS

 

 

 

 

 

Steep turns

 

 

P(a)

 

 

Settling with power

B

B

P

B(c)

 

Unusual attitude recovery

B

B

P

B

4

INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES

 

 

 

 

 

Area arrival

 

 

P(a)

 

 

Holding

 

 

P(a)

 

 

Normal ILS approach

 

B

P

 

2, 3

Engine-out ILS

 

P

P

 

ME Only

Coupled approach

 

P

P

 

2, 3

Nonprecision approach

 

B

P

 

2

Second nonprecision approach

 

 

P

 

2

Missed approach from an ILS

 

 

P

 

 

Second missed approach

 

 

P

 

 

Circling approach

 

 

P

 

5

LANDINGS AND APPROACHES TO LANDINGS

 

 

 

 

 

Normal

B

B

P

B

2

Landing from an ILS

 

 

P

 

 

Landing with engine out

B

B

P

B

ME Only

Circling approach

 

 

P

 

5

SEA & SKI OPERATIONS (if applicable)

 

 

 

 

 

Normal takeoff & landing

B

B

P

B

 

NON-NORMAL AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

 

 

 

 

 

System malfunction

B

B

P

B(b)

1

Recovery from IIMC

B

B

B

B

4

Maneuver by partial panel

B

B

P

 

7

Instrument approach

B

B

P

 

4

Power failure and autorotation to a power recovery

B

B

P

B

SE Only

2

Hovering autorotations

B

B

P

B

SE Only, 6

Tail rotor failure

B

B

P

 

Oral Only

Dynamic rollover

B

B

P

 

Oral Only

Low rotor rpm

B

B

P

 

Oral Only

Anti-torque system failure

B

B

P

 

Oral Only

Confined area/pinnacle operations

P

 

P

B

 

Slope operations

P

 

P

B

 

Ground hazard recognition

 

 

 

B

 

Brownout/whiteout/flat light operations

 

 

 

B

 

Use of external lighting

 

 

 

B

 

Indicates new/changed information. Indicates new/changed information. Indicates new/changed information. Indicates new/changed information. Indicates new/changed information.

NOTES TO TABLE 3-71, PART 135 CHECKING MODULES—HELICOPTERS

(a)

May be waived at the discretion of the principal operations inspector (POI) and the check pilot when the check is not conducted in conjunction with initial new-hire or initial equipment training.

(b)

This will include a simulated Night Vision Goggle (NVG) failure with appropriate recovery procedures.

(c)

This maneuver may be waived at the discretion of the POI or check pilot. Initial night vision enhancement device (NVED)/NVG training does not require this maneuver to be demonstrated or performed.

1

Both the pilot in command (PIC) and second in command (SIC) may be evaluated performing their assigned duties in these events simultaneously when the check pilot is not seated at the controls.

2

See Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 5.

3

The applicant must demonstrate the ability to use all installed equipment including autopilots and flight directors (FD). In multiengine helicopters, an engine-out instrument landing system (ILS) may be substituted for the normal ILS at the option of the inspector or check pilot administering the check.

4

The event should reflect a realistic course of action the pilot might take to escape from an encounter with inadvertent instrument meteorological conditions (IIMC). Recovery from IIMC is an emergency maneuver since the pilot would be operating under VFR prior to the IIMC. POIs should approve methods appropriate to the aircraft, equipment installed, facilities available, operations specifications (OpSpecs) requirements, and the environment in which the operations may occur. Checking must provide emphasis on avoidance of IIMC, including the discipline and decisionmaking required to divert, make a precautionary landing, or make an emergency transition to instrument flight rules (IFR), as appropriate to the circumstances. This event must include attitude instrument flying, recovery from unusual attitudes, navigation, air traffic control (ATC) communications, and, at least one instrument (if aircraft is so equipped) approach appropriate to circumstances. For pilots who are authorized to conduct part 135 helicopter operations under IFR, aviation safety inspectors (ASI) and check pilots should use the same standards that the air carrier/operator uses to evaluate other instrument maneuvers and procedures. For pilots not authorized to conduct part 135 helicopter operations under IFR, ASIs and check pilots should use the standards that the air carrier/operator uses to evaluate emergency maneuvers and procedures. If the helicopter is equipped with an operable autopilot and the pilot is trained in its use, the autopilot may be used in the accomplishment of this task.

5

A pilot need not be evaluated in circling approaches when the operator’s procedures restrict that pilot (PIC or SIC) from conducting this event in revenue service.

6

When the check is being conducted in a helicopter that requires the check pilot to divert his or her attention from the flight controls (such as visually confirming the location of the throttle, fuel-flow control lever, etc.) at night, this maneuver should be conducted under night-unaided conditions in lieu of being conducted under NVGs.

7

Helicopters not having standby instrumentation.

3-1281    CREDIT FOR CERTIFICATION FLIGHT CHECKS.

Indicates new/changed information.

A.    ATP Certificate Flight Test. In accordance with § 61.157(f)(1)(i) and (f)(2), successful completion of a proficiency check under § 121.441 conducted by an aircrew program designee (APD) or Training Center Evaluator (TCE) satisfies the flight test requirements for the issuance of an ATP Certificate or aircraft rating. Additionally, in accordance with § 61.157(f)(1)(ii), successful completion of the testing requirements of § 135.293(a)(2), the competency check requirements of § 135.293(b), and the PIC IPC requirements of § 135.297, all conducted by an APD or TCE, satisfies the flight test requirements for the issuance of an ATP Certificate or aircraft rating.

B.    FE Certificate. The certification flight test for an FE Certificate or class rating simultaneously satisfies the part 121 flight check requirement.

Indicates new/changed information.

3-1282    CONDUCT OF PROFICIENCY, COMPETENCY, AND FLIGHT CHECKS. Specific direction and guidance for the conduct of certification flight tests is in Volume 5, Chapters 1, 3, and 4. The same standards, direction, and guidance are applicable to inspectors, check pilots, and check FEs when conducting proficiency checks, VFR competency checks, IFR competency checks, and FE flight checks. POIs must evaluate the operator’s check pilot and check FE program to ensure that check pilots and check FEs are applying the same standards and are adhering to the direction and guidance for proficiency, competency, and flight checks that are applicable to certification flight checks.

Indicates new/changed information.

A.    Waiving of Events. Inspectors and check pilots may waive those events indicated by an asterisk in Figure 3-80, Table 3-70, and Table 3-71. This provision applies to all checks conducted under part 121 and those part 135 checks which do not involve certification. The waiver provisions of part 61 apply only to pilots employed by part 121 operators (refer to § 61.157(j)).

1)    The use of waiver authority is not automatic. Check pilots are cautioned to exercise judgment in the use of this authority. When an applicant demonstrates a high level of performance, check pilots should make liberal use of the waiver authority. When an applicant’s performance only approaches the minimum acceptable standards, however, none of the events of the flight test should be waived.
2)    Inspectors and check pilots are cautioned that some waiver provisions apply to portions of an event rather than to a whole event (e.g., the stall prevention series). Other events have specific conditions which must be fully met before waiver authority may be exercised (e.g., the second nonprecision approach). See the discussion of the conditions and limitations of waiver authority and the guidance on acceptable means and standards for conducting specific checking events in Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 2.
3)    Part 121 appendix F contains certain restrictions on waiving events. For example, when a circling approach is required but cannot be accomplished due to traffic or other reasons, it may be waived. Circling approaches, however, may not be waived for two successive checks. POIs will observe these same provisions for part 135 operators under the Administrator’s authority to determine the content of part 135 checks.

B.    Training to Proficiency. When a check pilot determines that an event is unsatisfactory, the check pilot may conduct training and repeat the testing of that event. This provision is made in the interest of fairness and to avoid undue hardship and expense for pilots and operators. Training may not be conducted, however, without recording the failure of these events. The quality control (QC) of a training program is accomplished, among other means, by identifying those events on checks which flightcrew members fail. POIs must ensure the following guidance is supplied to operators and check pilots concerning the practice of training to proficiency:

1)    Training and checking cannot be conducted simultaneously. When training is required, the check must be temporarily suspended, training conducted, and then the check resumed.
2)    When training to proficiency is required, the check pilot must record the events which were initially failed and in which training was given.
3)    When training to proficiency is conducted and the check is subsequently completed within the original session, the overall grade for the check may be recorded as satisfactory. When the training required to reach proficiency cannot be completed in the original checking session, the check must be recorded as unsatisfactory and the pilot entered into requalification training.
4)    When training to proficiency is required and it is practical to do so, the remaining events of the flight test phase should be completed before training in the failed event is conducted. If it is more practical, the failed event may be repeated at the end of a logical sequence. For example, training on stall prevention might be conducted at altitude after all other air work has been completed, but before returning to the traffic pattern.
5)    If, after having received training, the pilot fails an event again, the failure must be recorded, and the pilot must be entered into requalification training.

NOTE:  If for mechanical or other reasons the check cannot be completed after the failure of an event and before training and retesting can be accomplished, the check is considered terminated; however, the pilot may not serve in revenue operations until the check is successfully completed.

Indicates new/changed information.

3-1283    USE OF FSTDs FOR PROFICIENCY, FLIGHT, AND COMPETENCY CHECKS. The guidance of this paragraph applies to the use of FSTDs in conducting either part 121 proficiency checks, part 121 flight checks, or part 135 competency checks and IPCs. The level of FSTD that can be used for any particular flight event in these checks depends on the flightcrew member’s duty position and on the category of training. The maneuvers and procedures tables along with the introductory information in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 6, paragraphs 3-1244 through 3-1252, specify the minimum level of FSTD that can be used for a particular training event. This minimum level is also the level that can be used to test the event during a proficiency, flight, or competency check. Before beginning a proficiency, flight, or competency check, inspectors, check pilots, and check FEs must determine which flight events can be conducted in the FSTD to be used.

Indicates new/changed information.

3-1284    THE OE QUALIFICATION MODULE. PICs and SICs in part 121 operations completing an initial new-hire, initial equipment, transition, or upgrade category of training, must satisfactorily complete OE. FEs completing an initial new-hire, initial equipment, or transition category of training must satisfactorily complete OE. Part 135 specifies that before a pilot may be assigned as a PIC in a commuter passenger carrying operation, that pilot must complete OE in each make and basic model of aircraft in which the pilot is to serve as a PIC. The qualification curriculum segment outline that is applicable to these flightcrew member duty positions must list the appropriate requirements for each duty position. Both parts 121 and 135 specify the minimum flight hour requirements for these duty positions. Part 121 also specifies minimum operating cycles for pilots. An operator may elect to specify a greater flight hour requirement than the regulatory minimum. Unless AFS-200 has authorized a deviation in accordance with § 121.434(a)(4), inspectors must not approve any qualification curriculum segment that lists a flight hour requirement that is less than that specified by the appropriate regulation. (See Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 12 for additional information regarding deviations based on designation of related aircraft.)

A.    Part 121 Minimum OE Flight Hours and Operating Cycles.

Indicates new/changed information.
1)    PIC or SIC Initial New-Hire, PIC or SIC Initial Equipment, or PIC Transition with FFS Training. In accordance with § 121.434(c)(3)(i), pilots who are completing an initial new-hire curriculum or initial equipment curriculum, and in accordance with § 121.434(c)(3)(iii), pilots who are completing a PIC transition curriculum (which includes training in an FFS under § 121.409), must satisfactorily complete the following minimum operating cycles and OE flight hours:

    Group I reciprocating—15 hours and 4 operating cycles with at least 2 as the Pilot Flying (PF).

    Group I turbopropeller—20 hours and 4 operating cycles with at least 2 as the PF.

    Group II turbojet—25 hours and 4 operating cycles with at least 2 as the PF.

2)    SIC Transition or PIC Transition Without FFS Training. In accordance with § 121.434(c)(3)(ii), SICs who are completing a transition curriculum and PICs who are completing a transition curriculum which does not include an approved course of training in an FFS must satisfactorily complete the following minimum operating cycles and OE flight hours:

    Group I reciprocating—10 hours and 4 operating cycles with at least 2 as the PF.

    Group I turbopropeller—12 hours and 4 operating cycles with at least 2 as the PF.

    Group II turbojet PIC—25 hours and 4 operating cycles with at least 2 as the PF.

    Group II turbojet SIC—15 hours and 4 operating cycles with at least 2 as the PF.

3)    SIC or PIC Upgrade. Although § 121.434 requires satisfactory completion of OE for pilots who are completing an upgrade curriculum, the minimum flight hours are not specified. The following minimum flight hours are recommended, however, for an SIC upgrading to PIC, and for an FE upgrading to SIC, regardless of whether or not the upgrade curriculum includes training in an FFS:

    Group I reciprocating—SIC to PIC, 8 hours; FE to SIC, 15 hours.

    Group I turbopropeller—SIC to PIC, 8 hours; FE to SIC, 15 hours.

    Group II turbojet—SIC to PIC, 10 hours; FE to SIC, 25 hours.

4)    FE Initial New-Hire, FE Initial Equipment, or FE Transition. In accordance with § 121.434(d), FEs who are completing initial new-hire, initial equipment, or transition curricula must satisfactorily complete the following minimum OE flight hours:

    Group I reciprocating—8 hours.

    Group I turbopropeller—10 hours.

    Group II turbojet—12 hours.

Indicates new/changed information.

NOTE:  In order for a PIC or SIC to acquire the required OE hours, that PIC or SIC “must perform the duties” of a PIC or SIC, respectively, under the supervision of a check pilot (refer to § 121.434(c)(1)(i) and (c)(2)). Additionally, § 121.434(d) also requires that FEs “must perform the duties” of a FE under the supervision of a check FE, check pilot, or qualified FE to acquire OE hours. Therefore, time spent by a pilot or FE while not seated at the controls or FE station, as applicable, including time spent resting, as required by 14 CFR part 117 and part 121 subparts Q, R, and S, cannot be counted to satisfy the OE requirements of § 121.434 (refer to Legal Interpretation to Hugh Thomas, June 10, 2013).

B.    Reductions to Part 121 OE Flight Hours. In accordance with § 121.434(f), for flightcrew members completing the following curricula, the minimum OE flight hours may be reduced up to 50 percent by substituting one additional takeoff and landing for 1 hour of flight:

    All Group I PIC, SIC, and FE curricula.

    Group II PIC or FE transition.

NOTE:  Reduction to OE flight hours is not permitted for flightcrew members who are completing: Group II PIC, SIC, or FE initial new-hire; Group II PIC, SIC, or FE initial equipment; or Group II SIC transition.

C.    Part 135 Minimum Flight Hours.

Indicates new/changed information.
1)    The part 135 flight hour requirement applies only to pilots who will be assigned to serve as PIC in a commuter passenger carrying operation. In addition, the minimum OE must be acquired for each make and basic model of aircraft in which the pilot is to serve as PIC. Section 135.244 specifies that the type and number of engines powering the aircraft determines the minimum flight hours for commuter PICs, which are as follows:

    Single-engine airplanes and helicopters—10 hours.

    Multiengine, reciprocating-powered airplanes and helicopters—15 hours.

    Multiengine, turbine-powered airplanes and helicopters—20 hours.

    Turbojet-powered airplanes—25 hours.

2)    Part 135 does not require that SICs who are to serve in commuter operations acquire OE. POIs should, however, encourage part 135 commuter operators to include an OE module in their qualification curriculum segments for SICs. For example, the SIC qualification module could require the pairing of a newly trained SIC with only a highly experienced PIC for a specified number of hours or until an experienced PIC has certified that the SIC is proficient in assigned duties.

D.    Reductions to Part 135 OE Flight Hours. In accordance with § 135.244(b)(4), the minimum OE flight hours may be reduced up to 50 percent by substituting one additional takeoff and landing for 1 hour of flight.

Indicates new/changed information.

E.    Conduct of OE. All flightcrew members must have successfully completed the applicable proficiency, competency, and flight checks before starting OE, and are therefore considered to be qualified to serve in revenue operations, under the appropriate supervision. Flightcrew members must acquire OE while conducting revenue operations, except when the operator has not previously used the aircraft. In this case, the flight hours acquired while conducting proving flights or ferry flights may be credited towards the OE requirement.

1)    A pilot in the process of acquiring OE as a PIC under the provisions of parts 121 and 135 must occupy the appropriate pilot position and perform PIC duties under the supervision of a check pilot. The check pilot must also occupy a pilot position. In the case of a PIC trained under a part 121 transition curriculum, however, the check pilot may occupy the observer’s seat after the qualifying PIC has made at least two takeoffs and landings and the check pilot is satisfied that the pilot candidate is competent to perform the duties of a PIC.
a)    During the time that a qualifying PIC is acquiring OE, the supervising check pilot should give instruction as needed and help to refine the pilot’s proficiency as a PIC. The check pilot must determine when the PIC is fully proficient and ready to be administered an initial line check. If the qualifying PIC is not ready for an initial line check after the minimum flight hours have been completed, the supervision must be continued until the PIC is proficient.
b)    The check pilot should not recommend an initial line check until the check pilot is satisfied that the qualifying PIC is proficient. If the check pilot recommends the PIC for an initial line check before the minimum flight hours are acquired, the time spent conducting the line check may be credited toward the required flight hours. In all cases, however, the qualifying PIC must satisfactorily complete the minimum flight hours and operating cycles (part 121 only) under the supervision of a check pilot before the PIC can be released to operate unsupervised in revenue flights.
2)    A pilot in the process of acquiring OE as an SIC under the provisions of part 121 must occupy the appropriate pilot position and perform the duties of an SIC under the supervision of a check pilot. The check pilot must also occupy a pilot position. The qualifying SIC must satisfactorily complete the minimum flight hours and operating cycles under the supervision of a check pilot before the SIC can be released to operate unsupervised in revenue operations.
3)    An FE in the process of acquiring OE must perform the duties of an FE at the FE station under the supervision of a check pilot, check FE, or a qualified FE. In either case, the qualifying FE must satisfactorily complete the minimum flight hours before being assigned as the required FE in revenue operations. When an operator schedules FEs to complete OE under the supervision of a qualified FE who has not been trained as a check FE, the POI should consider special en route surveillance of those FEs after they are assigned as required FEs in revenue operations. The purpose of this special surveillance is to determine whether the operator’s training, flight-testing, and OE programs sufficiently prepare the FEs for line operations.

F.    OE Qualification Guides. POIs should encourage operators to develop an OE qualification guide to be used by supervisors, check pilots, and check FEs. The purpose of the qualification guide is to ensure that a flightcrew member systematically gains experience in all required duties the flightcrew member will later be required to perform without supervision. Some of the typical experience events that might be incorporated in a qualification guide are as follows:

    Terminal security procedures;

    Aircraft security and anti-hijacking procedures;

    Weather forecasts and information sources;

    Flight planning;

    Dispatch procedures;

    Cockpit setup, initialization of computers, entering present position and waypoints, confirming navigation setup;

    Weight and Balance (W&B) computation (including last minute changes);

    ATC flow control procedures;

    MEL and CDL procedures;

    Pushback and powerback procedures and limitations;

    Procedures for fueling and confirming fuel loads;

    Familiarity with major terminal areas;

    Terminal and en route communications;

    Flight progress and fuel monitoring procedures;

    In-flight weather watch; and

    Diversion procedures.

3-1285    THE LINE CHECK QUALIFICATION MODULE. Both parts 121 and 135 specify that before a pilot can serve as an unsupervised PIC in revenue operations that pilot must have satisfactorily completed a line check. Except for requalification training, the qualification curriculum segment for PICs should include a line check module as a requirement for all other categories of training. Requalification training curricula that are used to requalify PICs who have been unqualified for 12 months or more should include a required PIC line check module. Both parts 121 and 135 specify that all PICs must satisfactorily complete a line check once every 12 calendar-months in at least one of the aircraft types in which the PIC is to serve. Therefore, the qualification curriculum segment for recurrent training should include a line check module for the PIC.

A.    General Direction and Guidance. Part 121 specifies that the line check is to be given by a check pilot who is properly qualified in the particular airplane being used. In certain unique situations, such as when an operator is qualifying an initial cadre of check pilots, the only practical way of completing the line check requirement may be for an FAA inspector to conduct the line check and to certify the PIC’s performance. Part 135 specifies that an approved check pilot or an FAA inspector may give the line check. For both parts 121 and 135, the amount of time flown during a line check may be credited to the OE flight hour requirement. The line check, however, should not be conducted until the OE flight hour requirement has been substantially completed. When a PIC serves in both parts 121 and 135 operations, a line check conducted in a part 121 aircraft satisfies the part 135 line check requirement. POIs should encourage operators to place emphasis on their line check programs. A well-run line check program can provide detection of deficiencies and adverse trends and establish the need for a revision of old procedures or an initiation of new procedures. POIs should encourage operators to design and use line check forms to facilitate the collection of such information.

B.    Part 121 Line Checks. For part 121 operations, the line check must be conducted over at least one typical route in which the PIC may be assigned. If the typical route the PIC will be flying includes Class II navigation, the line check must be conducted on a route where Class II navigation is used. The line check may be conducted during either revenue or nonrevenue operations.

C.    Part 135 Line Checks. For part 135 operations, the line check must consist of at least one route segment over a civil airway, an approved off-airway route, or a portion of either, including takeoffs and landings at one or more airports that are representative of the operator’s type of operation. In certain part 135 operations, it may not be practical to conduct a line check during revenue operations. In these cases, the POI may authorize that the line check be conducted during the same flight period that the competency check is conducted. If the line check is conducted in this manner, the line check portion of this flight period must include the requirements previously discussed in this paragraph.

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3-1286    LINE OPERATING FLIGHT TIME FOR THE CONSOLIDATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS (PART 121). In accordance with § 121.434(g) PICs and SICs must complete a minimum of 100 hours of flight time performing the duties of PIC or SIC, respectively, in operations under part 121 in the airplane type within 120 days after completion of a § 121.441 proficiency check completed in an initial new-hire, initial equipment, transition, or upgrade from FE to SIC curriculum. Time spent by a pilot while not seated at the controls, including time spent resting, as required by part 117 and part 121 subparts Q, R, and S, cannot be counted to satisfy the consolidation requirements of § 121.434 (refer to Legal Interpretation to Hugh Thomas, June 10, 2013).

NOTE:  In accordance with § 121.434(h)(2), a pilot who has completed the consolidation requirement in the airplane type while serving as an SIC is not required to repeat the consolidation requirements as a PIC on the same airplane type.

A.    Serving in Another Airplane Type. In accordance with § 121.434(h)(3), if a pilot serves in another airplane type before completing the required 100 hours of consolidation, the pilot must satisfactorily complete refresher training in the airplane for which the pilot has newly qualified before serving in that airplane type. Refresher training must be conducted by an appropriately qualified instructor or check pilot in accordance with the certificate holder’s approved training program.

B.    Extension of 120-Day Period. In accordance with § 121.434(h)(4), if the required 100 hours is not completed within 120 days after completion of the proficiency check, the certificate holder may extend the period to 150 days if:

1)    The pilot continues to meet all applicable requirements of part 121 subpart O, and
2)    On or before the 120th day the pilot satisfactorily completes refresher training conducted by an appropriately qualified instructor or check pilot or a check pilot determines that the pilot has retained an adequate level of proficiency after observing that pilot in a supervised line operating flight.

NOTE:  Section 121.434 does not allow any additional extensions. Therefore, if a pilot does not complete the required 100 hours within the 150-day period, the pilot may not serve in part 121 operations until completing another § 121.441 proficiency check. Upon completion of this proficiency check, another 120-day period begins for the pilot to complete the required 100 hours of consolidation. No credit is allowed for hours completed in the first 150-day period prior to the subsequent proficiency check.

C.    Deviations for New Certificate Holders, New Airplane Types, and New Domiciles. Section 121.434(h)(5) specifies three conditions under which a part 121 air carrier may request deviation from the consolidation requirement. These three conditions recognize the need for an alternative method of compliance during the initial startup of an air carrier or addition of a new airplane type. These deviations are not intended to be used for scheduling convenience. The three conditions are:

    A newly certificated air carrier does not employ any pilots who meet the minimum requirements of § 121.434(g);

    An existing air carrier adds a new airplane type to its fleet not previously proven for use in its operations; or

    An air carrier establishes a new domicile to which it assigns pilots who will be required to become qualified on the airplanes operated from that domicile.

D.    Related Aircraft Deviations. In accordance with § 121.434(a)(4), an air carrier may request a deviation from the consolidation requirements based upon a designation of related aircraft. See Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 12 for additional information and the request process for deviations based on designation of related aircraft.

3-1287    ADDITIONAL CHECKING MODULES. Additional checking modules include flight test events that must be conducted to qualify flightcrew members for special operations, such as CAT II or CAT III instrument approach procedures (IAP) and NVG operations. Another example of an additional checking module is the requirement that a PIC be initially qualified over a route or area requiring a special type of navigation such as inertial navigation system (INS) or long-range navigation. (Refer to § 121.445(d)(2).)

A.    Concurrent Checks. Additional checking modules are frequently conducted concurrently with a proficiency check, competency check, or line check.

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1)    The regulations and advisory circulars (AC) require additional checks, but usually do not specify the content of these checks. Since there are often several acceptable means of conducting these checks, the additional checking module outline must specify the content of these checks.
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2)    When a part 121 or part 135 operator chooses to conduct an additional checking module in conjunction with a basic checking module, the requirements of both modules must be accomplished. A single event may, however, be credited for both modules simultaneously. For example, an operator who conducts basic checking modules and CAT II additional checking modules at the same time may combine the ILS approach requirements. Similarly, NVG events can be used in some cases to satisfy corresponding VFR competency event requirements. The basic checking module requires a normal ILS; a manually controlled, engine-out ILS; a coupled ILS; a landing from an ILS; and a missed approach from an ILS. The normal ILS and the coupled ILS may be combined in the basic checking module for a minimum of two ILS approaches. In this case, one approach must terminate in a landing and one in a missed approach. For an operator who conducts only coupled CAT II approaches, the CAT II additional checking module requires a minimum of two approaches to CAT II minimums; one approach must be to a landing and one to a missed approach. A POI may approve combining the compatible events of these two modules. In this case, the combined requirement is one-engine-out, manually controlled ILS to CAT I minimums; one coupled, CAT II ILS to a landing, and one coupled, CAT II ILS approach to a missed approach. POIs who have concerns over what combinations are permissible should consult the Air Carrier Training Systems and Voluntary Safety Programs Branch (AFS-280) when necessary.
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3)    Since NVG competency is an additional checking module as part of the § 135.293(b) check when requested, the VFR portion of the check must be completed prior to the NVG check to ensure VFR competency first. The NVG portion must then be accomplished to satisfy this additional qualification. Once a pilot has demonstrated VFR competency, the examiner may subsequently elect to allow demonstration of an event under NVG to satisfy the VFR requirement simultaneously, as indicated in Table 3-70 by note (c). Many factors will determine what events are credited, such as the experience of the pilot, the operating environment, the currency of the pilot, and the examiner’s judgment and evaluation of the pilot. The primary consideration is a complete and satisfactory demonstration of the pilot to operate safely both with and without the use of NVG. Those VFR competency events not indicated as eligible for combining must be demonstrated unaided to satisfy the VFR competency check requirements.

B.    Additional Checking Modules. Operators may choose to conduct additional checking modules separately from a proficiency check, a competency check, or a line check. It may be more practical to accomplish an additional flight test separately because of high minimum PIC requirements or because of pilot bidding practices for international routes. When an operator conducts separate checking modules, the operator must limit the use of flightcrew members to those operations that do not involve the special operations until the flightcrew members have satisfactorily completed the additional testing.

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RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-1288 through 3-1300.