This section contains information and guidance to be used by inspectors concerning
flight dispatch systems and operations conducted by Title 14 of the Code of
(14 CFR) part 121 operators under domestic operating rules. The operational
control system required by part
121 for domestic and flag operations is commonly termed a dispatch system.
Domestic and flag operators must use certificated aircraft dispatchers to directly
control flight operations. A pilot-in-command (PIC) may not initiate or continue
a flight unless both the PIC and the aircraft dispatcher agree that the flight
can be conducted safely as planned under the existing and forecast conditions.
Once a flight is initiated, the aircraft dispatcher must continually monitor
the flight’s progress and inform the PIC of conditions that could affect the
safe operation of that flight.
A. Signature on a Dispatch Release.
14 CFR requires that both the aircraft dispatcher and the PIC sign the dispatch
release. The dispatcher’s and PIC’s signatures certify
that, in the judgment of each, the flight can be made safely as planned. Some
further guidance follows for inspectors to use regarding signatures on dispatch
1) The conditions under which a flight
is dispatched may make it impractical for both the aircraft dispatcher and the
PIC to sign on the same form. For example, the operator may maintain a centralized
dispatch center and transmit dispatch releases to each point of departure rather
than maintain individual dispatch facilities at each airport. Operators may
establish procedures that comply with the intent of the rule, but accommodate
the necessities of contemporary operations. One acceptable practice is for an
aircraft dispatcher to sign a duty roster at the beginning of the dispatcher’s
shift, thus indicating the time the aircraft dispatcher came on duty and the
desk or geographic area the dispatcher is working. The aircraft dispatcher’s
name and a date-time group printed on each dispatch release may be considered
the aircraft dispatcher’s signature in combination with the duty roster. Another
acceptable practice is for the aircraft dispatcher to sign and retain for the
record a copy of each dispatch release which is transmitted.
2) Inspectors, operators, and aircraft
dispatchers should be aware of the significance of an individual’s signature
under law, being that the individual who signs has consented to be bound by,
and held responsible for, the act.
3) An aircraft dispatcher may conduct
an inflight re-release by recording the re-release
message on oral tape or in writing. A system of appending the aircraft dispatcher’s
signature, such as that described in previous subparagraph (1), may be used.
The PIC may accept an inflight re-release over a
radio by reading back the dispatch release message, recording the message in
writing (including the dispatcher’s name), noting the date and time, and signing
the entry. The preferred procedure is for the message to be copied on a designated
master flightplan. These same procedures may be
used for releases delivered over the telephone. The signed dispatch releases,
duty rosters, and the master flightplan are company
records that must be retained (see
Volume 3, Chapter 31, section 3).
B. Preflight Briefing. Before
dispatching any flight, an aircraft dispatcher must be thoroughly familiar with
the reported weather conditions and the forecast weather conditions (including
adverse weather) and the status of communications, navigation, and airport facilities.
(b) require that the aircraft dispatcher provide the PIC with a preflight
briefing on each of these items.
1) The preflight briefing may be delivered
verbally or in writing. In the latter case, communications facilities must be
available for the aircraft dispatcher and the PIC
to communicate directly by voice if direct communication is required or desired.
2) The intent of §
(b) is that the aircraft dispatcher and the PIC have adequate and identical
information for planning. The PIC and the aircraft dispatcher must be thoroughly
familiar with, and consider all aspects of, the situation. For example, inoperative
navigation aids and shortened runways as well as weather conditions can affect
the selection of alternate airports. For this reason the briefing by the aircraft
dispatcher is not optional for either the dispatcher or the PIC under these
C. Flight-Monitoring. An aircraft
dispatcher must monitor the progress of each flight under that dispatcher’s
control until the flight has landed, passed beyond the dispatcher’s area of
control, or until the dispatcher is properly relieved by another aircraft dispatcher.
Flight monitoring, as a minimum, must consist of the monitoring of each flight’s
fuel state, flight time remaining, destination and alternate airport weather
trends, en route winds and weather (including pilot reports), and the status
of airport and navigational facilities.
121.601(c) requires that the aircraft dispatcher report to the PIC any additional
information that could affect the safety of the flight. This information may
be delivered by voice message or by other means, such as air‑ground passive
communication systems (ACARS).
121.99 requires that rapid and reliable two-way radio communications between
each flight and the aircraft dispatcher be available at any point in the flight,
including overwater portions of international flights.
While the aircraft is over the conterminous U.S., this system must be independent
of any system operated by the U.S. government.
D. General Operations Manual (GOM).
Inspectors must ensure that the operator’s general operations manual (GOM) contains
policies and procedures for releasing flights and subsequent
inflight monitoring. Part
121, § 121.137(a) requires that the manual or applicable parts be available to
aircraft dispatchers during the performance of their duties. Inspectors must
ensure that the operator’s GOM includes the information that follows.
1) The operator’s GOM must contain
flightcrew reporting requirements and the actions
that aircraft dispatchers should take if reports from the
flightcrew are not received.
2) Once initiated, a flight must continue
to destination as planned and in accordance with the conditions of the dispatch
release. A PIC may not continue to destination, however, when in the opinion
of either the PIC or the aircraft dispatcher, it is unsafe to do so. In such
cases, the PIC must take action to obtain the aircraft dispatcher’s concurrence
on a new course of action and then amend the dispatch release.
3) ATC frequently delays, re-routes,
or assigns altitudes to flights other than those planned by the operator. The ATC system requires this flexibility to re-route traffic flow around adverse
weather and to function effectively. The operator’s policies and procedures
for operational control should accommodate these demands while maintaining the
duality of responsibility shared by the aircraft dispatcher and the PIC. One
acceptable means operators may use to comply with the regulatory requirement
is to publish notification requirements in the GOM for
flightcrews to follow in these circumstances. For example, the operator
might specify maximum amounts that the ETE, assigned altitude, estimated fuel
remaining when overhead destination, and distance from planned course may deviate,
without reporting to the aircraft dispatcher and obtaining an amended release
(see paragraph 3-1952 of this section). The operator may also place remarks
on the dispatch release to alert the PIC to the fact that a routing has been
chosen for a specific reason and give instructions to contact the aircraft dispatcher
if ATC needs to re-route the flight.
121.557(a) authorizes the PIC to deviate from the conditions of the dispatch
release to the extent necessary for safety in an emergency. When the PIC exercises
this authority, § 121.557(c) requires that the PIC keep both ATC and the aircraft dispatcher
fully informed of the progress of the flight. Section
121.557(c) requires that when emergency authority is exercised, a written
report be forwarded to the administrator (POI), through the director of operations,
within 10 working days.
3-1947. FACILITIES AND STAFFING.
121.395 require that each domestic and flag operator provide enough dispatch
centers and qualified aircraft dispatchers to ensure adequate operational control
of each flight.
A. Facilities. Section
121.107 requires that each domestic and flag operator provide enough dispatch
centers for adequate control of the operations conducted.
1) Operators have wide latitude in
meeting this requirement. With modern communications, many operators exercise
worldwide operational control from a single center. Any number and placement
of centers is acceptable, provided the operator can show that organizational
and communications arrangements are effective.
2) Many operators have chosen to automate
some dispatch duties and routines. A few operators have introduced a high degree
of automation. Many functions which were previously performed manually by human
beings are now handled automatically by machine. For example, flight routes
are automatically generated and flightplans are
filed by computer. While these systems may be labor saving, they introduce special
problems and specific hazards. POIs must ensure
that the operator has designed adequate safeguards into the system. For example,
the operator must be able to ensure that a flightplan
with a routing identical to the one filed with ATC is delivered to the PIC.
B. Staffing. Part
121.395 requires that operators provide enough qualified aircraft dispatchers
to ensure the adequate operational control of all flights as follows.
121.463(d) requires that each aircraft dispatcher be “familiar with all
essential operating procedures for that segment of the operation over which
he exercises dispatch jurisdiction.” This requirement applies to all aircraft
dispatchers the operator assigns to revenue flights (including the management
personnel who occasionally work a position to relieve personnel), and to those
aircraft dispatchers who trade assignments for personal reasons. Inspectors
must ensure that operators have established a means of qualification to satisfy
this rule. The rule also allows aircraft dispatchers to dispatch flights over
segments on which they are not qualified after coordinating with a qualified
aircraft dispatcher. Operators who use this provision must show that the supervising
aircraft dispatcher has adequate time to oversee the aircraft dispatcher unfamiliar
with the area without undue distraction from other assigned duties.
2) Aircraft dispatchers commonly dispatch
and monitor flights simultaneously. Inspectors must ensure that operators provide
enough dispatch personnel to fully accomplish both tasks. POIs should ensure that the operator’s dispatchers
are not neglecting flight monitoring duties due to the pressure of their duties
for originating flights.
3) The time required for an aircraft
dispatcher to prepare a dispatch release or to monitor the progress of a flight
varies according to the geographical area the aircraft dispatcher is working,
the complexity of the operation, and the degree to which the process is automated.
An aircraft dispatcher employed by a small operator may do all of these tasks
manually without assistance and may take several hours to dispatch a single
flight. On the other hand, an aircraft dispatcher for a major air carrier may
be able to adequately dispatch a flight in a few minutes by using a computerized
4) With all operators, workloads tend
to be cyclical with peaks and valleys. Operators should continually monitor
aircraft dispatcher workloads at peak periods to ensure that the dispatchers
are not overloaded. One acceptable means of controlling routine workloads is
for operators to assign aircraft dispatchers to specific geographical areas
and to regulate the number of flights an aircraft dispatcher is scheduled to
work in each hour and in each shift.
5) The operator must have adequate
contingency plans for dealing with foreseeable non-routine operations. For example,
when a major storm system moves across an area and ATC central flow control
begins rerouting traffic, an aircraft dispatcher’s workload can increase to
several times the routine level. One acceptable means of dealing with this problem
is for the operator to add more aircraft dispatchers during periods of non-routine
operations. The contingency plan may require the re-assignment of flight monitoring
responsibilities to reduce the number of flights being handled by the affected
6) Operators conducting “hub operations”
have special problems complying with the combined requirements of §
121.107 or §
121.99, and §
121.601(c). For example, if weather conditions unexpectedly restrict operations
or close a hub while flights are inbound, the operator must demonstrate the
capability to communicate with, and effectively control, a large number of flights
in a short period of time.
shall ensure that operators using automated systems have published procedures
for maintaining operational control after an unexpected loss of an automated
system. These procedures should be published in the operator’s GOM.
3-1948. AIRCRAFT DISPATCHER DUTY
TIME LIMITATIONS. Inspectors must ensure that operators place the following
limitations on aircraft dispatcher duty time, except in cases of circumstances
or emergency conditions that are beyond the control of the operator in accordance
A. An aircraft dispatcher may
not be scheduled for more than 10 consecutive hours of duty.
B. When an aircraft dispatcher
is scheduled for more than 10 hours of duty in 24 consecutive hours, a rest
period of at least 8 hours must be provided at, or before, the end of 10 hours
C. Each aircraft dispatcher
must be relieved of all duty for at least 24 consecutive hours during any 7
consecutive days or the equivalent thereof during any calendar month.
D. An aircraft dispatcher’s
shift must be scheduled to begin at a time that allows the dispatcher to become
thoroughly familiar with existing and anticipated weather conditions along the
route before dispatching any flight. The aircraft dispatcher must remain on
duty until each flight under the aircraft dispatcher’s control has either landed,
or gone beyond the dispatcher’s jurisdiction, or until the aircraft dispatcher
is relieved by another qualified aircraft dispatcher. These requirements necessitate
a change-over procedure between the oncoming aircraft dispatcher and the aircraft
dispatcher being relieved.
E. A flag operator, when authorized
by the POI and by the operator’s OpSpecs, may schedule
an aircraft dispatcher at a duty station outside of the 48 contiguous states
or the District of Columbia for more than 10 consecutive hours of duty in a
24-hour period. The aircraft dispatcher must be relieved of all duties for at
least 8 hours during each 24‑hour period. POIs shall
ensure that this provision is used to comply with local work customs and that
it does not provide for less personnel than required to maintain adequate operational
3-1949. WEATHER REQUIREMENTS FOR
DISPATCH UNDER DOMESTIC RULES. Inspectors must be informed about the weather
requirements for the dispatch of domestic part
121 flights (see
section 4 of this Chapter for a discussion of dispatch under flag rules).
A. Dispatch Under VFR. Part
121.611 prohibits an aircraft dispatcher from releasing a domestic flight
for VFR operations unless the ceiling and visibility en route and at the destination
is VFR and will remain above applicable VFR minimums, until the aircraft arrives
at the airport or airports specified in the dispatch release.
121 flights may not be dispatched under VFR rules unless they are specifically
authorized by OpSpec B033(d) (see
Volume 3, Chapter 18 section 4, OpSpec B051,
Volume 3, Chapter 18, Section 5, OpSpec C077).
B. IFR Takeoff Weather Minimums.
An aircraft dis-patcher may not release a flight
when the weather at the departure point is reported to be less than the takeoff
minimums specified in OpSpec C056 of the operator’s
OpSpecs. The weather conditions may, however, be
below the landing minimums specified in the operator’s
OpSpecs for the airport. In this case the aircraft dispatcher may not
release the flight unless the following conditions exist:
1) For a two-engine airplane, an alternate
airport is available which is not more than one hour from the departure airport
at normal cruising speed, in still air, with one engine inoperative.
2) For an airplane with three or more
engines, an alternate airport is available which is not more than 2 hours from
the departure airport at normal cruising speed, in still air, with one engine
3) The alternate airport required by
subparagraph 1) or subparagraph 2) is listed on the dispatch release.
4) The weather conditions at the designated
takeoff alternate at the estimated time of arrival (ETA) meet the requirements
of Opspec C055 of the operator’s
C. Destination Weather - IFR Operations.
121.613 prohibits an aircraft dispatcher from releasing a domestic flight
under IFR or over-the-top rules unless weather reports and/or forecasts indicate
that the weather will be at, or above, minimums required in the
OpSpecs at the destination airport at the ETA. Category
I minimums are given in OpSpecs C053 and C054. Category
II and III minimums are given in OpSpecs C059 and
D. Alternate Weather. Part
121.619 prohibits an aircraft dispatcher from releasing a domestic flight
under IFR or over-the-top rules unless at least one alternate airport is listed
for each destination airport in the dispatch release and at which the weather
exceeds the alternate airport requirements of the table in
OpSpec C055. An alternate airport does not have
to be designated, however, when for a least one hour before to one hour after
the ETA, the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or any combination thereof,
indicate the following:
· The ceiling will
be at least 2,000 feet above the airport elevation
The visibility at that airport will be at least 3
miles (see §
E. Designation of Two Alternate
Airports. When weather conditions at the destination airport and the first
alternate airport are marginal, §
121.619(a) requires that at least one additional alternate airport be designated.
The term “marginal” as applied to domestic alternate minimums, is not defined
by regulation. To some extent this is because the definition of what constitutes
“marginal” depends on the nature of the weather phenomena, the operation conducted,
and the equipment used. POIs should ensure that
the definition of marginal and of the conditions under which a second alternate
airport must be designated are clearly stated in the operator’s GOM.
3-1950. FUEL SUPPLY—DOMESTIC OPERATIONS.
Inspectors need to be aware of the fuel requirements for dispatch under
domestic rules (see
section 4 of this Chapter for fuel requirements in extended
overwater operations). The fuel planning provisions
121 , §§
121.647 apply to all domestic flights - whether turbojet,
turbopropeller, or reciprocating powered.
A. Required Fuel Supply. An
operator may not dispatch a domestic flight, and a flight may not take off unless,
considering winds and forecast weather conditions, the flight carries all of
the following increments of fuel:
1) En Route Fuel. That fuel necessary
for the flight to reach the airport to which it is dispatched and to conduct
one instrument approach.
2) Alternate Fuel. That fuel necessary
for the flight to make a missed approach at the destination airport, fly from
the destination to the most distant alternate airport, make an IFR approach
(if available forecasts indicate conditions will be below VFR minimums), and
to make a landing.
should ensure that operators use realistic routings between destination and
4) Domestic Reserve Fuel. That increment
of fuel necessary for a flight to continue for 45 minutes at normal cruising
5) Contingency Fuel. That increment
of fuel necessary for the flight to compensate for any known traffic delays
and to compensate for any other condition that may delay the landing of the
NOTE: The operator’s GOM should contain policies and instructions
to aircraft dispatchers and PICs for computing the
amount of contingency fuel to be carried under the circumstances likely to be
encountered in the operator’s specific operation.
NOTE: When computing fuel requirements, all fuel must be in
addition to unusable fuel.
B. Departure Fuel. Section
121.639 requires the fuel listed in previous subparagraph A be on board
the aircraft at takeoff. The dispatch release must display this amount. The
operator’s GOM should contain a clear statement of this point for pilots, aircraft
dispatchers, and load planners. An additional increment of fuel for start-up,
taxi, and predeparture delays must be included in
the fuel load on board the aircraft at engine start.
3-1951. ORIGINAL DISPATCH. A
flight conducted under part
121 domestic or flag rules may not depart from the point of origin unless
a dispatch release contains specific authorization for the flight between specified
points. The dispatch release may be for a single flight or for a series of flights
with intermediate stops.
A. Required Dispatch Release Elements.
Inspectors must ensure that operators require that dispatch releases be recorded
in writing and contain at least the following information:
airport, intermediate stops, destination airports, and alternate airports
type of operation (IFR or VFR)
fuel quantity required by regulation at the start of each takeoff (does not
include taxi fuel)
B. Required Dispatch Release Attachments.
The regulations require that a dispatch release contain or have attached: available
weather reports, weather forecasts (or a combination thereof) for the destination
airport, intermediate stops, and alternate airports that are the latest available
at the time the release is signed by the pilot.
1) The term “available” reports include
2) Any additional weather reports or
forecasts that the PIC or the aircraft dispatcher considers necessary or desirable
must be included.
3) The operator must establish procedures
to en-sure, when a flight has been dispatched but is unable to depart as scheduled,
that the weather information is updated and is the latest available at the time
of actual departure (takeoff). The operator may include procedures in the GOM
to have the aircraft dispatcher forward to the flightcrew
any new weather information which may be operationally significant as soon as
practical after the aircraft departs.
4) To ensure that the weather information
is updated, the aircraft dispatcher must prepare a new dispatch when a flight
takes off and then returns to the point of departure.
C. Dispatch Release - Additional
Information and Conditions. While a dispatch release must contain the information
specified in previous subparagraphs A and B, it is not limited to that information.
Additional information and conditions should be placed on or attached to the
release. For example, when an inflight re-release
is planned, a statement to that effect should appear on the release. When a
flight is planned under conditions which could limit the
PIC’s discretion, those conditions should be indicated.
For example, when a flight can be legally and safely conducted over the most
direct route between two points, but not over possible alternate routings that
ATC might assign, that statement should be noted on the release. The regulations
require that the aircraft dispatcher report adverse weather to the PIC. Part
121.687(b) authorizes this notification to be attached to the dispatch release.
When an operator chooses this option, the operator should have a means for the
PIC to assure that all attachments are in the PIC’s
possession. One acceptable means an operator may use to inform the PIC that
there are or are not attachments is to place a statement to this effect on the
D. Parallel Runways. Parallel
runways of 1,000 feet or less separation present a special challenge to runway
safety. The Volpe Center has been analyzing runway incursions at the 35 busiest
airports for the Office of Runway Safety. This analysis revealed that a disproportionate
number of pilot deviations occur on parallel runways with separation of 1,000
feet or less. In a 2-year period (FY2000-2001), 53 percent of the pilot deviations
involving parallel runways occurred on 33 percent of the parallel runways that
are separated by 1,000 feet or less. Use of “high speed” runway turnoffs with
closely spaced parallel runways may be particularly problematic. A typical situation
involves a pilot who is instructed to “hold short” of the parallel runway after
landing and exiting off a high-speed runway turnoff. The pilot reads back the
“hold short” instruction correctly, but then fails to comply. The speed at which
the aircraft is traveling and the reduced distance between runways combine to
create a situation that increases the probability of a pilot crossing the hold
short lines and/or entering the adjacent runway. It is recommended that:
1) Air carriers identify all airports
where they operate that have parallel runways spaced 1,000 feet or less apart;
be informed of the increased risk of a runway incursion at those particular
3) A statement be included in the dispatch
release warning pilots of the increased risk of a runway incursion when dispatched
to one of the airports identified by the air carrier.
E. Dispatch Release Time Limits.
When an aircraft is released for a series of domestic flights, the aircraft
may only remain on the ground for one hour at the intermediate stop. If the
ground time exceeds one hour, a new dispatch release is required regardless
of the scheduled ground time.
F. Destination. An aircraft
dispatcher may designate any airport that is listed in
OpSpec C070 for the type of aircraft, as the destination for the purpose
of the original dispatch. When a flight is dispatched to or from a refueling,
alternate, or provisional airport, the requirements applicable to dispatch from
regular airports apply.
G. Airports Not Listed in OpSpec C070. An aircraft dispatcher may not
release a flight from an airport that is not listed in
OpSpec C070, unless the following criteria are met:
1) The airport and related facilities
are adequate for the operation of the airplane.
2) The operation is in compliance with
the limitations of the flight manual and OpSpecs.
3) The airplane has been dispatched
according to those rules applicable to dispatch from an approved airport.
4) The weather conditions for takeoff
are equal to or exceed that prescribed in
14 CFR part 97. Where minimums are not prescribed
for the airport, one of the following is required: a ceiling of 800 feet and
2 miles visibility, a ceiling of 900 feet and 1 and 1/2 miles visibility, or
a ceiling of 1,000 feet and 1 mile visibility.
3-1952. AMENDMENT OF A DISPATCH
RELEASE. In the absence of an emergency, a flight may only proceed to the
destination to which it was originally dispatched, and if the flight is unable
to land at the original destination, it may only proceed to the designated alternate
121.631 allows, however, for a dispatch release to be amended while the
flight is en route. An amendment may become necessary or desirable because the
conditions under which the flight was released have changed (unplanned re-release)
or because it may have been planned before departure (a preplanned, re-release).
A. Destination Weather Requirements
While En Route. Part
121.601(c) requires that aircraft dispatchers notify
PICs of any information on weather and facilities
that may affect the safety of flight while flights are airborne. Part
121 does not prohibit a flight from continuing toward a destination which
has gone below landing minimums or one which is forecast to be below landing
minimums at the ETA by a forecast issued after the flight has departed. For
example, there may be enough fuel on board to hold overhead the destination
until the weather is forecast to improve. Part
121.627(a) does, however, prohibit the PIC from continuing to the destination
when, in the opinion of either the PIC or the aircraft dispatcher, it is unsafe
to do so. POIs should verify that the operators
GOM provide guidance to both PICs and aircraft dispatchers
for dealing with these circumstances.
B. Alternate Weather Requirements
While En Route. Section
121.631(b) prohibits the flight from continuing to a destination airport
unless the weather conditions at the alternate airport (specified in the dispatch
release) are forecast to be at or above the required alternate minimums at the
ETA at the alternate airport.
1) An alternate airport may be named
which is below alternate minimums at the time of release, but which is forecast
to be above minimums at the ETA. POIs should verify
that the operator’s GOM contains specific procedures, however, for notifying
the PIC and monitoring the weather at the alternate airport when the selected
alternate airport is below minimums at departure. These procedures may require
the designation of a second alternate airport or that contingency fuel must
be carried on the flight.
2) Conditions other than ceiling and
visibility can affect minimums, such as navigational aids, runway lighting,
and snow removal operations. Aircraft dispatchers must monitor these factors
at designated alternate airports as well as ceiling and visibility.
3) When weather conditions permit,
many operators release flights without an alternate airport. In some instances
while the flight is en route, the destination weather may deteriorate to below
what was used to release the flight and to the point that an alternate airport
would have been required. The operator’s GOM should contain direction and guidance
to PICs and aircraft dispatchers on how to manage
such a situation.
4) The dispatch release may be amended
while the aircraft is en route to include any airport as an alternate that has
for that type of aircraft
· Is within
the fuel range of the aircraft
airport landing weather minimums
C. Requirements to Amend a Dispatch
121.631(c) requires that before a destination airport or an alternate airport
may be changed, the following requirements must be met:
· The change
must be jointly approved by the PIC and the aircraft dispatcher.
aircraft dispatcher must be thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather
conditions (including adverse weather) and the status of communications, navigation,
and airport facilities.
aircraft dispatcher must provide the information specified in previous subparagraph
2) to the PIC.
destination and alternate airports specified in the amended release must be
forecast to be above the weather minimums required in the operator’s
OpSpecs for the destination and alternate airports,
respectively, at the ETA.
aircraft must have sufficient fuel on board at the time and point that the release
was amended to complete the flight in compliance with the applicable fuel requirements
121.593 through §
121.661(n) and the aircraft performance requirements of §
· The transmission
of the redispatch message must be recorded by the
aircraft dispatcher, and its receipt must be recorded by the PIC.
D. Planned Re-Release. Planned
re-release operations are conducted to conserve fuel, to complete flights at
ranges which would otherwise be beyond the aircraft’s fuel capacity, and to
solve weather-related operational problems. A part
121 operator may only conduct planned redispatch
in extended overwater operations when authorized
by OpSpec B044 of the operator’s
Section 4 of this Chapter contains a discussion of planned re‑release procedures.
NOTE: OpSpec B044 does not apply
to the amendment of flightplans for domestic operations.
3-1953. LOAD MANIFESTS. Before
each flight, a load manifest must be completed as follows:
A. Content of the Manifest.
A domestic operator must prepare a load manifest containing the following:
· Weight of the
aircraft, fuel and oil, cargo, baggage, passengers, and crewmembers
allowable weight at which the flight can comply with the requirements of both
121, § 693(b)(i) and Subpart I of part
Volume 4, Chapter 3)
weight at takeoff
that the aircraft is loaded within weight and balance limitations
names (unless this information is maintained by other means)
B. Disposition of Flight Records.
The PIC must carry the following flight records to the destination airport.
The operator must retain these flight records for at least three months. The
POI must ensure that the operator’s storage methods and location provide reasonable
access for inspections. These flight records are as follows:
release (including required attachments)
3-1954. EN ROUTE TERRAIN CLEARANCE.
Subpart I of part
121 contains limitations on weights at which aircraft may be dispatched
due to terrain clearance requirements. While these limitations apply to all
types of aircraft operated under part
121, they are particularly restrictive to two-engine aircraft operated in
the western part of the U.S. Inspectors should be aware that to meet the limitations
of Subpart I, operators may be required to limit takeoff weights or list en
route alternate airports on the dispatch release (see
Volume 4, Chapter 3).
RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-1955 through 3-1970.