3-2481. THE ABORTED
TAKEOFF DEMONSTRATION—PHASE ONE.
A. The regulatory
requirements previously outlined in this chapter identify the three occasions
when a Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations
(14 CFR) part 121 or
125 operator must conduct an emergency evacuation demonstration. An emergency
evacuation demonstration is required when the operator proposes to operate a
specific airplane type and model:
For the first time (either a new or existing operator)
When there is a “significant change” in the number of flight attendants, their
seating location, their evacuation duties, or emergency procedures (as determined
by the principal operations inspector (POI) or Cabin Safety Inspector (CSI))
When there is a change in the number, location, type of emergency exits, or
type of opening mechanism on the emergency exits used for aircraft evacuation
(as determined by the Air Transportation Division (AFS-200) or the General Aviation
and Commercial Division (AFS-800), as appropriate).
NOTE: All determinations about significant changes and the need
for an evacuation demonstration will be made by the POI and CSI, if applicable.
This determination should be coordinated by the POI with the regional office,
through the certificate holding district office (CHDO). If needed, the regional
office may coordinate with AFS-200 or AFS-800 as appropriate.
NOTE: If an operator proposes to conduct operations with an
aircraft configured with less than 44 seats (even though the aircraft may have
been previously type-certificated with more than 44 seats) neither a full-scale
nor a partial demonstration is required.
B. When an operator’s
situation meets one or more of these conditions, the principal inspector (or
Certification Project Manager (CPM)) must determine the requirement for either
a full-scale or a partial aborted takeoff evacuation demonstration.
1) A full-scale demonstration
is required in the following situations:
a) When the airplane type
and model and its proposed full passenger seating capacity has not been previously
demonstrated by another United States (U.S.) operator (in accordance with
14 CFR part 121 §
121.291(a) in effect on October 24, 1967) or §
125.189(a) or by a U.S. or foreign manufacturer (in accordance with
14 CFR part 25 §
25.803 in effect on December 1, 1978 and §
121.291(a) or §
b) When an airplane has
undergone a change in its exit configuration and/or design (as determined by
AFS-200 or AFS-800 as appropriate).
2) A partial demonstration
is required in the following situations:
a) When an airplane (new
to an operator) has previously had a full-scale demonstration, conducted by
125 operator or a manufacturer, for the maximum seating configuration to
be used by the operator acquiring the airplane.
b) When the operator is
undergoing original certification.
c) If the POI determines
that a change has occurred in the number of flight attendants, their location,
or their duties and emergency procedures.
d) If AFS-200 or AFS-800,
as appropriate determines a change has occurred in seating configuration, exits,
or some other material alteration of the airplane’s original design that would
require a partial demonstration.
C. The most commonly
performed demonstration is the partial aborted takeoff emergency evacuation
demonstration. The general criteria (with the exception of the 15 second time
limit and passenger participants) is similar to the full-scale aborted takeoff
demonstration. For the purposes of this handbook, the discussion of the partial
and full‑scale evacuation demonstration process is combined into one section.
Additional requirements, exclusively imposed by the full-scale evacuation demonstration,
are shown in an appropriately titled box, as in the following illustration.
Table 3-116, Box for Additional Requirements for Full-Scale
OPERATOR ON DEMONSTRATION REQUIREMENTS. After the principal inspectors (CPM
if applicable) determine whether a partial or full-scale demonstration is required,
the operator must develop a plan outlining the manner in which the demonstration
is to be conducted. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) inspectors must meet
with the operator as often as necessary to ensure the operator clearly understands
which documents and information are required for the plan to be accepted for
evaluation. The operator shall be given the following information in addition
to the specific information described in paragraph 3-2483 of this section.
A. Full-Scale Demonstration.
In a full-scale aborted takeoff emergency evacuation demonstration, the operator
must assemble a representative passenger complement in accordance with part
121, appendix D(a)(7) or part 125, appendix B(a)(7). The operator must ensure the passenger participants
meet the following criteria before conducting the demonstration. If passenger
participants do not meet the criteria, the operator shall be required to repeat
1) They must be representative
of a normal passenger complement as outlined in the following table.
Table 3-117, Normal Passenger Complement
of which at least
15% must be female.
The “life-sized dolls” referred to above must be carried by passengers
to simulate infants two years or younger.
3) None of the passengers
may be crewmembers, mechanics, or training personnel who maintain or operate
4) No employee of the certificate
holder or manufacturer may be seated next to an exit.
5) It may not always be
possible to have children of ages 3 through 11 participating in a full-scale
evacuation demonstration due to child labor laws in force in certain localities.
In these situations a proportionate mix of the overall passenger complement
may be substituted.
B. The operator
may not practice, rehearse, or describe the demonstration for the passengers
nor may any participant have taken part in this type of demonstration within
the preceding six months.
C. Company officials,
such as directors of operations and maintenance or their representatives, must
be available at the site for either a full-scale or partial demonstration. These
individuals must have authority to direct modifications to the emergency evacuation
demonstration plan at the time of the demonstration. Additionally, they must
be able to respond to FAA requirements for specific corrective actions due to
deficiencies which occur during the demonstration. Other company personnel present
at the demonstration site should have a direct role in conducting the demonstration.
The company should be informed that, although other company personnel may observe
the demonstration, it is the company’s responsibility to ensure that these persons
do not pose a distraction or affect the demonstration’s outcome.
D. The company should
provide safety personnel at strategic locations around the aircraft to protect
passenger participant evacuees in a full-scale evacuation demonstration. Safety
personnel shall not provide any assistance to crewmembers such as positioning
slides, assisting evacuees through exits, or in any manner that contributes
to the efficiency of the evacuation. Safety personnel are used only to ensure
passengers are not injured from accidents such as slipping off wings or falling
E. Non-company personnel,
who are not FAA personnel, must have specific reasons to observe the emergency
evacuation demonstration. Usually these individuals will be representatives
of the aircraft manufacturer, manufacturers of other items of equipment used
during the demonstration, or other such organizations which have a direct interest
in aviation safety.
F. The flight attendant
complement must consist of the minimum number of flight attendants which the
operator proposes to use on the airplane during part
125 operations, and in no case shall the minimum number be less than that
specified in §
G. The airplane
must be positioned in a normal ground attitude and configured for takeoff. Each
passenger compartment door or curtain must be positioned as it would be for
a normal takeoff.
3-2483. THE OPERATOR’S
121.291(c)(2) requires the operator to obtain FAA approval before conducting
the emergency evacuation demonstration (full-scale or partial). The operator
should submit the plan as far in advance as possible. However, FAA policy is
that the plan must be submitted at least 30 working days in advance of a full-scale
demonstration and 15 working days in advance of a partial demonstration. The
operator’s plan shall contain the following information:
A. A letter of request
which states the following:
1) The applicable regulation
121.291(a) or (b) or
125.189(a) or with deviation authority), which requires a full-scale or
partial emergency evacuation demonstration be conducted.
2) The airplane type and
model and full seating capacity (including crewmembers) to be demonstrated.
Section 9 lists the maximum seating capacity previously demonstrated for
air transport category airplanes used in part
3) The number of flight
attendants and their duty assignment positions to be used during the demonstration.
4) The proposed date, time,
and location of the evacuation demonstration.
5) The name and telephone
number of the company’s evacuation demonstration coordinator (spokesman).
6) For a full-scale demonstration,
a statement that the representative passenger complement will meet the requirements
set forth in part
121, appendix D, (a)(7) or part
125, appendix B, (a)(7).
7) A clear description
of how the operator proposes to initiate the demonstration, the signal to be
used for the purpose of timing, and how the operator intends to block exits
which are not to be used, must also be in the plan. The operator must understand
that the signal has to be given to both cabin and ground personnel simultaneously
to initiate the demonstration. It should be emphasized that the operator is
responsible for developing the initiation procedure and the method for blocking
exits. The team leader will thoroughly review this procedure for adequacy.
B. A diagram, representative
of the airplane to be demonstrated, which includes the following:
1) The location and designation
of all exits by type and the designated exit pairs.
2) The assigned seating
location of each required crewmember during takeoff.
3) The interior cabin configuration
showing the location of each passenger seat, the galleys, aisles, lavatories,
and passenger compartment partitions and bulkheads.
4) The location and type
of emergency and safety equipment on the aircraft including, but not limited
Portable oxygen bottles/masks
Life rafts/slide rafts/emergency stairs
Individual flotation devices or life preservers
First aid and emergency medical kits and protective gloves
Protective Breathing Equipment
Automated External Defibrillator (if applicable)
Enhanced Emergency Medical Kits (if applicable)
Survival Kits (if applicable)
Door Warning Flag (door arm strap, if applicable)
Signaling Devices (overwater)
Survival Radios (overwater)
Door Restraining/Barrier Strap (if applicable)
C. Copies of the
appropriate crewmember manual pages describing emergency evacuation duties and
D. A copy of the
passenger safety information briefing card which will be used on the aircraft
during revenue operations.
E. A description
of the emergency equipment installed on the aircraft including at least the
type and model of each item of equipment, as applicable.
F. A list of crewmembers
(both flight deck and cabin), who are or will be qualified to participate in
the demonstration must be in the operator’s plan. The flightcrew must be qualified
in the aircraft to be used however; the initial operating experience requirement
need not be completed. Flight attendant personnel (in accordance with § 121.291(c)(3)) must have completed an FAA-approved training program for
the type and model of aircraft being demonstrated. Flight attendants designated
by the FAA to participate in the demonstration shall not be provided emergency
training or aircraft emergency equipment familiarization more than that specified
in the operator’s approved training program before the demonstration.
NOTE: The flightcrew must take no active role in assisting others
inside the cabin during the demonstration.
G. A description
must be in the plan of how the operator will ensure the demonstration is conducted
in the “dark of the night,” or in conditions which simulate the “dark of the
night.” The regulations do not define “dark of the night.” For the purpose of
emergency evacuation demonstrations, “dark of the night” means a level of illumination
that approximates the natural illumination that occurs 90 minutes after official
sunset under clear sky conditions. This lower level of illumination is needed
to properly evaluate the airplane’s emergency lighting system and passenger
and crewmember performance in darkened conditions. Levels of illumination significantly
darker can interfere with a proper evaluation of the demonstration. Therefore,
this approximate level of illumination should be maintained by natural or artificial
means. The most effective way of controlling the level of illumination is to
conduct the demonstration in a darkened hangar. Part
121, appendix D, (a)(1) or part
125, appendix B(a), specifies that the full evacuation demonstration must
be conducted during the “dark of the night.” Although §
121.291(c) and deviation authority for part 125 stipulates criteria for the “partial” demonstration, it does not specifically
require “dark of the night” conditions. It is FAA policy that such conditions
are required for evaluating the aircraft’s emergency lighting system and the
performance of the crewmembers in a darkened environment. The use of window
shades in the down or partially lowered position could also be effective in
achieving the objective of “dark of the night” in the cabin by preventing exterior
lighting from entering the cabin. The combination of the interior cabin lights
set to simulate a night-time departure in conjunction with the window shades
in the down or partially lowered position may provide a more definitive indication
of the activation of the cabin interior emergency lights and the commencement
of the demonstration drill. Additionally, window shades in the down or partially
lowered position could maintain flight attendant concentration inside the aircraft
and be prevented from observing predemonstration activities occurring outside
the aircraft. The use of window shades in the down or partially lowered position
should not conflict with established carrier procedures on the position of window
shades for the demonstration drill. For example, if there are no windows at
the exit the and the carrier has established a procedure of having window shades
in the open or up position for takeoff and landing because that cabin configuration
is needed to provide a means for flight attendant assessment duties, in that
case the demonstration drill should replicate that cabin configuration. The
FAA team leader should exercise good judgment if the window shades are to be
placed in the down or partially lowered position for the demonstration drill.
H. A description
of how the operator plans to ensure that the airplane is positioned in a location,
either indoors or outdoors, which will allow the unobstructed deployment of
all emergency stairs, evacuation slides or slide rafts, as applicable.
3-2484. THE ABORTED
TAKEOFF DEMONSTRATION: PHASE TWO. When the operator’s emergency evacuation
demonstration plan is submitted, the principal inspectors or the certification
team, if applicable, must make a cursory review of the submission to ensure
all the required information and documents discussed in phase one are included.
While a thorough analysis of the submission is conducted during phase three,
in phase two the FAA should respond to the operator’s plan in a timely manner.
Minor omissions or deficiencies can often be resolved by contacting the company’s
evacuation demonstration coordinator. If discrepancies can be resolved quickly,
the process moves to phase three. If the operator’s plan has a significant number
of required items or documents missing or is obviously incomplete, the entire
submission must be returned to the operator with a written explanation of why
it is unacceptable. The operator shall be advised that FAA will take no further
action until an acceptable plan is submitted.
3-2485. THE ABORTED
TAKEOFF DEMONSTRATION: PHASE THREE. During phase three the principal inspectors
or the certification team, if applicable, conduct a thorough analysis and evaluation
of the operator’s plan.
A. The principal
inspectors (or CPM, if applicable) must ensure that the information in or attached
to the operator’s letter of request is acceptable and consistent with the proposed
type of demonstration. During this analysis and review the POI shall ensure
1) FAA has approved operator’s
emergency training program.
2) Evacuation procedures
in the operator’s manuals, including individual crewmember assignments, are
realistic, can be practically accomplished, and comply with §
(b) or §
3) The passenger safety
information briefing card is understandable and consistent with the type and
model of airplane to be demonstrated. Guidance is provided in the most recent
AC 121-24, Passenger Safety Information Briefing and Briefing Cards.
4) The emergency equipment
is acceptable for the type of operation proposed.
B. Certain items
in the proposal may require on-site evaluations. For example, the hangar or
ramp area the operator intends to use for the demonstration should be inspected
for its adequacy. The inspector should determine that the operator has, or is
making provisions for participant safety during the demonstration including
the use of safety observers, stands, padding, mats, and any other appropriate
noted during this analysis and review must be resolved with the company’s evacuation
demonstration coordinator. If major discrepancies surface during the FAA evaluation
or if FAA and the operator are unable to resolve significant issues, the operator’s
plan must be returned with a letter explaining why it is being returned. The
operator shall be informed that the discrepancies outlined in the letter must
be corrected and a plan resubmitted before the FAA takes further action. If,
after a detailed evaluation, the submission is found acceptable, the operator
shall be notified that it has been accepted by FAA.
3-2486. THE ABORTED
TAKEOFF DEMONSTRATION: PHASE FOUR. During phase four, FAA plans, observes,
and evaluates the operator’s aborted takeoff emergency evacuation demonstration.
The planning segment of this phase is particularly important and normally requires
thorough coordination and clear instruction and guidance for both FAA and company
participants to ensure that the demonstration is conducted and evaluated objectively.
Specific guidance and instruction for planning and conducting the full-scale
and partial aborted takeoff evacuation demonstrations are in
3-2487. THE ABORTED
TAKEOFF DEMONSTRATION: PHASE FIVE. Upon successful completion of an aborted
takeoff emergency evacuation demonstration, the operator shall be immediately
notified at the site of the demonstration. The results of the demonstration
are reported as specified in
section 6. The maximum demonstrated passenger seating capacity and the minimum
required number of flight attendants for that airplane type and model must be
listed and approved in Part A, paragraph A003 of the operations specifications.
RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-2488 through 3-2505.