Volume 3 General technical administration
Chapter 32 MANUALS, PROCEDURES, AND CHECKLISTS FOR 14 CFR PARTS
Section 8 Safety Assurance System: Evaluate General Maintenance Manuals
A. Evaluate a Manual. This section contains general information, direction,
and guidance to be used by the principal maintenance inspector (PMI) in the
evaluation of an operatorís General Maintenance Manual (GMM). Specific oversight
on Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts
135 air carriers
is accomplished in the Safety Assurance System (SAS). Some operators prefer their general manual
to be called General Practices and Procedures (GPP). The operatorís GMM/GPP is a segment of the
operatorís general manual system. Part
121.133 and part
that each operator prepare and keep current ďa manual.Ē The manual mentioned is
often referred to as a GMM/GPP, which the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
requires to contain guidance for ground and management personnel during
the conduct of the operatorís maintenance.
B. Required Contents. Sections
topics that must be addressed in an operatorís GMM/GPP. The operatorís GMM/GPP must contain
the duties and responsibilities for each category of employee. This manual must also
provide sufficient policy, direction, and guidance to its employees for the safe
and efficient performance of their duties. In addition, an operatorís GMM/GPP
must address the policies, systems, and procedures necessary to comply with
maintenance operations specifications (OpSpecs) provisions and safe operating
practices. This section contains discussions of selected topics that PMIs
should look for when evaluating an operatorís GMM/GPP, and which may be
required by the operatorís initial and final compliance statements.
A. Review Operatorís Management Structure. When evaluating an
operatorís GMM/GPP, PMIs must ensure that the operatorís management structure
is included in the GMM/GPP, and that it meets the following guidelines:
1) Management Structure. The GMM/GPP must contain a description
of the operatorís management structure as it pertains to the Continuous Airworthiness
Maintenance Program (CAMP) and its responsibility for the airworthiness of its
aircraft. Organizational entities, Areas of Responsibility (AOR), and titles
of key management positions must all be identified in the management structure.
This description should contain information on how the maintenance management
structure interfaces with the quality management structure and the responsibilities
of both. Organizational charts and diagrams may also be useful in showing the
relationship between operational units within the company.
2) Names of Management Personnel. The GMM/GPP must list the names
of the individuals filling required management positions. An acceptable way
for the operator to meet this requirement is to include a copy of its OpSpecs
in the manual. The FAA may approve management structures and titles different
from those specified by 14 CFR part
granting a deviation to these regulations. When the FAA grants such a deviation,
it must be listed in OpSpec A005 along with the names and titles of the
approved management positions listed in OpSpec A006.
B. Verify Inclusion of Authorized Maintenance. When evaluating
an operatorís GMM/GPP, PMIs must ensure that the operatorís authorized maintenance
is included in the operatorís GMM/GPP, and that it meets the following guidelines:
1) Clear Descriptions of Authorized Maintenance. The GMM/GPP
must contain clear descriptions of the types and level of maintenance that the
operator is authorized to conduct under its part
certificate. One way an operator may describe the scope of its CAMP, which should include the types and kinds
of authorized and prohibited maintenance, is to include a copy of the operatorís OpSpec D072 in the GMM/GPP.
Since the OpSpecs are designed to address a variety of situations and are not
easy to understand, the PMI should encourage operators to extract the applicable
information and incorporate it into the GMM/GPP. Clearly written direction and
guidance on how the operator will comply with the authorizations and limitations
should also be included.
2) Inclusion of Organization Charts, Programs, and Information Retrieval
Systems. PMIs must review and ensure the manual has all the following required information:
a) A chart or description of the certificate holderís organization required by ß
a list of persons with whom it has arranged for the performance of any of its required inspections and other
maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations, including a general description of that work.
b) The programs required by ß
must be followed in performing maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations of that certificate
holderís airplanes, including airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, emergency equipment,
and parts thereof. The programs must include at least the following:
1. The method of performing routine and nonroutine maintenance (other
than required inspections), preventive maintenance, and alterations.
2. A designation of the items of maintenance and alteration that must
be inspected (required inspections). This includes those that could result in
a failure, malfunction, or defect endangering the safe operation of the aircraft
if not performed properly or if improper parts or materials are used.
3. The method of performing required inspections and a designation by
occupational title of personnel authorized to perform each required inspection.
4. Procedures for the reinspection of work performed pursuant to previous
required inspection findings (buy‑back procedures).
5. Procedures, standards, and limits necessary for required inspections,
and acceptance or rejection of the items required to be inspected and for periodic inspection
and calibration of precision tools, measuring devices, and test equipment.
6. Procedures to ensure that all required inspections are performed.
7. Instructions to prevent any person who performs any item of work
from performing any required inspection of that work.
8. Instructions and procedures to prevent an inspectorís decision regarding
any required inspection from being countermanded by persons other than supervisory
personnel of the inspection unit, or a person at that level of administrative
control that has overall responsibility for the management of both the required
inspection functions and the functions of other maintenance, preventive maintenance,
9. Procedures to ensure that required inspections and other maintenance,
preventive maintenance, and alterations that are not completed because of shift changes or similar
work interruptions are properly completed before the aircraft is released to service.
c) A suitable system (which may include a coded system) that provides
for preservation and retrieval of information in a manner acceptable to the
Administrator, and that provides:
∑ A description (or reference to data acceptable
to the Administrator) of the work performed;
∑ The name of the person performing the work
if the work is performed by a person outside the organization of the certificate holder; and
∑ The name or other positive identification
of the individual approving the work.
C. Review Manual for Weight and Balance (W&B) Procedures.
When evaluating an operatorís GMM/GPP, PMIs shall ensure that an operatorís
W&B procedures are included in the operatorís manual system. If the operator
elects to place the W&B system program in the GMM/GPP, that portion of the
manual must be the ďProceduresĒ portion. Each type of airplane used by the operator
may require a separate FAA approval. The PMI shall verify that the following
guidelines are met:
1) Placement of W&B Procedure. It may be appropriate for
the operator to place the W&B procedure to be used by flightcrews in the
Flightcrew Operating Manual (FCOM) and the procedures to be used by personnel
other than flightcrews, such as maintenance personnel, in sections of the GMM/GPP.
If the operator develops a single W&B procedure for all aircraft operated,
it may be appropriate for the operator to place the procedure to be used by
flightcrews and other maintenance personnel in the GMM/GPP. Operators may develop
their own W&B procedures or use the procedures furnished by aircraft manufacturers.
PMIs should recommend to the operator the current editions of:
∑ Advisory Circular (AC)
Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and PracticesóAircraft Alterations;
Aircraft Weight and Balance Control; and
120-85, Air Cargo Operations.
2) Approval of W&B Procedures. Approval is granted in OpSpec E096.
Reference to the OpSpecs may be made in the GMM/GPP; however, the reference
may not be used instead of a detailed description of the procedures to be used
by ground maintenance, ground handling, and flightcrew personnel. PMIs must
ensure that the information and guidance in the operatorís GMM/GPP is consistent.
The W&B procedures described in the operatorís manuals should normally address
the following topics:
∑ Procedures for complying with
W&B limitations for each type of aircraft;
∑ For part
that operate multiengine aircraft, procedures for ensuring that the empty weight and center of gravity (CG)
of each multiengine aircraft is determined by actually weighing the aircraft within the preceding 36 months;
∑ Procedures for determining
the weight of passengers, crew, cargo, and baggage;
∑ Procedures for making
the CG calculations, including loading schedules or other approved methods, if applicable;
∑ Procedures for the completion
and disposition of load manifests and W&B records; and
∑ Procedures for loading the aircraft.
D. Review Operational Control Procedures. When evaluating an
operatorís GMM/GPP, PMIs must ensure that an operatorís maintenance control
procedures are included. Other areas should be explained as well, such as the
duties and responsibilities of the maintenance control supervisor. The GMM/GPP
should also explain the relationship between maintenance control and operations
dispatch. It should further explain that only a licensed dispatcher could dispatch
an aircraft. When training and operational control requirements for operational
control personnel are not contained in a training and qualification document,
they must be listed in the GMM/GPP. The PMI must ensure that the following requirements
and Flag Operations. The description of the operational control system used by part
conducting domestic and flag operations must be comprehensive. The interrelation of flight dispatch, crew scheduling,
and maintenance (airworthiness) control must be outlined in detail. When evaluating an operatorís
GMM/GPP, PMIs shall ensure that maintenance‑planning procedures are included. The direction
and guidance for maintenance planning must be comprehensive and address the responsibilities
of both maintenance control and quality control (QC).
2) Policies, Procedures, and Guidance. Inspectors must ensure
that an operatorís GMM/GPP contains the policies, procedures, and guidance to
be used by the personnel who support the operatorís maintenance efforts at the
outlying line station level. This manual material must include those situations
in which the operator maintains line stations, as well as situations in which
the operator contracts for or purchases line station support. This type of material
is usually located throughout various user manuals, such as ground station and
maintenance manuals, facilities and equipment (F&E) manuals, fueling manuals,
and other special types of manuals. An operator may format and organize this
type of manual material in a manner that is most consistent and usable for the
operatorís kind and type of operation. Regardless of the format and organization,
however, this type of manual information is considered to be GMM/GPP material.
The following are examples of the types of information that should be addressed
in manual material concerning line station maintenance:
a) Duties and Responsibilities. The GMM/GPP, as appropriate, must
contain an outline of the duties and responsibilities of line station supervisory
personnel. The types of positions that should be addressed include the following:
ground station maintenance personnel, and aircraft servicing personnel (when
not addressed in the GOM). When an operator contracts for or purchases line
station support, the GMM/GPP, as appropriate, must detail the procedures to
be used by the personnel providing the support.
b) Servicing and Ramp Maintenance. The GMM/GPP must contain detailed
safety procedures and guidance on servicing and maintaining aircraft during
line station maintenance. These manuals should also contain instructions on
the maintenance and use of ramp areas. The following are examples of procedures
for aircraft servicing and ramp maintenance that should be addressed in the
∑ Procedures for the safety and protection of personnel
working on the ramp;
∑ Procedures for fueling aircraft with or without passengers
onboard, including any requirements for crewmembers to be onboard during fueling, or prohibitions
against positioning fuel trucks next to open exits with passengers onboard;
∑ Procedures for operating ground equipment,
including the capabilities and limitations of the equipment, and the training
and qualification of persons using the equipment;
∑ Procedures and guidance for properly locating
and stowing ground equipment;
∑ Procedures for the operation of aircraft
cargo doors, baggage and cargo loading, and closing and checking the security of doors;
∑ Procedures for foreign object damage (FOD)
control and periodically inspecting ramp areas;
∑ Procedures to be used during adverse
weather conditions, such as thunderstorms, high winds, or low visibility; and
∑ Procedures for the inspection and removal
of frost, ice, snow, or standing water.
c) Hot and Cold Weather Maintenance. PMIs should evaluate an operatorís
GMM/GPP to ensure that it contains detailed procedures and guidance on hot and
cold weather maintenance, including the following:
∑ Procedures for the inspection
of ramps for accumulation of frost, ice, snow, or standing water; and
∑ Restrictions and cautions on aircraft movements.
d) Deicing Procedures. Aircraft ground deicing procedures should
be clearly delineated by the operator. While such procedures are usually in
the operatorís manual, the GMM/GPP must contain the following types of information
concerning deicing for crewmembers, ground maintenance, and management personnel:
∑ Assignment of responsibility for ensuring
that aircraft is clear of frost, ice, and snow accumulation;
∑ Conditions that require aircraft ground deicing;
∑ Procedures to ensure the effectiveness of deicing,
including the frequency of applications, proper fluid mixtures, and tactile or close visual checks of selected portions of critical surfaces;
∑ Parts of the aircraft to deice,
including a description of the critical surfaces of the aircraft used by the operator;
∑ Locations on the ramps or airports
where deicing will be conducted;
∑ Engine auxiliary power unit (APU)
and ground equipment operation during deicing;
∑ Passenger and ramp personnel protection during deicing;
∑ Procedures to be used by contract personnel
when the operator contracts for deicing services;
∑ If applicable, a complete description of the elements
of the operatorís ground deicing/anti‑icing program and the procedures required to operate under that program; and
∑ If applicable, a complete description of the
ground deicing/anti‑icing operational procedures that the operator uses to comply with ßß
e) Contract Services. PMIs must ensure that the GMM/GPP, as appropriate,
contains policy and guidance concerning the interrelationship between the operatorís
personnel and the personnel of organizations who provide contract services at
line stations. Contractor personnel are required to be trained on operator‑specific
procedures. The appropriate manual must contain the specifications for the following:
the types of training to be given to contractor personnel, who is responsible
for providing the training, and who is responsible for keeping records of the
training. Although the contractor may be delegated this responsibility, the
operator has final responsibility.
RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-3308 through 3-3325.