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8900.1 CHG 418

Volume 5  Airman Certification

Chapter 2  TITLE 14 CFR PART 61 CERTIFICATION OF PILOTS AND FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS

Section 1    General

Indicates new/changed information.

5-216    PURPOSE. The sections within Volume 5, Chapter 2 provide instructions, standards, and procedures for evaluators to administer a certification test that leads to a certificate and/or rating. The term “evaluator” applies to all of the following:

·    Aviation safety inspectors (ASI),

·    Pilot examiners (Other than administrative pilot examiners), and

·    Chief instructors, assistant chief instructors or check instructors of pilot schools holding examining authority.

5-217    CONTENT.

A.    General Aviation (GA) Evaluations and Certification Functions. This chapter’s guidance pertains to GA evaluations and certification functions. It does not apply to airman certification or demonstrations of competency, which are conducted under Title 14 of the Federal Code of Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 or 135 operations. It also does not pertain to conducting knowledge tests. The conduct of knowledge tests is covered in the current edition of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Order 8080.6, Conduct of Airman Knowledge Tests.

B.    Definitions. It is recognized that guidance and directive information has been previously defined in Volume 1, Chapter 1, Section 2. However, as this chapter’s guidance is employed by all evaluators, not just ASIs, the following definitions apply:

1)    Information considered directive in nature is described using the terms “shall” and “must,” indicating the actions are mandatory.
2)    Prohibited actions are described by the use of “shall not” or “must not.”
3)    Guidance information is described with the term “may,” indicating the actions are desirable or permissive, but not mandatory.

5-218    THE AIRMAN CERTIFICATION PROCESS.

A.    Certification Process. An applicant for a practical test shall make arrangements to take the appropriate test with an evaluator, as defined above.

B.    Accomplishing Certification. An applicant for an Airman Certificate or rating must accomplish the steps in a specific process before certification is complete. These steps include:

1)    The applicant must present to the evaluator all documents necessary to demonstrate eligibility to take the test. These documents may include an airman’s logbook or training record to demonstrate required aeronautical experience, endorsements, graduation certificates and knowledge test (airman test report) results. Specific eligibility criteria can be found in the section of this chapter that corresponds to the test being administered.
2)    The applicant must satisfactorily complete FAA Form 8710-1, Airman Certificate and/or Rating Application (or FAA Form 8710-11, Airman Certificate and/or Rating Application-Sport Pilot, as appropriate).
3)    The applicant must provide an aircraft appropriate to the certificate or rating sought.
4)    The applicant must pass a practical test appropriate to the certificate or rating sought.

NOTE:  The term “practical test” is used throughout this chapter. An airman who graduates from a pilot school with examining authority is recommended for the certificate or rating without further testing (practical test). Under these circumstances, the end of course test is considered equivalent to a practical test, and the evaluator administering the test must also use this guidance.

5-219    ADMINISTERING THE TEST—PLANS OF ACTION.

A.    General (All Tests). The purpose of this paragraph is to provide official policy and guidance to evaluators in developing an effective written plan of action that conforms to FAA policy, regulations, and thepractical test standards (PTS) or Airmen Certification Standards (ACS), as appropriate.

1)    Evaluators must administer each test in English using a written plan of action.
2)    Each plan of action must contain the required pre-test, preflight, and postflight briefings. The evaluator must provide all three briefings to the applicant, regardless of the applicant’s background and experience or the evaluator’s history with the applicant. The elements that must be contained in each briefing are included in paragraph 5-220, Briefings.
3)    There is no formal division between the oral portion and the flight portion of the practical test. However, the majority of oral questioning occurs during the ground portion of the test. The plan of action may be devised in any sequence deemed appropriate by the evaluator, but the ground portion must be satisfactorily completed prior to the flight (or flight simulation training device (FSTD)) portion of the test. (This does not mean that if an evaluator continues testing during the flight portion, the applicant cannot be found unsatisfactory on an oral or ground task.)

NOTE:  The Airline Transport Pilot/Type Rating practical test is different from other practical tests, in that there are two distinct places on FAA Form 8710-1 to indicate practical test results: one for the ground portion and one for flight portion. It is common for two different individuals to administer the practical test: one completing the oral portion and one completing flight portion of the test.

Indicates new/changed information.
4)    Each plan of action must include scenarios. Each practical test will include an overall scenario, providing the applicant with a reason to take the flight. As an example, if the evaluator is developing a plan of action for an initial Commercial Pilot Certificate, with an Airplane Multiengine Land (AMEL) rating, prior to meeting the applicant for the test, the evaluator may offer the applicant the following scenario (the scenario may be adjusted for the local area, the make/model of aircraft, passenger seating configuration, etc.).

SCENARIO:  Your doctor friend needs to depart Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport on Friday afternoon, no later than 5 p.m. She has surgeries scheduled all day, so she doesn’t feel that she’ll be fit to fly. She hires you to fly her in her (insert make/model here) to a seminar in Dallas/Fort Worth, TX. She is making a weekend out of it, so she will be bringing her husband (180 pounds) and daughter (120 pounds). The weather is forecast to be visual flight rules (VFR) all weekend. Plan a VFR cross-country.

5)    At time of this writing, the FAA is transitioning from the use of the PTS to ACS. Because not all practical tests are based on the same reference document, at this point determine which reference document will be used. If the test is based on a PTS, the plan of action must be developed in accordance with the guidance contained in subparagraph 5-219B. If the test is based on an ACS, continue with subparagraph 5-219C.

B.    Tests Based on the PTS.

1)    A plan of action must include, at a minimum, each area of operation as well as task to be tested. If a task is tested, it must be tested in its entirety. This means that each element included within that task must be tested and satisfactorily completed in order to consider that task complete. Additionally, each PTS contains a list of “Special Emphasis Areas.” These areas are considered critical to flight safety and must be tested by the evaluator. For example, the evaluator may plan to have the applicant divert to an airport that conducts land-and-hold-short operations (LAHSO). If the applicant elects to divert to a different airport than the evaluator had planned, LAHSO will need to be tested through additional oral questioning. Refrain from testing special emphasis areas by rote enumeration (e.g., “what is CFIT?”).
2)    The flight from Phoenix to Fort Worth, transporting the doctor, is the overall scenario (reason and circumstances) for the flight. However, while developing the plan of action, incorporate each of the tasks from the PTS into the scenario. For example, the current Commercial Pilot PTS (FAA-S-8081-12C with changes 1, 2, 3, & 4) Area of Operation I, Task A is titled “Certificates and Documents.” This task requires the applicant to demonstrate knowledge on the following elements:
a)    Explaining.

1.    Commercial Pilot Certificate privileges, limitations, and recent flight experience requirements.

2.    Medical certificate class and duration.

3.    Pilot logbook or flight records.

b)    Locating and explaining.

1.    Airworthiness and registration certificates.

2.    Operating limitations, placards, instrument markings, and pilot’s operating handbook (POH)/Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM).

3.    Weight and Balance (W&B) data and equipment list.

3)    In developing the plan of action, the evaluator must continue with the scenario during testing. For example, the evaluator may cover Task A, Certificates and Documents, element 1 in the following manner (other than privileges and limitations, which will be visited later in the scenario):

SCENARIO:  The doctor called her insurance company to ensure that you will be covered to fly her airplane. The insurance company needs you to demonstrate that you are current and qualified to take the flight in this (insert make/model). What information will you provide?

Indicates new/changed information.

NOTE:  If the applicant doesn’t volunteer all the required information, the evaluator must provide followup questions (e.g., “If we depart at 5 p.m., what time does your planning show that we will arrive?”). These followup questions will evaluate the airman’s knowledge of night currency.

4)    After the applicant provides an adequate explanation of his recent flight experience and medical certificate class and duration, the evaluator may test the element Pilot Logbooks or Flight Records by asking the following:

SCENARIO:  The doctor asks, “How do you keep track of all that? I fly the airplane quite a bit, but I don’t write any of that down. Are you required to?”

5)    Followup questions might include:

·    What specific information must be recorded?

·    Does it have to be in a logbook like that or can I keep the record on my “Hobbs Log?”

·    Is there a rule that requires that?

6)    In order to test element 2, the evaluator might ask:

SCENARIO:  Both the doctor and her insurance company are satisfied that you meet the requirements to fly the aircraft under her “open pilot clause.” You agree to meet the doctor at her hangar to check the status of the aircraft. Before you begin a preflight inspection, you want to check that all the required paperwork is on board the aircraft. What are you looking for?

NOTE:  Again, if the applicant does not provide all of the information you are seeking (in order to cover every element) the evaluator must ask followup questions.

7)    If the applicant includes information about required inspections, etc., the evaluator must allow the applicant to provide whatever information he feels is relevant. This may help cover Task B, Airworthiness Requirements.

SCENARIO:  While reviewing other paperwork, the doctor begins telling you about all the “mods” she has had done to the airplane. The airplane has a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) to increase available horsepower. You want to make a note of this, and notice that the manifold pressure gauge has different markings than the (insert make/model) that you are accustomed to flying. Where do you look for further information?

SCENARIO:  Part of the STC requires that two new placards are installed. You find that they aren’t there. How do you handle this?

NOTE:  If the applicant has a good understanding, and with the use of good followup questions, this will adequately cover: operating limitations, placards, instrument markings, POH/AFM, W&B data, and equipment list.

SCENARIO:  Back to the paperwork required to be on board the airplane, you ask your friend where she keeps her airworthiness certificate and registration. She pulls out a bag that contains a fuel strainer, a quart of oil, a screwdriver, and an envelope that contains the airworthiness certificate and registration certificate. Does this meet the rule? What, specifically, do you want to see when inspecting the airworthiness certificate and registration certificate?

8)    To return to Element 1(a), Privileges and Limitations, the evaluator might ask:

SCENARIO:  After the missing placards, you now have to point out that the aircraft registration is expired. Your list of discrepancies on this aircraft is getting long, and the flight is scheduled to depart the next day. You have another friend that also owns a (insert same make/model). If it’s okay with him, can you offer to fly the doctor in that aircraft? She would pay a reasonable per-hour fee and still pay you $800/day for pilot services.

SCENARIO:  Suppose this opportunity hadn’t presented itself. After today, you will hopefully be certificated as a commercial pilot. What other types of flying can you do and receive compensation?

9)    It is important to note that (other than the Airline Transport Pilot and Airplane Type Rating) the test being administered is a practical test, with no formal division between the oral portion and the flight portion of the test (as discussed during the pre-test briefing). For this reason, each task must be evaluated carefully. Most tasks, which could appear to be flight tasks, also state that the applicant must demonstrate knowledge on the elements related to that task. For example, Area of Operation II, Task A, Preflight Inspection, element 1 states the following:

Exhibits satisfactory knowledge of the elements related to preflight inspection. This shall include which items must be inspected, the reasons for checking each item, and how to detect possible defects.

10)    The evaluator must accompany the applicant to the preflight inspection. This task cannot be considered satisfactorily accomplished without the applicant explaining to the evaluator which items he or she must check, the reasons for doing so, and what it would look like if it were malfunctioning.
11)    Similarly, Area of Operation II, Task C, Engine Starting, requires the applicant to exhibit knowledge of the elements related to recommended engine starting procedures. This shall include the use of an external power source, and starting under various atmospheric conditions. The evaluator may choose to cover these elements during the oral portion of the test, or inside the aircraft. In order to be a complete test, the elements must be evaluated.
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12)    The scenario must continue throughout the flight portion of the test. For example, after the Navigation Area of Operation is complete, the evaluator may say that along the way, the doctor’s husband wants to drop down and take some photos of their property. At this point, eights on pylons may be evaluated. Not every task may work into the scenario. In this case, suspend the scenario to perform the maneuvers, and continue with the scenario after the maneuvers are complete. For example, the evaluator may provide the scenario that the aircraft has had an electrical malfunction. The scenario will evaluate a system and equipment malfunction, a no-flap landing and air traffic control (ATC) light gun signals. This is just one example of how to incorporate scenarios into the test. All tasks will be tested in the same manner, as much as practical.

C.    Tests Based on the ACS.

1)    When administering a test based on an ACS, the tasks appropriate to the class airplane (Airplane Single-Engine Land (ASEL), Airplane Single-Engine Sea (ASES), Airplane Multiengine Land (AMEL), or Airplane Multiengine Sea (AMES)) used for the test must be included in the plan of action. The absence of a class indicates the task is for all classes.
2)    In contrast to testing based on a PTS, a practical test that is administered based on an ACS is not required to incorporate each element within a task. Instead, the emphasis is placed on elements that were missed by the applicant on the knowledge test. The plan of action must include at least one Knowledge element and at least one Risk Management element. The evaluator must ensure that all Skill elements have been evaluated, regardless of how many Knowledge elements and Risk Management elements are tested. Each Knowledge element listed on the airman test report must be evaluated as part of evaluating the task containing those elements.
3)    The introduction to the ACS explains the ACS codes. For example:

PA.I.B.K2:

PA = Applicable ACS (Private Pilot ‒ Airplane).

I = Area of Operation (Preflight Preparation).

B = Task (Airworthiness Requirements).

K2 = Knowledge Task Element 2 (Individuals who can perform maintenance on the aircraft, including Airframe and Powerplant (A&P) and Inspection Authorization (IA) roles in aircraft maintenance and inspections).

4)    In order to develop a plan of action individualized to the particular test, the evaluator must review a copy of the applicant’s airman test report prior to the test. The ACS codes, reflected on the airman test report, must be tested during the practical test. It is recommended that the evaluator request a copy of the airman test report when the applicant calls to schedule the test. This may also be accomplished by obtaining the applicant’s FAA tracking number (FTN) and reviewing the airman test report in Integrated Airmen Certification and/or Rating Application (IACRA). Having sufficient time prior to the practical test allows the evaluator to thoughtfully tailor his or her plan of action to that individual’s test.

D.    Example Practical Test Based on the ACS.

1)    An evaluator is requested to administer a Private Pilot ASEL practical test. During the initial contact with the applicant (or recommending instructor), the evaluator requests a copy of the applicant’s airman test report. Upon review, the evaluator notes that the following ACS codes are listed on the knowledge test report: PA.I.B.K2, PA.I.B.K4, and PA.I.B.K6. In developing a plan of action for the practical test, the evaluator refers to the ACS and determines that the applicant has missed questions from the following Knowledge areas (indicated with asterisks) in the task of Airworthiness Requirements:

Task

B. Airworthiness Requirements

Reference

14 CFR parts 39, 43, 91; FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-25

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, skills and risk management associated with airworthiness requirements, including aircraft certificates.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

1.    General airworthiness requirements and compliance for airplanes.

PA.I.B.K1

a. Certificate location and expiration dates.

PA.I.B.K1a

b.   Required inspections.

PA.I.B.K1b

c.   Inspection requirements.

PA.I.B.K1c

*2.  Individuals who can perform maintenance on the aircraft, including A&P and IA roles in aircraft maintenance and inspections.

PA.I.B.K2

3.    Pilot-performed preventive maintenance.

PA.I.B.K3

*4.  Equipment requirements for day and night flight including flying with inoperative equipment (approved Minimum Equipment List (MEL), Kinds of Operation Equipment List (KOEL), required equipment for Visual Flight Rules (VFR) and Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) flight, required equipment, placards).

PA.I.B.K4

5.   Proving airworthiness (specifics of the aircraft–compliance with Airworthiness Directives (AD) or applicability of Safety Bulletins (SB)).

PA.I.B.K5

*6.  Obtaining a special flight permit.

PA.I.B.K6

7.    Experimental aircraft airworthiness.

PA.I.B.K7

8.    Equipment malfunctions.

PA.I.B.K8

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

*1.  Locate aircraft airworthiness information.

PA.I.B.S1

*2.  Determine the aircraft is airworthy in a scenario given by the evaluator.

PA.I.B.S2

*3.  Explain conditions where flight can be made with inoperative equipmentequimeeqequipment.

PA.I.B.S3

*4.  Explain requirements for obtaining and flying with a Special Flight Permit.

PA.I.B.S4

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks,

encompassing:

*1.  Inoperative equipment.

PA.I.B.R1

2.    Equipment failure during flight.

PA.I.B.R2

3.    Discrepancy records or placards.

PA.I.B.R3

2)    The evaluator must test the applicant on the three Knowledge elements that were missed on the knowledge test. In addition, the evaluator must select at least one Risk Management element to evaluate. At the end of the scenario, it must be ensured that all four Skill elements have been evaluated. These required elements are denoted by asterisks in the Skills and Risk Management areas for the Airworthiness Requirements task above.
3)    Since the knowledge test reflected that all missed questions were related to the Airworthiness Requirements task, each additional task will require only one Knowledge element and one Risk Management element to be selected for evaluation. In this case, the additional Knowledge element and Risk Management element are chosen at the evaluator’s discretion. The Skill elements in each task must always be evaluated. However, the evaluator administering the practical test has the discretion to combine tasks/elements as appropriate to testing scenarios.
4)    Prior to administering the test, the evaluator will provide the applicant with the overall scenario (the reason to take the flight) for the test. In this example, we will use the following scenario: You are taking your mother, father and grandmother to a wedding in Palm Springs, CA. The wedding begins at 7 p.m. The church is a short 15 minute cab ride from the airport, and you will be returning the same evening. Your mother weighs 145 pounds, your father weighs 195 pounds and your grandmother weighs 115 pounds. Your parents’ gift is a set of dishes, weighing 50 pounds. Thankfully, your grandmother brought a card with cash.
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5)    The day of the test, the evaluator administers the pre-test briefing. She then determines that the applicant is eligible for the test. Once the test has begun, the evaluator begins with Area of Operation I, Task A, Pilot Qualifications, and continues with the scenario, involving the trip for the wedding. She selects Knowledge element 2 (K2) and Risk Management element 1 (RM1) for evaluation. These selections were at the discretion of the examiner, as no codes from the knowledge test report were present for this task. During the development of the plan of action, the evaluator determines that by selecting K2 and RM1, additional questions would be required to satisfy the Skills section (see the items denoted by asterisks).

Task

A. Pilot Qualifications

Reference

14 CFR parts 61, 91; FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-23, FAA-H-8083-25

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, skills and risk management associated with airman and medical certificates including privileges, limitations, currency, and operating as pilot-in-command (PIC) as a private pilot.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

1.    Currency, regulatory compliance, privileges and limitations.

PA.I.A.K1

*2.  Location of airman documents and identification required when exercising private pilot privileges.

PA.I.A.K2

3.    Inspection of certificate.

PA.I.A.K3

4.    Pilot logbook/recordkeeping.

PA.I.A.K4

5.    Compensation.

PA.I.A.K5

6.    Towing.

PA.I.A.K6

7.    Category and Class.

PA.I.A.K7

8.    Endorsements.

PA.I.A.K8

9.    Medical Certificates: class, expiration, privileges, temporary disqualifications.

PA.I.A.K9

10.  Drugs, alcohol regulatory restrictions that affect the pilot’s ability to operate

safely.

PA.I.A.K10

Skills

*The applicant demonstrates the ability to apply requirements to act as PIC

Under visual flight rules (VFR) in a scenario given by the evaluator.

PA.I.A.S1

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

*1.  Distinguishing proficiency vs. currency.

PA.I.A.R1

2.    Setting personal minimums.

PA.I.A.R2

3.    Maintaining fitness to fly.

PA.I.A.R3

4.    Flying unfamiliar aircraft.

PA.I.A.R4

5.    Flying with unfamiliar flight display systems or unfamiliar avionics.

PA.I.A.R5

6)    The evaluator has provided the following scenario to the private pilot applicant:

SCENARIO:  Your family accompanies you out to the airplane for the preflight. While performing the preflight, an inspector from the FAA introduces himself and says that he wants to provide you with a complimentary ramp inspection. Since you have never experienced this before, you give him a blank stare. He explains that he’d like to see your airman documents. What does he mean?

7)    When the applicant has demonstrated a good understanding of airman documents and identification required when exercising private pilot privileges, this element (K2) is complete. If items are omitted, the evaluator will use followup questions.

SCENARIO:  The FAA inspector asks if this is a for-hire flight, and you say that it isn’t. While checking your medical certificate, he nods, says that it looks good, and hands them back to you. Your mom asks why the FAA cares who is paying for the flight and what that has to do with your medical certificate. How do you explain this to your mom?

SCENARIO:  The inspector then asks if you have your pilot logbook with you. Luckily, it’s still in your bag. He asks you to show him that you’re current. What do you show? (This will cover part 61, §§ 61.56 and 61.57.)

8)    If the applicant doesn’t mention night currency at this time (wedding starts at 7 p.m.) the evaluator may ask followup questions like, “What if you had the ramp check on your return flight? What else would the inspector want to see?”

SCENARIO:  Pulling out your logbook, you realize that the last time you flew at night was (fill in a date more than 90 days ago). You’re already at the airplane and committed to taking the flight. How do you handle this?

9)    The applicant may or may not come up with the idea that he could perform three takeoffs and landings before loading his passengers. This may lead to a discussion about currency vs. proficiency (RM1). If not, the evaluator must ask followup questions.
10)    While developing the plan of action, it can be seen that by simply evaluating K2 (the question about the ramp check and checking documents required) and RM1 (a newly certificated pilot that is legally current but not necessarily proficient), the Skills portion of this task hasn’t been evaluated in its entirety. (“The applicant demonstrates the ability to apply requirements to act as PIC under VFR in a scenario given by the evaluator.”) This is the reason for asking the additional questions about currency and medical certificate privileges and durations.
Indicates new/changed information.
11)    Continuing to develop the plan of action, the evaluator reviews Task B (see the items denoted by asterisks).

Task

B. Airworthiness Requirements

Reference

14 CFR parts 39, 43, 91; FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-25

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, skills and risk management associated with airworthiness requirements, including aircraft certificates.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

1.    General airworthiness requirements and compliance for airplanes.

PA.I.B.K1

       a.   Certificate location and expiration dates.

PA.I.B.K1a

       b.   Required inspections.

PA.I.B.K1b

       c.   Inspection requirements.

PA.I.B.K1c

*2.  Individuals who can perform maintenance on the aircraft, including A&P.

and IA roles in aircraft maintenance and inspections.

PA.I.B.K2

3.    Pilot-performed preventive maintenance.

PA.I.B.K3

*4.  Equipment requirements for day and night flight including flying with inoperative equipment (approved Minimum Equipment List (MEL), Kinds of Operation Equipment List (KOEL), required equipment for Visual Flight Rules (VFR) and Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) flight, required equipment, placards).

PA.I.B.K4

5.    Proving airworthiness (specifics of the aircraft–compliance with Airworthiness Directives or applicability of Safety Bulletins).

PA.I.B.K5

*6.  Obtaining a special flight permit.

PA.I.B.K6

7.    Experimental aircraft airworthiness.

PA.I.B.K7

8.    Equipment malfunctions.

PA.I.B.K8

Skills

*The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

*1.  Locate aircraft airworthiness information.

PA.I.B.S1

*2.  Determine the aircraft is airworthy in a scenario given by the evaluator.

PA.I.B.S2

*3.  Explain conditions where flight can be made with inoperative equipment.

PA.I.B.S3

*4.  Explain requirements for obtaining and flying with a Special Flight Permit.

PA.I.B.S4

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks,

encompassing:

*1.  Inoperative equipment.

PA.I.B.R1

2.    Equipment failure during flight.

PA.I.B.R2

3.    Discrepancy records or placards.

PA.I.B.R3

12)    When the evaluator reviewed the applicant’s airman test report, she noted the following ACS codes: PA.I.B.K2, PA.I.B.K4, and PA.I.B.K6. Therefore, all three of these knowledge elements must be tested. The same procedure applies. Develop the plan of action to cover all the Knowledge elements, at least one Risk Management element and then ensure that the entire Skill section has been met.
13)    The evaluator continues with the scenario:

SCENARIO:  The FAA inspector agrees that your airman documents and currency are in order. She then asks how you determined that the airplane was in an Airworthy condition.

14)    This scenario will most likely lead the applicant to explaining required aircraft documents to be on board the aircraft, and possibly the status sheet, demonstrating inspection compliance. It evaluates the first Skills element.

SCENARIO:  The FAA inspector is satisfied, shakes your hand, and moves on to the next airplane. You continue your preflight. You turn the master switch on, turn on all the external lights, and perform a walk-around. You notice that the landing light is inoperative. What do you do?

15)    The applicant is expected to give a thorough explanation of determining whether or not he can legally take the flight with a landing light inoperative and how to properly defer this item. The applicant may refer to part 91, § 91.213 and a discussion must cover equipment requirements for day/night VFR/IFR flight, the KOEL, and the proper deferral of inoperative equipment, including placard installation. If the applicant explains the process for deferring without the use of an MEL, the evaluator then is required to ask followup questions that evaluate the applicant’s knowledge of the use of an approved MEL. For example:

SCENARIO:  This plan sounds reasonable. However, when you check the aircraft book to find a placard, you notice a letter of authorization (LOA) for the use of an MEL, and this N-number is listed on the MEL. How does that change the deferral process?

NOTE:  This discussion evaluates K4.

16)    The expectation is that the applicant explains that since the flight is not for compensation, he may legally defer it. However, as a newly certificated pilot, conducting a night flight with his family on board, the applicant may elect to have the landing light replaced. He has identified the inoperative light as a risk which he elects to eliminate. If not, the evaluator must ask further questions in order to evaluate his risk management. This discussion evaluates RM1.

SCENARIO:  So, you’ve decided to have the landing light replaced. A woman in the hangar next to your tie-down spot notices your issue. She also owns a (insert make/model) and has a spare landing light. She even offers to install it for you. What are your thoughts? What should you ask her?

17)    This easily leads to a discussion about who may perform maintenance on the aircraft, which will evaluate the applicant’s knowledge of K2.

SCENARIO:  Suppose that instead of the landing light, it was your anti-collision light that was inoperative. Can we legally take the flight without an operating anti-collision light?

18)    The applicant then refers back to the rule and determines that it is a no-go item.

SCENARIO:  Your family (particularly your father) is getting anxious because he does not want to be late for the wedding and really wants to go. Is there any way for us to legally take this flight? The navigation lights, landing lights, and recognition lights are all working.

NOTE:  This discussion will evaluate K6.

19)    The plan of action has encompassed all of the required Knowledge elements (K2, K4 and K6), and the Risk Management element (RM1). The evaluator revisits the Skills area, to ensure that elements S1-4 have been evaluated. This task has now been evaluated in its entirety.
20)    The scenario must continue throughout the flight portion of the test. For example, after the Area of Operation of Navigation is complete, the evaluator may say that along the way, your mother is so excited that she can see her house from the air. She wants to drop down and take some photos of their property. At this point, turns around a point may be evaluated. Not every task may work into the scenario. In this case, suspend the scenario to perform the maneuvers, and continue with the scenario after the maneuvers are complete. For example, the evaluator may provide the scenario that the aircraft has had an electrical malfunction. The scenario will evaluate a system and equipment malfunction (or several), a no-flap landing and ATC light gun signals. This is just one example of how to incorporate scenarios into the test. All tasks must be tested in the same manner, to the extent practical.

5-220    BRIEFINGS.

A.    Pre-Test Briefing.

1)    Put the applicant at ease (small talk, etc.).
2)    Advise the applicant of available comfort facilities (restrooms and breaks).
3)    Confirm the type of practical test or retest.
4)    Provide a casual overview of the test.
5)    Verify that required equipment (hood, charts, etc.) is available.
6)    Verify that applicant is familiar with the PTS or ACS, as appropriate and that those are the standards to which the applicant will be tested. (Perfection is not the standard.)
7)    Advise the applicant that you will be using a plan of action and that you will be taking notes throughout the test.
8)    Advise the applicant that oral questioning will continue throughout the evaluation, to include the flight portion of the test.
9)    Advise the applicant of the three possible outcomes of the test, and any applicable fees.
a)    Temporary Airman Certificate.
b)    Notice of Disapproval of Application.
c)    Letter of Discontinuance.
10)    Ask the applicant if he or she has any questions.
11)    Refer to the appropriate 14 CFR sections and the sections of this chapter to determine that the applicant is eligible for the test.
12)    Once eligibility is determined, collect the fee and advise the applicant that the test has begun.

B.    Preflight Briefing.

1)    Profile of the flight test (to include departing on the cross-country that the scenario provided, if applicable).
2)    Who is pilot in command (PIC) (§ 61.47).
3)    Cannot allow a violation to occur: How close to airspace, etc. will be allowed (verbal intervention by evaluator is unsatisfactory performance).
Indicates new/changed information.
4)    Emergencies, actual and simulated.
5)    Feathering and unfeathering in a multiengine airplane (only if applicable).
6)    Autorotation procedures (helicopter only).
7)    Transfer of controls.
8)    Transitioning from simulated IFR to VFR (only if applicable).
9)    Collision avoidance (certificated flight instructor (CFI) applicant required to instruct).
10)    Checklist usage.
11)    Clearing the area before maneuvers.
12)    Advise that oral questioning and note taking will continue.
13)    Advise that stated tolerances include risk management decisions.
14)    Advise how unsatisfactory performance will be handled:
a)    May continue when both parties agree.
b)    How and when the applicant will be notified.
c)    Describe under what circumstances a maneuver might be repeated.
15)    Ask the applicant if he or she has any questions.

C.    Postflight Briefing.

1)    Ensure that applicant is debriefed in private. (The recommending flight instructor or chief/assistant chief may also want to attend. With the consent of the applicant, this is appropriate.) The intent is to not discuss the test publicly.
2)    Reaffirm the outcome of the test.
3)    Use notes taken to debrief performance (highlight areas that were above standard).
4)    It is recommended that the evaluator contact the instructor for a debrief on the applicant’s performance.
a)    Airman satisfactory.

·    Complete paperwork.

·    Have the airman sign the Temporary Airman Certificate.

·    Advise that temporary is valid for 120 days.

·    What to do if the airman does not receive his or her permanent Airman Certificate.

·    Offer to sign the airman’s logbook.

b)    Airman unsatisfactory.

·    Allow the applicant time alone while paperwork is completed.

·    Use the PTS or ACS to explain reasons for disapproval.

·    Advise the applicant of timeframe to retest and to keep the Notice of Disapproval of Application.

·    Return the knowledge test to the airman (if applicable).

·    Offer to sign the airman’s logbook (not required).

RESERVED. Paragraphs 5-221 through 5-235.