VOLUME 3 GENERAL TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATION
CHAPTER 32 MANUALS, PROCEDURES, AND CHECKLISTS FOR 14 CFR PARTS
Section 5 Flight Manuals for Part
3-3231 GENERAL. This section contains direction and guidance to be
used by principal operations inspectors (POI) in the evaluation of flight manuals
for Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts
135 operators. Part
121.141 requires that part
121 operators maintain a current flight manual
for each aircraft used in their air transportation operations. Part
requires that part
135 operators maintain a current flight manual
(or the equivalent information for certain aircraft certified without a flight
manual) for each aircraft used in their air transportation operations. Title 14 CFR part
requires that a flight manual (or the equivalent information for aircraft
certified without a flight manual) be available in the aircraft for flightcrew
personnel use and guidance during flight operations. To satisfy the part
requirements, operators may use either the approved Airplane Flight
Manual (AFM) or the approved Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM), as applicable,
or they may develop, obtain approval for, and use a Company Flight Manual (CFM).
AFMs or RFMs, as applicable, are acceptable for satisfying the regulations in
cases of small, simple aircraft. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-preferred
practice for all other aircraft, however, is for operators to develop a CFM
that includes procedures specifically tailored to the operator’s operations.
Operators who operate multiple aircraft types usually find it efficient to collect
policies, procedures, and guidance common to all aircraft in a single manual
such as a Flight Operations Policy Manual (FOPM). In this case, the CFM contains
only those policies, procedures, and guidance that apply to the operation of
the specific aircraft. POIs shall use this section as guidance when evaluating
an operator’s AFMs, RFMs, or CFMs.
3-3232 APPROVED AFMs OR APPROVED RFMs. Title 14 CFR part
requires that aircraft manufacturers provide an approved AFM or
an approved RFM with each aircraft certified after March 1, 1979. Prior to this
date, approved flight manuals were required only for transport category airplanes.
Proposed AFMs and RFMs are reviewed by a Flight Manual Review Board (FMRB) and,
based on the FMRB’s recommendation, are approved by the manager of the applicable
Aircraft Certification Office (ACO) when the aircraft is certified.
A. Approved Sections of AFMs and RFMs. AFMs of transport category
airplanes contain three sections, which are reviewed by the FMRB and approved
by the ACO. These are the procedures, performance data, and limitation sections.
Weight and Balance (W&B) limits for transport category airplanes are given
in the limitations section. AFMs of airplanes approved under 14 CFR part
23 or rotorcraft approved under 14 CFR part
contain four approved sections: procedures, performance data, limitations, and W&B.
1) Procedures Section of AFMs for Complex Aircraft. The procedures
section of an AFM of complex aircraft is typically not suitable for flightcrew
use in air transportation operations. The certification regulations only require
that the procedures section of an AFM or RFM contain specific and detailed procedural
information related to the unique characteristics of the aircraft. These manuals
are not required to contain each and every procedure necessary to operate the
aircraft. Most manufacturers of complex aircraft develop and have approved only
those procedures necessary to certify the aircraft. The certification regulations
do not require that procedural information be expressed in a sequential, step-by-step
format suitable for publication in a checklist. AFM procedural information may
be supplied in narrative format. POIs must ensure that operators have rewritten
such AFM procedures to make them suitable for flightcrew use in parts
2) Performance Data Section of AFMs for Complex Aircraft. AFMs
for complex aircraft contain extensive performance data sections. All performance
information necessary to operate the aircraft in revenue operations is in this
section. The AFM performance data section of a complex aircraft is typically
not suitable for flightcrew use. This section is suitable for use by performance engineers.
3) Procedures and Performance Data Sections under Parts
AFMs and RFMs of smaller, less complex aircraft certified under part
and helicopters certified under part
typically contain performance data and procedures sections that are suitable
for flightcrew use. POIs of operators using these aircraft shall review the
applicable manual to ensure that these sections are appropriate for flightcrew use in the operation being conducted.
B. Unapproved Sections of AFMs and RFMs. In addition to the approved
sections of AFMs and RFMs, aircraft manufacturers often include other information
that does not require approval under the certification regulations in an AFM
and RFM. For example, a manufacturer may include systems descriptions, recommended
procedures, or correction factors for wet runways in an accepted section. The
FMRB does not formally review this type of information and the ACO does not
approve it. The ACO only acts on this type of information when some part of
the information has been discovered to be unacceptable and then brought to the attention of the ACO.
C. Use of AFMs or RFMs as Flight Manuals. When an operator proposes
to use an AFM or RFM as the required flight manual, the POI must review both
the approved and unapproved sections of the manual. The POI must determine that
the information in the AFM is presented in a manner that is suitable for use
by the flightcrew, that it is compatible with the type of operation conducted
by the operator, and that it contains all of the required information and procedures.
1) Certification Regulations Versus Operational Requirements.
Aircraft currently used in air transportation operations have been certified under the provisions of 14 CFR parts
Special Federal Aviation Regulations (SFAR) 23 or SFAR 41, or preceding
regulations such as SFAR 422, Civil Aviation Regulations (CAR) 3, CAR 4, or
Aero Bulletin 7; or under the regulations of another government and accepted
by the United States in accordance with §
21.29. The assumptions, limitations, and requirements of these aircraft certification
regulations may differ from the operational requirements of parts
The direction and guidance concerning procedures and performance that
operators must provide to flightcrews for aircraft operations under part
is normally more comprehensive than that published in an AFM or RFM.
For example, basic crew coordination procedures such as standard altitude awareness
callouts during departures and approaches are not usually in an AFM or RFM.
2) Supplementary Information. When a POI finds that the procedures
or performance information published in an AFM or RFM is insufficient for the
operation to be conducted, the POI shall require the operator to develop supplementary
information and make it available to flightcrew members. It is acceptable for
operators using an AFM or RFM as the required flight manual to place supplementary
information in a section of the General Operations Manual (GOM), such as an FOPM or a flight training manual.
3) Aircraft Certified Without an AFM or RFM. An AFM or RFM may
not have been prepared for an airplane or rotorcraft certificated before March 1, 1979. Section
requires that the same information required to be in an AFM or
RFM be available aboard these aircraft. The only practical method for meeting
this requirement for aircraft of 6,000 pounds maximum takeoff weight (MTOW)
or more is for the operator to prepare a CFM that contains performance, procedures,
and limitations. Some smaller aircraft may be operated satisfactorily with the
information presented by placards in the aircraft.
3-3233 CFMs. A CFM containing the required information and approved
by the POI under the provisions of this order is an approved flight manual for the purposes of §
91.9(b)(1) or (2), §
121.141(b), or §
An approved CFM is the only flight manual that needs to be carried
aboard an aircraft. POIs must evaluate an operator’s CFMs using the guidance that follows.
A. Identification as a Flight Manual. POIs must ensure that a
CFM is clearly marked as an approved flight manual for a specific operator.
Sections of a CFM that contain approved information must also be clearly identified (see
Volume 3, Chapter 32, Section 2, paragraph 3-3156 for specific guidance
on identifying approved information).
B. Approved Sections of a CFM. POIs must ensure that the approved
sections of a CFM contain all of the information that is required by the flightcrew
to operate the aircraft. POIs should evaluate the approved sections of a CFM for the following:
1) The procedures section of a CFM must contain all procedures
required by the AFM or RFM for each operation the operator conducts. As a minimum,
the operator must include sufficient detail to allow a trained crew to safely
and effectively operate the aircraft. The procedures section of the manual may
be divided into subsections such as normal, non-normal, and emergency procedures.
2) The operator’s performance data in a CFM must contain the
data from the AFM or RFM and instructions on how to use that data. Operators
may assign the responsibility for performing takeoff and landing data computations
to flightcrew or ground personnel. The flightcrew must have access to adequate
data in the cockpit (including information for the specific airport and runway
to be used) to perform the computations for which they are responsible. When
takeoff and landing data is presented in tabular format for specific runways,
it is often referred to as an airport analysis. Performance data may be published
under separate cover and be given titles such as Performance Manual or Airport
Analysis. When performance data is published under separate cover, it must be
identified as a portion of the CFM. Takeoff and landing performance data may
be stored in an onboard or ground-based computer (see Volume 4, Chapter 3, for
guidance on the approval of aircraft performance and airport data acquisition systems).
3) The limitations section of a CFM must be clearly identified
as FAA approved. The limitations section of a CFM must contain each limitation
that is contained in the AFM or RFM (see paragraph 3-3243 for further details).
C. Accepted Sections of a CFM. Accepted sections of a CFM may
contain supplementary information such as aircraft and systems descriptions,
an expanded explanation of procedures, special policies and procedures, and
other selected topics pertinent to operation of the aircraft type. The accepted
sections of a CFM must conform to the regulations and safe operating practices
but do not need to conform to corresponding sections of the AFM or RFM, either
in format or content. POIs should ensure that the CFM developed by or for the
operator contains sufficient explanation and guidance for flightcrew use in
the safe operation of the particular aircraft type. Background information or
information that is not specific to the operation of the particular aircraft
should be placed in a section of the GOM, rather than in a supplementary section of the CFM.
3-3234 AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION. Operators must provide crewmembers
with a systems description of an aircraft’s systems and components that contains
sufficient detail to allow flightcrew members to adequately understand and perform
all procedures in the flight manual. AFMs, RFMs, and CFMs may or may not contain
a systems description section. The aircraft systems description section of a
manual is accepted as opposed to approved. Operators may choose to place the
systems description information in an accepted section of a CFM or in a section of the GOM, such as a training manual.
3-3235 PROCEDURES. POIs should not construe procedures published
in an AFM or RFM to be the only or best means of accomplishing a specific objective.
Because AFM or RFM procedures are formulated primarily for aircraft certification
purposes, POIs should encourage operators to develop procedures appropriate to revenue operations for inclusion in a CFM.
A. Procedures incorporated in a CFM should be tailored by the
operator to accommodate the operator’s type of operation, fleet standardization
objectives, and cockpit management objectives. As an operator’s operations become
more complex, it is progressively more important to include detailed guidance
in the flight manual, which is specifically tailored to the operator’s operations.
B. Aircraft that have been modified by Supplemental Type Certificate
(STC) or by field approval (FAA Form 337, Major Repair and Alteration (Airframe,
Powerplant, Propeller, or Appliance)) may require different procedures than
unmodified aircraft. POIs must coordinate approval of procedures with principal
maintenance inspectors (PMI) to ensure that modifications are accounted for in the operator’s procedures.
C. Procedural information included in a CFM must be presented
in a step-by-step format. A procedural step in an AFM or RFM procedure must
be included in the equivalent CFM procedure, unless the POI approves the deletion
through the process described in subparagraph 3-3235I.
D. Operators are responsible for developing effective standard
operating procedures (SOP). The development process for SOPs consists of the
operator or other qualified party (such as the manufacturer) conducting a painstaking
task analysis of the man-machine-environment relationship. Although this analysis
is time consuming and expensive, it is necessary to meet the required level
of safety in air transport operations. General guidelines for POIs to use when
evaluating these procedures are contained in paragraph 3-3236. Specific guidelines
for developing aircraft operating procedures are almost nonexistent. This chapter
contains the best information available at the time of publication. POIs should
bring the information in this chapter to the operator’s attention. Further guidance
will be added to this chapter as it becomes available. POIs should encourage
those operators that do not have extensive experience in developing their own
procedures to follow the manufacturer’s recommendations.
E. POIs should ensure that operators standardize their operating
procedures both within and across aircraft types to the greatest extent possible.
POIs should make operators aware of the following information concerning procedures for standardization.
1) Standardized procedures promote understanding and effective
communications between crewmembers. Research has shown that standardized procedures
and effective communications are significant factors in reducing error in the cockpit and in enhancing safety.
2) Crewmembers of most large operators operate numerous different
aircraft during their career. Standardized procedures enhance a crewmember’s
transfer of learning and minimize negative transfer when the crewmember transitions from one aircraft to another.
3) A complete standardization of procedures is not possible when
there are significant differences between manufacturers and installed equipment.
A high degree of standardization, however, is possible. For example, the flight
procedures for: engine failure after takeoff decision speed (V1),
engine fire after V1, and a missed approach with an engine out, can
be designed to be identical. Each procedure might include the aircraft climbing
at a reference speed to an identical cleanup height, then accelerating, then
retracting the flaps, and then continuing the climb at specified engine-out
climb speed. The reference speeds might change depending on the aircraft weight,
but the procedure could otherwise be identical. If the operator designed these
procedures carefully, they could be used on all aircraft in the operator’s fleet.
4) POIs may approve combined procedural steps. For example, an
AFM or RFM procedure specifies a two-step procedure such as the following: Step
1—Smoke Goggles On, and Step 2—O2 Mask On. The POI could approve
a one-step procedure such as the following: Step 1—Smoke Goggles and O2
Mask On. If there is a specific reason, however, for not combining the steps,
the POI must not approve such combinations. For instance, in the previous example,
if for some reason the smoke goggle has to be put in place before the O2
mask can be put into place, the two-step procedure should be retained.
F. POIs may approve an arrangement of procedural steps in a different
sequence from the sequence in the AFM or RFM. The operator must demonstrate
to the POI’s satisfaction that the change in sequence is safe and effective
through validation testing. The POI must ensure that adverse effects are not
introduced. For example, with many aircraft the flaps are required to be extended
or the trim to be set to specific settings before an adequate control check
can be accomplished. If this sequence is reversed, the control check is invalid.
G. POIs may approve the combination of similar procedures into
a single procedure. For example, it may be desirable for an operator to combine
engine fire, engine failure, and severe engine damage procedures into a single
procedure. POIs may approve the resulting procedure when validation testing
shows the procedure to be clear, easy to use, and if it retains the safeguards
of the individual procedures it replaces. If the combined procedure results
in a complex and error-prone procedure, the POI should not approve it.
H. The POI will require the operator to present evidence that
newly developed procedures are effective. This may be done by analysis, documentation,
or validation tests. Tests may be conducted by the manufacturer, the operator,
or another competent party (such as a contractor). The POI or a designated inspector
qualified in the aircraft must evaluate the effectiveness of such tests.
I. If the POI has any question about the validity or safety of
an operator-developed procedure, the POI should consult with the appropriate
Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG). When a policy question arises, POIs should
request guidance from the regional Flight Standards division (RFSD) or, if required,
from the Air Transportation Division (AFS-200) through the RFSD. All such questions
must be resolved before the POI approves the procedure.
3-3236 NORMAL PROCEDURES. The normal procedures section of a CFM
must contain procedures for each normal operation that flightcrew members are
required to perform. Each normal procedure should be amplified by the operator
with sufficient instruction to ensure that the procedure is properly accomplished.
POIs must ensure that this instruction is thorough enough to provide the least-experienced
flightcrew member with sufficient information to perform the procedures.
A. Many operators include normal operating checklists and an
explanation of how to accomplish each step of the checklists in the normal procedures
section of the CFM. This is an acceptable practice; however, it is important
to understand that an explanation of how to perform the normal checklist is
not the only material required in the normal procedures section of a CFM. Guidance
for operational procedures for which there are no checklists (such as the takeoff
procedure) must also be addressed. Procedures for crew coordination and for
the use of checklists must be included. The procedures section of a CFM must
contain clearly specified crew duties. For example, the procedures section should
contain a specific assignment for the crewmember that is responsible for setting
power and maintaining directional control when the second in command (SIC) is conducting a takeoff.
B. POIs may require the operator to develop and publish normal
procedures in a CFM, which are not in the AFM or RFM, when the procedures are
necessary to ensure an adequate level of safety. Instrument approach procedures
(IAP), adverse weather operations, long-range navigation (LORAN), and special
procedures for Category (CAT) II and CAT III operations are all examples of
required normal procedures that may not be in an AFM or RFM.
C. Operators may need to develop extensive procedures for operating
computer-based systems in the cockpit. A description of computer displays and
controls does not normally provide a crewmember with adequate information to
operate such systems. Procedures for computer operations should be keyed to
menus and display prompts. Procedures should be written in an interactive format rather than as a rote listing of key strokes.
3-3237 MANEUVERS AND PROCEDURES DOCUMENT. Sections
require that operators publish “detailed descriptions or
pictorial displays of the approved normal, abnormal, and emergency maneuvers,
procedures and functions that will be performed during each flight training
phase or flight check, indicating those maneuvers, procedures and functions
that are to be performed during the in-flight portions of flight training and
flight checks.” Operators must obtain approval of the maneuvers and procedures
descriptions before they may be published. The preferred procedure for obtaining
approval is the document method described in
Volume 3, Chapter 32, Section 2, subparagraph 3-3152B4).
A. Before approving the operator’s “maneuvers and procedures
document,” POIs must ensure that it contains the tolerances that must be maintained
in training and checking. POIs must ensure that the operator’s standards are
appropriate for the aircraft being flown and for the operation being conducted. Operators should use the
practical test standards
(the current edition of FAA-S-8081-5, Airline Transport Pilot and Aircraft Type Rating
Practical Test Standards for Airplane), any applicable Flight Standardization
Board (FSB) reports, the manufacturer’s recommendations, and Volume 5 to establish
these standards. POIs should use the guidance that follows when evaluating the
standards used in an operator’s maneuvers and procedures document.
1) The standards in FAA-S-8081-5 (PTS)
are particularly appropriate for pilots of single-engine and multiengine general-purpose
families of airplanes and helicopters. There are many cases, however, in which the
PTSs are inappropriate. For example, many large aircraft have speed command
systems in which the correct final approach speed varies according to the center of gravity (CG) and flight conditions.
2) When the operator conducts special operations, such as lower-than-standard
minimum takeoffs, the POI shall ensure that the tolerances the operator chooses
are appropriate to that operation. For example, on a Runway Visual Range (RVR)
600 takeoff with an engine loss, the applicant must be able to continue to track
the runway centerline (RCL) lights until the aircraft is rotated to the takeoff attitude.
B. Operators may choose to publish the maneuvers and procedures
description in a section of the GOM for reference by flightcrew members. The
FAA recommends, however, that this description be placed in a section of the
flight manual where it is available for in-flight reference.
3-3238 NON-NORMAL AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES. Non-normal (or abnormal)
and emergency procedures in an AFM or RFM are usually presented in more detail
than are normal procedures. The steps and the order of steps in these procedures
are often critical. POIs must exercise caution in approving the modification
of non-normal and emergency procedures. The effects of most procedural steps
on the airworthiness of the aircraft are obvious, but the effects of some are
not. For example, it may be necessary to depressurize a hydraulic system to
successfully perform a manual landing gear extension. Deleting a step or a change
in the sequence steps of such a procedure could make the procedure ineffective.
There have been instances in which operators have erroneously proposed modifying
an AFM or RFM procedure, and POIs have unintentionally approved the modification,
which invalidated the certification basis of the aircraft. POIs should use the
guidance that follows when evaluating an operator’s non-normal or emergency procedures in AFMs, RFMs, or CFMs.
A. Safety and Effectiveness of Proposed Modifications. When an operator
proposes to modify a non‑normal or emergency procedure, the operator must show
that the modified procedure does not adversely affect the airworthiness of the
aircraft. The operator may establish the safety and effectiveness of proposed
procedures by analysis, documentation, or validation tests.
B. AEG Concurrence. POIs must contact the applicable AEG and obtain concurrence
before approving the deletion of any item or the rearrangement/modification
of items on these checklists. AEG concurrence may be expressed informally (by
telephone). AEG concurrence is not required if the operator provides evidence
that the AEG has already concurred with the identical procedure for another
party (such as another operator or manufacturer).
3-3239 IMMEDIATE ACTIONS. An immediate action is an action that must
be accomplished so expeditiously (in order to avoid or stabilize a hazardous
situation) that time is not available for a crewmember to refer to a manual
or checklist. Crewmembers must be so familiar with these actions that they can
perform them correctly and reliably from memory. POIs must ensure that immediate
action situations are included in an operator’s AFM, RFM, or CFM, as appropriate.
Situations that require immediate action include, but are not limited to the following:
· Imminent threat of crewmember incapacitation.
· Imminent threat of loss of aircraft control.
· Imminent threat of destruction of a system or component, which
makes continued safety of the flight and subsequent landing improbable.
A. Under this criteria, a flightcrew donning oxygen masks in
response to a depressurization or turning off the fuel and ignition in case
of a hot-start are situations requiring mandatory immediate action items. The
loss of thrust on a jet engine during cruise, however, would not normally require
an immediate action item according to these criteria.
B. POIs must ensure that immediate action items are explicitly
identified as such in an operator’s CFM. It is not acceptable for immediate
action items to be hidden (not specifically identified as an immediate action) in procedures or checklists.
C. Certain situations that either require or appear to require
immediate action have proven to be a stimulus for evoking incorrect and inappropriate
flightcrew actions. Therefore, immediate action items must be strictly limited
to only those actions necessary to stabilize the situation. POIs must ensure
that all remaining actions are accomplished by “challenge-do-verify” (CDV) checklists (see
Volume 3, Chapter 32, Section 12).
D. POIs may approve an operator’s proposal to replace immediate
action items in an AFM or RFM procedure with CDV checklist procedures in a CFM,
provided the operator shows compliance with the criteria in this paragraph and
also demonstrates an equivalent level of safety through validation tests.
3-3240 MANDATORY CONFIRMATION ITEMS. There are certain critical procedural
steps that must be confirmed by a second crewmember before the step may be taken.
POIs must ensure that an operator’s procedures, which contain such critical
procedural actions, must clearly identify the critical actions and the crewmember
who is responsible for giving the confirmation. The types of procedural actions
that require this confirmation include the following:
· Actions resulting in the shutdown of an engine.
· Actions resulting in the deactivation of flight controls.
· Actions that if performed incorrectly, in the wrong sequence,
or at the wrong time produce a catastrophic result, even if the incorrect action is not highly likely.
· Actions where past experience or analysis has shown that there
is a high probability for error or incorrect action and which creates a hazardous situation.
3-3241 CREWMEMBER ROLES. The CFM must clearly define the various
crewmember roles and responsibilities. POIs should use the following guidance
when ensuring that the operator clearly states policy and guidance for cockpit
management in the AFM, RFM, or CFM, as applicable.
A. Pilot in Command (PIC) Responsibilities. The operator’s policy
and guidance should make it clear that the PIC’s primary responsibility is to
manage the actions of the crew and the conduct of the flight. While the PIC
may delegate the management of the flight and manipulation of the controls to
the SIC, the CFM must not indicate that the PIC can delegate the responsibility for safe conduct of the flight.
B. Responsibilities of Flightcrew Members Not in Command. The
operator’s flight manual should contain policy and guidance to those flightcrew
members not in command as to their responsibilities to the PIC and their responsibilities for the safe conduct of the flight.
C. SIC Responsibilities. The CFM must contain guidance for the
PIC concerning the conditions and circumstances in which an SIC may operate
the aircraft. The operator’s policies must delineate the limits of authority
delegated to the SIC when the SIC is the Pilot Flying (PF). The operator’s policies
should address crew management in critical situations. For example, there may
be certain situations in which the SIC should be the PF so that the PIC can
concentrate on managing those situations, particularly ensuring that required
actions and appropriate checklists are properly accomplished. Procedures for
transfer of control must be clearly addressed in the CFM.
D. Communications. In general, proper cockpit management requires
effective communication and cooperative action between crewmembers, which form
consecutive closed loops. A diagram of this interaction is in Figure 3-123A,
Effective Communication and Cooperative Action Between Crewmembers.
E. Coordination. Research has shown that effective flightcrews
coordinate their actions before any action is required. POIs shall ensure that
CFMs contain a requirement for briefings and also adequate guidance for the content of those briefings.
Figure 3-123A. Effective Communication and Cooperative Action Between Crewmembers
3-3242 OPERATIONS NOT EVALUATED IN AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION. If the
operator proposes to conduct operations that have not been evaluated during
aircraft certification, the POI must ensure that the operator has developed
and obtained approval of procedures for the conduct of the proposed operation.
Such operations are often indicated by the absence of a procedure for the operation
in the AFM or RFM. Examples of such operations could include powerback and taxi
with engine shutdown. POIs should use the following guidance when evaluating
those operations not evaluated during aircraft certification.
A. POIs must ensure that each operation conducted must be specifically
addressed by a procedure. For example, it should not be assumed that a procedure
for shutting down and then restarting an engine during a taxi delay is equivalent
to a procedure for delaying an engine start on initial taxi-out. The same procedure
may not be used for more than one operation unless analysis shows that more
than one operation may be safely conducted using the same procedure.
B. POIs must ensure that an operational procedure is thoroughly
coordinated with Airworthiness inspectors. Since adverse effects that a procedure
could cause to the airworthiness of an aircraft or its systems may not be immediately
apparent, the POI must ensure that coordination with Airworthiness inspectors
is required. For example, a procedure for taxiing with engine shutdown could
have a detrimental effect on the landing gear system if high asymmetrical engine
thrust is used during sharp turns. If there is any question concerning the effects
a procedure may have on the airworthiness of the aircraft, the POI must coordinate
with and obtain concurrence from the appropriate AEG before granting approval of the procedures.
3-3243 LIMITATIONS. POIs must ensure that when operating limitations
are incorporated in a CFM, each limitation was transferred from the AFM or RFM.
POIs should use the following guidance when evaluating the limitations of an operator’s CFM.
A. POIs should evaluate the operator’s CFM to ensure that all
AFM or RFM operating limitations are published in the CFM and are clearly identified as AFM or RFM limitations (see
Volume 3, Chapter 32, Section 2, subparagraph 3-3152B)). The limitations
section of a CFM must contain every limitation from the AFM or RFM. Operators
may add limitations to CFMs that were not in an AFM or RFM limitation. One method
of accomplishing this is for the operator to express all operator-imposed limitations
as policy statements in applicable procedures. When the operator chooses to
blend AFM or RFM and operator-imposed limitations in the limitations section
of a CFM, the POI must ensure that the operator used a method for clearly distinguishing
each AFM or RFM limitation from the operator-imposed limitations.
B. The operator is responsible for informing crewmembers of all
AFM or RFM operating limitations. Crewmembers are responsible for observing
all AFM or RFM limitations. The POI must ensure that the CFM contains a statement
that crewmembers are responsible for being aware of and for observing all limitations.
3-3244 SELECTED PRACTICES. POIs with certificate management responsibilities
shall review their respective operator’s operations manuals. This review should
clarify under what conditions and circumstances flightcrews can make independent
determinations about what constitutes a maintenance irregularity or discrepancy
regarding departure when maintenance irregularities are noted at non-maintenance stations.
A. POIs shall determine whether operator’s operations manuals
contain criteria for the responsibilities of flightcrews during preflight and
postflight inspection, when maintenance irregularities or discrepancies are
noted at non-maintenance stations.
B. When procedural discrepancies are discovered in the operations
manuals, POIs should take the necessary action to have those manuals corrected.
RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-3245 through 3-3260.