Volume 3 General technical administration
chapter 48 EVALUATE 14 CFR PART
135 (NINE OR LESS) WEIGHT AND BALANCE CONTROL PROCEDURES
Section 1 Safety Assurance System: Accepting or Approving Weight and Balance Control Procedures
3-4006 REPORTING SYSTEM(S).
A. Program Tracking and Reporting Subsystem (PTRS). None.
B. Safety Assurance System (SAS) Automation. This section is
related to SAS Element 4.4.5, (AW) Weight and Balance Program.
3-4007 OBJECTIVE. This section provides guidance for accepting or
approving Weight and Balance (W&B) control procedures.
3-4008 GENERAL. Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations
(14 CFR) part
135.23(b) requires nine-or-less operator/applicants to develop their own
W&B procedures. The operator/applicant has the option of using the procedures
developed by the manufacturer, available in the approved Aircraft Flight Manual
(AFM) or pilot’s operating handbook (POH). Under these circumstances, the aviation
safety inspector’s (ASI) responsibilities are to ensure that the aircraft continue
to be operated in accordance with these procedures. It is the operator/applicant’s
privilege to revise these procedures or develop procedures tailored to the specific
needs of the operation. Under these circumstances, it is the ASI’s responsibility
to evaluate the procedures to ensure regulatory compliance and suitability to
3-4009 MANUFACTURER-DEVELOPED PROGRAM. If an operator/applicant decides
to use the manufacturer’s W&B program, it is the operator/applicant’s responsibility
to ensure that the program will meet the needs of the proposed/current operation.
To ensure an operator/applicant’s compliance with a manufacturer’s W&B program,
an ASI will have to verify that the operation or proposed operation will not
conflict with the program.
3-4010 OPERATOR/APPLICANT-DEVELOPED PROGRAM.
A. Authorized W&B
Limitations . The operator/applicant can submit any method or procedure
by which it can show that all aircraft are properly loaded and will not exceed
authorized W&B limitations during all operations.
1) These procedures can be provided in the operator’s manual
or they may be an independently controlled document that includes all instructions
and procedures for maintenance, operations, and baggage handling personnel.
2) The W&B document must include company procedures and instructions
for completing forms used in aircraft weight control and aircraft loading. Mathematical
justification for loading provisions or schedules should be included in the
B. Program Acceptance. The W&B procedures, including loading schedules and
charts, are accepted by the principal maintenance inspector (PMI).
C. Unusual or Complex Programs. If the operator/applicant proposes an unusual
or complex W&B program, or that program is substantially different from the
approved AFM or POH, assistance from regional specialists should be requested.
NOTE: The use of actual weights is mandatory for part
135 reciprocating powered aircraft of nine or less passenger seats.
D. Load Schedules. The load schedule must include a manageable
system for aircraft loading under all loading situations, including alternate
procedures for nonstandard weight persons or groups. The operator’s procedures
must provide all necessary information (charts, graphs, tables, etc.), with
related instructions for the loading.
E. Approval Requirements. There may be instances when an operator/applicant
requests approval to operate an aircraft with an increase in gross weight and/or
change in center of gravity (CG) range. This constitutes a major design change,
and requires the approval of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) engineering,
14 CFR part
3-4011 COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS. This task requires close coordination
between Maintenance and Operation ASIs.
3-4012 REFERENCES, FORMS, AND JOB AIDS.
A. References (current editions):
· Title 14 CFR Parts 21, 23, 43, and 91;
· Civil Aviation Regulation (CAR) part 3;
· Advisory Circular
43.13-1, Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices--
Aircraft Inspection and Repair;
120-27, Aircraft Weight and Balance Control;
120-85, Air Cargo Operations;
· FAA-H-8083-1, Aircraft Weight and Balance Handbook;
· Approved Flight Manuals
· POH or W&B Manuals;
· Type Data Sheets and Aircraft Specifications;
· Supplemental Type Certificates (STC);
· Aircraft Equipment Lists; and
· Aircraft W&B Records.
B. Forms. None.
A. Review Operator/Applicant’s Data. Review the following:
1) Type of equipment.
2) Data to ensure that multiengine aircraft were weighed within
the preceding 36 calendar-months (refer to §
3) Operator/applicant’s proposed/current method of recordkeeping.
4) Specific W&B information pertaining to operator’s/applicant’s
aircraft to include:
a) Type Certificate Data Sheets (TCDS) for basic W&B data for individual
b) Existing alteration records (FAA Form 337, Major Repair & Alteration
(Airframe, Powerplant, Propeller, or Appliance)) that could affect the accuracy
of approved W&B data.
c) An equipment list, to confirm that the list matches installed
equipment. Verify that the list correlates with the actual location on the aircraft.
d) Past records in sufficient detail to determine the validity of
current W&B information, if applicable.
NOTE: If aircraft W&B records are unavailable or inaccurate, the only acceptable method
of determining the actual W&B is to weigh the aircraft.
5) Previous inspection reports, correspondence, and other documents in the office
files to determine if there are any open items or if any areas were identified
that require special attention.
B. Review Manufacturer’s Program.
1) Verify that the W&B information in the AFM/Rotorcraft Flight
Manual (RFM) includes current W&B information such as:
· Empty weight and CG,
· Loading graphs,
· CG envelopes,
· Loading schedules, and
· Index tables.
NOTE: The manual may refer to a W&B plotter. If so, ensure that this
device is available.
2) Ensure that the manufacturer’s procedures cover all aspects
of the operator/applicant’s intended operation.
3) Review load manifest requirements for multiengine aircraft
(refer to §
C. Review W&B Revisions.
1) Determine who is responsible for updating W&B information.
NOTE: The operator/applicant is ultimately responsible for the current
status of W&B after any major repair or alteration, or equipment change.
2) Ensure that revised W&B information has been entered in the
AFM/RFM or applicable aircraft W&B record, following any major change that may
affect the W&B.
D. Inspect Equipment and Facilities.
1) If the operator/applicant has aircraft weighing equipment
available, inspect calibration records to ensure that scale(s) calibration is
traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
2) Ensure that the operator/applicant has a draft free area or
hangar in which the aircraft can be weighed.
3) Ensure that the loaded aircraft are still within manufacturer
specified CG limits.
E. Evaluate W&B Training. Ensure that operator/applicant’s flight
training curriculum reflects the basic W&B procedures. The curriculum must also
include any special W&B considerations for special use aircraft, e.g., all cargo.
F. Analyze Results. Upon completion of the evaluation, analyze
the results and determine whether the aircraft and/or program meet all requirements.
G. Meet With Operator/Applicant. Discuss discrepancies with the
operator/applicant and advise what areas need corrective action.
3-4014 TASK OUTCOMES.
A. Follow SAS Guidance Using Module 4 and 5.
B. Accepting W&B. Successful completion of this task will result
in accepting the W&B manual procedures or revision.
C. Document the Task. File all supporting paperwork in the operator/applicant’s
3-4015 FUTURE ACTIVITIES. Follow SAS guidance.
RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-4017 through 3-4030.