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Volume 3  GENERAL TECHNICAL ADMNISTRATION

chapter 19  TRAINING PROGRAMS AND AIRMAN QUALIFICations

Indicates new/changed information.

Section 11  Safety Assurance System: Flightcrew Requalification Training Curriculums

Indicates new/changed information.

3-1361    GENERAL. This section contains information, direction, and guidance to be used by principal operations inspectors (POI) and other inspectors for the review and approval of requalification training curriculums. In this section, a formal definition of requalification training is given; a definition is not included in the regulations. Since flightcrew members qualified for operations in revenue service under Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 121 and 135 do sometimes lose their qualification, it is useful for the operators to have a definition of requalification training, including the reasons for it and its objectives. This section is related to Safety Assurance System (SAS) Element 2.1.1 (OP), Training of Flight Crew Members.

A.    Definition. For the purposes of this order, requalification training is defined as that category of training conducted specifically to restore a previously qualified flightcrew member to a qualified status. The operator’s requalification training curriculum must contain the specific duty position and aircraft type for the applicable operations (in some cases, aircraft family for certain part 135 operations). To be eligible for training in a requalification curriculum, a flightcrew member must have been previously qualified in that aircraft type and duty position and have subsequently lost that qualification.

B    Reasons for Flightcrew Members Losing Qualification. A flightcrew member may be simultaneously qualified in one aircraft or duty position and unqualified in another. A flightcrew member may lose qualification status and become “unqualified” for any of the following reasons:

·    Failure to accomplish all of the recent experience requirements required by the regulations;

·    Failure to complete recurrent training within the eligibility period established by the regulations (becoming overdue); or

·    Failure of a checkride (becoming disqualified).

NOTE:  If a flightcrew member fails a checkride in one aircraft, that flightcrew member cannot fly in revenue service in another aircraft until the flightcrew member’s qualification has been reestablished.

C.    Objectives of Requalification Training. Flightcrew members meet requalification training objectives by completing a combination of aircraft ground, flight, and qualification curriculum segments, as applicable. The training and qualification curriculum segments needed for a flightcrew member’s requalification are determined by the reasons for and the length of the flightcrew member’s unqualified status. A flightcrew member’s requalification after a loss of currency may be as simple as reaccomplishing the recent experience events in which the flightcrew member is delinquent, such as landings. Requalification, however, may be as complex as the flightcrew member having to accomplish the events in the initial equipment category of training when the flightcrew member has been unqualified for an extended period of time. Remedial training (RT) after disqualification should be tailored to the specific case.

D.    Airport Ground Operational Safety. Training in runway safety and the specific standard operating procedures (SOP) contained in the current editions of Advisory Circular (AC) 120-74, Parts 91, 121, 125, and 135 Flightcrew Procedures During Taxi Operations, and AC 91-73, Parts 91 and 135 Single Pilot, Flight School Procedures During Taxi Operations, should be incorporated in requalification training conducted by air carriers under parts 121 and 135, by training centers under 14 CFR part 142, by pilot schools under 14 CFR part 141, and by all other persons conducting training and evaluation under 14 CFR parts 61 and 91.

3-1362    REESTABLISHING RECENCY OF EXPERIENCE OF PART 121 PILOTS. Part 121, § 121.439(a) requires that each pilot operating under part 121 must have made at least three takeoffs and three landings in the airplane type in which the pilot is to serve in the previous 90-day period. In accordance with § 121.439(f), the Air Transportation Division (AFS-200) may authorize a deviation from the requirements of § 121.439(a) based on a designation of related aircraft (see Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 12 for additional information regarding related aircraft designation and deviations based on designation of related aircraft). Unless a deviation has been authorized by AFS-200, a pilot who fails to meet the requirement of § 121.439(a) is unqualified to serve in part 121 operations. In such a case, the qualification curriculum segment for requalification training consists of either an experience module or a basic qualification module (proficiency check) in accordance with part 121 appendix F and Section 7 of this chapter. Aircraft ground training curriculum segments and flight training curriculum segments are usually not required. POIs must ensure that the operator’s training modules for requalification meet the requirements that follow.

A.    Qualification Module. A recency-of-experience qualification module may be used which contains at least three takeoffs, three landings, and the following:

·    A takeoff and landing with a simulated failure of the most critical powerplant;

·    A landing from an instrument landing system (ILS) approach to the lowest ILS minimums the pilot is authorized in revenue operations; and

·    A landing to a full stop.

B    Devices Used to Accomplish Qualification Module. The recency-of-experience qualification module may be accomplished in one of the following devices:

·    An airplane, in nonrevenue operations under the supervision of a check pilot;

·    An approved Level B, C, or D full flight simulator (FFS) under the supervision of a check pilot; or

·    A Level A FFS under the supervision of a check pilot (The pilot must have previously logged 100 hours in the same type airplane. The pilot must also be subsequently observed during the first two landings in line operations by a check pilot. The pilot may not conduct approaches to minimums lower than Category I (CAT I), as specified in the operator’s operations specifications (OpSpecs), until this requirement has been satisfied. The landings must be made within 45 days after completion of FFS training).

C.    FFS Usage. When an FFS is used to reestablish recency of experience, all flightcrew positions must be occupied by individuals qualified in the operator’s procedures and in the specified duty positions. The flightcrew member’s level of qualification does not have to be equivalent to that level required of a flightcrew member serving in revenue operations. The FFS must be operated in a normal flight scenario. Repositioning is not allowed.

D.    Pilot Proficiency Certification. The check pilot must certify the proficiency of the pilot and enter that certification into the pilot’s records.

E    Deviation. In accordance with § 121.439(f), AFS-200 may authorize a deviation to the requirements to reestablish recency of experience based on a designation of related aircraft (see Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 12, for additional information regarding related aircraft designation and deviations based on designation of related aircraft).

3-1363    REESTABLISHING RECENCY OF EXPERIENCE OF PART 121 FLIGHT ENGINEERS (FE). Section 121.453 requires that FEs must have acquired at least 50 hours of flight time as FEs in the preceding 6 months in the airplane type in which they are to serve. An FE who has not met this requirement must reestablish recency of experience by completing a basic qualification module (flight check) conducted either by a check FE or by an FAA inspector, in accordance with Section 7 of this chapter. The check may be conducted in an airplane in nonrevenue operations, or in an “engineer simulator” as defined in Volume 5, Chapter 4.

3-1364    REESTABLISHING RECENCY OF EXPERIENCE OF PART 135 PILOTS.

A.    Pilot in Command (PIC) Recent Experience Requirements. Part 135, § 135.247 requires that each PIC operating under part 135 accomplish at least three takeoffs and three landings in an aircraft of the same category and class within the preceding 90 days. Additional requirements apply to the following specific situations:

1)    If a PIC is required to hold a type rating, the PIC must have accomplished the three landings in that type of airplane.
2)    If night operations are authorized, a PIC must have made three takeoffs and landings during the period extending from 1 hour after sunset to 1 hour before sunrise in an aircraft or in a Level B, C, or D FFS of the same category and class within the preceding 90 days.
3)    If an airplane is equipped with a tailwheel, a PIC must have made three takeoffs and landings to a full stop in an airplane equipped with a tailwheel in the preceding 90 days.

B    Qualification Module. A PIC who has become unqualified because of a failure to accomplish the required landings may requalify by completing either a basic visual flight rules (VFR) or instrument flight rules (IFR) qualification module (competency check) as specified in § 135.293 and Section 7 of this chapter, or by completing a recency-of-experience qualification module. A VFR recency-of-experience qualification module consists of three takeoffs and three landings. One of these landings must be to a full stop. If the PIC is to operate a tailwheel airplane, the three landings must be to a full stop and completed in an airplane with a tailwheel. POIs must ensure that the operator’s IFR recency-of-experience qualification module contains the following:

·    A takeoff with a simulated failure of the most critical powerplant (when using a multiengine aircraft that has the performance characteristics which allow this event to be accomplished safely);

·    A landing from an ILS approach to the lowest ILS minimums that the pilot is authorized to use in revenue operations;

·    A landing with the simulated failure of the most critical powerplant (when using a multiengine aircraft); and

·    At least one landing to a full stop.

C.    Devices Used to Accomplish Qualification Module. The recency-of-experience qualification module may be accomplished in the following ways:

1)    A PIC may reestablish recency of experience by performing the three takeoffs and landings in an airplane of the same category and class. When the PIC is required to have a type rating to command the airplane, the landings must be in that airplane type. These landings do not have to be supervised by a check pilot. The PIC must record the completion of the required landings and provide the operator with a record copy to be kept on file. A safety pilot is required for the IFR module.
2)    The pilot may conduct at least three takeoffs and three landings in an approved Level B, C, or D FFS under the supervision of a check pilot.
3)    The pilot may conduct three takeoffs and three landings in a Level A FFS under the supervision of a check pilot. When a Level A simulator is used, the pilot must have previously logged 100 hours in the same airplane type. The pilot must be subsequently observed by a check pilot while conducting two landings. If the landings are made in revenue service they must be the first two landings the pilot conducts. The landings must also be conducted within 45 days after the completion of FFS training.

D.    FFS Usage. When an FFS is used to reestablish recency of experience for a pilot, all required flightcrew member duty positions must be occupied by individuals qualified in the operator’s procedures and in the specific duty position. The individuals participating do not have to be qualified to serve in revenue operations. The FFS must be operated in a normal flight scenario. Repositioning is not allowed.

E    Pilot Proficiency Certification. The check pilot must certify to the proficiency of the pilot. The operator must enter that certification into the pilot’s records along with the reason that requalification was required.

F    Transport or Commuter Category Aircraft. Recency-of-experience modules for PICs who operate airplanes of the transport category or commuter category should be accomplished under the supervision of a company flight instructor or a check pilot.

G.    Second in Command (SIC) Recent Experience Requirements. Part 135 does not specify recent experience requirements for SICs. POIs should encourage operators to establish a minimum requirement that SICs must perform at least three landings within the previous 90 days in an aircraft of the same category and class. SICs in IFR operations must, however, have flown and logged 6 hours of instrument flight (three of which may have been in an approved flight simulation training device (FSTD)) and six instrument approaches in the preceding 6 calendar months in accordance with part 61, § 61.57. SICs in IFR operations who fail to meet the instrument experience requirements may requalify either by accomplishing a recency-of-experience module or an SIC basic IFR qualification module in an aircraft of the same category in which revenue operations are to be conducted. The recency-of-experience module must consist of the hours and events in which the SIC is delinquent. The events required in an SIC basic IFR qualification module are specified in Section 6 of this chapter. The basic qualification module may be administered by an inspector or check pilot. The aircraft and FSTDs specified in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 6, Tables 3-62 through 3-64, may be used to accomplish these events, flight hours, and checks. When requalification is accomplished by means of a basic qualification module, the check pilot conducting the check must certify to the competency of the pilot. When the pilot requalifies by accomplishing the required hours and events without the supervision of a check pilot, the pilot shall record that accomplishment in a logbook and supply a record copy to the operator. The operator is responsible for keeping a record of these events.

3-1365    REQUALIFICATION FOR FAILURE TO COMPLETE RECURRENT TRAINING DURING THE ELIGIBILITY PERIOD. A requalification curriculum segment is required when a flightcrew member fails to complete recurrent training during a pre-established eligibility period. The minimum amount of training required in each segment of the curriculum is determined by the length of time the flightcrew member has been unqualified. Flightcrew members must be trained to proficiency and complete a qualification module before being returned to revenue service. Requalification curriculum outlines must specify minimum training hours and events. Both parts 121 and 135 allow flightcrew members to be trained to proficiency. In each individual case, more or less training hours called for in the curriculum outline may be required. Table 3-75, Part 121 Requalification Curriculums Flightcrew Member Overdue Training; Table 3-76, Part 135 Requalification Curriculums Flightcrew Member Overdue Training—Turbojet Airplanes, Transport Category Airplanes, Commuter Category Airplanes, and Large Helicopters; and Table 3-77, Part 135 Requalification Curriculums Flightcrew Member Overdue Training—Single and Multiengine General Purpose Airplanes contain the requalification requirements for parts 121 and 135 flightcrew members that have exceeded their respective eligibility periods for required training or checks.

Table 3-75    Part 121 Requalification Curriculums Flightcrew Member Overdue Training

Time Past Month Due

RGT SEGMENT

RFT SEGMENT

QUALIFICATION SEGMENT

Up to 12 calendar months

The portion of RGT not accomplished when due.

The elements not accomplished when due.

The modules not accomplished in the eligibility period: PC, LC, FC, or special.

12 to 35 months

16 hours

8 hours

All qualification modules of the transition curriculum.

36 to 59 months

24 hours

16 hours

All qualification modules of the transition curriculum.

More than 59 months

– SAME AS INITIAL EQUIPMENT TRAINING –

KEY: RGT - Recurrent Ground Training      PC - Proficiency Check

RFT - Recurrent Flight Training         LC - Line Check

FC - Flight Check

Table 3-76    Part 135 Requalification Curriculums Flightcrew Member Overdue Training—Turbojet

                     Airplanes, Transport Category Airplanes, Commuter Category Airplanes, and Large

                     Helicopters

Time Past Month Due

RGT SEGMENT

RFT SEGMENT

QUALIFICATION SEGMENT

Up to 12 calendar months

The portion of RGT not accomplished when due.

The elements not accomplished when due.

The modules not accomplished in the eligibility period: PC, LC, or special.

12 to 35 months

16 hours

8 hours

All qualification modules of the transition curriculum.

36 to 59 months

24 hours

16 hours

All qualification modules of the transition curriculum.

More than 59 months

– SAME AS INITIAL EQUIPMENT TRAINING –

KEY: RGT - Recurrent Ground Training      PC - Proficiency Check

RFT - Recurrent Flight Training         LC - Line Check

Table 3-77     Part 135 Requalification Curriculums Flightcrew Member Overdue Training—Single and

                      Multiengine General Purpose Airplanes

Time Past Month Due

RGT SEGMENT

RFT SEGMENT

QUALIFICATION SEGMENT

Up to 12 calendar months

The portion of RGT not accomplished when due.

The elements not accomplished when due.

The modules not accomplished in the eligibility period: PC, LC, or special.

12 to 35 months

50% of hours for initial equipment

50% of hours for initial equipment

All qualification modules of the transition curriculum.

More than 35 months

– SAME AS INITIAL EQUIPMENT TRAINING –

KEY: RGT - Recurrent Ground Training                CC - Competency Check

RFT - Recurrent Flight Training                   LC - Line Check

3-1366    FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS WHO DO NOT MEET RECENT EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS OR ARE OVERDUE FOR RECURRENT TRAINING UPON REASSIGNMENT TO A DIFFERENT TYPE OF AIRCRAFT. A flightcrew member who is reassigned to a duty position or aircraft type in which the flightcrew member was previously qualified, but is not currently qualified, must receive requalification training. The method used to requalify the flightcrew member differs according to the reason for the requalification, as follows:

A.    Lack of Required Recent Experience Events. A flightcrew member who is unqualified solely because of not having accomplished the required recent experience events may be requalified in accordance with paragraphs 3-1362 through 3-1364, as applicable.

B    Overdue Recurrent Training. A flightcrew member who is unqualified for being overdue in recurrent training may be requalified in accordance with Tables 3-75, 3-76, and 3-77, as applicable.

3-1367    FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS REASSIGNED TO A PREVIOUSLY HELD DUTY POSITION IN AN AIRCRAFT CURRENTLY BEING FLOWN. When a flightcrew member is reassigned to a duty position previously held in the same type of aircraft the flightcrew member currently flies, requalification training may be necessary. The method used to requalify the flightcrew member differs according to the reason for the requalification, as follows:

A.    SIC to PIC/FE to SIC. When a flightcrew member is returning from SIC to PIC or from FE to SIC, the flightcrew member must meet both the recent experience and recurrent training requirements for the duty position or be placed in requalification training.

1)    A flightcrew member who is unqualified solely for not having accomplished the required recent experience may be requalified in accordance with paragraphs 3-1362 through 3-1364, as applicable.
2)    A flightcrew member who is unqualified for being overdue for a recurrent training module may be requalified in accordance with Tables 3-75, 3-76, and 3-77, as applicable.

B    Pilot to FE. When a flightcrew member is moving from a pilot flightcrew member position to the FE flightcrew member position, requalification must be accomplished in accordance with paragraph 3-1365 (see Table 3‑75).

C.    PIC to SIC. When a PIC moves to an SIC position, requalification training consists of seat-dependent tasks related to the SIC position, such as checklist flow, and paperwork such as flight logs and weight and balance (W&B). Seat-dependent requalification training requirements vary depending on the length of time the pilot was out of the SIC position and the complexity of the aircraft. Because of the wide variance in these situations, it is not practical for each situation to be addressed in this order. POIs must exercise judgment when reviewing each case.

3-1368    REQUALIFICATION OF FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS WHO HAVE FAILED A CHECK. A flightcrew member who fails a required check must be entered into requalification training. The requalification training segment must consist of at least that RT required to restore the flightcrew member’s competence in the failed events. Training may consist of as little as a detailed debriefing, or it may need to be very extensive. Additional training should be given to strengthen the flightcrew member’s overall performance. The reasons for the disqualification and the training given must be entered in the flightcrew member’s records.

A.    Flightcrew Member Proficiency Certification. The instructor, check pilot, or check FE conducting this training must certify to the flightcrew member’s proficiency before the flightcrew member reaccomplishes the checkride. This certification is not limited to the events the flightcrew member failed, but it encompasses all events of the qualification module.

B    FAA Notification. The operator must notify the POI of all failures. Notification must be timely, so that the POI may arrange for an inspector to conduct or observe the qualification module when, in the POI’s judgment, this action is required. Observation should be accomplished in the case of PICs failing basic qualification modules or line check modules. Operators may conduct as much requalification training as necessary before scheduling and conducting the qualification module.

C.    Qualification Curriculum Segment. The qualification curriculum segment for an SIC or FE shall consist of the module previously failed. The qualification curriculum segment for a PIC shall consist of the basic qualification module, the line check module, or both, if appropriate.

3-1369    EVALUATION OF REQUALIFICATION TRAINING CURRICULUMS FOR INITIAL APPROVAL. When evaluating a requalification training curriculum outline for initial approval, inspectors must determine that the appropriate aircraft ground, flight, and qualification curriculum segments are listed and that each curriculum segment contains the required elements.

A.    Module Requirements. Recency-of-experience modules only have to contain a listing of the events to be accomplished and the method the operator intends to use to accomplish them.

B    Training and Qualification Segments. The curriculum should contain training and qualification segments for RT of disqualified flightcrew members. The training segment only needs to contain a simple statement that the training given will be prescribed for the individual case in order to reestablish the flightcrew member’s proficiency. The qualification segment, however, shall contain a listing of the modules the flightcrew member must complete to regain qualification.

C.    Curriculum Outline for Overdue Training. Separate curriculum outlines should be prepared for flightcrew members overdue training in accordance with Tables 3-75, 3-76, and 3-77, as appropriate. The curriculum outline should provide sufficient information to allow the POI to determine that the elements and events in each training module are adequate to properly requalify the flightcrew member. An example of a requalification training curriculum outline, with a sample training module (autoflight/flight director), is in Figure 3-83, Example of a Requalification Training Curriculum Outline. The subject area content of aircraft ground and flight training curriculum segments and of qualification curriculum segments are in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Sections 5, 6, and 7, respectively. The job aids associated with these sections should be used in conjunction with Tables 3-75, 3-76, and 3-77 by POIs when determining the adequacy of an operator’s proposal.

D.    Modules from Other Curriculums. One technique an operator may use to construct requalification curriculum segments for approval is to start with ground and flight training modules from other curriculums (such as PIC transition aircraft ground training) and to remove unnecessary elements or to adjust the content of the elements as necessary. In the example shown in Figure 3-83, the number of elements and events in the training modules has been reduced from those provided for initial equipment training.

E    Flightcrew Member’s Record. The reason for entry into requalification training must be placed in the flightcrew member’s record. The operator may establish a new training/checking month or retain the flightcrew member’s original training/checking month after the flightcrew member successfully completes the requalification training.

Figure 3-83      Example of a Requalification Training Curriculum Outline

Title: Figure 3-83 - Description: Example of a Requalification Training Curriculum Outline

RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-1370 through 3-1375.