VOLUME 3 GENERAL TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATION
Section 2 Part
142 Training Centers: Training,
Qualification, and Designation of Training Center Instructors and Evaluators
and Personnel Requirements.
Center Instructor Eligibility Requirements.
Center Instructor and Evaluator Privileges and Limitations.
Center Instructor Training and Testing Requirements.
Transport Pilot Certification Training Program.
Center Evaluator Requirements.
183.23, Pilot Examiners.
A. Requirements. Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part
each training center to have adequately trained personnel to accomplish the center’s approved training curricula.
Part 142 subpart
C outlines the qualifications, prerequisites, training requirements,
and limitations of instructors and evaluators who are employed by training centers
to conduct instruction and evaluations on their behalf. The term “training center”
as used in this section refers to an air agency certificated under part
includes the primary training center and all satellite centers.
The term “training center” must not be misconstrued to imply an individual satellite training center as defined elsewhere in this section.
B. Instructor and Evaluator Qualifications. Part
that each approved curriculum specify minimum instructor and evaluator qualifications and the initial and continuing training required by
those individuals to conduct the assigned curricula. The qualifications and
training required to ensure center instructors and evaluators are competent
to conduct the assigned training curricula is an integral part of a center’s
approved program. Training Center Program Managers (TCPM) must ensure that the
center has developed and received approval for their instructor and evaluator
training curricula. The various curricula and syllabi must identify, in a modular
format (including specific elements and events), the specifics of each required course of training for their instructors and evaluators.
3-4354 INSTRUCTOR TRAINING, QUALIFICATION, AND DESIGNATION. Although part
not specifically address the differences or distinguish between ground and flight instructors, it is a well‑established practice to make this
distinction. The distinction between ground and flight instructors at training
centers is appropriate for a number of reasons. First, it enables the centers
to distinguish between medical and pilot certification requirements, as well
as the training required to qualify an individual to conduct a specific portion
of an approved curriculum. Additionally, it affords the centers the flexibility
currently provided to air carriers by their operating rules and policies governing ground and flight instructors.
A. Ground Instructors.
1) A training center ground instructor is an authorized instructor
similar to the holder of a ground instructor certificate issued in accordance with 14 CFR part
center ground instructors, when properly qualified, may provide instruction in the ground-training segment of a center’s core and/or
specialty curricula. Individuals that a center wishes to designate as a ground
instructor may only be authorized to conduct training that is not considered
flight training. Training centers must have an approved process to train and
qualify ground instructors, ensuring those individuals are knowledgeable in the subject matter and qualified to conduct assigned curricula. Part
C requires that training centers identify the training, experience,
and evaluations that will be administered to prospective instructors prior to permitting the individual to conduct an approved curriculum.
2) Centers may on occasion employ subject matter experts (SME)
to support specific curriculum elements that demand specialized technical training
and experience that would not otherwise be available. For example, it may be
appropriate to use emergency medical service personnel to conduct cardiopulmonary
resuscitation (CPR) training or request that the airport fire department personnel
assist to discuss aircraft crash and rescue procedures. SMEs, such as engine
and equipment manufacturers, may also be used to assist regular training center
ground instructors in a particular subject area to provide additional information and experience to enhance the course content.
3) As required by part
instructors must be able to read, write, understand, and speak English. Fluency in reading, comprehension, and especially speaking are critical
attributes for all instructors. Ground school instructors who conduct systems
integration sessions in flight training devices (FTD) must also receive training
in the applicable portions of the center’s flight training segment to ensure
that an adequate level of knowledge and skill are obtained to support the assigned
curriculum. Training centers must also develop training curricula to qualify
ground instructors in the use of all hardware, software, and training devices
(both ground and flight) that are identified in the curriculum modules/elements
that the instructor will be assigned to conduct. These training curricula must
contain both knowledge and skill demonstration testing modules. The instructor’s training record must show the
satisfactory completion of these tests. Both initial and recurrent training
and testing records must be maintained in the instructor’s file. If the instructor
is assigned to deliver modules/elements that incorporate a flight simulation training device (FSTD) for system review, the instructor must also
demonstrate proficiency in the use of the supporting FSTDs. Again, ground instructors, if authorized, are limited to nonflight activities.
4) Each instructor designated as a ground instructor must complete
the applicable training and testing requirements specified in part
C not specifically related to flight duties.
B. Flight Instructors (FSTD).
the instructors’ eligibility, airman qualifications, and experience requirements that each center must address in its instructor training
curricula. A center’s instructor training curriculum must describe in detail
how the training center will train its flight instructors in the areas required by part
the center’s policies and procedures.
2) The training center must have an approved curriculum, including
syllabus and courseware, to train flight instructors to ensure that instructors
are knowledgeable and proficient in the subject matter, maneuvers, and procedures the instructor will be assigned to conduct. This curriculum must include:
• Training in the operation of the associated hardware, software,
and flight training equipment that will be used;
• Required prior experience, training to be received, and evaluations
that will be accomplished as part of the instructor’s qualification; and
• Recurrent ground training in basic instructional methods and operation
of FSTDs, as well as instruction in the specific content of each training course in which the instructor is designated to instruct.
3) When evaluating a center’s instructor training curriculum,
TCPMs must ensure that the items specified in §
142.47(c)(1) and (2) have
been adequately covered. The following guidance is provided to clarify the intent and scope of the items listed in §
a) Principles of learning, including instructional methods and techniques.
b) Training center policies and procedures. Forms and distribution, briefings/debriefings,
unsatisfactory performance, crew pairing limitations, maximum training day length, checklist usage, customer‑read files, etc.
c) Instructor duties, privileges, responsibilities, and limitations. Customer
contact, scheduling, applicable regulations/orders/notices/advisory circulars
(AC), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) policy memos, authorized deviations/waivers/exemptions, etc.
d) Proper operation of the FSTD, including controls and limitations, the
use of simulator discrepancy logs, and simulator component inoperative guides.
e) Customer requirements and applicable differences training, etc.
f) Minimum equipment requirements for each curriculum. Operation of audiovisual
systems, who to contact for inoperative equipment, acceptable alternate presentation methods, etc.
g) Crew Resource Management (CRM) and crew coordination.
h) Evaluation of student performance. Center policy on reporting, customer
policy on reporting, corrective action in the event of substandard performance, etc.
i) Content and revisions to each training curriculum. How to request amendments,
amendment process, how to validate the currency of center/customer material, etc.
NOTE: Except for center-specific items such as training center policies
and procedures, FSTD operation, recordkeeping, deviations, etc., an instructor
who has satisfactorily completed the instructor training requirements for a 14 CFR part
holder within the last 36 months may be given credit for satisfying appropriate portions of the instructor training required by §
the TCPM determines that the training previously received is equivalent to and meets part
142 regulatory requirements.
4) Each flight instructor must satisfactorily complete a written test on the subject areas outlined
in § 142.47(c)(1). The
test must be approved by the TCPM and be comprised of questions that are equivalent in difficulty, complexity, and scope to those
specified by the FAA for the Flight Instructor Airplane and the Instrument Flight Instructor knowledge tests.
5) Flight instructors are required, prior to initial designation
and annually thereafter, to demonstrate to an inspector or evaluator the knowledge
of and proficiency to instruct in a representative segment of each curriculum
for which that instructor is designated to instruct at the center. The demonstration
of instructing ability must be performed from the instructor panel in an FSTD,
representing each type of aircraft in which the individual will instruct. In
addition, if authorized to instruct in an aircraft due to the limitations of
the FSTD not permitting 100 percent training, testing, and checking, the flight
instructor must accomplish an annual proficiency check in the aircraft on at
least the maneuvers that are not authorized to be accomplished in the FSTD. (Refer to the appropriate
practical test standards
Airman Certification Standards
NOTE: If an instructor is authorized to conduct multiple curricula, then the instructor
must demonstrate the ability to conduct a representative segment of each of
the curricula for which he or she is authorized to provide instruction. Each
authorized curriculum will be evaluated separately unless the TCPM has made
a determination that the commonality between two or more curricula and courses
is sufficient to accept concurrent approval. Credit for concurrent instructional
demonstration applies only to ground training segments and the operation of FTDs.
all instructors who conduct training in an approved FSTD to satisfactorily accomplish a written test and proficiency check on the
content of each course the instructor is authorized to conduct, prior to initial
designation and annually thereafter. It is important that the center’s instructor
training curriculum provide detailed information on the training that the instructor is authorized to conduct. This is important because
the instructor will be evaluated initially and annually on his or her ability
to instruct as well as pilot the FSTD in the maneuvers, procedures, and crewmember
functions authorized to be conducted. Written tests must encompass and evaluate
the instructor’s knowledge on the specifics of aircraft systems, operating procedures, maneuvers, and crewmember functions that are part of the curriculum.
7) Proficiency check requirements (§
a) Unless further restricted by the training center, the standards for satisfactory
performance during proficiency checks are those stated in the applicable
b) Are administered by a qualified FAA inspector, TCPM, or authorized evaluator.
c) Encompass subject matter and maneuvers of a representative segment of
each curriculum the instructor is authorized to conduct. If an instructor is
authorized to instruct in multiple curricula for the same aircraft, then the
instructor must be evaluated annually in each of those curricula for which he
or she is authorized to provide instruction. The TCPM must ensure that annual
proficiency checks, which are designed to cover a representative segment of
a particular curriculum or course, are sufficiently comprehensive to ensure
that the instructor is proficient and capable of instructing the subject course.
d) The TCPM or authorized evaluator must determine the specific content
of the required proficiency check. These evaluations must cover as many subject
areas, maneuvers, procedures, and crewmember functions as necessary to determine
the instructor’s knowledge of and proficiency in operating the aircraft.
e) The proficiency check must be conducted in the same flight training equipment
that the instructor will be using to conduct instruction. Instructors who provide
instruction in multiple full flight simulators (FFS) representing different
models or series covered by the same type rating are to accomplish a proficiency check in each of the various FFSs.
f) The proficiency check requirements of §
be met by satisfactorily completing a proficiency/competency check accomplished under the requirements of 14 CFR part
91 subpart K (part
that each instructor who instructs in a Level C or D FFS must annually meet one of the practical experience requirements listed in §
center’s approved instructor training curriculum must describe how the center will ensure one of these practical experience requirements will
be met. The aircraft used to accomplish the flight experience or in-flight observation/line
observation and Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) must be the same type as the FFS in which the instructor is designated to instruct.
NOTE: The annual requirement of §
be considered met if the instructor participates in an approved line observation program for an air carrier under part
§ 135.338(f)(2) or part
an additional LOFT approved by the TCPM and conducted by the center.
C. Flight Instructors (Aircraft). A flight instructor who provides
instruction in an aircraft in maneuvers and procedures that cannot be accomplished
in an approved FSTD must meet the same qualifications and training/evaluation
requirements that are specified for an FSTD instructor plus the additional training requirements stated in §
142.53(a)(5) and (6). In
addition, if instruction is given in an aircraft from a required crewmember position, each instructor must hold a medical certificate
and a current FAA flight instructor certificate with appropriate category, class,
and type rating, and must maintain recency of flight experience as required by part
instruction is provided from a noncrewmember position or observer
seat, the pilot in command (PIC) must be qualified and current as a flight instructor in the aircraft.
NOTE: Flight simulator instructors and evaluators who instruct or evaluate
in an aircraft may maintain recency of flight experience in an FFS, as authorized by §
D. Designation of Instructors.
1) The training center must authorize and designate each ground
and flight instructor in writing who is qualified to provide instruction on behalf of the center. Authorization letters or records must include the following:
• Instructor’s name,
• Employee identification,
• Initial qualification date for each authorized curriculum,
• Curriculum/module/element name and course number (if appropriate), and
• Other qualifying information the TCPM deems appropriate.
2) The training specifications (TSpecs) (paragraph A013) issued
to each training center require that the center maintain a list of qualified
instructors. This listing must also identify the curriculums that the instructor
is authorized to conduct on behalf of the training center. The TCPM must advise
the training center that all changes or additions to this list will require notification to the TCPM within 5 business-days.
3-4355 SELECTION, TRAINING, AND DESIGNATION OF TRAINING CENTER EVALUATORS (TCE).
A. Regulatory Basis. The regulatory basis for the designation of a TCE may be found in 14 CFR
parts 183 and
FAA considers TCEs with certification authority to be examiners as that term is used in part
centers certificated under part
required to have sufficient personnel to support their training objectives, which may include the appointment of several TCEs. Part
outlines the prerequisites, training requirements, operating procedures, and limitations of TCEs who are authorized by the center’s TCPM.
B. Need and Ability to Manage. The TCPMs and their local certificate-holding
district office (CHDO)/certificate management office (CMO) must determine both
the need for the TCE and the ability to manage the TCE. The following items
must be considered when determining the need and the ability to manage each designee:
1) Training Center Need Considerations.
a) The ability of the training center to provide the required checking or testing of applicants within 7 days after the part
program has been completed.
b) The number of complaints received by the TCPM from the public, if any,
about the lack of availability of the training center to provide certification.
c) The ability of the training center to perform certification work with existing TCEs.
d) Whether anticipated activity at the training center is expected to increase, resulting in the need for additional TCEs.
e) Training center TCE attrition that may require new designees.
f) The number of different FSTDs by make, model, and series (M/M/S) in which
checks and tests must be administered. The TCPM must document the specific justification used to make this determination.
g) The total number of FSTDs at the training center.
h) The historical number of checks and tests conducted at the training center or satellite.
2) FAA Ability to Manage Considerations.
a) The FAA funding must be adequate to allow inspector travel necessary
to perform designee management and oversight. If existing budget constraints
do not allow for proper oversight, then the designee appointment must not be made.
b) The FAA inspector staffing must be sufficient to perform designee management and oversight.
c) The geographic location of the designee must not prohibit the ability of the FAA to provide normal designee management and oversight.
d) The CHDO/CMO must have the technical expertise sufficient to manage and oversee the designee.
e) The existing and projected office workload (including Flight Standards
Inspector Resource Program (FSIRP) work) must allow the office to effectively manage all designees in accordance with the requirements of this chapter.
3) Other Considerations.
a) The designation of a TCE must be based on an analysis of the certificate
holder’s need for the designation and the ability of the CHDO to provide the
required oversight. A review of all TCEs at the training center with similar
authority must be accomplished when determining need. If there is a large variation
of activity between TCEs with similar authority, then the ability of the training
center to competently schedule TCEs must be assessed. A large variation of activity would normally prevent the designation of additional TCEs.
b) Prior to designation or renewal of a TCE, the center must clearly show
a need for the requested TCE. Scheduling convenience or allowing an individual
to meet some other requirement, such as designation by a foreign entity, cannot be considered as justification for the designation.
c) A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is required in order to establish
and maintain TCEs and to provide training for FAA Operations aviation safety
inspectors (ASI) assigned to provide oversight duties at the training center.
The MOU must be written in accordance with the instructions and the sample MOU, which can be found in the list of effective documents on the Part
142 Training Centers website
Any deviations from this template must be approved in writing from the Air Transportation Division (AFS-200).
1) To be eligible for consideration as a TCE, candidates must first:
a) Hold an unrestricted FAA pilot or Flight Engineer (FE) certificate, as appropriate, to act as PIC or FE for the specific aircraft;
b) Have met the instructor qualification and training requirements of part
C and this chapter;
c) Be currently assigned as an instructor at the employing training center; and
d) Be qualified in each specific curriculum and the associated flight training equipment for which TCE privileges are requested.
2) Individuals who meet the eligibility criteria in subparagraph
1) will be evaluated on the following criteria before proceeding with formal training:
a) Have a history of cooperation with the FAA, and a good record as an airman
regarding accidents and/or incidents. The TCPM must verify the airman information
through the FAA’s recordkeeping systems before scheduling any training or qualification
observations. The airman’s information will be retained in the TCE’s file.
b) Have a reputation for integrity and dependability within the industry and the community.
c) Have at least 1 year of training center experience as a simulator instructor
and have accumulated at least 100 hours of FSTD operating experience within
the previous 12 months in the same aircraft M/M/S and type (if type is applicable)
of FFS or aircraft for which the designation is requested. TCPMs may consider
the candidate’s previous experience as an alternative to the 1-year experience
requirement if such experience is appropriate, timely (within the last 36 months),
and equivalent to the 1-year prerequisite. When considering a candidate’s previous
experience to determine his or her equivalency relative to the authorizations
being requested, the TCPM must carefully evaluate the candidate’s overall experience
in the type of operation and aircraft he or she will be authorized to evaluate.
Examples of experience that may be considered include prior experience as an
examiner (aircrew program designee (APD), Designated Pilot Examiner (DPE)), part
pilot, or a 14 CFR part
air carrier check pilot).
d) Candidates requesting authorization to conduct evaluations in an aircraft
while acting as a required crewmember must have logged at least 100 hours as
PIC in the M/M/S of aircraft except when approved as initial cadre on newly
certificated aircraft types or newly acquired aircraft for the employing center.
NOTE: Introduction of an aircraft that is new to a particular satellite
training center for which the certificate holder has an existing training program
established at another location does not qualify for approval of instructors
and/or evaluators under an initial cadre. The certificate holder must plan ahead
and take action as necessary to ensure that it has adequately trained and qualified
individuals in place, prior to initiating training at the new location. (Failure
of the training center to consider these issues does not justify any waivers or deviations to this requirement).
NOTE: The 1-year training center experience and/or the 100-hour requirement
to be considered as a TCE does not apply to the introduction of a new aircraft
type to the certificate holder’s program, which would allow an initial cadre.
NOTE: Although current regulations do not require TCEs to be a full-time
employee of the employing center, caution must be exercised when selecting part-time
individuals. The task of remaining proficient in the conduct of evaluations becomes more difficult as active participation becomes less frequent.
3) Flight Standards office managers may authorize waivers to the 1 year of training
center experience requirement outlined in subparagraphs 2)c) and d) above, if
the applicant can show that he or she possesses equivalent experience. Other
listed requirements, including the 100 hours of experience in the same M/M/S of FSTD, are not subject to waiver.
D. Selection, Training, and Designation.
1) Process for Selection, Training, and Designation. The process
for the selection, training, and designation of TCEs generally mirrors that
of APDs and designated flight engineer examiners (DFEE) as outlined in
Volume 13, Chapter 1, Sections 1 and
should see Volume 13, Chapter 1 for guidance on:
• Training and observation,
• Oversight and support,
• Required records,
• Processing of initial request,
• Examiner’s authority abroad,
• Shared oversight responsibilities,
• Amendment of designations,
• Renewal of designations,
• Processing of examiner’s paperwork,
• Review of examiner decisions,
• Termination of examiner designation,
• Cancellation for cause procedures, and
• Other actions that may be relative to the designation of TCEs.
NOTE: Subparagraphs 3-4355D2) through 9) contain information specific
to TCEs and are provided as a supplement to the examiner information provided in
Volume 13, Chapter 1, Sections 1 and
following subparagraphs are meant to provide additional guidance and clarification and are not designed to replace the guidance contained in
Volume 13, Chapter 1, Sections 1 and
2) TCE Application and Processing. The employing training center initiates
the application process to designate a TCE. The center must submit an application letter and completed FAA Form
Designation and Qualification Record (front side) to the TCPM for each TCE nominee. The application letter must include at a minimum the data requested in
Volume 13, Chapter 1, Section 2. Appropriate
guidance for processing the application letter and FAA Form
8710-6 is located in
Volume 13, Chapter 1, Sections 1 and
3) TCE Training and Qualification. TCE applicants must satisfactorily complete the training outlined in
Volume 13, Chapter 1, Section 2 conducted
by the TCPM or other FAA inspectors designated by the TCPM. The training conducted by the TCPM must include, as a minimum, the items under §
candidate will also be observed through surveillance
and evaluated while conducting each portion of a practical test (or proficiency check, if authorization is limited to §
checks only) by an FAA inspector qualified in accordance with Volume 1, Chapter 3. This evaluation will include an observation of the
applicant conducting a complete oral, FSTD, and (if appropriate) aircraft flight-testing
modules, as well as associated briefings and debriefings appropriate for the
authorizations requested. The qualification evaluations referenced above must
be conducted in accordance with a core curriculum approved for the employing
training center and appropriate for the evaluation authority being sought. The
applicant must also demonstrate the proper completion of the airman certification
and/or qualification paperwork required by the employing center as well as appropriate FAA documentation and reporting.
a) TCE Proficiency Checks.
1. A TCE must remain qualified as an instructor in all curricula/courses
for which he or she holds evaluation authority. Therefore, a TCE must meet all
instructor training and testing/checking requirements in order to remain authorized as a TCE for a particular curriculum/course.
a TCE to satisfactorily pass an annual proficiency check in the flight training equipment in which he or she is authorized to conduct
evaluations. This proficiency check must be taken in an FFS or aircraft that
represents the M/M/S of aircraft in which the TCE will be conducting evaluations.
In addition, if authorized to evaluate in the aircraft due to the limitations
of the FSTD for 100 percent testing and checking, the TCE must accomplish an
annual proficiency check in the aircraft on the maneuvers that cannot be accomplished in the FSTD.
NOTE: An instructor proficiency check that is designed to evaluate “a
representative segment of each curriculum” as permitted by §
opposed to the full requirements of the appropriate
not meet the checking/testing requirements for a TCE. A
TCE proficiency check, however, may be considered to meet the instructor proficiency requirements in §
3. A TCE may accomplish required part
C proficiency check requirements by one of the following methods:
• Accomplish the annual proficiency evaluation as required by §
• Complete an air carrier’s proficiency evaluation in accordance with §
or § 135.293 and §
the M/M/S of aircraft for which the TCE holds evaluation authority; or
• Accomplish the evaluation required for initial designation or the addition of
an aircraft type to the TCE’s letter of authorization (LOA).
NOTE: TCEs who maintain their §
through an approved air carrier program must accomplish all of the maneuvers required by the Airline Transport Pilot (ATP)
appropriate, regardless of the specific operator’s proficiency check requirements. For example, an operator may not be approved to conduct
circling approaches at published minimums or authorized global positioning system
approaches. In order for the TCE to remain qualified to instruct/evaluate circling
approaches at published minimums, the TCE must be evaluated accomplishing the
circling maneuver at published minimums during his or her proficiency check. This requirement must be met to ensure the TCE’s part
61 qualifications are maintained.
b) The content of the proficiency check must include a demonstration of the following:
1. The knowledge and skill areas required for the original issuance of the certificate for which the TCE holds authority.
2. All maneuvers and procedures listed in the
appropriate, for the applicable certificate and rating. In addition, this check must include other crewmember functions that the TCE may
be expected to evaluate in the accomplishment of assigned duties, such as Category (CAT) II or Head-Up Display (HUD)/Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) approaches.
4) Approval of Initial Cadre TCEs.
a) Purpose of the Initial Cadre Process. During the early phases of establishing
a TCE program, initial cadre TCEs are required. Initial TCE candidates must
first become fully qualified as flightcrew members and then be trained, evaluated, and approved as TCEs. Because the regulatory language of part
not address a training process for an initial cadre TCE, this section
provides the necessary guidance. The process that follows is valuable for startup
operations or when a new aircraft type is introduced to a training center because
it is a practical way to initiate a TCE program, and it takes advantage of initial
operations when the applicant is under close FAA scrutiny (with desirable effects on the TCE program).
b) Existing Training Program. Introduction of an aircraft, which is new
to a particular satellite training center for which the certificate holder already
has an existing training program established at another location, does not qualify for approval of instructors and/or evaluators under an initial cadre.
c) Request from Training Center. The overseeing inspector must arrange with
the training center to approve one or more TCE candidates to form an initial
cadre. The training center must submit a letter of request and an initial implementation
plan. The implementation plan must include a description of the prerequisites,
training, and checking that the initial cadre TCEs will undergo, as well as
any associated administrative functions. Specifically, quality control (QC)
measures, training curriculum, recordkeeping, and the methods that will be used
for the instructor to gain experience must be clearly identified, as well as
any additional information required by the managing specialist or the TCPM. The letter of request must contain the following:
• Name of initial cadre candidates,
• Business address,
• Applicant’s Airman Certificate numbers,
• Applicant’s current position,
• Requested TCE authority,
• Aircraft type,
• Brief resume of each candidate’s aviation background and experience, and
• Copies of each candidate’s training records.
NOTE: The TCPM may require that this information be expanded to suit circumstances.
d) Training, Startup, or New Aircraft Introduction. The training center
must provide a full qualification process for the initial cadre of the TCEs nominated.
e) Initial Training and Certification. Prior to initial cadre TCE designation,
the training center must first arrange to have the initial cadre TCE candidates
trained and appropriately certificated. The training center may provide the training internally, or by contracting with a manufacturer, another part
142 training center, or
with other qualified individuals such as flight test pilots. In any case, initial cadre TCE candidates must meet all of the regulatory requirements of part
f) Gaining Proficiency as an Instructor. After the initial training and
certification, initial cadre TCE candidates must become proficient in the training
center’s training program by instructing one another. During this training,
a training center may arrange for a pilot from the manufacturer, an operator,
or another source to act as the safety pilot or instructor pilot, if needed.
g) Proficiency and Competency Checks. After the first initial cadre TCE
candidates have become proficient as instructors, they may then begin the training
and checking of other initial cadre TCE candidates in accordance with the training
center’s initially approved flight training and qualification curriculum segments.
1. An FAA inspector who meets the qualification requirements of Volume 1, Chapter 3 must observe each check.
2. If the inspector determines that the performance of an initial cadre
TCE candidate conducting a certain check is satisfactory, the inspector will
recommend to the overseeing inspector that the airman be approved as a TCE for that type of check.
3. One initial cadre TCE candidate may check another initial cadre TCE.
Initial cadre TCEs can repeat this process until each candidate has been approved
as a TCE or has been terminated from the program. If only one individual is
considered the initial cadre TCE, an inspector will observe that individual conducting a check of another airman.
h) Designation of an Initial Cadre TCE. This follows the same basic procedures as normal (not initial cadre) TCEs.
1. Surveillance of initial cadre TCEs. Initial cadre TCEs may not meet
the 1-year and 100‑hour experience requirements as a normal TCE (not initial
cadre) would. Additional FAA surveillance may be required to mitigate the risk
associated with this lack of experience. Although the TCE may be issued an LOA
after the initial surveillance/observation is completed as part of the normal
designation process, additional surveillance may also be performed. Typically,
an additional three to five surveillance activities are performed within the
first 6 to 9 months following designation; however, TCPMs may deviate below
these normal surveillance expectations when the TCE candidate possesses exceptional
experience. Conversely, additional surveillance may be required for TCE candidates who lack previous experience that would normally be expected.
2. Below are factors to consider when determining additional surveillance:
• Overall training center industry experience with the aircraft
type. For example, is this the first curriculum at any training center for this aircraft type?
• The specific training center’s overall experience with introducing
new aircraft type curriculums. For example, is this the first new aircraft type the training center has introduced since certification as an air agency?
• Previous surveillance results during the introduction of a new aircraft type
curriculum at that specific training center.
• Previous experience of each individual TCE, including previous
experience as an APD or check pilot on the same aircraft type. For example,
does the TCE have previous TCE experience on other aircraft of the same make?
Or does the TCE have previous experience as an APD for an air carrier on the same aircraft type?
5) LOAs and General Restrictions.
a) Following the satisfactory completion of all required training and testing,
TCPMs will issue an LOA to each TCE outlining his or her evaluation authority.
The LOA will become a permanent part of the TCE’s training record maintained
by the employing center. A TCE cannot be granted authorization to evaluate graduates
of a curriculum or course that the employing center does not hold the authority
to conduct. For example, TCPMs may not authorize a TCE to act as a contract check pilot or conduct evaluations for air carriers operating under part
operator’s principal operations inspector (POI) may only approve contract check pilots and check FEs. (See
Volume 3, Chapter 54, Section 5 for
additional details on the approval process for authorizing center personnel
to act as contract check pilots/FEs or contract instructors for an operator.)
Training centers are limited to conducting crewmember training and evaluations pursuant
to part 61 and 14 CFR part
63 certifications only.
b) TCEs may not be authorized to:
• Evaluate in more than two aircraft types or two different M/M/S
within the same type if they are significantly different (e.g., LR-25 and LR-55
are considered significantly different aircraft and therefore are considered as two separate aircraft for the purposes of this section);
• Remain qualified to conduct evaluations in training courses for
three or more grades of pilot certificate unless specifically justified and approved by the TCPM;
• Conduct evaluations in more than one aircraft type and one training
course for non-type rated aircraft; or
• Conduct evaluations in five or more different series of one aircraft model.
c) In addition, the TCPM must consider limiting a TCE’s evaluation authority
when evaluations are conducted in different M/M/S that are significantly different as determined by aircraft differences defined
in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 1.
d) If a TCE’s authorization is limited to the PIC proficiency check required by §
airmen type certification privileges §
e) Before a TCE can be approved for a second aircraft, the TCPM must carefully
evaluate the differences between the aircraft currently authorized and that
of the second type requested. In many cases, an aircraft type rating will encompass
a number of different models and series of aircraft within that type rating.
Different models and/or series within a specific type may have vastly different
operating characteristics and systems. Levels of differences (designated A–E)
are described in Volume 3, Chapter 19. Because the TCE’s knowledge and skills
directly affect the quality of an evaluation, the TCPM must consider the following
guidelines when determining the reasonable number of aircraft in which a TCE may be authorized to conduct evaluations:
1. Authorization as a TCE (not limited to Pilot Proficiency Examiner
(PPE) only) includes the authorization to conduct airman certification tests and PIC proficiency checks under §
the aircraft covered by that type rating or curriculum for non-type rated aircraft.
2. Authorization to conduct evaluations in an aircraft model or series
that encompass Level A or B differences are relatively easy to accomplish (e.g.,
DHC-8-100 versus DHC-8-200) and may not affect the TCE’s ability to effectively transition between the two aircraft.
3. Authorization to evaluate in a model and series that requires Level
C, D, or E differences training will affect the complexity of the evaluation
and must be considered before additional authority is granted (e.g., LR-25 versus LR-55).
4. Authorization to evaluate in aircraft that require separate curricula
and/or flight training equipment must be considered as another type rating even
though they may list the same type rating on the pilot’s certificate (e.g., DC-9-30 versus MD-88 or B-717).
5. Evaluations resulting from a specialty curriculum, such as CAT II, also affect overall complexity.
6. Consideration must also be given to the number of annual proficiency
checks and training required to maintain the TCE’s currency.
6) TCE Limitations. TCEs must observe the following limitations in the accomplishment of their authorization evaluations.
a) TCEs must comply with the provisions of §
142.49 as required by §
the accomplishment of their evaluation duties. Specifically, TCEs must comply with the requirement that their combined instruction and evaluation
time in an FSTD may not exceed 8 hours in a 24-hour period. This limitation
does not include prebriefings and postbriefings associated with flight training.
b) Except as outlined in subparagraph 3-4355D7)d), TCEs may only conduct
evaluations for graduates of the employing training center or that center’s associated satellite centers.
c) TCEs may not act as examiners-at-large by conducting practical tests
or proficiency checks for the general pilot population or in violation of their LOA as issued by the employing center’s TCPM.
d) A TCE may not function as a required crewmember while conducting FFS evaluations.
e) Without the written permission of the TCPM or his or her authorized representative,
a TCE must not evaluate an applicant for a certificate or additional rating
if the TCE participated in one or more of the three flight training periods
immediately preceding the proposed evaluation. Exceptions to this policy may
be granted on a case-by-case basis after considering any unique or extenuating
operational circumstances surrounding the particular request. Scheduling convenience and trainee availability are not valid reasons to grant such permission.
f) A TCE must not conduct any evaluation after the expiration date listed on his or her FAA Form 8430-9, Certificate of Authority.
7) TCE Authorizations.
a) Pilot TCEs may accomplish their recency-of-experience requirements in
an approved Level C or D FFS. FE TCEs may accomplish their recency-of-experience requirements in an approved Level 6 or higher FSTD.
b) TCEs with appropriate certification authority may issue a second-in-command
(SIC) type rating to applicants in conjunction with the satisfactory completion of a center’s curriculum provided the applicant:
1. Is enrolled in a curriculum approved to meet the requirements of §
2. Has not failed to complete a curriculum approved to meet the requirements of §
§ 61.63, or §
NOTE: An applicant who has applied for an initial or additional type
rating may not be granted an SIC type rating due to his or her inability to
successfully complete the initial or additional training course. In these instances, the individual will be issued a notice of disapproval.
c) TCEs may issue SIC type ratings to qualified pilots of part
carriers/operators, 14 CFR part
125 operators, or part
for which they hold check pilot authority.
d) A TCE who is authorized as a contract check pilot for an air carrier/operator
may also issue type ratings in accordance with the provisions of §
specifically authorized by the air carrier’s/operator’s POI. POIs
should issue such authorizations in conjunction with and as part of the TCE’s
check pilot approval letter. However, this privilege may only be exercised at
the TCE’s employing center and for air carriers/operators accomplishing training at that center.
8) TCE Recurrent Training.
a) The TCPM or another FAA inspector who the TCPM has designated conducts
this training. This training must be completed within the previous 12 months, prior to the TCE designation being renewed.
b) Each TCE must satisfactorily complete annual training in those subject
areas required for initial qualification and changes to FAA regulations and
policy. In addition, a discussion of pertinent accidents and incidents, as well
as National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) recommendations on those models
or similar model aircraft, must be reviewed. The TCPM may exercise discretion in choosing which of those areas to emphasize during this training.
c) Due dates for renewal of TCE authorizations must be considered. Completion
of the annual training and/or checking in the calendar-month before or the calendar-month
after the due month is considered to have been completed in the month it was due.
9) Recurrent TCE Proficiency Checks:
a) Each TCE must satisfactorily accomplish a written test and proficiency
check in an FSTD/aircraft in which evaluations will be given. The TCE must also
comply with the annual instructor qualification requirements, including a proficiency
check in each curriculum, and specific flight training equipment in which instruction will be given. The proficiency check required by §§
be combined provided the content of the check meets the proficiency
check requirements for a TCE and is appropriate to the M/M/S of aircraft represented by the FFS in which evaluations have been authorized.
b) TCEs must maintain their qualifications as instructors in order to retain
their evaluator’s authorization as a TCE. Each required proficiency check must
have been accomplished within the 12 months prior to the expiration date of
the TCE designation except as permitted in subparagraph 3-4355D8)c), or that portion of the designation will become invalid.
c) If approved by the TCPM, the TCE proficiency check required by §
be conducted by a TCE qualified and current in the specific curriculum and flight training equipment. Approval to permit a TCE to conduct these checks
may be granted on a one-time basis or other reasonable time period that the
TCPM deems appropriate. Such approvals will be made in writing and are not to
be included in the TCE’s LOA. Approvals to conduct the subject evaluations will have an expiration date no later than the TCE’s current LOA.
10) Observation and Evaluation.
a) Within 3 calendar-months before the expiration date of a TCE’s designation,
the TCPM or other TCPM-authorized FAA inspector will be scheduled to observe
the TCE conduct a complete practical test for at least one of the authorizations held.
NOTE: For the purpose of this section, observation and surveillance are considered to mean the same thing.
b) The purpose of this observation is to evaluate the TCE’s ability to administer
a test or check as an evaluator and to complete the appropriate documentation.
The TCE’s aircraft-specific knowledge and flight training equipment proficiency
is evaluated during the annual instructor proficiency check for each curriculum. Until the Program Tracking
and Reporting Subsystem (PTRS) is incorporated into the Safety Assurance System
(SAS), the details of the observation must be recorded in the existing PTRS,
to include the name and certificate number of the applicant tested, the type of test (e.g., Initial
ATP and Type Rating, Type Rating only, or Proficiency Check), and the result of the test.
c) If due to unforeseen circumstances it is not practical to observe a TCE
with certification authority conduct a certification event, the TCPM may substitute, at his or her discretion, a proficiency check administered under §
61.58 or §
combined competency/proficiency checks under §§
credit will be for the completion of either a §
check or combined §§
and proficiency checks, these specific checks must be
accomplished using the curriculum of one of the center’s customers for which the TCE has also been authorized as a contract check pilot.
NOTE: The TCPM’s authority to accept a competency or proficiency check
in lieu of a certification event for renewal of the TCE’s certification LOA
may only be exercised provided the previous observation was made during the
accomplishment of an actual certification event. In these instances, the TCPM
must document the justification for renewing the TCE’s certification authority in
writing and include it in the TCE’s file. Until the PTRS becomes part of SAS,
this information must also be included in the PTRS entries required as described in subparagraph b) above.
d) If a TCE with certification authority is unable to be observed conducting
an actual certification event due to the center’s lack of workload, the TCPM
shall evaluate the need for the TCE to hold certification authority. Inability
to observe a TCE conduct a practical test for an actual certification event
is justification for a reduction of the TCE’s authority or termination of the TCE’s designation.
e) For TCEs with authorizations limited to proficiency checks only, a complete
proficiency check will be required for renewal. The TCE will be observed in
the context of all phases applicable to the TCE’s authority (oral, FFS, and aircraft). If the observation is conducted during a part
check, the inspector must sign the air carrier’s/operator’s proficiency check form to document the observation requirements of §
121.413 or §
f) If the TCE is qualified in more than one type of aircraft, alternating
annual observation of an evaluation should be planned. If the aircraft are not
in the same category and class, evaluations that are more frequent must be scheduled.
In this situation, the TCE’s next renewal must be accomplished in the alternate
aircraft. It is important to note that the TCE’s renewal evaluations are not
the same as the requirement for each instructor to annually demonstrate instructional
proficiency in a representative segment of each curriculum in which he or she is authorized to instruct (refer to §
NOTE: TCPMs must specify in each evaluator’s LOA the specific subjects
by curriculum or course name the evaluator is authorized to test and/or check.
A sample letter of designation, Training Center Evaluator Letter of Authorization,
is available on the Air Carrier Training Systems and Voluntary Safety Programs Branch (AFS-280) website
11) TCE Identification Numbers. Each TCE will be issued a unique
identification number made up of his or her Airman Certificate number followed
by the 4-letter identifier of the employing center or satellite (e.g., [pilot/FE certificate number] plus [center or satellite 4-letter identifier]).
RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-4356 through 3-4371.