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8900.1 CHG 556

VOLUME 3  general TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATION

CHAPTER 23  FLIGHT ATTENDANT TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION PROGRAMS

Section 4  Safety Assurance System: Flight Attendant General Emergency Training Curriculum Segment

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3-1791    GENERAL. This section provides direction and guidance on the content, evaluation, and approval of the flight attendant (F/A) general emergency training curriculum segments. For direction and guidance on aircraft‑specific emergency training, see Volume 3, Chapter 23, Section 5, Safety Assurance System: Flight Attendant Aircraft Ground Training Curriculum Segment. This section is related to Safety Assurance System (SAS) Elements 5.1.1 (OP) Training of Flight Attendants, 5.2.1 (OP) Crewmember Duties/Cabin Procedures, and 5.2.4 (OP) Passenger Handling.

A.    Emergency Training. Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121, § 121.417 and part 135, § 135.331 specify emergency training requirements. These regulations may be divided into two types of training, which will be referred to in this handbook as “general” emergency training and “aircraft‑specific” emergency training. General emergency training is training on those emergency items that are common to all aircraft. An example of general emergency training is training on fire extinguishers and firefighting procedures which would be applicable to all aircraft in the operator’s fleet. Aircraft‑specific emergency training is training on those items that are specific to each aircraft. An example of aircraft‑specific emergency training is instruction on the location of emergency equipment and crewmember emergency assignments for a DC‑9‑30 aircraft.

B.    Objective. The objective of general emergency training is to provide F/As with the necessary knowledge concerning emergency equipment, situations, and procedures to ensure implementation of the correct actions in the event of an emergency.

C.    Approval. When a certificate holder operates a number of different aircraft, it is to the certificate holder’s advantage to obtain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approval for training curriculums that have distinct general emergency training and aircraft‑specific emergency training segments. A certificate holder may, however, design a training curriculum that does not make a distinction between general emergency training and aircraft‑specific training, such as when a certificate holder operates only one make and model of aircraft.

1)    General emergency training is required in the initial new‑hire, recurrent, and requalification categories of training, but not in transition training. Only aircraft‑specific emergency training is required in the transition category of training. A certificate holder may choose to limit initial new‑hire training to a specific make and model of aircraft and then conduct transition training to qualify F/As in each additional aircraft. When the F/A completes initial new‑hire training, a training/checking month is established and general emergency training is not required again until the next recurrent training cycle.
2)    A certificate holder may choose to train its F/As in all makes and models of aircraft in the operator’s fleet during initial new‑hire training. In this case, a general emergency training curriculum segment provides the basis for all aircraft‑specific training to follow. If a general emergency training curriculum segment is not defined, the operator must duplicate this training on each specific aircraft type.

D.    Wet Ditching Training and Drills.

1)    Water impact accidents, while they rarely occur, severely test the emergency procedure skills of all flightcrew members. The chances of human survival from these types of accidents have been increased by advances in cabin design and better passenger safety awareness. However, improved aircrew emergency training is the major factor contributing to human survival.
2)    Principal operations inspectors (POI) should encourage their assigned air carriers to provide realistic environments for wet ditching training and drills. Training objectives should be accomplished in swimming pools or other safe aquatic environments using the flotation devices required to be on board the aircraft.
3)    Emergency equipment and drill training should be fully integrated into the operator’s situational awareness training modules. POIs should ensure that inadvertent water impact accidents (ditching), such as those occurring with little or no warning, are emphasized during wet ditching training.

3-1792    JOINT PILOT/F/A EVACUATION TRAINING.

A.    Background.

1)    During a study, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) asked flightcrews who had participated in actual evacuations that received detailed investigations what changes could be implemented to improve emergency evacuation of passengers. Four flightcrew members mentioned joint training with F/As. In addition, two F/As recommended joint training with the flightcrew on evacuation procedures. Although many crewmembers had participated in joint Crew Resource Management (CRM) training, a much smaller percentage indicated that it included joint evacuation drills. With NTSB recommendation A‑92‑74 and A‑92‑77, the NTSB recommended joint evacuation and/or wet ditching drill training and joint CRM training that included group exercises to improve crewmember communication and coordination.
2)    The FAA agreed with the intent of these safety recommendations. On February 8, 2001, the FAA issued Advisory Circular (AC) 120‑51D, Crew Resource Management Training, which states that F/As should conduct CRM training with flightcrews covering shared issues such as evacuations and ditching. In addition, on February 12, 1995, the FAA issued Flight Standards Information Bulletin FSAT 95‑04, Emergency Evacuation and Ditching Drills, which expired on February 29, 1996. The bulletin directed POIs to ensure that their assigned certificates were aware of the performance benefits that result when flightcrews and F/As perform emergency evacuation and ditching drills together.

B.    Policy. Giving crewmembers the opportunity to experience crew coordination and team work during required training drills is highly desirable. This is not always possible because of the difference in the numbers, the training schedules, and the training facilities of F/As and flightcrew members. Regardless of these challenges, airlines have used a variety of methods to ensure that crewmembers understand the procedures and actions of other crewmembers during emergency situations. These methods have included the use of videos which show the procedures for both flightcrew and F/As during a simulated emergency situation and the timeframes required to complete those procedures. The simulation is especially helpful when followed by a discussion in which crewmembers are encouraged to discuss the role of fellow crewmembers.

1)    FAA recognizes the value of all activities that encourage communication and coordination between crewmembers. This would include joint CRM training, joint evacuation training, schedules that allow pilots and F/As to remain together as a crew for the duration of their trip sequence, preflight briefings that occur between the captain and the F/A crew, and coordination between flightcrew and F/A training departments to ensure standardization of procedures. As evidenced in previous guidance that FAA has published, these activities are strongly encouraged and air carriers routinely integrate one or more of these items into their operational procedures or training programs.
2)    POIs and cabin safety inspectors (CSI) (if applicable) should ensure that their assigned certificate holders are aware of the desirability of flightcrew and F/As performing emergency evacuation and ditching drills together. Further, they should ensure that when this is not possible, air carriers are aware of the desirability of training programs that include information addressing the roles of other crewmembers during emergency evacuations and ditchings.

3-1793    GENERAL EMERGENCY TRAINING SUBJECT AREAS. In the F/A general emergency training curriculum segment, there are three distinct subject areas of training that are required in the conduct of general emergency training. These three subject areas, which need to be covered in the curriculum segment modules, are as follows: “emergency equipment” training, “emergency situation” training, and “emergency drill” training. Emergency equipment training consists of individual instruction, demonstration, and practice in the functions and operation of emergency equipment, such as fire extinguishers and oxygen bottles. Emergency situation training consists of instruction in the factors involved and the procedures to be followed when emergency situations occur, such as training on ground evacuations and in‑flight medical emergencies. Emergency drill training provides an opportunity for F/As to perform emergency procedures with hands‑on practice in the actual operation of emergency equipment, such as a firefighting drill with the use of a fire extinguisher and Protective Breathing Equipment (PBE).

NOTE:  While emergency drills are always designated under the general emergency training curriculum segment, these drills can be taught as either general to all aircraft or as aircraft‑specific. In addition, the training modules for general emergency training must cover the necessary training for the type of operation performed by the operator. For example, when an operator conducts extended overwater operations, the training modules must include training on the use of slide rafts or liferafts.

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A.    Emergency Equipment Training. Section 121.417(b)(2) requires training on certain equipment. In addition to the required equipment, training should be conducted on any additional emergency equipment located on the operator’s aircraft such as demo equipment, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) equipment, cockpit key, seatbelt extensions, and lavatory smoke detectors. Inspectors must ensure that training modules cover the function and operation of at least the following emergency equipment:

    Equipment used in ditching and evacuation.

    First aid equipment (including its proper use).

    Portable fire extinguishers (with emphasis on type of fire extinguisher to be used for different classes of fires).

    Emergency exits in the emergency mode with the evacuation slide/raft pack attached, if applicable (with training emphasis on the operation of the exits under adverse conditions).

B.    Emergency Situation Training.

1)    The second subject area, emergency situation training, must, according to § 121.417(b)(1), (3), and (4); and § 121.417(e), include training modules that cover emergency procedures and coordination among crewmembers in at least the following emergency situations:

    Rapid decompression.

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    Fire in flight or on the surface, and smoke control procedures (with emphasis on electrical equipment, lithium battery fires, and related circuit breakers found in cabin areas including all galleys, service centers, lifts, lavatories, and movie screens).

    Ditching and other evacuations (including the evacuation of persons and their attendants, if any, who may need the assistance of another person to move expeditiously to an exit in the event of an emergency).

    Illness, injury, or other abnormal situations involving passengers or crewmembers (to include familiarization with the emergency medical kit).

    Hijacking and other unusual situations.

    Review and discussion of previous aircraft accidents or incidents pertaining to actual emergency situations.

    For crewmembers who serve in operations above 25,000 feet, instruction in respiration, hypoxia, duration of consciousness without supplemental oxygen at altitude, gas expansion, gas bubble formation, physical phenomena and incidents of decompression.

2)    Emergency situation training modules may also include information on any additional unusual situations that could result in an emergency situation, such as passengers who may jeopardize aircraft or passenger safety, turbulence, blown tires, and engine/auxiliary power unit (APU) torching.

C.    Emergency Drill Training.

1)    The third subject area, emergency drill training, must, according to § 121.417(c)(1)(2), include training modules that ensure crewmember accomplishment of these emergency drill requirements, as follows:
a)    Each crewmember must perform the following one‑time emergency drills during initial training: the PBE/firefighting drill and the emergency evacuation drill.
b)    The following additional emergency drills must be accomplished during initial training and once every 24 calendar‑months during recurrent training, with each crewmember performing the following drills while operating the appropriate equipment: the emergency exit drill, hand fire extinguisher drill, emergency oxygen system drill, flotation device drill, and the ditching drill (if applicable).
c)    The following additional emergency drills must be accomplished during initial training and once every 24 calendar‑months during recurrent training—with each crewmember observing the following drills: liferaft removal and inflation drill; slide raft transfer drill; slide or slide raft deployment, inflation, and detachment drill; emergency evacuation slide drill.
2)    Emergency drill training modules may also include any additional drills deemed necessary by the operator, such as a CPR equipment drill or a megaphone drill.

NOTE:  For the required differences in part 135 for each of the three training subject areas, refer to § 135.331, Crewmember Emergency Training.

D.    Simulate Realistic Emergency. One element of effective emergency training is to simulate realistic emergency situations by having participants actively involved in situational problem‑solving activities. These types of activities provide students with the opportunity to practice emergency procedures in a controlled environment until proficiency is obtained. An example of a simulation for emergency situation training is one in which some F/As prepare a “cabin” (classroom, mockup, or actual aircraft) for a land evacuation, while others assume the roles of crewmembers and passengers. An example of a situation for emergency drill training is one in which F/As perform after‑impact commands and actions while opening an emergency exit (in the emergency mode) and directing the evacuation of passengers.

3-1794    F/A EVACUATION COMMAND.

A.    Background. During a study, the NTSB found that for all but two air carriers, the command that F/As use at floor‑level exits to assist in an evacuation and to ensure rapid egress from the aircraft is “Jump” or “Jump and Slide.” For one air carrier, the command is “Slide” and for another air carrier, the command is “Sit and Slide.” The NTSB was not aware of any aircraft type being certificated using a “Sit and Slide” command and felt that the process of sitting to board the slide slows the flow at the exit location such that certification test success would be difficult if not impossible. The air carrier that uses the “Sit and Slide” command also has a rapid slide procedure that includes the command “Jump and Slide.” However, the air carrier does not define when to use the rapid slide procedure and shows the “Sit and Slide” method on its safety information cards. The board concluded that evacuations involving slide use could be delayed if passengers sit at exits before boarding a slide or if crew commands do not direct passengers how to get on a slide.

B.    Policy. The purpose of emergency evacuation procedures is to effect a rapid egress from the aircraft of all passengers. Crewmember commands and passenger information, such as that contained graphically on the safety information card, that slow down the egress from the aircraft of all passengers are not consistent with this purpose.

C.    Sit and Slide Command. There may be some exits for which the command “Sit and Slide” is appropriate. For example, a 747‑400 upper deck exit has a very high slide with a very steep angle to the ground. It would be appropriate to command passengers to “Sit” prior to using the slide. Another example would be commands that are used for special types of passengers, such as those who may be frail, blind, or traveling with infants and small children. For the majority of floor‑level exits and for the majority of passengers, however, the command to “Sit” at the top of the slide prior to exiting the aircraft is not consistent with the objective for the most rapid egress possible. POIs and CSIs (if applicable), should review the commands used by their assigned certificate holders for slide evacuations to ensure that they are consistent with the intent to have passengers get out of the aircraft as quickly and safely as possible. Specifically, that air carriers should not use the command to “Sit” prior to using all evacuation slides to exit the aircraft during an emergency evacuation, and passenger information cards should not show that passengers must sit at the top of all evacuation slides prior to egress from the aircraft.

3-1795    CONTENT OF F/A GENERAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CURRICULUM SEGMENT OUTLINE. A general emergency training curriculum segment outline must include appropriate modules of emergency equipment training, emergency situation training, and emergency drill training. The modules, elements, and events listed on the outline only have to contain enough detail to ensure that the training required by the regulations is provided.

A.    Instruction. Sections 121.417(b) and 135.331(b) specify that crewmembers must receive instruction in the function and operation of emergency “equipment” and the handling of emergency “situations.” Emergency equipment training and emergency situation training are distinguished for the use of the building block approach to reinforce basic concepts. For example, emergency equipment training for the Halon fire extinguisher should provide training on the extinguisher’s function and operation. Emergency situation training, however, should provide training on appropriate actions and commands to use when operating the Halon fire extinguisher in a particular firefighting situation.

B.    Drills. Sections 121.417(c) and 135.331(c) specify the emergency “drills” that crewmembers must perform and the equipment that must be operated during emergency training.

3-1796    GENERAL EMERGENCY TRAINING MODULES. A general emergency training curriculum segment must include as many training modules as necessary to ensure adequate training. Each training module outline must provide at least a descriptive title of the training module and a list of the related elements or events that are to be presented during instruction on the module.

A.    Adequate Training and Review. The general emergency training module outline must contain sufficient elements or events to ensure that students will receive adequate training in the emergency equipment, emergency situation, and emergency drill subject areas. Operators do not have to include detailed descriptions of each element or event within a training module outline. Detailed descriptions are more appropriate when included in the operator’s courseware. During the approval process, the POI should review courseware as necessary to ensure that the scope and depth of the training modules are adequate.

B.    Flexibility. The training modules designated to fulfill the requirements of § 121.417 are contained in both the general emergency training curriculum segment and the aircraft ground training curriculum segment. Operators have flexibility in the arrangement of general emergency training modules as follows:

1)    The training modules required by 14 CFR for general emergency training must be included in the general emergency training curriculum segment outline and counted toward the hour requirement for this curriculum segment. The operator can determine the sequence of the actual training. For example, while a module on decompression must be contained in the general training curriculum segment outline, the operator may actually conduct training on decompression procedures immediately before or after conducting training on a related aircraft‑specific training module designated in the aircraft ground training curriculum segment.
2)    An operator may choose to put a training module in more than one curriculum segment. For approval purposes, however, that training module must be placed in the curriculum segment designated in this handbook. For example, §121.417 requires that a first aid training module be placed in the general emergency training curriculum segment. At the operator’s discretion, however, the first aid training module could also be covered in the basic indoctrination curriculum segment.
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C.    Example. Figure 3‑85 is an example of one of the many acceptable methods of presenting a general emergency training module outline:

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Figure 3-85.  Example Emergency Training Module Outline

Figure 3-85. Example Emergency Training Module Outline

NOTE:  In the preceding example, the number and location of each type of fire extinguisher and its location on each aircraft are not included. These elements are included in the aircraft‑specific emergency training module found in the F/A aircraft ground training curriculum segment (see Volume 3, Chapter 23, Section 5).

D.    Example. Figure 3-86 illustrates the interrelationship between training modules in the F/A general emergency training curriculum segment:

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Figure 3-86.  Examples of Training Modules

Figure 3-86. Examples of Training Module

3-1797    EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT TRAINING MODULES. Emergency equipment training modules consist of instruction in the function and operation of that emergency equipment common to all aircraft that the student is qualifying for in the operator’s fleet. Emergency equipment training must provide for the demonstration of emergency equipment that duplicates the specifications of the emergency equipment on the actual aircraft. For example, if the operator’s fleet of aircraft is equipped with both portable oxygen bottles and chemical oxygen generators, then both types of oxygen devices must be used during the course of instruction. Any pertinent information related to the function of a piece of emergency equipment should also be addressed during the emergency equipment training. For example, the different types of fires must be addressed before adequate training can be given on the selection of appropriate fire extinguishers. Specifically, a training element for water fire extinguishers must emphasize that water extinguishers can only be used on Class A fires (ordinary combustibles).

NOTE:  Instruction on the operation and location of pieces of emergency equipment specific to each aircraft type is addressed in the aircraft‑specific emergency training module found in the F/A aircraft ground training curriculum segment (see Volume 3, Chapter 23, Section 5).

A.    Training Criteria. Emergency equipment training should be developed to ensure that F/As meet the following knowledge and ability criteria:

    Use of proper preflight techniques (when part of F/A duties).

    Procedures to be used if equipment fails to meet preflight requirements.

    Methods to be used for removing equipment from securing devices.

    Methods to be used for properly securing equipment.

    Operation of equipment, including awareness of operational limitations.

    Functions of equipment, including operation under adverse conditions.

NOTE:  Passengers, at times, have consciously or inadvertently moved door operating mechanisms, even when the mechanisms are located under protective plastic covers. POIs should ensure that their assigned operators inform crewmembers of the potential problem of and the need to be alert to the possibility of passengers moving an exit mechanism, and have procedures for crewmembers on unpressurized aircraft to check the position of the door handles periodically during flight.

B.    Training Module Content. The following are examples of training modules for the emergency equipment subject area. These examples of training modules encompass different types of operations and may not be applicable to an operator’s specific type of operation. It should be noted that there are elements and events contained in these training modules that are not specified in the regulations, but that are intended to provide POIs with further examples of material that may be included in training modules. These are examples only, and are not intended to indicate the only acceptable methods, sequence of instructional delivery, subject titles, or amount of detail.

1)    Ditching Equipment.

    Preflight: Inspection tags; dates; pressures; accessibility; integrity of casings.

    Life Preservers: Removal; function; donning; inflation; activation and deactivation of locator light; donning an adult vest on a small child or infant; special use for children, non‑swimmers, handicapped, elderly; swimming techniques.

    Flotation Seat Cushions: Removal; function; donning; swimming techniques.

    Liferafts: Removal and handling; positioning; lanyard attachment; launching, including under adverse conditions; inflation; detachment from aircraft; boarding techniques.

    Slide Rafts: Deployment; inflation; detachment from aircraft; move from door to door; boarding techniques.

    Slides: Deployment; inflation; detachment from aircraft for use as a flotation device; boarding techniques.

    Raft Survival Equipment (Including Canopy and Survival Kit): Function; use.

    Megaphones, Flashlights, Emergency Lights, Emergency Locator Transmitters, First Aid Kits: Removal; function; use; operation during a ditching.

2)    Ground Evacuation Equipment.

    Preflight: Inspection tags; seals; dates; operable/pressures; security; accessibility.

    Window Exit Escape Ropes: Removal; function; use during ditching or ground evacuation.

    Slides or Slide Rafts: Deployment; inflation; sliding techniques; use under adverse conditions.

    Megaphones, Flashlights, Emergency Lights, Emergency Locator.

    Transmitters: Removal; function; use; operation during ground evacuation.

NOTE:  The NTSB has indicated, in Safety Recommendation A‑90‑57, that there may be a need for a megaphone to be located in the upper deck passenger compartment of those B747s in which passengers are permitted to be carried in the upper deck passenger compartment. Section 121.309(f)(2) requires two megaphones to be located in the passenger cabin on each airplane having a seating capacity of more than 99 passengers. One megaphone is to be located at the forward end of the passenger cabin and the other at the most rearward location where it would be readily accessible from a normal F/A seat. While there is no requirement for a megaphone to be located in the upper deck passenger compartment of a passenger‑carrying B747 for use in an emergency situation, the FAA believes it would be prudent for operators to install one. POIs should encourage those certificate holders to install a megaphone in a location on the upper deck that would be readily accessible to an F/A to use during an emergency evacuation.

3)    First Aid Equipment.

    Preflight: Inspection tags; dates; integrity of casing; accessibility.

    Emergency Medical Kit: Removal; contents; use, including reporting requirements.

    First Aid Kit: Removal; contents; use.

4)    Portable Oxygen Systems (Oxygen Bottles, Chemical Oxygen Generators, PBE).

    Preflight: Inspection tags; dates; seals; pressures; integrity of tubing and masks, casings, or smoke hoods; security; accessibility.

    Portable Oxygen Devices/Masks (Oxygen Bottles and Chemical Oxygen Generators): Removal and handling; function; operation, including donning, activation, and cautions; procedure for administering oxygen to self, to passengers, and to persons with special oxygen needs; methods of securing an oxygen device while administering oxygen.

    PBE: Removal; function; limitations; operation, including donning, activation, and cautions; use with fire extinguisher in a firefighting situation, including methods of maneuvering in limited space with reduced visibility; use of communications system.

    Passenger‑Supplied Oxygen: Function; operation; requirements for carriage.

5)    Firefighting Equipment.

    Preflight: Inspection tags; dates; seals; proper charge levels; properly serviced; security of mounting; accessibility.

    Individual Extinguishers: Removal; function; operation and operating techniques; cautions.

    Classes of Fires: Appropriate extinguishers; specific firefighting techniques.

    PBE, Smoke Goggles: Donning; use.

    Lavatory Equipment: Integrity of trash container; spring‑loaded doors; smoke alarms; fire extinguishers; placards.

6)    Emergency Exits.

    Exits with Slides or Slide Rafts: Preflight door seals; integrity and condition of girt bar and brackets; slide or slide raft connections and pressure indicators; slide or slide raft engaging/disengaging mechanism; markings and placards; door opening controls; signs; lights; assist handles; function; operation, including under adverse conditions; impact of wind, weather, and fire on slides.

    Window Exits: Preflight window seals, window opening controls, markings, placards, signs, lights, tactile indicators for non‑visual conditions; function; operation and positioning, including under adverse conditions.

7)    Exits Without Slides. Preflight door seals; door opening controls; markings and placards; signs; lights; assist handles; function; operation, including under adverse conditions.
8)    Additional Emergency Equipment.

    Preflight: Equipment integrity; equipment accessibility.

    Cockpit Key, Demo Equipment, CPR Equipment, Seatbelt Extensions, Lavatory Smoke Detectors: Function; use.

3-1798    EMERGENCY SITUATION TRAINING MODULES. Emergency situation training modules consist of instruction, demonstration, and practice in the handling of emergency situations common to all aircraft on which the student is qualifying in the operator’s fleet. “Emergency situation” training provides the opportunity for the student to correlate the concepts developed in “emergency equipment” training with the procedural applications of various types of emergency situations that can occur. For example, this training could include instruction on the use of a water extinguisher on a seat cushion fire. To reinforce the development of these procedural concepts, emergency situation training should incorporate situational problem‑solving activities that depict in‑flight emergencies. These simulations should be as realistic as possible and should reflect the operator’s type of operation.

NOTE:  Instruction for specific emergency assignments and procedures for each aircraft are addressed under aircraft‑specific emergency training which is included in the F/A aircraft ground training curriculum segment (see Volume 3, Chapter 23, Section 5).

A.    Training Criteria. Emergency situation training should be developed to ensure that F/As meet the following knowledge and ability criteria:

    Knowledge of crew coordination, emergency procedures, and emergency equipment.

    Knowledge of each crewmember’s emergency procedures, signals, and safety‑related duties.

    Ability to recognize an emergency situation and select appropriate procedures.

    Ability to take the initiative and promptly implement the appropriate emergency procedures.

    Ability to assume decisive leadership in the event flightcrew members are incapacitated or unable to participate.

    Knowledge of requirements for reporting accidents and incidents.

B.    Training Module Content. The following are examples of training modules for the emergency situation subject area. These examples of training modules encompass different types of operations and may not be applicable to an operator’s specific type of operation. It should be noted that there are elements and events contained in these training modules which are not specified in the regulations but which are intended to provide POIs with further examples of material that may be included in training modules. These are examples only and are not intended to indicate the only acceptable methods, sequence of instructional delivery, subject titles, or amount of detail.

1)    Basic Principles. General: Types of emergencies; need for standardization of procedures between crewmembers; crew coordination and communication, including team responsibilities, assertive command and control, response initiation, passenger behavior and management.
2)    Decompression.

    General: Causes and recognition of cabin pressure loss; physiological effects of reduced atmospheric pressure; time of useful consciousness.

    Rapid Decompression (Immediate Action/Secondary Action Procedures): Possible causes; cabin effects; physiological effects; crew coordination procedures; “immediate action procedures,” including recognition of signs of decompression, grasping nearest oxygen mask, sitting down or holding onto something solid, waiting for notification from the flight deck before moving around; “secondary action procedures,” including obtaining and putting on portable oxygen, checking other F/As, assisting passengers, treating injuries, damage assessment and control.

    Insidious Decompression: Possible causes; cabin effects; physiological effects; crew coordination; immediate action procedures.

    Cracked Window/Pressure Seal Leaks: Cabin effects; crew coordination; immediate action procedures.

3)    Fires.

    Principles of Combustion and Classes of Fires: Characteristics of an aircraft fire, including flash‑over and time element; toxic fumes and chemical irritants; review of function and use of firefighting equipment; firefighting techniques; special factors, including cabin material flammability and toxicity; confined space; cabin ventilation.

    Fire Prevention: F/A readiness; cabin checks, including stowage of articles which could contribute to fire; lavatory checks, including condition of trash container, spring‑loaded door, smoke detectors, and fire extinguishers; galley checks, including ovens and electrical equipment; enforcement of smoking regulations; procedures for use of circuit breakers.

    Basic Firefighting Procedures: Flightcrew member notification procedures; source identification; firefighting and crew coordination procedures; proper use of PBE; effective use of aircraft communication systems; methods of gaining access to a fire source; smoke control and removal procedures.

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    Extinguishing Cabin Fires: Crew coordination, including team response; procedures for extinguishing cabin fires to include lavatories; galleys/lower lobe galleys; ovens; volatile fuel vapors; light ballasts; cabin furnishings; stowage bins/hat racks; trash containers; clothing; lithium battery fires.

    External Fires on Ground: Crew coordination; role of F/As for exterior aircraft, APU, jetway, ramp fires.

    Electrical Equipment and Circuit Breakers: Procedures for circuit breaker use with galleys, service centers, lifts, lavatories, and movie screens.

4)    Ditching.

    Basic Practices: Description of ditching and unanticipated water landings (prior to impact/after impact); crew notification, including time before touchdown, type of landing, signal to assume protective brace position; crew coordination, including cabin and passenger preparation; passenger briefings; helper briefing; passenger protective brace positions; F/A protective brace positions (forward‑facing jump seat—head forward, aft‑facing jump seat—head back); impact on water; assessing conditions; commands; opening primary/secondary exits; use of flotation devices; evacuation at overwing exits, including use of escape ropes; redirection techniques; evacuating persons needing assistance; passenger control.

    Prior to Impact—Unanticipated: F/A readiness; protective brace positions; commanding passengers to assume protective brace positions.

    After Impact—Unanticipated: Assessing conditions; crew coordination procedures; releasing F/A seatbelts; ensuring activation of emergency lights; commanding passengers to release seatbelts and don individual flotation devices; assessing exits; redirection techniques; opening exits, including deploying flotation devices and commanding helpers to assist; commanding passengers to evacuate at exit, inflate vests, and use flotation devices; assisting incapacitated passengers and crewmembers; removing appropriate emergency equipment from aircraft.

    Prior to Impact—Anticipated: Crew notification and coordination; passenger briefing and preparation; donning lifevests; cabin preparation; helper briefings; assuming protective brace positions; F/A review of ditching duties.

    After Impact—Anticipated: Assessing conditions; crew coordination procedures; releasing F/A seatbelts; ensuring activation of emergency lights; commanding passengers to release seatbelts; assessing exits; redirection techniques; opening exits, including deploying slide rafts or launching rafts, commanding helpers to assist; commanding passengers to evacuate at exit, inflate lifevests, and board slide rafts or rafts; assisting incapacitated passengers and crewmembers; removing appropriate emergency equipment from aircraft.

    Evacuation Techniques: Aircraft flotation characteristics; adverse conditions; assisting handicapped; directing passenger flow; boarding rafts.

    Survival at Sea: Raft management; basic survival procedures in a raft environment; signaling.

5)    Ground Evacuation.

    Basic Practices: Description of unanticipated and anticipated evacuations (prior to impact/after impact); crew notification, including time before touchdown, type of landing, signal to assume protective brace position; crew coordination, including cabin and passenger preparation; passenger briefings; helper briefings; passenger protective brace positions; F/A protective brace positions (forward‑facing jump seat—head forward, aft‑facing jump seat—head back); impact and post‑crash fire; assessing conditions; initiation evacuation; commands; opening primary/secondary exits; evacuation at overwing exits, including use of escape ropes; redirection techniques; evacuating persons who may need assistance; passenger control.

    Prior to Impact—Unanticipated: F/A readiness; assuming protective positions; commanding passengers to assume protective positions.

    Prior to Impact—Anticipated: Crew notification and coordination; passenger briefing and preparation; cabin preparation; helper briefings; assuming protective positions; F/A review of evacuation duties.

    After Impact—Unanticipated or Anticipated: Assessing conditions; crew coordination procedures; releasing F/A seatbelts; ensuring activation of emergency lights; initiation of evacuation, including decision and signal to evacuate or not to evacuate; commanding passengers to release seatbelts and evacuate; assessing exits; redirection techniques; opening exits, including deploying slides; commanding helpers to assist; commanding passengers to evacuate at exit and run away from aircraft; assisting incapacitated passengers and crewmembers; removing appropriate emergency equipment from aircraft.

    Evacuation Techniques: Aircraft landing attitudes; adverse conditions; assisting handicapped; directing passenger flow; slide egress.

    Post‑Crash Rescue: Role of F/As.

    Survival in Uninhabited Area: Group management; basic survival procedures on land.

6)    Unwarranted Evacuation.

    Passenger or Crew‑Initiated: F/A readiness; assessing situation.

    Crew Coordination: Method of communicating that an unwarranted evacuation is in progress.

    Stopping the Evacuation: Commands; actions.

7)    Illness or Injury.

    General Principles of Care: Effects of aircraft environment; crew medical responsibilities; crew coordination, including flightcrew notification; requesting and verification of medically qualified personnel; rules for administering medication; documentation and written reports; ground‑to‑air assistance; removal of ill or injured passengers.

    In‑Flight Medical Emergencies/Incidents: Illness or injury symptom recognition and examination; attempt to obtain medical history; assessment of passenger; appropriate medical treatments; handling of passenger; aircraft limitations; crewmember incapacitation; apparent death in flight; review of contents and use of first aid equipment.

8)    Abnormal Situations Involving Passengers or Crewmembers.

    Passenger Abuse of F/A: Crew coordination; recommended procedures.

    Passengers Who Appear to be Under the Influence of Intoxicating Substances: Crew coordination; recommended procedures.

    Passengers Who May Jeopardize Aircraft or Passenger Safety: Crew coordination; recommended procedures.

9)    Hijacking/Bomb Threat.

    Hijacking: Specific company hijacking procedures; reinforcement of security training procedures; methods of communicating with other crewmembers when hijacking is threatened or in progress.

    Bomb Threat: Specific company security procedures; reinforcement of security training procedures; crew coordination procedures; specific bomb search procedures; bomb handling and stabilization procedures for each aircraft.

10)    Turbulence.

    Basic Action (Dependent on Severity of Turbulence): Flightcrew member notification procedures; communication procedures for securing passengers, crewmembers, cabin, galleys, serving carts.

    Severe Turbulence (Anticipated or Unanticipated): Crew coordination procedures; appropriate actions.

    Mild Turbulence (Anticipated or Unanticipated): Crew coordination procedures; appropriate actions.

11)    Other Unusual Situations (Recommended, but Not Required).

    Blown Tires: F/A readiness.

    Condensation: Passenger briefing; appropriate actions.

    Engine Shutdown: Passenger briefing; appropriate actions.

    Engine/APU Torching: Passenger briefing.

    Fuel Dumping: Passenger briefing; appropriate actions.

    Rejected Landing/Missed Approach/Rejected Takeoff: F/A readiness.

    Malfunction of Lift Safety Interlock System: Immediate actions and appropriate procedures.

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    Lithium Battery Fires.

12)    Previous Aircraft Accidents and Incidents.

    General: Types and major causes of accidents; NTSB recommendations; survivability factors, including crewmember and passenger preparation for impact; ability of aircraft to withstand impact; ability of crewmembers to perform assigned duties after impact; emphasis on crew coordination and communication as critical elements in emergency situations.

    Accident/Incident Aftermath: Coping with survival.

13)    Planned Evacuation Briefings.
a)    Background. During a study, the NTSB reviewed both planned and unplanned evacuations. The majority of cases (31) in the study were reported to be unplanned evacuations and 14 were carried out following crew planning for a possible evacuation. For the planned evacuations, the amount of planning varied from case to case. Prior to landing in an A320 that had an unsafe nose gear, the F/As completed a comprehensive preparation for landing that included relocating the passengers and a detailed passenger briefing to prepare them for the evacuation. No passengers received injuries during the successful evacuation. In another case, passengers were informed that a maintenance problem had occurred and the airplane would be returning to the airport. F/As calmed and reassured the passengers but did not prepare the cabin for an emergency evacuation. In this case, 11 passengers sustained minor injuries.

1.    Planning for evacuations involves more than just keeping passengers calm. Reviewing brace positions improves the chance that passengers will properly brace themselves for the emergency landing. Planned evacuations also allow the F/As to inform the passengers of what to expect, thereby avoiding surprises that could possibly delay the evacuation. For example, passengers who were flying on a Beech 1900 reported that they were surprised that there were no slides at the exits.

2.    Inadequate time to prepare, no procedures for abbreviated briefings, and lack of communication from the flightcrew regarding the possibility of an evacuation prevented adequate passenger briefings in several cases studied.

b)    Policy. Passengers who are informed and briefed regarding the possibility of an evacuation are better prepared to handle an evacuation, should one occur. Air carriers should ensure that they have procedures in place to encourage communication from the flightcrew to the F/As regarding the possibility of an evacuation. In addition, air carriers should have procedures in place to ensure that crewmembers provide passengers with precautionary briefings when flightcrews anticipate an eventual evacuation.

1.    Further, air carriers should develop procedures that are designed to accommodate abbreviated timeframes for cabin preparation for a planned evacuation or ditching. They should establish guidance and procedures for their F/As that specifically address reduced timeframes for cabin preparation and give their F/As the opportunity to practice these procedures during emergency training. These procedures should prioritize the cabin preparation tasks and critical elements of passenger information that can have a maximum positive effect on an evacuation and can be delivered in an abbreviated timeframe. For example, a review of the brace position and a reminder to review the safety information card for exit location and operation provides passengers with information that they can use to prepare for a safer and more efficient evacuation.

2.    There are several methods that an air carrier may employ to accomplish this. For example, an air carrier could have one announcement/checklist and structure it so that tasks are completed in order of importance. Even an abbreviated timeframe would allow the most critical tasks to be completed first. Another method could be to have two different announcements/checklists to accomplish specific timeframes such as “over 10 minutes to prepare/under 10 minutes to prepare.” Regardless of the method the air carrier chooses, POIs and CSIs (if applicable) should ensure that their assigned operators have procedures in place that are able to accommodate abbreviated timeframes for cabin preparation for an emergency landing.

3-1799    HANDLING OF CARRY‑ON BAGGAGE DURING AN AIRCRAFT EVACUATION.

A.    Background. Typically, air carriers use two methods to instruct passengers not to take personal belongings during an evacuation. The first method is an indication on the safety briefing card that carry‑on baggage should not be taken during an emergency evacuation. The second method is a F/A commanding all passengers to “leave everything” during an evacuation. Even with these methods in place, the NTSB reported that many of the passengers that were interviewed during their study were carrying at least one piece of carry‑on baggage when they attempted to evacuate the airplane. The NTSB believes that the FAA should develop advisory material to address ways to minimize the problems associated with carry‑on baggage during evacuations.

B.    Policy. Passengers who attempt to retrieve and bring their carry‑on baggage with them as they exit the aircraft have the potential to slow the evacuation, damage the escape slide, and injure other passengers at the bottom of the slide. F/As should be forceful and commanding as they instruct passengers to leave everything on the aircraft.

1)    During an emergency evacuation, when a passenger disregards a F/A’s command to leave everything on the aircraft and approaches an exit while carrying a piece of carry-on baggage, F/As should be prepared to take specific actions. On July 24, 2000, the FAA issued AC 121‑29B, Carry‑On Baggage. It states that the FAA requires operators to provide training to crewmembers regarding their approved program, which includes “the handling of carry‑on baggage during an emergency.” To meet the intent of this guidance, the carrier should develop procedures to handle carry‑on baggage during an evacuation, teach the procedures to F/As as part of their approved training program, and practice the procedures during evacuation drills.
2)    Airlines that have procedures currently in place to address the handling of carry‑on baggage during an evacuation usually train F/As to take the bag and throw it to a specific area to mitigate the negative effects that it may have on the evacuation. This could include throwing it out of the aircraft forward or aft of the evacuation slide, throwing it back into the cabin into empty seats, etc. Procedures would have to take into consideration the F/A’s location on the aircraft (floor-level or overwing exit) as well as the hazards of piling up carry‑on baggage in front of another exit or the flight deck door, or throwing it down the slide on top of other passengers. Another consideration is the fact that a battle with a passenger over a piece of carry‑on baggage may be more detrimental to the rapid egress of the aircraft than allowing the passenger to take it with them.
3)    POIs and CSIs (if applicable) should work with their assigned certificate holders to ensure that they have specific procedures in the appropriate crewmember manuals and training programs that address the handling of carry‑on baggage during an emergency and provide their F/As with clear direction and guidance.

3-1800    EMERGENCY DRILL TRAINING MODULES.

A.    General. Emergency drill training modules provide an opportunity for F/As to gain experience in the performance of emergency procedures with the actual operation of emergency or safety equipment.

Indicates new/changed information.
1)    Emergency drill training consists of an integration of emergency equipment, emergency situation, and aircraft‑specific training. These drills can be taught as either general to all aircraft or as aircraft‑specific. For example, if all aircraft in an operator’s fleet are equipped with the same type of portable oxygen bottle, the emergency drill would be taught as “general” to all aircraft. If, however, the aircraft in an operator’s fleet are equipped with various types of portable oxygen bottles, the emergency drill would be taught as “aircraft‑specific.”
Indicates new/changed information.
2)    The sequence of emergency drill training should be adjusted according to the complexity of the operator’s type and number of aircraft, training mockups, and other training devices. For certain emergency drills it is appropriate to sequence emergency drill training after aircraft‑specific training. For example, emergency drill training on emergency exits is more effective after training on the functions and controls of the emergency exits for specific aircraft.
Indicates new/changed information.
3)    Emergency drill training is the performance and demonstration phase of emergency training. The objective of this training is to train each F/A to proficiency by reinforcing the concepts developed in the instruction phase of emergency training. The drills require the use of the specific type of emergency equipment as the equipment that is installed on the operator’s aircraft. The equipment must have the identical dimensions, weight, forces, and specifications. Each of the drills should be as realistic as possible. For example, if artificial smoke is not used in an emergency evacuation drill, attempts should be made to simulate darkened conditions.

B.    Training Criteria. Emergency drill training should be developed to ensure that F/As obtain proficiency in emergency situations and have the ability to do the following:

    Correctly preflight and prepare emergency/safety equipment for each type of aircraft (when part of assigned duties).

    Identify the type of emergency and correctly use the appropriate emergency equipment.

    Exercise good judgment in assessing an emergency situation.

    Implement the appropriate emergency procedures and to coordinate actions and signals with other crewmembers.

    Operate emergency/safety equipment for each type of aircraft.

    Communicate effectively with crewmembers and passengers in an emergency situation.

3-1801    EMERGENCY DRILLS.

A.    One‑Time Emergency Drill Requirements. FAA requires students to accomplish the following emergency drills at least one time during initial new-hire training (for the one‑time emergency drill requirements of transition training, see Volume 3, Chapter 23, Section 5). Included with each emergency drill are recommended elements or events that F/As should be able to demonstrate satisfactorily.

1)    PBE Firefighting Drill. During a PBE firefighting drill, the student is required to fight an “actual” fire by actually discharging a fire extinguisher charged with the appropriate fire retardant agent while wearing PBE. The student must wear PBE while fighting the actual fire. The following recommended elements and events apply to fighting the fire:

    Approach to Fire/Smoke: Ability to locate source of fire or smoke.

    Crew Coordination: Ability to implement procedures for effective crew coordination and communication, including notification of flightcrew members about fire situation.

    Donning and Activating PBE: Ability to maneuver in limited space with reduced visibility and to effectively use the aircraft’s communication system.

    Selection of Appropriate Fire Extinguisher: Ability to identify class of fire; to select the appropriate extinguisher; to properly remove extinguisher from securing device.

    Actual Discharge of Fire Extinguisher on Fire: Ability to prepare extinguisher for use; to operate and discharge extinguisher properly; to utilize correct firefighting techniques for type of fire.

    Fire Saturation: Ability to completely extinguish fire.

2)    Emergency Evacuation Drill. During an emergency evacuation drill, each student is required to egress the aircraft or approved training device using at least one type of installed emergency evacuation slide.

    Prior to Impact: Ability to recognize and evaluate emergency; to assume appropriate protective position; to command passengers to assume protective position.

    After Impact: Ability to implement crew coordination procedures; to release seatbelt; to ensure activation of emergency lights; to assess aircraft conditions; to initiate evacuation (dependent on signal or decision); to command passengers to release seatbelts and evacuate; to assess exit and redirect, if necessary; to open exit, including deploying slides and commanding helpers to assist; to command passengers to evacuate at exit and run away from aircraft.

    Actual Exit on Emergency Evacuation Slide: Ability to correctly jump onto slide; to maintain correct body position while sliding; to land on feet and run away from aircraft.

    Special Sliding Techniques: Awareness of methods for assisting special‑needs passengers, such as handicapped, elderly, and persons in a state of panic.

B.    Additional Emergency Drill Requirements. Students must accomplish the following emergency drills during initial new‑hire and initial equipment training, and once every 24 calendar‑months during recurrent training. Included with each emergency drill are recommended elements or events that F/As should be able to demonstrate satisfactorily.

1)    Emergency Exit Drill. During an emergency exit drill, students must operate each type of emergency exit in the normal and emergency modes, including the actions and forces required for deployment of the emergency evacuation slides.

    Preflight Exit: Ability to correctly preflight each type of emergency exit and evacuation slide or slide raft (if part of F/A’s assigned duties).

    Actual Disarming and Opening of Each Type of Door Exit in Normal Mode: Ability to open exit properly by disarming door either manually or automatically; to verify girt bar disengagement; to assume correct body position; to use door controls correctly; to secure exit in open and locked position; to secure safety strap.

    Actual Closing of Each Type of Door Exit in Normal Mode: Ability to close exit properly by removing safety strap (if installed); to release locking mechanism; to assume correct body position; to use door controls correctly; to secure exit in closed and locked position.

    Actual Arming of Each Type of Door Exit in Emergency Mode: Ability to arm exit properly by checking if threshold is free of debris; to arm door either manually or automatically; to verify girt bar engagement.

    Actual Opening of Each Type of Door Exit in Emergency Mode: Ability to open exit properly by assuming correct body/protective position; to use door controls correctly; to ensure that door is in open and locked position; to use manual slide inflation system to accomplish or ensure slide or slide raft inflation.

    Actual Opening of Each Type of Window Exit: Ability to open exit properly by assuming correct body/protective position; to use controls correctly; to place window safely; to remove escape rope and position for use.

2)    Hand Fire Extinguisher Drill. During a hand fire extinguisher drill, students must operate and discharge each type of installed hand fire extinguisher (such as Halon 1211, water, carbon dioxide, and dry chemical fire extinguishers). Fighting an actual or a simulated fire is not necessary during this drill.

    Preflight: Ability to correctly preflight each type of hand fire extinguisher (if part of F/A’s assigned duties).

    Operation: Ability to correctly operate each type of hand fire extinguisher and to implement appropriate firefighting procedures; to locate source of fire or smoke and identify class of fire; to select appropriate extinguisher and remove from securing device; to prepare extinguisher for use; to actually operate and discharge extinguisher; to use correct firefighting techniques for type of fire.

NOTE:  The discharge of Halon extinguishing agents during firefighting drills is not appropriate, unless a training facility is used that is specifically designed to prevent harm to the environment from the discharged Halon. When such facilities are not used, other fire extinguishing agents that are not damaging to the environment should be used during the drills.

    Crew Coordination: Ability to implement procedures for effective crew coordination and communication, including notification of flightcrew members about the type of fire situation.

3)    Emergency Oxygen System Drill. During an emergency oxygen system drill, each student must operate each type of emergency oxygen system, including PBE.

    Preflight and Operation of Portable Oxygen Devices: Ability to correctly preflight (if part of F/A’s assigned duties) and operate portable oxygen bottles, including masks and tubing; ability to preflight and verbally demonstrate operation of chemical oxygen generators, including procedures for administering oxygen.

    Administering Oxygen from Portable Oxygen Bottles: Ability to properly remove from securing device; to prepare for use; to operate oxygen device properly, including donning and activation; to administer oxygen to self, passengers, and to those persons with special oxygen needs; to utilize proper procedures for effective crew coordination and communication.

    Preflight and Operation of PBE: Ability to correctly preflight (if required) and properly put on equipment; to actually activate equipment and maneuver in limited space with reduced visibility; to utilize the aircraft’s communication system for effective crew coordination.

NOTE:  Several operators equip their aircraft with approved PBE units that have approved storage pouches fastened with two metal staples at one end. However, considerations of practicality and cost compel operators to use a less durable storage pouch that lacks the staple fasteners for training purposes. As a result, pilots and F/As have been surprised that opening the pouch furnished on board requires more force than opening the training pouch. POIs should require crewmember training that includes the appropriate procedures for operating PBE. In those cases where pouches with staples are used for storage of the PBE unit, special emphasis in training should highlight the difference between the training pouch and the onboard pouch. The training pouch may be easy to open, but the approved, onboard pouch may require as much as 28 pounds of force to overcome the two staple fasteners.

    Use of Aircraft Oxygen System: Ability to manually open each type of oxygen mask compartment and deploy oxygen masks; to identify compartments with extra oxygen masks; to implement immediate action decompression procedures; to reset.

4)    Flotation Device Drill. During a flotation device drill, the student must put on, use, and inflate (as applicable) each type of individual flotation device.

    Preflight: Ability to correctly preflight (if part of F/A’s assigned duties) each type of individual flotation device.

    Donning and Inflating Lifevests: Ability to locate and remove from packaging; to properly put on and inflate (automatically and manually); to activate and deactivate locator light; to put on a small child or infant; to instruct children, non‑swimmers, handicapped, and elderly on how to use and when to inflate; to demonstrate swimming techniques with a lifevest.

    Flotation Seat Cushions: Ability to remove from seat and properly use; to demonstrate swimming techniques using a seat cushion.

5)    Ditching Drill (if applicable). During a ditching drill, students must perform the “prior to impact” and “after impact” procedures for a ditching, as appropriate to the specific operator’s type of operation.

    Crew Coordination: Ability to implement crew coordination procedures, including briefing with captain to obtain pertinent ditching information and briefing F/As; to coordinate timeframe for cabin and passenger preparation.

    Passenger Briefing: Ability to adequately brief passengers on ditching procedures, including information on the removal and stowage of restrictive personal articles; removal, donning, inflation of lifevests; positioning of seats and tray tables; stowage of carry‑on baggage; securing and release of seatbelts; appropriate brace positions; location of exits; location and boarding of rafts; helper briefings.

    Passenger and Cabin Preparation: Ability to ensure that all passenger briefing procedures are implemented properly; to ensure that cabin is prepared, including the securing of carry‑on baggage, lavatories, and galleys.

    Launching of Slide Rafts or Rafts: Ability to assess conditions; to demonstrate how to properly deploy and inflate slide rafts; to remove, position, attach to aircraft, and inflate rafts; to use escape ropes at overwing exits; to command helpers to assist; to use slides and seat cushions as flotation devices; to remove appropriate emergency equipment from aircraft.

    Boarding of Passengers and Crew into Slide Raft or Raft: Ability to command passengers to exit aircraft, inflate lifevests, and board rafts properly; to initiate raft management procedures, including disconnecting rafts from aircraft, applying immediate first aid, rescuing persons in water, salvaging floating rations and equipment, deploying sea anchor, tying rafts together, activating, and ensuring emergency locator transmitter in operation; to initiate basic survival procedures, including removing and using survival kit items, repairing and maintaining raft, ensuring protection from exposure, erecting canopy, communicating location, providing continued first aid, and providing sustenance.

    Use of Life Lines: Ability to use heaving line to rescue persons in water; to tie slide rafts or rafts together; to use life line on edge of slide raft or raft as a handhold and to secure survival kit items.

6)    Liferaft Removal and Inflation Drill (if applicable). During a liferaft removal and inflation drill, students must observe the removal of a liferaft from the aircraft or training device, as well as the inflation of a liferaft.

    Raft Removal: Removal of raft from raft compartment, including using correct method of handling raft; positioning raft at exit; removing raft lanyard; securely attaching raft lanyard to aircraft interior before raft launching; commanding helpers to assist.

    Raft Launching and Inflation: Ensuring that exit is open and usable; launching raft into water and inflating raft; commanding passengers to evacuate at exit and board raft; detaching raft from aircraft; commanding helpers to assist; initiating raft management and basic survival procedures.

    Raft Launching at Window Exits: Removing and positioning raft from raft compartment to window exit; removing raft lanyard; securely attaching raft lanyard to aircraft interior; ensuring that window exit is open and usable; removing escape rope and attaching to fitting on wing; carrying raft onto wing and launching raft off leading edge of wing into water; inflating raft; commanding passengers to evacuate at window exit, to walk onto wing holding escape rope, and to board raft; detaching raft from aircraft; commanding helpers to assist.

7)    Slide Raft Transfer Drill. During a slide raft transfer drill, students must observe the transfer of each type of slide raft pack from an unusable door to a usable door.

    Disconnecting Slide Raft at Unusable Door: Crew coordination procedures, assessing conditions to determine usable door, redirecting passengers to usable slide raft, completing specific steps for slide raft disconnection at unusable door.

    Slide Raft Installation and Deployment at Usable Door: Positioning slide raft pack at usable door, completing specific steps for slide raft installation at usable door.

8)    Slide or Slide Raft Deployment, Inflation, and Detachment Drill. During a slide or slide raft deployment, inflation, and detachment drill, students must observe the deployment, inflation, and detachment of the slide or slide raft pack from the aircraft or training device.

    Slides With Quick‑Release Handle: Engaging slide girt bar in floor brackets; opening of door and verification of slide deployment; inflating slide either manually or automatically; disconnecting slide from aircraft for use as a flotation device.

    Slides Without Quick‑Release Handle: Engaging slide girt bar in floor brackets; opening door and verifying slide deployment; disconnecting slide from aircraft; inflating slide for use as a flotation device.

    Slide Rafts: Arming slide rafts for automatic inflation; opening door and verifying inflation; disconnecting slide raft from the aircraft.

9)    Emergency Evacuation Slide Drill. During an emergency evacuation slide drill, students must observe the deployment and inflation of an evacuation slide, including participants egressing from the cabin via the evacuation slide.

    Opening Exit: Opening armed exit with slide or slide raft deployment and inflation.

    Evacuation of Aircraft: Commanding the evacuation; having participants egress from aircraft via the evacuation slide and run away to a safe distance.

NOTE:  In drills 6, 7, 8, and 9, the FAA does not require F/As to actually remove and inflate liferafts or to deploy, inflate, detach, or transfer slides or slide rafts. Section 121.417(c)(2)(ii), however, requires that F/As at least observe these drills. Section 121.417(f) defines “perform” and “observe.” “Perform” is defined as the accomplishment of “a prescribed emergency drill using established procedures that stress the skill of the persons involved in the drill.” “Observe” is defined as watching “without participating actively in the drill.” When evaluating an “observed” drill, either with audiovisual aids or with participants performing the drill, the inspector must determine whether it adequately conveys a clear understanding of each of the steps involved to perform a required function.

3-1802    GUIDELINES FOR TRAINING F/As ASSIGNED TO OPEN MORE THAN ONE DOOR DURING AN AIRCRAFT EMERGENCY EVACUATION. The NTSB has asked the FAA to address the contents of an air carrier’s training program when an individual F/A is given the responsibility of opening more than one floor-level exit during an emergency. The NTSB issued Safety Recommendation A‑92‑71 because it found that there are often situations in which individual F/As are responsible for opening more than one exit. However, many recurrent training programs do not require F/As to practice opening more than one exit during drills. The NTSB is concerned that usable exits will not be opened during an evacuation because the F/As have not been trained to open more than one exit.

A.    Passenger Flow Control Management. Passenger flow control management training is especially important when an individual F/A is assigned to open more than one exit. Passenger flow control management is an important part of any emergency evacuation or ditching drill and should be included in all F/A emergency training programs. Training programs should emphasize to F/As that proper action can ensure all available exits are used efficiently. F/As should be trained to evaluate passenger use of exits and to direct passengers to another exit to increase the number of passengers evacuating the airplane. In addition, F/As should be trained to continually appraise the condition of exits and to signal and direct passengers to available exits. Air carrier training programs should include flow control management techniques during the drills required in emergency training.

B.    Full-Scale Cabin Mockup. In cases where the operator has a full‑scale cabin mockup, which contains two floor‑level exits opposite each other, the training program should require trainees to open both doors and demonstrate passenger flow control through both of these doors.

C.    Cabin Mockup. When the operator trains its F/As in a cabin mockup not having both assigned exits, the training program should include a drill in which F/As complete the following actions:

1)    Open the primary exit to which they are assigned.
2)    Proceed to an area which is equal in distance from the actual second-choice exit.
3)    Simulate opening the second‑choice exit.
4)    Demonstrate passenger flow control management.

D.    Training in an Airplane. When the operator does all of its training in an actual airplane and has emergency procedures requiring individual F/As to open more than one door, its training program should include a drill which requires F/A trainees to open both doors and practice passenger flow control management, including the signals and commands necessary to maximize passenger evacuation from the aircraft.

E.    Second-Choice Exit. F/A training programs should include drills during emergency training in which F/As practice opening both exits or simulate opening a second‑choice exit. In both cases, F/As should demonstrate the skills associated with passenger flow control management. POIs, and CSIs when applicable, assigned to operators having procedures in which individual F/As are expected to open more than one floor‑level exit during an aircraft emergency evacuation should ensure that F/As are trained on this procedure. POIs, and CSIs when applicable, approving training on procedures that include a second-choice exit should use the policies contained in this subparagraph.

3-1803    ADAPTATION OF GENERAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CURRICULUM SEGMENTS TO THE VARIOUS CATEGORIES OF TRAINING. The FAA requires the general emergency training curriculum segment in the following categories of training: initial new‑hire, recurrent, and requalification. When determining if general emergency training curriculum segments are appropriately adapted to the different categories of training, POIs should use Table 3‑100, Flight General Attendant Emergency Curriculum Segment Job Aid.

A.    Initial New‑Hire Category of Training. Operators must develop and obtain approval of a general emergency training curriculum segment for the initial new‑hire category of training. An operator who operates both reciprocating‑powered and turbojet‑powered aircraft may be required to develop separate general emergency curriculum segments for incorporation into the initial new‑hire category of training appropriate to these types of aircraft.

B.    Transition Category of Training. There is a requirement for a separate general emergency curriculum segment for the transition category of training. For this category of training, F/As will have previously received the appropriate general emergency training during initial new‑hire training. Aircraft‑specific emergency training, however, must be included in the aircraft ground training segment of a transition curriculum. Aircraft‑specific emergency training may require elements that are in a general emergency training curriculum segment. For example, an operator may not operate an aircraft equipped with escape slides. If the operator subsequently adds an aircraft so equipped, training on slides must be included in transition training.

C.    Recurrent Category of Training.

1)    Part 121. Part 121 operators must develop and obtain approval for a separate general emergency training curriculum segment for the recurrent category of training. Usually, it will be appropriate to have two general emergency curriculum segments, one that reflects a 12‑month cycle of emergency equipment and emergency situation training, and another that reflects a 24‑month cycle of emergency drill training. It is acceptable, however, to incorporate the emergency drill “hands‑on” training into a single curriculum segment, provided the segment contains a requirement that F/As must receive the emergency drill training at least once every 24 months.
2)    Part 135. Part 135 operators should develop and obtain approval for a separate general emergency training curriculum segment for the recurrent category of training. The recurrent general emergency curriculum segment must contain “hands‑on” training in each annual cycle.

D.    Requalification Category of Training—Parts 121 and 135. The determination of whether a general emergency curriculum segment is appropriate for the requalification category of training depends on the length of time an F/A has been unqualified. In general, F/As become unqualified for not completing recurrent training for more than 1 year.

3-1804    CURRICULUM SEGMENT COMPLETION REQUIREMENTS. An instructor or supervisor must certify completion of the curriculum segment indicating that the student has successfully completed the course. This certification is usually based on the satisfactory evaluation of a student’s performance. With some training methods, such as computer‑based instruction (CBI), the certification may be based on student progress checks administered during the course.

3-1805    EVALUATION OF TRAINING HOURS.

A.    National Norms. Parts 121 and 135 do not specify a minimum number of training hours for general emergency training curriculum segments. When approving these curriculum segments, the FAA must consider the complexity of the type of operation to be conducted and the complexity of the aircraft to be used. Table 3‑100 below provides guidance and direction for POIs when approving general emergency training curriculum segments. The table provides “national norms” for the initial new‑hire general emergency training hours. The purpose of having established national norms is to assist the POI when evaluating proposed programs for new operators or when evaluating proposed programs introducing new aircraft by existing operators. For a complex type of operation, the training hours may need to exceed the national norm, while for a less complex type of operation the training hours below the national norm may be acceptable. National norms have not been established for recurrent general emergency training.

B.    Levels of Operational Complexity. Table 3‑100 lists three general levels of operational complexity.

1)    The basic level of complexity for the initial new‑hire training category is considered to be “land operations.” The national norm for land operations is 14 hours for the general emergency training curriculum segment, which is divided into 10 hours for emergency equipment/situations and the remaining 4 hours for emergency drills.
2)    The national norm for “extended overwater operations” is an additional 7 hours, which is divided into 4 hours for emergency equipment/situations and the remaining 3 hours for emergency drills.
3)    The national norm for “operations above 25,000 feet” is an additional 3 hours, which is divided into 2 hours for emergency equipment/situations and the remaining 1 hour for emergency drills.
4)    For an operator conducting all three operational complexities, the national norm is a total of 24 hours for the general emergency training curriculum segment.
Indicates new/changed information.

3-1806    EVALUATION OF CABIN AND EXIT MOCKUPS. Hands‑on emergency drill training for items such as emergency exits and passenger oxygen systems should be conducted in either a static aircraft, an approved cabin mockup training device, or an approved exit mockup training device. Cabin and exit mockup training devices should be representative of a full‑scale section of an aircraft. Cabin mockups should include operational doors, window exits, slides, rafts, and other equipment used in emergency drill training. Cabin or exit mockup training devices must not be approved unless they have been evaluated by an FAA inspector and determined to be adequate. Generally, cabin mockups are acceptable if they are representative of the operator’s aircraft with the appropriate equipment installed, and they are full‑scale in cross section. Generally, exit mockups are acceptable if the forces required to open them closely duplicate normal and emergency conditions with the slide or slide raft installed and the mechanisms and instructions required to operate them are representative of the operator’s aircraft.

3-1807    EVALUATION OF F/A GENERAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CURRICULUM SEGMENT OUTLINE FOR INITIAL APPROVAL. When evaluating a general emergency training curriculum segment outline for initial approval, inspectors must determine whether the training modules contain the information required for F/As to perform emergency duties and procedures without supervision. Inspectors should use the job aid in this section when evaluating the proposed curriculum segment outline (see Table 3‑100).

3-1808    F/A GENERAL EMERGENCY CURRICULUM SEGMENT JOB AID.

A.    Purpose of the Job Aid. The F/A General Emergency Curriculum Segment Job Aid (see Table 3‑100) is provided to assist the inspector when evaluating this curriculum segment. This job aid covers the three distinct subject areas of general emergency training: “emergency equipment” training, “emergency situation” training, and “emergency drill” training. The job aid is intended to assist inspectors during the evaluation of individual general emergency training curriculum segment modules.

B.    Use of the Job Aid. When using the job aid, an inspector should make a side‑by‑side comparison of the operator’s proposal to make the following determinations:

    Whether the training modules provide for training on the required elements and events in terms of F/A duties and procedures.

    Whether sufficient training module elements and events are outlined to ensure that the appropriate depth and scope of the material will be presented.

C.    Organization of the Job Aid. The job aid is organized with training subjects listed vertically in the left column and evaluation criteria listed horizontally across the top. Inspectors may use the spaces within the matrix for items such as notes, comments, dates, or checkmarks. There are also blank columns and rows on the job aid for inspectors to include additional training modules or evaluation criteria.

Table 3-100.  Flight Attendant General Emergency Curriculum Segment Job Aid

SUBJECT AREA 1: EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT TRAINING

 

EVALUATION CRITERIA

TRAINING
SUBJECTS

ADEQUACY OF ELEMENTS/ EVENTS

ADEQUACY
OF COURSEWARE

TRAINING AIDS AND FACILITIES

 

Ditching Equipment*

 

 

 

 

Ground Evacuation Equipment*

 

 

 

 

First Aid Equipment*

 

 

 

 

Portable Oxygen
Systems

 

 

 

 

Firefighting Equipment*

 

 

 

 

Emergency Exits

 

 

 

 

Additional Emergency Equipment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* Required by 14 CFR § 135.331(b)(2)

Table 3‑100.  Flight Attendant General Emergency Curriculum Segment Job Aid (Continued)

SUBJECT AREA 2: EMERGENCY SITUATION TRAINING

 

EVALUATION CRITERIA

TRAINING
SUBJECTS

ADEQUACY OF ELEMENTS/ EVENTS

ADEQUACY
OF COURSEWARE

TRAINING AIDS AND FACILITIES

 

Decompression*

 

 

 

 

Fires*

 

 

 

 

Ditching*

 

 

 

 

Ground Evacuation*

 

 

 

 

Unwarranted Evacuation Illness or Injury*

 

 

 

 

Abnormal Situation with Passenger or Crewmember*

 

 

 

 

Hijacking/Bomb
Threat*

 

 

 

 

Turbulence

 

 

 

 

Other Unusual Situations*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* Required by 14 CFR § 135.331(b)(3)

Table 3‑100.  Flight Attendant General Emergency Curriculum Segment Job Aid (Continued)

SUBJECT AREA 3: EMERGENCY DRILL TRAINING

 

EVALUATION CRITERIA

TRAINING
SUBJECTS

ADEQUACY OF ELEMENTS/ EVENTS

ADEQUACY
OF COURSEWARE

TRAINING AIDS AND FACILITIES

 

ONE‑TIME DRILLS: Initial New‑Hire Training

PBE/Fire fighting

 

 

 

 

Emergency Evacuation*

 

 

 

 

PERFORMANCE DRILLS: Initial New‑Hire and Initial Equipment Training; Once Every 24 Months During Recurrent Training

Emergency Exits*

 

 

 

 

Hand‑Held Fire Extinguishers*

 

 

 

 

Emergency Oxygen System*

 

 

 

 

Flotation Devices*

 

 

 

 

Ditching*

 

 

 

 

OBSERVATION DRILLS: Initial New‑Hire and Initial Equipment Training; Once Every 24 Months During Recurrent Training

Life raft Removal and Inflation*

 

 

 

 

Slide raft Transfer

 

 

 

 

Slide raft Deployment, Inflation, and Detachment

 

 

 

 

Emergency Evacuation/Slide

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* Required by 14 CFR § 135.331(c) (Time Sequence not specified)

RESERVED. Paragraphs 3‑1809 through 3‑1825.