4/18/19

 

8900.1 CHG 656

VOLUME 3  GENERAL TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATION

CHAPTER 19  TRAINING PROGRAMS AND AIRMAN QUALIFICATIONS

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Section 11  Safety Assurance System: Flightcrew Requalification Training, Other Training, Recency of Experience, and Instrument Experience

Source Basis:

    Section 121.400, Applicability and Terms Used.

    Section 121.401, Training Program: General.

    Section 121.403, Training Program: Curriculum.

    Section 121.407, Training Program: Approval of Airplane Simulators and Other Training Devices.

    Section 121.411, Qualifications: Check Airmen (Airplane) and Check Airmen (Simulator).

    Section 121.415, Crewmember and Dispatcher Training Program Requirements.

    Section 121.427, Recurrent Training.

    Section 121.431, Applicability.

    Section 121.439, Pilot Qualification: Recent Experience.

    Section 121.441, Proficiency Checks.

    Section 121.453, Flight Engineer Qualifications.

    Section 135.241, Applicability.

    Section 135.245, Second in Command Qualifications.

    Section 135.247, Pilot Qualifications: Recent Experience.

    Section 135.293, Initial and Recurrent Pilot Testing Requirements.

    Section 135.297, Pilot in Command: Instrument Proficiency Check Requirements.

    Section 135.299, Pilot in Command: Line Checks: Routes and Airports.

    Section 135.301, Crewmember: Tests and Checks, Grace Provisions, Training to Accepted Standards.

    Section 135.321, Applicability and Terms Used.

    Section 135.323, Training Program: General.

    Section 135.327, Training Program: Curriculum.

    Section 135.329, Crewmember Training Requirements.

    Section 135.335, Approval of Aircraft Simulators and Other Training Devices.

    Section 135.337, Qualifications: Check Airmen (Aircraft) and Check Airmen (Simulator).

    Section 135.338, Qualifications: Flight Instructors (Aircraft) and Flight Instructors (Simulator).

    Section 135.343, Crewmember Initial and Recurrent Training Requirements.

    Section 135.351, Recurrent Training.

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3-1361    GENERAL. This section contains information, direction, and guidance to be used by Principal Operations Inspectors (POI) and other inspectors for the review and approval of requalification training, other training, and reestablishing recency of experience or reestablishing instrument experience. This section is related to Safety Assurance System (SAS) Element 2.1.1 (OP) Training of Flight Crew Members.

3-1362    REQUALIFICATION TRAINING.

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A.    Definitions.

1)    Part 121. In accordance with Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121, § 121.400(c)(8), requalification training is the training required for flightcrew members previously trained and qualified in a specific duty position and aircraft type, but who have become unqualified due to not having satisfactorily completed the following within the eligibility period:

    Recurrent training as required by § 121.427; or

    The proficiency check requirements as required by § 121.441.

2)    Part 135. In accordance with § 135.321(b)(8), requalification training is the training required for flightcrew members previously trained and qualified in a specific duty position and aircraft type or aircraft family, as applicable, but who have become unqualified due to not having satisfactorily completed within the eligibility period:

    Recurrent testing as required by § 135.293(a);

    Recurrent competency check as required by § 135.293(b);

    Instrument proficiency check as required by § 135.297; or

    Line check as required by § 135.299.

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B.    Objectives. Flightcrew members meet requalification training objectives by completing a combination of aircraft ground, flight, and qualification curriculum segments, as necessary to meet the air carrier/operator’s defined proficiency standards. The training and qualification curriculum segments needed for a flightcrew member’s requalification are determined by the reasons for and the length of the flightcrew member’s unqualified status. Requalification may only require completion of the overdue training and checking. Alternatively, requalification may be as complex as the flightcrew member having to accomplish the events in the initial equipment category of training when the flightcrew member has been unqualified for an extended period of time.

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C.    Content and Training Hours. The minimum content and training hours recommended for requalification training is based on the length of time the flightcrew member has been unqualified. Flightcrew members must be trained to proficiency and may be required to complete a qualification module before being returned to revenue service. Requalification curriculum outlines must specify the elements, events, and training hours. However, the air carrier/operator should consider the individual case to determine if more or less elements, events, and training hours called for in the curriculum outline may be required. Table 3-75, Recommended Part 121 Requalification Curriculums for Flightcrew Members; Table 3-76, Recommended Part 135 Requalification Curriculums for Flightcrew Members—Turbojet Airplanes, Transport Category Airplanes, Commuter Category Airplanes, Multiengine Turbopropeller Airplanes, SFAR Airplanes, and Large Helicopters; and Table 3-77, Recommended Part 135 Requalification Curriculums for Flightcrew Members—Single and Multiengine General Purpose Airplanes, and Small Helicopters contain recommended requalification requirements for parts 121 and 135 flightcrew members who have exceeded their respective eligibility periods for required training or checks.

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D.    Curriculum Outline. Separate curriculum outlines should be prepared for flightcrew member requalification training in accordance with Tables 3-75, 3-76, and 3-77, as appropriate. The curriculum outline should provide sufficient information to allow the POI to determine that the elements and events in each training module are adequate to requalify the flightcrew member. An example of a requalification training curriculum outline, with a sample training module (autoflight/flight director), is in Figure 3-83, Example of a Requalification Training Curriculum Outline. The content of aircraft ground and flight training curriculum segments and of qualification curriculum segments is in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Sections 5, 6, and 7, respectively. POIs should use the job aids associated with these sections in conjunction with Tables 3-75, 3-76, and 3-77 when determining the adequacy of an air carrier/operator’s curriculum.

E.    Modules From Other Curriculums. One technique an air carrier/operator may use to construct requalification curriculum segments is to start with ground and flight training modules from other curriculums (such as pilot in command (PIC) transition aircraft ground training) and to remove unnecessary elements and events or to adjust the content of the elements and events as necessary. In the example shown in Figure 3-83, the number of elements and events in the training modules has been reduced from those provided for initial equipment training.

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F.    Flightcrew Member’s Record. The reason for entry into requalification training must be placed in the flightcrew member’s record. If the requalification training included satisfactory completion of all required recurrent training and checks, the air carrier/operator may establish a new training/checking month (base month) or retain the flightcrew member’s original training/checking month.

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Table 3-75.  Recommended Part 121 Requalification Curriculums for Flightcrew Members

Time Past Month Due

REQUALIFICATION GROUND TRAINING SEGMENT

REQUALIFICATION FLIGHT TRAINING SEGMENT

QUALIFICATION SEGMENT

Up to 12 calendar‑months

All recurrent ground training elements not accomplished when due.

All recurrent flight training events not accomplished when due.

The modules not accomplished in the eligibility period, as applicable to duty position: PC, LC, FC, or special.

12 to 35 months

All recurrent ground training elements. Minimum training hours as specified by § 121.427

(See V3 C19 S5).

All recurrent flight training events.

8 training hours.

As applicable to duty position: PC, LC, FC, special, LOFT and OE.

36 to 59 months

All recurrent ground training elements. Minimum training hours as specified by § 121.427

(See V3 C19 S5).

All recurrent flight training events.

16 training hours.

As applicable to duty position: PC, LC, FC, special, LOFT and OE.

More than 59 months

– SAME AS INITIAL EQUIPMENT TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION–

KEY: FC – Section 121.427 Flight Check (Flight Engineer (FE))

LC – Section 121.440 Line Check (PIC)

LOFT – Line-Oriented Flight Training (PIC, SIC, and FE)

OE – Operating Experience (PIC, SIC, and FE)

PC – Section 121.441 Proficiency Check (PIC and SIC)

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Table 3-76.  Recommended Part 135 Requalification Curriculums for Flightcrew Members—Turbojet Airplanes, Transport Category Airplanes, Commuter Category Airplanes, Multiengine Turbopropeller Airplanes, SFAR Airplanes, and Large Helicopters

Time Past Month Due

REQUALIFICATION GROUND TRAINING SEGMENT

REQUALIFICATION FLIGHT TRAINING SEGMENT

QUALIFICATION SEGMENT

Up to 12 calendar‑months

All recurrent ground training elements not accomplished when due.

All recurrent flight training events not accomplished when due.

The modules not accomplished in the eligibility period, as applicable to duty position: KT, IPC, CC, LC, or special.

12 to 35 months

All recurrent ground training elements.

16 training hours.

All recurrent flight training events.

8 training hours.

As applicable to duty position: KT, IPC, CC, LC, and special.

36 to 59 months

All recurrent ground training elements.

24 training hours.

All recurrent flight training events.

16 training hours.

As applicable to duty position: KT, IPC, CC, LC, and special.

More than 59 months

– SAME AS INITIAL EQUIPMENT TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION –

KEY:   CC – Section 135.293(b) Competency Check (PIC and SIC)

IPC – Section 135.297 Instrument Proficiency Check (PIC)

KT – Section 135.293(a) written or oral knowledge test (PIC and SIC)

LC – Section 135.299 Line Check (PIC)

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Table 3-77.  Recommended Part 135 Requalification Curriculums for Flightcrew Members—Single and Multiengine General Purpose Airplanes, and Small Helicopters

Time Past Month Due

REQUALIFICATION GROUND TRAINING SEGMENT

REQUALIFICATION FLIGHT TRAINING SEGMENT

QUALIFICATION SEGMENT

Up to 12 calendar‑months

All recurrent ground training elements not accomplished when due.

All recurrent flight training events not accomplished when due.

The modules not accomplished in the eligibility period, as applicable to duty position: KT, IPC, CC, LC, or special.

12 to 35 months

All recurrent ground training elements.

50% of hours for initial equipment training.

All recurrent flight training events.

50% of hours for initial equipment training.

As applicable to duty position: KT, IPC, CC, LC, and special.

More than 35 months

– SAME AS INITIAL EQUIPMENT TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION–

KEY: CC – Section 135.293(b) Competency Check (PIC and SIC)

IPC – Section 135.297 Instrument Proficiency Check (PIC)

KT – Section 135.293(a) written or oral knowledge test (PIC and SIC)

LC – Section 135.299 Line Check (PIC)

Figure 3-83.  Example of a Requalification Training Curriculum Outline

Title: Figure 3-83 - Description: Figure 3-83. Example of a Requalification Training Curriculum Outline

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3-1363    FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS REASSIGNED TO A PREVIOUSLY HELD DUTY POSITION IN AN AIRCRAFT CURRENTLY BEING FLOWN. When a flightcrew member is reassigned to a duty position in which he or she was previously qualified in the same type of aircraft in which the flightcrew member is currently qualified, requalification training may be necessary. One or more checks may also be required. The method used to requalify the flightcrew member differs according to the reason for the requalification, as follows:

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A.    Second in Command (SIC) to PIC. When an SIC returns to a PIC position, the pilot must meet the recurrent training and recurrent checking requirements for the PIC duty position. Requalification training will generally consist of at least PIC seat dependent tasks and PIC duty position tasks. A part 121 pilot will generally require a PIC proficiency check and line check. A part 135 pilot will generally require an instrument proficiency check and line check.

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B.    PIC to SIC. When a PIC returns to an SIC position, the pilot must meet the recurrent training and recurrent checking requirements for the SIC duty position. Requalification training will generally consist of at least SIC seat dependent tasks and SIC duty position tasks. Generally, the pilot will meet the recurrent checking requirements.

C.    Flight Engineer (FE) to SIC. When a flightcrew member is returning from FE to SIC, the flightcrew member must meet the recent experience, recurrent training, and recurrent checking requirements for the SIC duty position. Requalification training will generally consist of ground training on SIC seat dependent tasks and SIC duty position tasks and SIC flight training. Generally, an SIC proficiency check will also be required.

D.    Pilot to FE. When a flightcrew member is moving from a PIC or SIC position to the FE position, requalification training will generally consist of ground training and flight training on FE duty position tasks. Generally, an FE flight check will also be required.

3-1364    OTHER TRAINING FOR FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS AFTER UNSATISFACTORY TEST, UNSATIFACTORY CHECK, OR UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE DURING RECURRENT TRAINING. The regulations do not specifically address training required after an unsatisfactory test, unsatisfactory check, or unsatisfactory performance during recurrent training. However, the regulations do require flightcrew members to satisfactorily complete tests, checks, and recurrent training. Additionally, the regulations require instructors and check pilots/check FEs to certify the proficiency and knowledge of the flightcrew member upon completion of a test, check, or recurrent training. Therefore, after an unsatisfactory test or check, a flightcrew member must satisfactorily complete other training prior to a retest or recheck. Additionally, after unsatisfactory performance during recurrent ground or flight training, a flightcrew member must satisfactorily complete other training as necessary to meet all recurrent training requirements.

A.    Objectives of Other Training. The objective of other training is to provide training specific to the individual pilot after an unsatisfactory test, unsatisfactory check, or unsatisfactory performance during recurrent training. The air carrier/operator should tailor the training to the specific pilot, considering the elements and events that were unsatisfactory during the testing, checking, or recurrent training. The training must consist of at least the subjects, elements, and events required to restore the flightcrew member’s proficiency. Training may consist of as little as a detailed debriefing, or it may need to be very extensive. Other training should be given to strengthen the flightcrew member’s overall performance.

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B.    Flightcrew Member’s Record. The reasons for the unsatisfactory test, unsatisfactory check, or unsatisfactory performance during recurrent training and the other training conducted must be entered in the flightcrew member’s records.

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C.    Flightcrew Member Proficiency Certification. The instructor, check pilot, or check FE conducting the other training must certify the flightcrew member’s proficiency before the flightcrew member reaccomplishes the test or check. The instructor, check pilot, or check FE that conducts other training after unsatisfactory performance during recurrent training must certify to the flightcrew member’s proficiency and satisfactory completion of recurrent training.

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D.    Unsatisfactory Performance. POIs should monitor all failures and contributing factors in accessing adequacy of the training program. Additional oversight should be coordinated and scheduled with the air carrier/operator, as determined necessary by the POI.

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3-1365    REESTABLISHING RECENCY OF EXPERIENCE OF PART 121 PILOTS. Part 121, § 121.439(a) requires that each pilot operating under part 121 must have made at least three takeoffs and three landings in the airplane type in which the pilot is to serve in the previous 90-day period. In accordance with § 121.439(f), the Air Transportation Division may authorize a deviation from the requirements of § 121.439(a) based on a designation of related aircraft (see Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 12 for additional information regarding related aircraft designation and deviations based on designation of related aircraft). Unless a deviation has been authorized by the Air Transportation Division, a pilot who fails to meet the requirement of § 121.439(a) is unqualified to serve in part 121 operations. In such a case, the pilot must meet the requirements of § 121.439(b) to reestablish recency of experience. POIs must ensure that the air carrier’s modules for reestablishing recency of experience meet the requirements that follow:

A.    Required Maneuvers. Reestablishing recency of experience must include at least three takeoffs and three landings, which must include the following:

    A takeoff and landing with a simulated failure of the most critical powerplant;

    A landing from an instrument landing system (ILS) approach to the lowest ILS minimums the pilot is authorized in revenue operations; and

    A landing to a full stop.

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B.    Aircraft or Full Flight Simulator (FFS). The pilot may accomplish the maneuvers in the following:

    An airplane, in nonrevenue operations under the supervision of a check pilot;

    An approved Level B, C, or D FFS under the supervision of a check pilot; or

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    A Level A FFS under the supervision of a check pilot. (The pilot must have previously logged 100 hours in the same type airplane. The pilot must also be subsequently observed during the first two landings in line operations by a check pilot. The landings must be made in weather minimums that are not less than Category I (CAT I), as specified in the air carrier’s operations specifications (OpSpecs), until this requirement has been satisfied. The landings must be made within 45 calendar-days after completion of FFS training).

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C.    FFS Usage. When an FFS is used to reestablish recency of experience, all flightcrew member duty positions must be occupied by individuals qualified in the air carrier’s procedures and in the specified duty positions. The individual’s level of qualification does not have to be equivalent to that level required of a flightcrew member serving in revenue operations. The FFS must be operated in a normal flight scenario. Repositioning is not allowed.

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D.    Pilot Proficiency Certification. The check pilot must certify the proficiency of the pilot and enter that certification into the pilot’s records. The check pilot may require any additional maneuvers that are determined necessary to make the certifying statement.

E.    Deviation. In accordance with § 121.439(f), the Air Transportation Division may authorize a deviation to the requirements to reestablish recency of experience based on a designation of related aircraft (see Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 12 for additional information regarding related aircraft designation and deviations based on designation of related aircraft).

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3-1366    REESTABLISHING RECENCY OF EXPERIENCE OF PART 121 FEs. Section 121.453 requires that FEs must have acquired at least 50 hours of flight time as FEs in the preceding 6 months in the airplane type in which they are to serve. An FE who has not met this requirement must reestablish recency of experience by completing a flight check conducted either by a check FE or by an FAA inspector, in accordance with Section 7 of this Chapter. The check may be conducted in an airplane in nonrevenue operations or in a flight simulation training device (FSTD) as specified in Section 6 of this Chapter.

3-1367    RECENCY OF EXPERIENCE OF PART 135 PILOTS.

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A.    PIC Recent Experience Requirements. Part 135, § 135.247 requires that each PIC serving in part 135 passenger operations accomplish at least three takeoffs and three landings as sole manipulator of the controls in an aircraft of the same category and class within the preceding 90 calendar-days. Additional requirements apply to the following specific situations:

1)    If a PIC is required to hold a type rating to serve in the aircraft type, the PIC must have accomplished the three takeoffs and three landings in that aircraft type.
2)    If an airplane is equipped with a tailwheel, a PIC must have made the three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop in an airplane equipped with a tailwheel.
3)    To conduct night operations, a PIC must have made the 3 takeoffs and 3 landings during the period extending from 1 hour after sunset to 1 hour before sunrise.

NOTE:  PICs of turbine-powered airplanes type certificated (TC) for more than two pilots may meet alternative requirements for night operations in accordance with § 135.247(a)(3)(i) or (ii).

B.    Reestablishing PIC Recency of Experience. A PIC who has not met the recency-of-experience requirements may not serve in part 135 passenger operations until the PIC reestablishes recency of experience.

1)    Aircraft. A PIC may reestablish recency of experience by performing the three takeoffs and three landings, as required, in the aircraft during non-passenger operations. These takeoffs and landings do not have to be supervised by a flight instructor or check pilot. The PIC must record the completion of the required takeoffs and landings and provide the air carrier/operator with a record copy to be kept on file.
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2)    FFS. The pilot may complete the three takeoffs and three landings in an approved Level B, C, or D FFS. When an FFS is used to reestablish recency of experience, all required flightcrew member duty positions must be occupied by individuals qualified in the air carrier/operator’s procedures and in the specific duty position. The individuals participating do not have to be qualified to serve in revenue operations.

C.    PIC Cargo Recent Experience Requirements. Part 135 does not specify recent experience requirements for PICs serving in part 135 cargo operations. POIs should encourage air carriers/operators to establish a minimum requirement that PICs in cargo operations must perform at least three takeoffs and three landings within the previous 90 calendar-days in an aircraft of the same category and class.

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D.    SIC Recent Experience Requirements. Part 135 does not specify recent experience requirements for SICs. POIs should encourage air carriers/operators to establish a minimum requirement that SICs must perform at least three takeoffs and three landings within the previous 90 calendar-days in an aircraft of the same category and class.

3-1368    INSTRUMENT EXPERIENCE FOR PART 135 SICS.

A.    SIC Instrument Experience Requirements. In accordance with § 135.245(c), SICs serving in instrument flight rules (IFR) operations must meet the following instrument experience requirements:

1)    Required Maneuvers. Within the preceding 6 calendar-months, SICs must have performed and logged the following tasks and iterations:

    Six instrument approaches;

    Holding procedures and tasks; and

    Intercepting and tracking courses through the use of navigational electronic systems.

2)    Instrument Conditions. The required maneuvers must be completed in actual instrument weather conditions or under simulated instrument conditions using a view-limiting device. A view-limiting device may not be used during revenue part 135 operations. If a view-limiting device is used, the maneuvers must be conducted in nonrevenue operations.
3)    Category of Aircraft. The maneuvers must be completed in the category of aircraft in which the SIC will serve, either airplane or helicopter, as applicable. If an SIC serves in both airplanes and helicopters, then the maneuvers must be completed in both categories.
4)    Use of an FSTD. An SIC may complete the maneuvers in an FSTD, or a combination of aircraft and FSTD, if the following requirements are met:
a)    The FSTD is qualified for the applicable category of aircraft. In accordance with § 135.335, the FSTD must be approved for use in the certificate holder’s training and qualification program.
b)    The maneuvers must be completed in simulated instrument conditions.
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c)    A flight instructor qualified under § 135.338 or a check pilot qualified under § 135.337 must observe the maneuvers and sign the SIC’s logbook or training record to verify the time and content of the FSTD session.

B.    Reestablishing SIC Instrument Experience. In accordance with § 135.245(d), an SIC who has not met the instrument experience requirements may not serve in part 135 revenue operations until instrument experience is reestablished as follows:

1)    Up to 6 Calendar-Months. An SIC who has not met the instrument experience requirements for up to 6 calendar-months may reestablish instrument experience by meeting the requirements specified in subparagraph 3-1368A in nonrevenue operations.
2)    More than 6 Calendar-Months. An SIC who has not met the instrument experience requirements for more than 6 calendar-months must reestablish instrument recency under the supervision of a flight instructor qualified under § 135.338 or a check pilot qualified under § 135.337.
a)    Required Maneuvers. The SIC must complete at least the following areas of operation required for the instrument rating practical test:

    Air traffic control (ATC) clearances and procedures.

    Flight by reference to instruments.

    Navigation systems.

    Instrument approach procedures.

    Emergency operations.

    Postflight operations.

b)    Instrument Conditions. The required maneuvers must be completed in actual instrument weather conditions or under simulated instrument conditions using a view-limiting device.
c)    Category of Aircraft. The SIC must complete the maneuvers in the category of aircraft in which he or she is reestablishing instrument experience, either airplane or helicopter, as applicable. If an SIC is reestablishing instrument experience in both airplanes and helicopters, then he or she must complete the maneuvers in both categories.
d)    Use of an FSTD. An SIC may complete the maneuvers in an FSTD, or a combination of aircraft and FSTD, if the following requirements are met:

1.    The FSTD is qualified for the applicable category of aircraft. In accordance with § 135.335, the FSTD must be approved for use in the certificate holder’s training and qualification program.

2.    The maneuvers must be completed in simulated instrument conditions.

RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-1369 through 3-1375.