Volume 3 General technical administration
chapter 30 EMERGENCY EVACUATION AND DITCHING DEMONSTRATIONS
Section 7 Safety Assurance System: Evaluate
14 CFR Part
121 Emergency Evacuation/Ditching Procedures/Demonstrations
3-2611 OBJECTIVE. This section provides guidance for conducting Title
14 of the Code of Federal Regulations
(14 CFR) part
121 emergency evacuation and ditching demonstrations.
A. Safety Assurance System (SAS). Use the following Data Collection Tools
· 2.3.1 (OP), Appropriate Operational Equipment,
· 5.1.1 (OP), Training of Flight Attendants,
· 5.2.1 (OP), Crewmembers Duties/Cabin Procedures, and
· 4.4.4 (AW), Aircraft Acceptance Process.
1) Dark of Night: A level of illumination approximating the natural
level of light that occurs 90 minutes after official sunset under clear sky
2) Extended Overwater Operations: Flights conducted at a horizontal
distance of more than 50 nautical miles (NM) from the nearest shoreline.
3) Passengers: Participants in the demonstrations who represent
aircraft passengers. These individuals may not be crewmembers, mechanics, or
121 operators must conduct an emergency evacuation demonstration for any
aircraft having a seating configuration of more than 44 passenger seats.
2) A ditching demonstration must be conducted for any land aircraft
intended for extended overwater operations.
3) The need to conduct full-scale or partial demonstrations depends
primarily upon whether a full-scale demonstration has been conducted previously
by another part
121 operator or a manufacturer.
4) The demonstrations test the following:
· The operator’s emergency training program,
· Crewmember competency,
· The operator’s emergency evacuation and ditching procedures, and
· The reliability and capability of the emergency equipment on the
C. Manufacturer Demonstrations.
1) Aircraft manufacturers must conduct emergency evacuation demonstrations
to obtain type certification. These demonstrations are the responsibility of
the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aircraft Certification Office (ACO).
2) The demonstrations test the following:
· The basic aircraft design,
· The efficiency with which passengers can be safely evacuated from
· The aircraft’s emergency evacuation systems (EES), and
· The manufacturer’s FAA-approved emergency evacuation procedures.
D. Regulatory Requirements. 14 CFR §
25.803, and part
121 appendix D specify four types of evacuation demonstrations:
· Full-scale emergency evacuation,
· Partial emergency evacuation,
· Full-scale ditching, and
· Partial ditching.
E. Maximum Demonstrated Seating Capacities. To determine whether
full-scale or partial emergency evacuation demonstrations are required, the
Aviation Safety Inspector (ASI), must know the maximum number of passenger seats
for specific air transport category aircraft used in part
121 operations. This information, along with data regarding interior configurations
and other relevant factors, can be obtained through the following offices:
· The Seattle Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG) (Northwest Mountain
Region (ANM)) for large aircraft,
· The Central (AEG) (Central Region (ACE)) for small aircraft, or
· The Southwest (AEG) (Southwest Region (ASW)) for helicopters.
3-2613 FULL-SCALE EMERGENCY EVACUATION DEMONSTRATION. A full-scale
emergency evacuation demonstration simulates an aborted takeoff. The operator
must show that the aircraft, emergency equipment, and emergency procedures allow
the evacuation of the aircraft at full seating capacity, including crewmembers,
in 90 seconds or less.
A. An operator must conduct a full-scale emergency evacuation
demonstration when there has been no previous demonstration of the aircraft
type and model by another part
121 operator or by a manufacturer during type certification.
B. A demonstration is required if an operator proposes to increase
seating capacity for a type and model of aircraft beyond that which has been
C. Under certain circumstances described in §
25.803, the ACO may designate installed passenger seats to be unoccupied
for a manufacturer’s demonstration. However, the number of passengers a part
121 operator may carry is the total number of passengers occupying seats
during a full-scale evacuation demonstration and not the number of installed
3-2614 PARTIAL EMERGENCY EVACUATION DEMONSTRATION. The partial demonstration
simulates an aborted takeoff and requires that the flight attendants (F/A) occupy
their normal takeoff positions before the demonstration begins.
A. After the initiation signal, the aircraft’s emergency evacuation
equipment and 50 percent of the required emergency exits and slides must be
ready for use in 15 seconds or less. No passengers are used in a partial demonstration.
B. A partial demonstration is required when an operator intends
to add to the operation a type and model of aircraft for which either a part
121 operator or an aircraft manufacturer has conducted a full-scale emergency
1) Number. A partial demonstration is required if:
· A change in seating configuration requires the addition of a F/A
· Changes in seating capacity result in fewer or the same number
of F/As, but the F/A duties and procedures change significantly.
2) Location. If an operator changes a F/A seating assignment,
the ASI must determine if the F/A’s duties and responsibilities change significantly.
A significant change requires a partial demonstration.
3) Duties and Procedures. If an operator makes significant changes
in emergency evacuation duties or procedures, the ASI may determine a partial
demonstration to be necessary. If the changes are minor or can be addressed
in the operator’s training program, a demonstration may not be required.
4) Determining “Significant Change.” The ASI must consider the
following in determining the degree and significance of changes:
· F/A knowledge and experience,
· The operator’s training program, and
· The increase in complexity of F/A duties in terms of additional
exits, seats, or briefing responsibilities.
C. The need for a demonstration must be coordinated with the
appropriate ACO and the Director of Flight Standards Service (AFS-1) when the
operator changes the following:
· The number, location, and/or type of emergency exits or
· The type of opening mechanisms on the emergency exits.
3-2615 FULL-SCALE DITCHING DEMONSTRATION. The ditching demonstration
simulates a planned water landing and evaluates the operator’s ability to prepare
passengers, aircraft, and ditching equipment.
A. During the demonstration, the following areas are evaluated:
· The emergency training program,
· Ditching procedures,
· Crewmember competency, and
· Equipment reliability and capability.
121.291(d) requires an operator who intends to operate an aircraft in extended
overwater operations to conduct a ditching demonstration. A full-scale ditching
demonstration is necessary if no part
121 certificate holder has performed one for the proposed type and model
C. Passengers are used in ditching demonstrations only when required
by an operator’s procedures to assist in removing and launching life rafts.
Passengers shall receive no instructions before the demonstration except for
those contained in the operator’s manual.
D. It is FAA policy to use an aircraft for all ditching demonstrations.
An operator proposing to use a life-sized mockup or a floating device to conduct
the demonstration must first have the approval of AFS-1.
E. Stands must be in place at each emergency exit and wing. During
type certification, ditching emergency exits must be above the calculated waterline
which would exist were the aircraft at rest in the water. The operator should
obtain waterline and ditching exit information from the manufacturer. The tops
of the stands must be positioned at the calculated waterline.
F. Regulations do not specify a maximum time limit for the demonstration.
However, six minutes is considered the maximum time acceptable to prepare for
ditching, from the ditching announcement to the simulated water landing.
3-2616 PARTIAL DITCHING DEMONSTRATION. Section §
121.291(e) allows an operator to conduct a partial ditching demonstration
if a full-scale ditching demonstration for the proposed type and model of aircraft
has been conducted by another part
3-2617 MANUFACTURER-CONDUCTED DEMONSTRATION. Manufacturers of transport
category aircraft having more than 44 passenger seats must conduct a full-scale
demonstration in order to be issued a type certificate (TC). The manufacturer’s
demonstration must be conducted according to the requirements of §
A. The ACO has primary responsibility for planning, conducting,
and evaluating manufacturer emergency evacuation demonstrations.
B. The requirements of §
25.803 were upgraded to be equivalent to those required by part
121. This was done so that one demonstration would suffice for both the
issuance of an aircraft TC and compliance with the operational requirements
121.291. Coordination with Flight Standards personnel is necessary to ensure
compliance with operational requirements.
1) If the manufacturer wants the demonstration to serve both
the certification requirements of §
25.803(c) and the operational requirements of §
121.291(a), the demonstration shall be conducted according to part
121 appendix D.
2) The Air Transportation Division (AFS-200) and the ACO must
concur on the acceptability of the manufacturer’s plan.
3) Flight Standards personnel must participate in the actual
4) In the absence of U.S. purchasers for an aircraft, crewmembers
used in a manufacturer’s evacuation demonstration must be trained in a program
similar to the emergency evacuation portion of training programs approved under
121. This ensures that the full-scale evacuation demonstration will also
meet the requirements of §
3-2618 INCREASING SEATING CAPACITY BY ANALYSES AND TESTS, 14 CFR PART
A. Use of Analysis and Test Data. A combination of analyses and
tests may be used to show that an aircraft can be evacuated within 90 seconds
under the conditions specified in §
25.803(c). The analysis and test data must show that the emergency evacuation
capability is equivalent to that shown in an actual demonstration. If the Administrator
accepts the data, a demonstration need not be conducted.
B. Limitations of Test Data. FAA policy prohibits the use of
analyses and tests to increase seating capacity more than five percent above
that established by a full-scale evacuation demonstration.
C. Approval of Test Data. A five percent increase in seating
capacity cannot be approved without the analyses and test data being evaluated
by the ACO. AFS-1 will forward any request to increase up to five percent through
the analysis and test method to the appropriate ACO.
D. Restrictions. The operator is not allowed, under any circumstances,
to increase passenger capacity beyond the maximum exit capacity of the aircraft.
A. Representative Passenger Complement. In a full-scale aborted
takeoff emergency evacuation demonstration, the operator must assemble a representative
passenger complement. Before conducting the demonstration, the operator must
ensure that the participants meet the appropriate criteria. If participants
do not meet the criteria, the operator must repeat the demonstration.
1) Participants must be representative of a normal passenger
complement as follows:
Table 3-119. Normal Passenger Complement
Adult Males and Females (proportional mix)
Children (prorated by age)
2) The “life-sized dolls” referred to above must be carried by
passengers to simulate infants two years old or younger.
3) No employee of a certificate holder or manufacturer may be
seated next to an exit.
4) Because of child labor laws in some localities, it may not
always be possible to have children between the ages of 3 and 11 participating
in full-scale evacuation demonstrations. In these situations, a proportional
mix of the overall passenger complement may be substituted.
5) The operator may not practice, rehearse, or describe the demonstration
for the passengers, nor may any participant have taken part in this type of
demonstration within the preceding six months.
B. Company Officials. Company officials, such as Directors of
Operations and Maintenance, must be available at the site of the demonstration.
1) The company officials present must have the authority to modify
the demonstration plan on site.
2) They must be able to respond to FAA requirements for specific
corrective actions for deficiencies that occur during the demonstration.
3) Company personnel may observe the demonstration, but the company
must ensure that these persons do not pose a distraction or affect the demonstration’s
C. Safety Personnel. The company should provide safety personnel
at strategic locations around the aircraft to protect passengers. Safety personnel
may not assist crewmembers or otherwise participate in the evacuation. Safety
personnel are used only to prevent passenger injury.
D. Non-company Personnel. Non-company individuals who are not
FAA employees must have specific reasons to observe the demonstration. Usually,
these individuals will be representatives of the aircraft manufacturer, manufacturers
of equipment used during the demonstration, or other organizations with a direct
interest in aviation safety. The operator is responsible for all non-FAA personnel
observing the demonstration.
1) Flight Deck. The flightcrew must be qualified in the aircraft
to be used. However, they need not have completed the initial operating experience
2) Flight Attendants (F/A). F/As must have completed an FAA-approved
training program and passed a written or practical examination on the type of
aircraft, emergency equipment, and procedures. F/As may not be provided additional
emergency training or become familiarized with equipment before the demonstration.
F. FAA Personnel. FAA observers should be limited to the following:
· ASIs from other offices whose operators will be acquiring the
same or similar type aircraft as the one being demonstrated,
· Regional or headquarters (HQ) officials or designees, and
· FAA personnel from the Certification Directorate, the AEG, or
any other FAA office concerned with technical or engineering components of the
3-2620 SELECTING EXITS.
A. Calculating the Number of Usable Exits.
1) In aircraft with an even number of exits, no more than 50
percent of the total number of exits and slides may be opened and deployed.
2) If an aircraft has an odd number of emergency exits, subtract
one; 50 percent of the remaining number of exits shall be used in the demonstration.
3) All other exits must be blocked.
B. Selecting Individual Exits. Any emergency exit assigned to
F/As as part of their evacuation duties may be selected for use during the demonstration,
provided they are designated as primary exits in the company’s evacuation procedures.
C. Ventral (Stairs) and Tail Cone Exits. These should not be
used unless they are paired with another exit. If there is any doubt as to which
exits are paired, consult the ACO responsible for the TC of the aircraft make
D. Exit Pairs. One from each pair of exits should be selected.
Exit pairs should be identified by the operator in the interior configuration
E. Partial Demonstrations. Only the F/A’s primary exits, as designated
by the operator’s manual, may be used during partial demonstrations.
121.291(c)(1) requires that during a partial emergency evacuation demonstration,
50 percent of the floor level and 50 percent of the non-floor level exits be
2) A secondary door or exit that could not possibly be opened
and ready for use in 15 seconds should not be selected.
3-2621 METHODS OF BLOCKING EXITS. The following are examples of acceptable
methods of blocking exits:
A. Position ASIs inside the aircraft at each door or window exit
before starting the demonstration. When the evacuation is initiated, ASIs positioned
in front of exits to be opened shall move away from their positions as quickly
as possible. ASIs positioned in front of blocked exits shall raise their hands
and state, “This exit is blocked.” This is the most effective method for blocking
B. Cover each door window and window exit with a swatch of red
cloth. Secure a line to the cloth long enough to reach the ramp or hangar floor.
At the initiation signal, designated ASIs will pull the lines to uncover the
door windows and window exits that are to be used. Doors and windows that are
not to be used will remain covered.
C. On the outside of the aircraft, rig red lights in front of
the door windows and window exits. When illuminated, these simulate a fire at
blocked exits. The lights must be illuminated simultaneously.
3-2622 INITIATION SIGNAL. All team members must be aware of the initiation
signal. The initiation signal should be the same both inside and outside of
A. The preferred method of initiation is for a company employee
to interrupt the aircraft’s normal source of power by one of the following actions:
· Disconnecting or turning off an external source of power or a
ground power unit (GPU) or
· Disconnecting or turning off the auxiliary power unit (APU).
B. These actions provide a clear initiation signal in the following
1) Inside the aircraft, the F/As and FAA team members will observe
the normal cabin lighting extinguish and the emergency lighting system illuminate.
This is their signal to begin the evacuation demonstration.
2) Outside the aircraft, FAA observers and the team leader (TL)
will observe the external lights extinguish. This signal initiates the timing
and other necessary observation actions of the FAA team.
3-2623 UNSATISFACTORY DEMONSTRATIONS. The severity and basic cause
of the deficiency must be considered. Minor deficiencies usually can be resolved
by responsible company personnel without having to declare the demonstration
A. A demonstration is unsatisfactory if the operator fails to
meet the specified time limit.
B. Crewmember ineffectiveness or equipment malfunctions may be
grounds for declaring a demonstration to be unsatisfactory.
C. If a relatively severe deficiency occurs due to improper company
training, procedures, or maintenance, the demonstration should be declared unsatisfactory.
3-2624 COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS. This task requires coordination
with Operations ASIs and the Regional Office (RO). It may require coordination
with the appropriate ACO, and with AFS-1.
3-2625 REFERENCES, FORMS, AND JOB AIDS (current editions).
A. References. Advisory Circular
121-24, Passenger Safety Information Briefing and Briefing Cards.
B. Forms. FAA Form 8430-1, Emergency Evacuation Demonstration
C. Job Aids. None.
3-2626 PROCEDURES FOR EMERGENCY EVACUATION DEMONSTRATION.
A. Determine the Need for an Emergency Evacuation Demonstration.
The principal inspector (PI) or certification project manager (CPM) must determine
if a demonstration is required.
1) An emergency evacuation demonstration is required when an
operator proposes operating a specific aircraft type and model when:
· Entering an aircraft into service for the first time (for a new
or existing operator);
· A significant change occurs in the number of F/As, their seating
locations, their evacuation duties or emergency procedures; or
· There is a change in the number, location, or type of emergency
exits, or type of opening mechanism on the emergency exits.
NOTE: If an operator proposes to operate an aircraft configured with
less than 44 seats, even though the aircraft may have been previously TC’d with
more than 44 seats, no demonstration is required.
2) A full-scale demonstration is required when:
· The aircraft type, model, and proposed seating capacity have not
been previously demonstrated either by a manufacturer or by another U.S. operator
· The aircraft has undergone a change in its exit configuration
and/or design (as determined by AFS-1).
3) A partial demonstration is required when:
· An aircraft new to the operator has had a full-scale demonstration
conducted by a part
121 operator or manufacturer for the maximum seating configuration proposed
by the operator acquiring the aircraft;
· The operator is undergoing original certification;
· The PI determines whether a significant change has occurred in
the number of F/As, their locations, or their duties and procedures; or
· AFS-1 determines if a change has occurred in seating configuration,
exits, or the aircraft’s design that would require a partial demonstration.
B. Notify the Operator of Requirement. Advise the operator in
writing that an emergency evacuation demonstration is required. The operator
must submit a plan for conducting the demonstration.
1) The operator should submit the plan at least 30 working days
in advance of a full-scale demonstration and 15 working days in advance of a
2) The operator’s plan shall contain a letter of request which
states the following:
· The applicable regulation which requires that a full-scale or
partial emergency evacuation demonstration be conducted;
· The aircraft type and model, specifying the full seating capacity
(including crew-members) to be demonstrated;
· The number of F/As to be used during the demonstration;
· The proposed date, time, and location of the evacuation demonstration;
· The name and telephone number of the company’s evacuation demonstration
· A statement that the representative passenger complement meets
the requirements in part
121 appendix D(a)(7);
· A description of how the operator proposes to initiate the demonstration;
· A description of the timing signal; and
· A description of how the operator intends to block exits.
3) A diagram shall be included in the plan, representing the
aircraft to be demonstrated. The diagram must show the following:
a) The location and designation of all exits by type and the designated
b) The assigned seating location of each required crewmember during
c) The interior cabin configuration, showing the location of individual
passenger seats, galleys, aisles, lavatories, and passenger compartment partitions
d) The location and type of emergency equipment on the aircraft,
· Fire extinguishers,
· Portable oxygen bottles/masks,
· Crash axes,
· Emergency ropes/tapes,
· Life rafts/slide rafts,
· Individual flotation devices or life preservers, and
· First aid and medical kits.
4) The plan must contain copies of the following documents:
· The appropriate crewmember manual pages describing emergency evacuation
duties and responsibilities and
· A copy of the passenger information card to be used on the aircraft
during revenue operations.
5) The operator’s plan must include the following additional
· A description of the emergency equipment installed on the aircraft,
including the type and model of each item, as applicable;
· A list of crewmembers qualified to participate in the demonstration;
· A description of how the operator will ensure that the demonstration
is conducted in the dark of the night or in conditions simulating the dark of
the night; and
· A description of how the operator will ensure that the aircraft
is positioned in a location, either indoors or outdoors, which will allow the
unobstructed deployment of all emergency evacuation slides or slide rafts, as
C. Evaluate Operator’s Plan and Letter of Request. Ensure that
all necessary information is included in the submission. Respond to the operator’s
plan in a timely manner.
1) Resolve minor omissions or deficiencies by contacting the
company’s evacuation demonstration coordinator.
2) If the operator’s plan has a significant number of required
items or documents missing, return the entire submission to the operator with
a written explanation as to why it is unacceptable. Advise the operator that
the FAA will take no further action until an acceptable plan is submitted.
3) Once all required elements have been submitted, analyze and
evaluate the operator’s plan. Ensure that the information is acceptable and
consistent with the proposed type of demonstration.
4) The PI should ensure that:
a) The operator’s emergency training program has been approved by
b) Evacuation procedures in the operator’s manuals, including crewmember
assignments, are realistic, practical, and in compliance with §
c) The passenger information card is understandable and consistent
with the type and model of aircraft to be demonstrated.
d) The emergency equipment is acceptable for the type of operation
5) Conduct Necessary On-Site Evaluation(s). Certain items in
the proposal may require on-site evaluation. Determine if the operator is making
provisions for participant safety, including the use of safety observers, stands,
padding, mats, and other appropriate measures.
6) Document Deficiencies. Resolve deficiencies with the company’s
evacuation demonstration coordinator.
a) If major discrepancies are found, or if the FAA and the operator
are unable to resolve significant issues, return the operator's plan with a
letter of explanation. Inform the operator that the discrepancies outlined in
the letter must be corrected and a plan resubmitted before the FAA takes further
b) If the submission is acceptable, inform the operator that the
plan has been accepted by the FAA.
D. Assemble FAA Team Members.
1) Team Leader (TL). For an initial certification, the CPM serves
as the demonstration TL. For an existing operator, the district Office Manager
(OM) will assign one of the operator’s PIs to serve as demonstration TL.
2) Additional Team Members. Remaining FAA team members will be
assigned as needed. The team should include Operations, Maintenance, and Avionics
ASIs familiar with part
121 operations and requirements.
E. Conduct Predemonstration Meeting With Operator. Meet with
the operator’s evacuation demonstration coordinator.
1) Review the demonstration plan and ensure that the operator
is thoroughly familiar with the criteria to be used during the demonstration.
2) Review the training methods, the timing criteria, and the
method and signals for initiating the demonstration.
3) With the operator, determine the signal to be used to terminate
the demonstration, such as an air horn or other clear and distinguishable audible
signal. Agree upon a suitable device and test it to ensure its adequacy.
NOTE: Previous experience has shown that a whistle blast may not be
4) Resolve any open questions or issues the operator may have
before conducting the demonstration.
F. Conduct the FAA Team Meeting.
1) Provide specific team member assignments for the demonstration.
Include the following:
· Position (inside or outside the aircraft)
· Inspecting the aircraft, emergency equipment, and any applicable
2) Distribute an aircraft diagram to each ASI showing assigned
locations for the demonstration.
3) Determine which emergency exits shall be opened. Review the
operator’s proposal for blocking the remaining exits.
4) Select typical crewmembers to be used in the demonstration
from the list provided by the operator. Do not select the following:
· Persons used in previous demonstrations,
· Emergency procedures instructors,
· Check airmen,
· Union safety representatives, or
· Others that may have an above average level of competency or experience.
5) Review regulatory requirements and demonstration criteria.
G. Select Exits and Approve Blocking Method.
1) Carefully review the operator’s emergency evacuation procedures.
Determine the number of usable exits.
2) One from each pair of exits should be selected.
3) After selecting exits to be used, the team must ensure that
the operator does not obtain that information.
4) Once a method of blocking exits has been determined, notify
the company’s project coordinator of FAA concurrence with the method.
H. Approve the Initiation Signal. Ensure that all team members
are aware of the initiation signal.
I. Perform a Predemonstration Inspection.
1) Ensure that the aircraft is configured and equipped for takeoff
according to the operator’s manuals and procedures.
a) The aircraft must include the proposed full passenger seating
b) All appropriate emergency equipment must be installed.
c) Inspect each of the following items to ensure regulatory compliance
14 CFR part 121:
· Hand-held fire extinguishers for crew, passenger, and cargo compartments
· Protective Breathing Equipment (PBE),
· First aid equipment,
· Crash axe,
· Interior emergency exit markings,
· Flotation devices or life preservers,
· Lighting for interior emergency exit markings,
· Emergency light operation,
· Emergency exit operating handles,
· Emergency exit access
· Exterior exit markings,
· Exterior emergency lighting and escape route,
· Floor-level exits,
· Additional emergency exits,
· Ventral or tail cone exits,
· Portable lights,
· Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses,
· Emergency equipment required for extended overwater operations,
· Public address (PA) system,
· Passenger information signs/placards,
· Aircraft fire detection and protection system (operational test),
· Passenger information cards,
· Cockpit escape system, and
· Slides and slide rafts.
2) For partial emergency evacuation demonstrations, the slides
may be beyond scheduled inspection criteria. The operator must request this
option in the demonstration plan. The plan must state that the operator accepts
full responsibility for any failure of the demonstration due to a malfunction
of the slides. The FAA TL must either accept or deny this proposal.
3) In a full-scale demonstration, stands or ramps must be placed
appropriately for use by evacuees to descend from the wing to the ground. If
stands or ramps are to be used, they must be placed at both overwing exits to
ensure that the operator does not learn which exits will be used.
a) Inspect the stands and ramps for structural integrity and security.
b) Inspect any other safety equipment, such as mats, placed on the
ground to protect participants.
c) Equipment which is not part of the aircraft’s EES may not be used
to aid participants in reaching the ground.
4) Ensure that dark of night conditions exist in order to evaluate
· The aircraft’s emergency lighting system and
· Passenger and crewmember performance in darkened conditions.
5) Ensure that the operator has the following present at the
· Appropriate safety personnel to prevent passenger injury.
· Company personnel with the authority to direct demonstration modifications
as required by the FAA.
· The minimum number of proposed F/As for use on the aircraft during
121 operations. In no case shall this number be less than that specified
· For full-scale demonstrations, passengers meeting the criteria
of part 121 appendix D(a)(7).
J. Attend Predemonstration Briefings.
1) Attend Crewmember Briefing. Ensure that the company’s evacuation
demonstration coordinator provides crewmembers with specific information regarding
a) The FAA TL must attend this briefing to resolve any questions
and ensure that the following items are discussed:
· The purpose of the demonstration;
· The initiation signal which begins the demonstration;
· The significance of the 90-second time limit for full-scale evacuations
or the 15-second time limit for partial evacuations;
· The signal to be used for stopping the demonstration; and
· The importance of safety during the demonstration, including crewmember
responsibilities and safety observer duties and limitations.
b) Ensure that the crewmembers understand that any evacuation activity
in progress must immediately cease with a “stop” signal.
2) Attend the Operator’s Passenger Briefing. Ensure that prior
to the demonstration, the company’s evacuation demonstration coordinator tells
the passengers the following:
a) The purpose of the demonstration is to evaluate how quickly the
aircraft can be safely evacuated.
b) Passengers must pay attention to the F/As’ instructions.
c) Individual safety is not to be compromised at any time during
3) Brief the FAA Team Members. Remind FAA team members not to
discuss the results of observations with persons other than the TL. Review the
following items before conducting the demonstration:
· The objectives of the demonstration,
· The initiation signal,
· Observer assignments with regard to exits to be used or blocked,
· The signal to stop the demonstration.
K. Conduct the Demonstration.
1) Advise the operator to board the passengers as routinely as
possible and prepare for departure. No passenger may be assigned a specific
seat unless the FAA team determines such assignments are in accordance with
the operator’s normal boarding procedures.
2) For both full-scale and partial demonstrations, ensure that
the F/As accomplish the following:
· Prepare for a normal departure according to the operator’s procedures,
including closing and securing all exits and galleys, and arming the EES for
· Conduct a passenger briefing in accordance with §
121.571 and company procedures; and
· Sit at their assigned positions with restraint systems fastened.
3) Distribute a reasonable amount of carry-on baggage, blankets,
pillows, and clothing in the aisles and emergency exit access ways to create
a) Carry-on luggage that will fit under a passenger seat, such as
small suitcases, gym bags, aircraft flight bags, and briefcases, should be filled
with clothes or newspapers and placed in the main aisles.
b) There must be one bag per seat row for each aisle.
c) Some bags should be placed in the aisles and passageways.
d) Pillows and blankets should be scattered in the main aisles.
4) Ensure that each external door and exit and each internal
door or curtain is in position for a normal takeoff.
5) Ensure that the flightcrew accomplishes all tasks on appropriate
checklists and configures the aircraft for a normal takeoff before the initiation
signal is given. Ensure that the flightcrew members are seated in their normal
positions with restraint systems fastened.
6) Before a full-scale evacuation demonstration, ensure that
the aircraft’s wing flaps are fully extended, if required by the operator’s
emergency evacuation procedures.
a) Stands or ramps (if used) should be positioned accordingly.
b) Wing flaps shall not be repositioned until after the demonstration.
7) Ensure that after completing all required pre-takeoff actions,
the captain informs the FAA TL (positioned forward of the nose of the aircraft)
by ground interphone that the aircraft is ready for takeoff.
8) Ensure that all FAA team members and company safety observers
(if used) are ready and in position.
9) Issue a warning signal, which should precede the initiation
signal by approximately 30 seconds.
Instruct the company evacuation demonstration coordinator
to initiate the demonstration.
Begin timing with two stopwatches (a primary and a backup)
when the external aircraft lights extinguish.
For a full-scale demonstration, each FAA observer assigned
to an opened exit will count the passengers as they exit. After the termination
signal, each observer will ensure that no passenger or crewmember remains on
the aircraft or uses the exits. Should any passenger or crewmember remain on
board or use an exit after the termination signal, the demonstration will be
For a partial demonstration, each FAA observer assigned to
an exit to be used will determine if the assigned exit was opened and each slide
or slide raft was ready for use before the termination signal. Should any exit,
slide, or slide raft remain not ready for use after the termination signal,
the demonstration will be declared unsatisfactory.
Team members assigned to the cabin must ensure that all required
equipment worked properly during the demonstration.
At the end of the appropriate time period, issue a clear,
audible signal terminating the demonstration.
3-2627 PROCEDURES FOR DITCHING DEMONSTRATIONS.
A. Determine the Need for a Ditching Demonstration.
1) A full-scale ditching demonstration is required when the operator
proposes to operate a specific aircraft type and model under the following circumstances:
· When no ditching demonstration has been performed for the proposed
type and model of aircraft by another part
121 certificate holder or
· When planning to initiate flights into extended overwater areas
for the first time with an aircraft the operator has previously operated over
2) A partial ditching demonstration is required when the proposed
type and model has been previously demonstrated by another part
B. Notify the Operator of the Requirement. Advise the operator
in writing that a ditching demonstration is required. The operator must submit
a plan for conducting the demonstration. ASIs must ensure that the operator
understands which information and documents are required for the plan to be
accepted for evaluation.
1) If the operator plans to conduct the ditching demonstration
in conjunction with an emergency evacuation demonstration, the operator’s demonstration
plan must include the following additional information:
· Type of ditching demonstration (full-scale or partial),
· Copies of the operator’s manual relating to crewmembers’ ditching
duties and responsibilities, and
· A description of applicable emergency equipment used for ditching,
including the type and model.
2) If the ditching demonstration is not conducted in conjunction
with an emergency evacuation demonstration, the plan must be submitted at least
15 working days before the actual demonstration. The plan must include the information
listed above and the following additional information:
· The aircraft model and type,
· A list of all crewmembers who will participate in the demonstration,
· The proposed date, time, and location of the demonstration, and
· The name and telephone number of the company’s ditching demonstration
3) A diagram shall be included in the plan, representing the
aircraft to be demonstrated. The diagram must show the following:
a) The location and designation of all exits by type and the designated
exit pairs, and
b) The location of emergency ditching equipment, including:
· Life rafts and/or slide rafts,
· Survival radios,
· Pyrotechnic signaling devices, and
· Passenger/crewmember life preservers or individual flotation devices.
C. Evaluate the Operator’s Plan. Review the proposal to ensure
· The proposed demonstration will meet the criteria of part
· The emergency training program and ditching procedures in the
operator’s manual have been approved and accepted, and
· The operator’s training program and ditching procedures provide
for safe operating practices.
D. Assemble the FAA Team.
1) If the ditching demonstration is conducted in conjunction
with an emergency evacuation demonstration, the same team will observe and evaluate
2) If the ditching demonstration is conducted alone, the district
OM will appoint a FAA ditching demonstration team and TL.
E. Perform Predemonstration Inspection. Before the ditching demonstration
begins, the team must inspect each item of emergency ditching equipment for
compliance with appropriate airworthiness and other directives. Stands must
be placed at each emergency exit and wing.
F. Conduct the Demonstration. The demonstration must be conducted
during daylight hours or in a lighted hangar.
1) Ensure that ASIs, crewmembers, and passengers, if required,
are at their assigned positions. All required crewmembers must be available
and used during the demonstration.
2) Instruct the captain to commence the demonstration. The captain
will initiate the demonstration by ordering the crewmembers to prepare for ditching.
3) Begin timing when the captain announces to prepare for ditching.
4) Observe crewmembers’ preparation activities. Within six minutes
of the ditching announcement, crewmembers must accomplish the following:
· Correctly put on life preservers,
· Brief passengers,
· Secure the cabin,
· Complete all required checklists, and
· Be prepared to evacuate.
5) At the end of six minutes, advise the captain to announce
that the aircraft is in the water. At this time the crew must be prepared for
a simulated water landing.
6) Observe the deployment of the rafts. Ensure that all life
rafts are removed from stowage within a reasonable period of time.
a) For full-scale demonstrations, each life raft and slide raft must
be launched and inflated. All required emergency equipment must be placed in
b) For a partial ditching demonstration, one life raft (or slide
raft), designated by the FAA TL, must be launched and inflated. On aircraft
configured with slide rafts, it is not necessary to detach each slide raft from
its door mounting. Any life rafts stowed inside the aircraft must be removed
from stowage and placed on the cabin floor for inspection.
7) Inspect each slide raft for airworthiness.
8) Ensure that each evacuee enters a life raft or slide raft.
9) Ensure that crewmembers adequately locate and describe the
use of each piece of emergency equipment in their assigned rafts.
Question crewmembers about actual launch procedures.
3-2628 EVALUATING EMERGENCY EVACUATIONS AND DITCHING DEMONSTRATIONS.
A. Evaluate the Demonstration. After the demonstration, confer
with FAA team members. Reach agreement on the results before discussing the
demonstration with the operator.
1) Evaluate the following areas of the demonstration:
· Crewmember compliance and effectiveness in performing assigned
duties and responsibilities,
· Flight crew effectiveness in exercising command responsibilities,
· The coordination and communication between the flight crew and
· The operation and airworthiness of emergency equipment. Note any
deficiencies or delays caused by the emergency equipment.
2) Ensure that each designated exit and slide was opened, deployed,
and ready for use within appropriate time criteria.
3) Ensure that the following occurred:
a) For full-scale emergency evacuation demonstrations, designated
exits and slides were properly operated and, if applicable, all passengers and
crewmembers evacuated within 90 seconds.
b) For a partial emergency evacuation demonstration, designated exits
were opened and slides ready for use within 15 seconds.
c) For ditching demonstrations, the cabin, passenger, and F/As were
ready for a water landing within 6 minutes. Life rafts were efficiently removed
from stowage. Each designated life vest, life raft, and slide raft was properly
B. Determine if Demonstration Was Unsatisfactory.
1) A demonstration must be declared unsatisfactory if the operator
fails to meet the specified time limit.
2) A demonstration may be declared unsatisfactory for the following
· Crewmember ineffectiveness or equipment malfunctions or
· The occurrence of a relatively severe deficiency due to improper
company training, procedures, or maintenance.
3) If the inspection is unsatisfactory, determine if the problem
can be corrected immediately.
a) If the problem cannot be corrected immediately, reschedule the
b) If the problem can be corrected immediately, ensure that corrective
action is taken.
C. Advise the Operator of the Results of the Demonstration. Once
an agreement on the demonstration results has been reached, advise the applicant
or operator of the results.
1) If the results are unsatisfactory, issue a letter of disapproval
to the operator or applicant.
2) If the results are satisfactory, issue a letter of approval
to the operator or applicant.
D. Complete Emergency Evacuation Demonstration Report. The TL
is responsible for preparation and distribution of the demonstration report.
The report must include the following:
· FAA Form 8430-1, Emergency Evacuation Demonstration Report. One
form is required for each demonstration attempt.
· The passenger information briefing card.
· A diagram of the aircraft, including emergency equipment, exits,
exits used, the number of approved passenger seats, and the location of seats
which were used by F/As.
E. Distribute the Report. Forward a copy of the report to the
regional Flight Standards division (RFSD). Retain the original package in the
district office file.
3-2629 TASK OUTCOMES.
A. Complete the Following DCTs in SAS Automation.
1) 2.3.1 (OP), Appropriate Operational Equipment.
2) 5.1.1 (OP), Training of Flight Attendants.
3) 5.2.1 (OP), Crewmember Duties/Cabin Procedures.
4) 4.4.4 (AW), Aircraft Acceptance Process.
B. Complete the Task. Completion of this task will result in
one of the following:
· A letter of demonstration approval, or
· A letter of demonstration disapproval.
C. Document the Task. File all supporting paperwork in the operator’s
office file and in SAS Automation.
3-2630 FUTURE ACTIVITIES. Normal surveillance.
RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-2631 through 3-2945.