3-2141. GENERAL. Enhanced weather information systems (EWINS) incorporate
advanced technical capabilities, are approved by the Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA), and provide certificate holders with aviation weather data which permits
quick, flexible, and operationally efficient responses to changing meteorological
conditions. These systems detect, track, report, and forecast ordinary weather
conditions as accurately as they do adverse weather phenomena. An EWINS uses
reported and forecast weather conditions not only to aid in controlling daily
flight movements, but also to permit short and long term operational planning
for enhancing an operatorís capability to protect schedules and to use equipment
and personnel with maximum efficiency.
3-2142. CONCEPT OF AN EWINS. The basic concept of an EWINS is to
use a weather information system for maximum effectiveness in tracking, evaluating,
reporting and forecasting the presence or absence of adverse weather phenomena.
The basic requirement of an EWINS is it must always incorporate a subsystem
capable of obtaining, evaluating, and disseminating reports and forecasts of
adverse weather phenomena. Adverse weather phenomena, by definition, can directly
diminish flight operation safety. Consequently, an Adverse Weather Phenomena
Report and Forecasting subsystem must effectively, rapidly, and reliably process
weather information from the time the information is obtained from approved
sources until it is used by flightcrews and other operational control personnel
in making decisions concerning the control of flight movements.
3-2143. CHARACTERISTIC FUNCTIONS OF AN EWINS. There are three basic
functions of an EWINS. These functions are an inward flow of weather information,
analysis and evaluation of the information, and an outward flow of the information
in an operationally appropriate format. Additional components include a policies
and procedures manual, training programs, quality assurance procedures, work
facilities, and equipment.
A. An EWINS must include sufficient procedures, personnel,
and communication and data processing equipment, to effectively obtain the aeronautical
weather data described in
section 2 from approved sources. The communication and data processing equipment
and procedures must include back up capabilities to provide uninterrupted operation
should any single component of the system fail.
B. An EWINS must have the necessary qualified personnel, procedures,
and equipment for effective analysis and evaluation of aeronautical weather
data and of the affect of changing weather conditions on current and future
operations. Based on conclusions derived from EWINS data, authorized personnel
may prepare and issue flight movement forecasts, forecasts of adverse weather
phenomena, and other meteorological advisories to control flight operations.
Personnel authorized to analyze and evaluate weather data for the purpose of
making and issuing forecasts must be trained and qualified in accordance with
paragraphs 3-2146 and 3-2147.
C. An EWINS must have the necessary communication systems,
data processing equipment, procedures, and personnel to provide rapid, timely,
and reliable dissemination of weather information used to make operational decisions.
Flight movement forecasts, adverse weather phenomena forecasts, and any other
meteorological advisories must be appropriately disseminated to flightcrews
during preflight planning and while they are en route. The same information
must be provided to other operational control elements within the operatorís
3-2144. FAA POLICIES CONCERNING EWINS. The following are FAA policy
statements concerning EWINS used by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations
(14 CFR) Parts
A. Each EWINS must be approved by the FAA. FAA approval of
an EWINS includes approval of an Adverse Weather Phenomena Reporting and Forecasting
subsystem and requires certificate holders to use that subsystem.
B. An EWINS must provide rapid and reliable dissemination of
weather data through communication channels independent of any air traffic control
C. Each EWINS includes capabilities for continuous quality
assurance and authoritative procedures for correcting discovered deficiencies.
D. Except for provisions for quality assurance, any other appropriate
part of an EWINS may be owned and/or operated by a private weather company,
private communication company, or by another U.S. Parts
E. An aviation meteorologist or a dispatcher with FMF authority
must continuously be on duty when any flight operations are in progress.
F. Properly trained and qualified aviation meteorologists and
dispatchers with FMF authority who operate an EWINS may be authorized to prepare
and issue flight movement forecasts.
G. Flight movement forecasts are official weather forecasts
which control specific flight operations for a particular operator.
H. Aeronautical weather data provided by an EWINS satisfies
all regulatory requirements for each Part
121 and/or Part
135 certificate holder specifically authorized to use a particular EWINS.
3-2145. EWINS POLICIES AND PROCEDURES MANUAL.
A. Responsibility for Preparing an EWINS Manual. A certificate
holder or a combination of certificate holders and noncertified organizations
may jointly operate an EWINS. The operator or operators of an EWINS must develop,
prepare, and keep current an EWINS policies and procedures manual.
1) If an EWINS is operated by a single certificate holder that
certificate holder shall be responsible for preparation and currency of an EWINS
policies and procedures manual. This manual shall be incorporated as part of
the manual requirements of section
121.133 or section
2) If an EWINS is cooperatively or contractually operated by
more than one organization (at least one of which must be a certificate holder
authorized to operate under Part
121 or Part
135)), the EWINS policies and procedures manual must establish who is responsible
for preparing and keeping the manual current. Each cooperating certificate holder
must incorporate appropriate provisions of the EWINS manual in its manual.
3) A certificate holder who does not operate an EWINS and does
not participate with others in a cooperative EWINS arrangement may, through
contractual arrangements, acquire aeronautical meteorological data from an approved
EWINS. In this case the certificate holder must use all the weather products
provided by the approved EWINS for control of its flight operations. The contracting
certificate holder must incorporate in its manual appropriate provisions of
the approved EWINS policies and procedures manual. Additionally, the contracting
certificate holderís manual must contain specific restrictions on use of forecasts
from sources other than the approved EWINS.
B. Content of an EWINS Manual. A EWINS policies and procedures
manual must include descriptions of the structure of the EWINS and how the EWINS
operates. This manual must provide information concerning the following areas:
The location of the primary meteorological office.
Descriptions of, and instructions for, using communications and data processing
2) Weather Sources:
A list of sources for weather reports.
A list of sources for weather forecasts.
Conditions and limitations for use of private weather services as sources for
reports and forecasts.
Qualification standards for dispatchers with FMF authority and aviation meteorologists.
Training requirements for dispatchers with FMF authority and aviation meteorologists.
Staffing requirements for the EWINS.
4) Operating Policies and Procedures:
Detailed procedures for obtaining, evaluating, and disseminating aviation weather.
Procedures for obtaining PIREPs/AIREPs.
Procedures for operating in areas affected by adverse weather.
A description of the EWINS interface with dispatch/operational control elements.
Normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures.
The identification, authorization, and responsibility of persons permitted to
make flight movement forecasts.
5) Quality Assurance Procedures:
Procedures to assure accuracy of the EWINS weather reports and forecasts.
Procedures to measure effectiveness of the EWINS communication capabilities.
Policies and procedures for correcting deficiencies detected within an EWINS.
3-2146. PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS. Aviation meteorologists and dispatchers
with FMF authority who are part of an EWINS must meet the following special
A. Aviation Meteorologist. An aviation meteorologist must have
a degree in meteorology (or its equivalent) awarded by an accredited university
or college and be certified by his employer as competent to perform aviation
forecasting duties. Each EWINS operator must have a program which ensures that
aviation meteorologists understand that their professional actions influence
aviation safety, and the required operational and regulatory responsibilities
for persons using meteorologistsí forecasts. In addition, aviation meteorologists
must receive briefings, as necessary, to obtain current information on changes
to the operations controlled by their forecasts. A briefing and training scheme
for aviation meteorologists must be included in the EWINS policies and procedures
manual. Training can be self-directed study, briefings, and/or formal training.
It must include information on weather requirements of 14 CFR which regulate
certificate holders who use the EWINS. Traditional types of professional meteorological
training are encouraged.
B. Dispatcher with FMF Authority. A dispatcher, who has satisfactorily
completed an approved training program which includes the training specified
in paragraph 3-2147, may be authorized by his employer to make and issue flight
3-2147. TRAINING FOR DISPATCHERS WITH FMF AUTHORITY
A. Dispatchers shall not be authorized to make and issue flight
movement forecasts unless they have satisfactorily completed an FAA approved
initial training course in meteorology. In addition, dispatchers with FMF authority
must satisfactorily complete an FAA-approved recurrent training course in meteorology
at least once every 24 months. Recurrent training modules may be scheduled at
periodic intervals that provide for a complete cycle of recurrent meteorological
training every 24 months. Any dispatcher with FMF authority who is also assigned
duties in domestic or flag operations under Part
121 must satisfactorily complete the training and qualification requirements
specified in Subparts N and P of Part
121 in addition to the meteorological training specified in this paragraph.
Any meteorological training required by Subpart N, however, is satisfied by
the meteorological training specified in this paragraph.
B. Approved initial and recurrent meteorological training curriculum
segments must include training in at least the following subjects:
1) Basic Properties of the Atmosphere:
Use of cloud knowledge in forecasting
Stability and instability
3) Air Mass Analysis:
Use of air mass knowledge in forecasting
4) Analysis of Fronts:
Structure and characteristics
Cloud sequences in fronts
Establishing positions of fronts by cloud types
Fronts and seasonal variations
Flying weather in fronts
Cyclones and anticyclones
Cause and formation
Cause and formation
7) Thunderstorms, Hurricanes, Tornadoes:
Methods of forecasting
Structure and complexity of internal winds
Hail (cause and formation)
Determining the smooth level of flights
10) Interpreting Weather Data:
Weather sequences and symbols
Weather map symbols
Drawing a weather map
Reading a weather map
Upper level charts
Winds aloft charts
Instruments used to gather and record weather data
Radar products and images
Satellite products and images
11) Weather Forecasting:
Movement of fronts and air masses
Use of advanced technology in weather forecasting techniques
12) Application of Weather Knowledge:
Oceanic (if applicable)
International (if applicable)
3-2148. APPROVAL OF AN EWINS.
A. Requests for Approval. Parts
135 operators are not required to use an EWINS. These operators, however,
may elect to establish and use an EWINS. All EWINS must be approved by the FAA.
An operator or group of operators choosing to establish an EWINS must make a
written request for approval. The letter must describe the planned EWINS in
sufficient detail to allow the POI (or POIs) to evaluate the proposal. The letter
must be accompanied by the proposed EWINS policy and procedures manual, details
of any contractual arrangements, and resumes of the key personnel employed by
any commercial weather service to be involved in the proposed EWINS.
B. Evaluations and Inspections of an EWINS. Before approving
an EWINS, POIs must evaluate the material submitted with the request for approval
and conduct inspections of the facilities, equipment, and other components.
POIs must also verify the professional qualifications and training of aviation
meteorologists and dispatchers with FMF authority who will be used in the EWINS.
When the POI has determined the proposed EWINS has the characteristic functions
described in paragraph 3-2143, and complies with the FAA policy statements in
paragraph 3‑2144, and meets the criteria specified in paragraphs 3-2145 through
3-2147, the EWINS may be approved.
C. Approval or Denial of an EWINS.
1) Approval for a certificate holder to use an EWINS shall be
accomplished by issuing operations specifications Operations Specification (OpSpec
) A010 with reference to the EWINS policy and procedures manual to be used by
the operator. The original date of the EWINS manual, and the last revision date,
shall also be referenced in OpSpec A010. Any revisions to the EWINS and/or the
EWINS manual should be evaluated and inspected by the FAA as soon as possible,
but not later than 15 days after the revision is made.
2) If, after evaluation and inspection, the POI determines a
proposed EWINS does not meet the requirements of this handbook, all submitted
materials shall be returned to the operator with an explanatory letter. This
letter must state the proposed EWINS is not approved and clearly explain why.
If an EWINS has been approved, and a POI determines later that the EWINS does
not continue to meet the requirements of this handbook, the POI shall immediately
inform the certificate holder. If the certificate holder does not take immediate
and appropriate corrective action the POI must take action to amend paragraph
A010 of the operations specifications and rescind approval of the EWINS.
RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-2149. through 3-2165.