VOLUME 3 GENERAL TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATION
Chapter 32 MANUALS, PROCEDURES, AND CHECKLISTS FOR 14 CFR PARTS
Section 12 Safety Assurance System: Aircraft Checklists for 14 CFR Parts
3-3401 GENERAL. This section contains direction and guidance for
principal operations inspectors (POI) for the review of aircraft checklists
for Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts
135 operators. All parts
operators must provide aircraft checklists to their flightcrew members.
Flightcrew members are required to use these aircraft checklists in air transportation operations. For part
operators, aircraft checklists must be approved by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and for part
operators these checklists must be acceptable to the FAA (see section
1 of this chapter for definitions of acceptance and approval). This section
is related to Safety Assurance System (SAS) Element 2.2.1, Airmen Duties/Flight Deck Procedures.
A. Definition. A checklist is a formal list used to identify,
schedule, compare, or verify a group of elements or actions. A checklist is
used as a visual or oral aid that enables the user to overcome the limitations
of short-term human memory. Although a checklist may be published in a manual,
it is designed for independent use so that the user does not have to reference
a manual. Checklists are used to ensure that a particular series of specified
actions or procedures are accomplished in correct sequence. Aircraft checklists,
in particular, are used to verify that the correct aircraft configuration has been established in specified phases of flight.
B. Standardization. Aircraft checklists and the operator’s policies
for the use of checklists are one means by which operators structure and define
flight crewmember roles. Research has shown that standardized procedures and
effective cockpit communications are significant factors in flight safety. POIs
must review the operator’s policies and procedures for checklist use as an integral
part of the checklist review process. POIs shall ensure that checklists and
the operator’s procedures for checklist use are standardized (to the extent
allowed by individual aircraft differences) for all aircraft in the operator’s fleet.
C. FAA Approval or Acceptance for Specific Operators. POIs and
operators must understand that aircraft checklists published in Airplane Flight
Manuals (AFM) or Rotorcraft Flight Manuals (RFM) are not approved by the Aircraft Certification Office (ACO). When a part
operator proposes to use an AFM checklist, the POI must review and approve that checklist for that operator. When a part
operator proposes to use an AFM or RFM checklist, the POI must review the checklist and determine that it is acceptable for that operator’s use.
3-3402 CHECKLIST CONTENT. Aircraft checklists have traditionally been divided into three categories.
For the purpose of this handbook, these categories are referred to as normal,
non-normal, and emergency. Operators may use other titles for these categories,
such as abnormal instead of non-normal. Operators may also further divide these
categories into subcategories, such as alternate and supplemental. POIs shall
use the following guidance when evaluating the content of an operator’s checklists.
A. Content. POIs shall ensure that aircraft checklists are limited to action
items or verification items. The aircraft checklist should not contain elaboration
or explanation. POIs must ensure that the required actions and decisions for
flightcrews when performing a checklist are thoroughly described in the operator’s
manual and training program. POIs will consider the following when evaluating aircraft checklist content:
1) Non-normal and emergency checklists must contain each sequential step of an
FAA-approved procedure found in the AFM or RFM. POIs must contact the applicable
Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG) and obtain concurrence before approving the
deletion of an item or the rearrangement/modification of items in these checklists.
2) A normal checklist is typically a listing of action items
to be performed and verified at a particular point in flight. Normal checklist
items do not necessarily represent a procedural step and may even represent
completion of an entire procedure. For example, the item “Gear—Up and Locked”
could indicate that the gear handle had been raised, the gear indications checked,
the gear handle had been placed in the neutral position to check the up-locks,
and the handle had then been returned to the up position. Most normal procedures
do not require itemization or incorporation into a checklist. For example, the
procedures for making normal takeoffs and landings are not itemized in a checklist format, but described in a narrative format.
B. Criticality of Checklist Items. Checklist items can be ranked
in criticality according to the potential effect of the crewmember failing to
perform the action. Critical items are those items which, if not correctly performed,
have a direct, adverse effect on safety. Noncritical items are “housekeeping”
items or systems management items, which for operating practices must be routinely
accomplished during a specific phase of flight, but if omitted would have a
minimal effect on safety. An item may be considered to be critical on one checklist
but noncritical on another checklist. For example, a flightcrew’s failure to
set the flaps while accomplishing the before takeoff checklist has had extremely
adverse consequences. A flightcrew’s failure to retract the flaps while performing
the after landing checklist, however, has had little effect on safety. The operator
and POI shall analyze each phase of flight to identify critical items for that
phase of flight and to ensure that all critical items are included on the checklist.
C. Diversion of the Flightcrew’s Attention. The flightcrew’s
attention is diverted from other tasks when performing a checklist. Checklists
must be kept as short as practical to minimize “heads-down” time and diversion
of the crew’s attention while performing the checklist.
1) Each additional item that is added to a checklist increases
the potential for interruption when the checklist is accomplished, diversion
of the crew’s attention at a critical point, and the missing of critical items.
Operators and POIs must weigh the benefit of including each item on a checklist against the possible adverse effects.
2) Items not associated with aircraft operations (such as calls
to the company) shall not be placed on the checklist.
D. Aircraft Sophistication and Checklist Design. The degree of
technological sophistication in the design of the aircraft directly affects
checklist items. In older aircraft, the flightcrew must manually select and
monitor most items. In technologically advanced aircraft, the same items are
accomplished and monitored by automatic systems that relieve the flightcrew
of these tasks. Checklists for technologically advanced aircraft tend to be
shorter and simpler than those for older aircraft. POIs shall ensure that the
operator’s aircraft checklists are based on a careful task analysis of the operational requirements of the specific aircraft.
E. Fleet Standardization. POIs shall ensure that operators standardize
checklist items and the sequence of items to the extent allowed by individual
aircraft differences across all aircraft in the fleet. Checklists for technologically
sophisticated aircraft are typically shorter and simpler than those for older
aircraft. The items on checklists for technologically advanced aircraft, however,
are normally present on checklists for aircraft with older technology. POIs
shall require operators to evaluate the feasibility of placing common checklist
items on checklists with standard titles for all aircraft (such as Before Start,
before takeoff, or before landing checklists). Items should appear in a standard
sequence to the degree possible. POIs should not normally approve placing an
item on a checklist that is not required for that specific aircraft solely because
the item is required in other aircraft of the fleet. POIs may make exceptions,
however, when the operator provides adequate justification.
3-3403 METHODS OF CHECKLIST DESIGN. Operators may choose from at
least two accepted methods of checklist design: the “challenge-do-verify” (CDV)
method and the “do-verify” (DV) method. Available evidence suggests that safety
is enhanced when the operator adopts and applies a consistent checklist design
policy. POIs should use the following informative guidance when reviewing the design of an operator’s aircraft checklists.
A. “Challenge-Do-Verify.” The CDV method consists of a crewmember
making a challenge before an action is initiated, taking the action, and then
verifying that the action item has been accomplished. The CDV method is most
effective when one crewmember issues the challenge and the second crewmember
takes the action and responds to the first crewmember, verifying that the action
was taken. This method requires that the checklist be accomplished methodically,
one item at a time, in an unvarying sequence. The primary advantage of the CDV
method is the deliberate and systematic manner in which each action item must
be accomplished. The CDV method keeps all crewmembers involved (in the loop),
provides for concurrence from a second crewmember before an action is taken,
and provides positive confirmation that the action was accomplished. The disadvantages
of the CDV method are that it is rigid and inflexible and that crewmembers cannot accomplish different tasks at the same time.
B. “Do Verify.” The DV method (or “clean-up” method) consists
of the checklist being accomplished in a variable sequence without a preliminary
challenge. After all of the action items on the checklist have been completed,
the checklist is then read again while each item is verified. The DV method
allows the flightcrew to use flow patterns from memory to accomplish a series
of actions quickly and efficiently. Each individual crewmember can work independently,
which helps balance the workload between crewmembers. The DV method has a higher
inherent risk of an item on the checklist being missed than does the CDV method.
C. Selection of Design Method. Both the CDV and the DV methods
of checklist design are currently being successfully used for normal checklists.
Traditionally, operators have preferred the DV method for normal checklists
and the CDV method for non-normal and emergency checklists. Operators have,
however, successfully used the CDV method for all checklists. POIs may approve
either method for normal checklists. In most circumstances, non-normal and emergency
checklists are more effective when the CDV method is used. The correct accomplishment
of the actions and procedures incorporated in the non-normal and emergency checklist
categories is critical and warrants a methodical approach. Since these checklists
are seldom used, however, crewmembers are usually not as familiar with the procedures
incorporated into these checklists as they are with the procedures in normal
checklists. In addition, many non-normal and emergency checklists do not lend
themselves to developing flow patterns that crewmembers can readily recall.
The CDV method also enforces crew coordination, cross-checking, and verification,
all of which aid the crewmember in overcoming the adverse effects of stress.
POIs should not approve or accept the DV method for non-normal or emergency
procedures unless the operator can provide substantial evidence that the method is effective for this application.
D. Mechanical or Electronic Checklists. Mechanical or electronic
devices differ in format from paper, hand-held checklists, but not in the design
method or use. The actions these checklists contain and their sequencing shall
be consistent with the paper version (when required) available to the flightcrew.
Some electronic checklists will have an ability to automatically detect the
completion of an action based on switch position, system state, or both. In
electronic checklists, the verification in the CDV or DV methods may be a matter
of observing that the items are complete via the display method used (for example,
completed items turn green). The CDV or DV methods can be applied to any type
of checklist. POIs should encourage the use of such aids when operators find them effective.
E. Verification. POIs should keep in mind that all checklist
designs are subject to human error. Crewmembers may omit and skip checklist
items. Crewmembers may erroneously respond to a checklist at times believing
that an item or task was accomplished when it was not. At times, crewmembers
may see what they expect to see rather than what has actually been accomplished.
Both the CDV and the DV methods are subject to such human errors. POIs must
ensure that operators have developed policies for using checklists that require
stringent cross-checking and verification to overcome these human limitations.
These policies must be compatible with the operator’s Crew Resource Management
(CRM) philosophy. POIs shall review the operator’s policies as an integral part of the review process.
3-3404 POLICIES FOR MANAGING THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF CHECKLISTS. POIs
must ensure that the appropriate sections of the operator’s manuals contain
the specific crewmember responsibilities for monitoring, verifying, and managing
the accomplishment of checklists. These responsibilities should appear either
as policy statements or as specific directives. POIs should use the guidance
that follows when evaluating an operator’s policies for the accomplishment of checklists.
A. Objective of Policy Statements and Directives. The primary
objective of the operator’s policy statements or directives is to standardize
crewmember interaction. These statements should include, but not be limited to, the following items:
· Flightcrew responsibilities for maintaining aircraft control,
analyzing situations, and for requesting the appropriate checklist in non-normal and emergency situations.
· The specified crewmember responsible for initiating each checklist.
· The specified time when each checklist is to be initiated.
· The specified crewmember responsible for accomplishing each item on the checklist.
· The specified crewmember responsible for ensuring that each checklist
is completed and for reporting that completion to the crew.
· Crewmember responsibilities for bringing to the attention of the
pilot-in-command (PIC) and the rest of the crew any observed deviation from prescribed procedures.
B. Methods for Managing Checklist Accomplishment. The following
subparagraphs each contain a discussion of recommended methods an operator may
use for managing checklist accomplishment. These methods are not all-inclusive
and may not meet all of the operator’s needs. POIs shall not interpret these methods as the only ones that are acceptable.
1) For single-pilot aircraft, the FAA recommends that operators
mount the before takeoff checklist and the before landing checklist on the instrument
panel by means of a placard. When aircraft characteristics allow, the operator
should develop touch-verification procedures that contain a requirement that
the pilot touch each control to verify it is in the correct position.
2) For two-pilot aircraft in which only the PIC has ground steering
control, the recommended method for accomplishing checklists is for the second-in-command
(SIC) to read all checklists when the aircraft is in motion on the ground. The
recommended method for those aircraft in which either pilot can steer on the
ground is for the pilot not flying (PNF) to read all checklists. In all two-pilot
aircraft, the PNF should read all checklists when the aircraft is airborne.
3) For three-crewmember aircraft, the recommended method is for
the SIC to read the flight engineer (FE) portion of the before-engine-start
checklist, so that the PIC can observe and verify the configuration of the FE
panel as the FE responds to each item on the checklist. Since the PNF is the
crewmember most subject to interruptions from radio communications, it is recommended
that the FE should read all normal checklists and verify that each pilot action
has been taken when the aircraft is in motion. The FE should have the explicit
task of verifying that critical items have been performed by the pilots, whether
or not the FE has verbal responses for those items. In those non-normal or emergency
situations that involve significant activity by the FE, it is recommended that
the PNF read the checklist and verify FE actions while the FE performs and responds to the items.
4) For all aircraft, the crewmember responsible for reading the
checklist should be responsible for ensuring that the checklist is completed
systematically and expeditiously. This crewmember should be responsible for
managing interruptions, cross-checking controls and indicators to ensure that
the required actions have been accomplished, and for reporting that the checklist has been completed.
5) The pilot-flying (PF) should not be distracted from controlling
the aircraft to perform a checklist item that another crewmember can accomplish.
The PF should activate only those switches or controls (other than the manual
or automatic flight controls, throttles, and nosewheel steering) that are not
within practical reach of another crewmember. Only one pilot should be “heads down” at any time.
6) In the prestart phase, flight guidance and navigation checklist
items have proven to be critical items. A response should be required from both
pilots (and FE, if applicable) when the same setting is required for more than
one device (such as computers, flight instruments, and altimeters). Inertial
platform alignment and computer programming should be accomplished by one crewmember
and independently confirmed by another crewmember. As many of these checklist
items as possible should be accomplished and verified before the aircraft is moved.
7) In the taxi and pretakeoff phases, aircraft configuration
(such as flaps, trim, and speedbrakes) and flight guidance items (such as heading,
flight director, altitude select panel settings, and airspeed bugs) have proven
to be critical. All flightcrew members should confirm these items, and at least
two crewmembers should respond to applicable checklist items.
8) On approach, flight guidance checklist items have proven to
be critical items. At least two crewmembers should confirm and respond to these
items. A response should be required from each pilot when the same setting is
required on two separate devices (such as computers, flight instruments, or altimeters).
NOTE: One operator was able to reduce altitude deviations from an average
of two per week to one per quarter by using stringent procedures for setting and verifying the altitude alerter.
9) All checklist items that are critical in the before landing
phase vary with the type of airplane involved. In the operation of small airplanes,
the landing gear has proven to be a critical checklist item, and both pilots
should confirm and respond to this item. Although the landing gear and flaps
are critical items for large, transport category airplanes, the multiple warning
devices and systems that are associated with these systems make the need for
a response and confirmation by both pilots less critical.
10) All checklists, except the after-takeoff and after landing
checklists, should be accomplished by one crewmember reading the checklist items
and a second crewmember confirming and responding to each item. POIs shall ensure
that critical items on the before takeoff and before landing checklists are confirmed and responded to by at least two crewmembers.
11) All checklists must be designed so that the flightcrew can
maintain an adequate visual scan and monitor air traffic control (ATC) communications
while simultaneously controlling the aircraft. The recommended method is for
the operator to group the systems management checklist items after the configuration,
thrust, and flight guidance items for each phase of flight. When systems management
checklist items must be accomplished in a high workload environment, it is recommended
that they be accomplished by a single crewmember. Usually the after-takeoff
and after landing checklists items can be accomplished silently as these items
have not proven to be critical. POIs should carefully evaluate the operator’s
overall operation and experience before approving other checklists in which
a single crewmember may accomplish a checklist.
12) Operators should direct crewmembers to refrain from accomplishing
action items assigned to other crewmembers. Crewmembers should be directed that
when they observe that another crewmember is not taking or has not taken a required
action, they must inform the crewmember, the PIC, or the whole crew, as appropriate.
13) Checklists should not be depended on to initiate changes in
aircraft configuration. Operators should key aircraft configuration changes
to specific operational events. For example, the operator may direct the landing
gear to be extended at glideslope intercept. For any adjustment of thrust or
configuration, a command from the PF and an acknowledgement from the crewmember taking the action are required.
14) Flightcrew members frequently cannot complete a checklist
when initiated, either because of an interruption or because an item on the
checklist has not yet been accomplished. POIs shall ensure that each operator
has developed policies for the management of these situations. For short delays,
the recommended policy is for the flightcrew to hold the checklist until the
interruption is over and the item can be completed. When the checklist item
is completed, the challenge should be repeated, the proper response given, and
the checklist continued. POIs shall not accept policies that allow flightcrews
to skip checklist items that have not been completed and then to depend on memory
to accomplish the item later. When a mechanical or electronic device allows
checklist items to be accomplished in a random sequence, the POI may allow policies appropriate to the system used.
C. Checklist Interruptions. Operators must establish procedures
to ensure that the correct checklist sequence is reestablished when unusual
events interrupt the normal sequence of a flight. For example, crewmember actions
during normal sequences of flights are interrupted when long delays are encountered
on taxi-out or when crewmembers vacate the flight deck.
1) Vacating Flight Deck with Visitors in Cockpit. Operators must
establish additional checklist management procedures for checklist interruptions
that occur when any flightcrew member who is assigned to a flight deck duty
station vacates the cockpit to perform other duties, leaving persons who are
occupying cockpit observer seats or who visit the cockpit during such absence
with unsupervised access to unmanned flight deck duty stations. If any checklist
interruption of this kind occurs and any person, other than those specified in 14 CFR part
121.583(a)(1) through (3), or part
135.85(a) and (f), has unsupervised access to an unmanned flight deck duty
station, then each checklist item in all of the checklists prior to engine start must be reaccomplished.
2) POI Responsibilities. Part
POIs shall ensure that their assigned certificate holders conform to
the policies described in this subparagraph. Part 135 POIs shall encourage their
assigned certificate holders to conform to these policies.
NOTE: The following policies apply when interruptions of checklists
occur before engine start; are caused by the vacating of an assigned flight
deck duty station by one or more flightcrew members to perform duties outside
the flight deck; and any person, other than those specified in §
§ 121.583(a)(1) through (3), or
§ 135.85(a) and (f), occupies a cockpit observer seat or has access to the
cockpit during the flight crewmember’s absence.
3) Verification of Items Accomplished. The flightcrew must verify
the accomplishment of all items on checklists that have been accomplished up
to the point where the current checklist was interrupted.
a) Minimum Requirement. As each checklist item is reaccomplished, the minimum
that is required is a verification that switches, control handles, knobs, or
levers are in the positions prescribed and that the associated indicator lights
and instrument readings confirm the proper positioning of the applicable switches, control handles, knobs, or levers.
b) Additional Requirements.
1. If the verification check reveals that any switch, control handle,
knob, or lever is not in the position prescribed, then the full procedure, including
any associated checks for the particular checklist item(s), must be reaccomplished.
2. If the indicator lights or instrument readings associated with the
proper positioning of particular switches, control handles, knobs, or levers
are not in agreement with the prescribed positions of these control means and
reaccomplishment of the full procedure, including any associated checks for
the particular checklist item(s), does not correct the disagreement, then the
flightcrew must log the discrepancy in the aircraft maintenance log. The operator
must either correct this discrepancy before the next flight or, if permitted,
defer correction in accordance with the certificate holder’s approved minimum equipment list (MEL) procedures.
3-3405 DEVELOPMENT AND SEQUENCING OF CHECKLIST ITEMS. POIs must ensure
that checklists are developed from a careful task analysis and are consistent
with the procedures section of the operator’s flight manual. Phase checklist
items must be in an appropriate and logical sequence. When a checklist represents
an abbreviated procedure, that checklist must follow the procedural sequence.
POIs should use the following additional guidelines concerning individual topics of checklist design.
A. Operators should standardize the sequence of checklist items
as much as possible across aircraft types (see paragraph 3-3402, “Checklist Content”, subparagraphs D and E).
B. When the operator has a choice as to where an item should
be placed on a checklist, it should be placed at a point where the crew workload is lowest.
C. Operators should keep checklists as short as possible in order
to minimize interruptions. When an operator is using an electronic checklist
with the ability to automatically detect the completion of an action, the POI
shall encourage the use of that ability to the maximum extent possible.
1) Operators should sequence checklist items to minimize interruptions
of checklist accomplishment. For example, sequencing the “INS NAV MODE” as the
first item on the engine-start checklist may allow the flightcrew to call for
and complete the before-engine-start checklist at a convenient time even though INS alignment is not complete.
2) Two short checklists may be preferable to a single long one.
Operators may place a line or otherwise mark a checklist where the checklist
can be held until a specific event occurs. This practice is acceptable because in essence, it creates two separate checklists.
D. Operators must include required preflight tests on checklists,
but should design checklists to preclude the unnecessary testing of systems.
1) Warning systems with built-in test and automatic monitor circuits
do not need to be checked or included on checklists unless required by the AFM.
2) Many test switches in the cockpit are designed for use by
maintenance personnel. Operators should not require flightcrew members to perform these tests as a normal procedure.
3) With concurrence of the AEG, POIs may approve the operator
grouping required functional checks on a specific checklist which is performed
before the first flight of the day (or at some other logical interval) and not repeated on subsequent flights.
E. Operators must clearly identify decision points and indicate
the correct alternative action or alternative sequence of actions to be taken
after each decision point. If the effect of adverse weather requires an alternate
action, the operator should design the checklist to account for that alternate
action. For example, if the autothrottles are normally engaged for takeoff except
when engine anti-ice is being used, the checklist should contain a requirement
that the autothrottles cannot be engaged with the engine anti-ice on.
3-3406 IMMEDIATE ACTION ITEMS. Immediate action items are those items
accomplished from memory by crewmembers in emergency situations before the checklist is called for and read.
A. A flightcrew’s failure to correctly accomplish all immediate
action items can result in a threat to continued safe flight. For example, should
a flightcrew fail to close the tank valve during an engine fire procedure, leaking
fuel in the engine pylon may be ignited. In such cases, the first items on the
corresponding checklist must be verification that each immediate action item has been accomplished.
B. In some cases, an immediate action procedure may not be incorporated
in a checklist. For example, there is no point in verifying that each item of
an aborted takeoff procedure has been accomplished after the aircraft has been
brought to a stop. In most cases, however, there should be a “follow-on” or
“cleanup” checklist to be accomplished after the situation has been brought under control.
C. Another example of an immediate action memory item is the
following statement: “All flightcrew members shall immediately don O2
masks and report to the captain on interphone in the event of loss of cabin
pressure.” In this example, the loss-of-cabin-pressure checklist would contain
the immediate action memory item and subsequent follow-on items to verify that each item has been accomplished.
3-3407 CHECKLIST TERMINOLOGY. POIs should ensure that the operator’s
aircraft checklists contain terminology that is tightly controlled to ensure
clarity and common understanding. The following recommendations should be considered by POIs when reviewing checklists:
A. The challenges and responses on the checklist should be consistent
with the labeling on the switches and controls in the cockpit.
B. Terms such as “tested,” “checked,” and “set” are acceptable
terms only when they are clearly defined and consistently used.
C. Operators should have a consistent policy concerning responses
to items with variable settings. “As required” may be printed on the checklist,
but should not be an authorized response. A response that gives the actual setting
is normally appropriate. Items that require variable responses should be carefully
evaluated. Such items may not actually be required on the checklist or may be
more appropriately included in the system management portion of a checklist.
D. Responses to checklist items concerning liquid or gas quantities
should be made in terms of the actual quantities on board compared to the specific
quantity required, for example: “10,000 pounds required, 10,400 on board.” When
specific quantities are required, a response of “checked” is not acceptable.
A response of “checked” is acceptable when a range of quantity is permitted
and the range is marked on an indicator, such as a green arc on an oil quantity gauge.
E. Excess verbiage on checklists should be discouraged. For example,
a checklist item of “Reduce airspeed to 130 KIAS for best glide” can be abbreviated
as “BEST GLIDE – 130 KIAS.”
F. Ambiguous verbiage on checklists is not acceptable. For example,
“takeoff power” can mean either to advance the power or to retard the power.
3-3408 AIRCRAFT DIFFERENCES. POIs shall ensure that operators account
in the aircraft checklists for differences in various series of aircraft or
in installed equipment. When there are only a few minor differences, this may
be accomplished by using symbols to designate those checklist items that apply
to only one series of airplanes or that apply only when the equipment is installed.
When there are a significant number of differences, operators should prepare
separate checklists for each series of aircraft. Policies and procedures should
be established to account for differences in checklist responses when operations
are conducted with equipment removed or inoperative, in accordance with MELs and Configuration Deviation Lists (CDL).
3-3409 SEQUENCING NORMAL CHECKLISTS AND OTHER CHECKLISTS. Normal
checklist items may be incorporated in non-normal or emergency checklists to
simplify cockpit management. An acceptable alternative method is to require
both the normal and non-normal or emergency checklists to be accomplished in
a specified sequence. This method has the advantage of allowing the normal checklist
to be requested and accomplished at the time that it would normally be accomplished.
Checklists should be designed so that two checklists are not in progress simultaneously.
The method may depend on the degree of sophistication of the airplane involved.
In technologically advanced aircraft with short, simple checklists, it is usually
preferable to keep the normal and the non-normal checklists separate. Some non-normal
checklist actions may be deferred until initiation of the appropriate normal
checklist. In airplanes with electronic checklists, checklists may be combined
based on the priority of any one action, and/or the deferred non-normal checklist
items may be automatically inserted in the appropriate normal checklist. In
older airplanes, however, it may be necessary to add the normal checklist items
to the non-normal or emergency checklist simply to keep the checklist manageable.
3-3410 CHECKLIST FORMAT. POIs shall ensure that operators present
checklists to flightcrews in a practical and usable format. POIs should use
the following guidance when evaluating aircraft checklists for proper format.
A. Paper checklists should be protected either by plastic lamination or by being printed on heavy, folded pasteboard stock.
B. Non-normal, alternate, and emergency checklists must be in
a format that allows crewmembers to quickly and accurately find the correct
procedure while the crewmember is under stress. To expedite the referencing
of these checklists, a tabbed manual or other quick reference format is recommended.
When a paper checklist is required on the airplane, the methods used in an electronic
checklist and the associated paper checklist for referencing a particular checklist
shall be sufficiently similar to minimize flightcrew confusion or inappropriate
flightcrew response. The methods for accessing electronic checklists may determine
the format used to reference checklists in the paper version.
C. For single-pilot aircraft, the before takeoff checklist and
before landing checklist can be appropriately presented as placards on the instrument panel.
D. The type size and contrast used on a checklist is a compromise.
A large type size is preferred for legibility. A small type size is preferred
to keep the number of checklist pages to a minimum, which then further ease
the locating of a specific checklist. The legibility of printed material depends
on the size of the letters, the spacing between letters, and the type of font
used. The following is offered as a suggestion to POIs for what to consider
in evaluating the legibility of checklists. This guidance must not be interpreted
as being the only acceptable print size and contrast that can be used for checklists:
· Checklist headings or titles—12 point type, all caps, boldface, and a plain (sans serif) font.
· Checklist text (challenge and response) and notes—10 point type, boldface, and a plain (sans serif) font.
· Contrast for headings or titles—either black print on white or reversed for emphasis.
· Contrast for text—black print on white.
· Colored borders for ease of identification—green for normal checklists,
yellow for non-normal checklists, and red for emergency checklists.
NOTE: On airplanes with electronic checklists, these selections should
be consistent with the display and symbology standards used by that system.
RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-3411 through 3-3425.