VOLUME 5 AIRMAN CERTIFICATION
Chapter 3 AIRLINE TRANSPORT PILOT (ATP) CERTIFICATION UNDER TITLE 14 cfr
91 SUBPART K
Section 2 Oral and Flight Test Events in Airplanes for ATP Applicants Engaged in Operations Under Part
91 Subpart K
Volume 5, Chapter 3, Sections 2 through
inspectors and designated examiners with detailed guidance for the conduct of airline transport pilot (ATP) flight tests conducted in the qualification
curriculum segments of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts
programs. This guidance has been specifically developed to account for the conditions encountered in such programs, particularly for the
wide variation in aircraft, flight simulation training devices (FSTD), and educational delivery systems currently used by parts
Inspectors and designated examiners shall observe this guidance
while conducting these flight tests instead of the guidance that applies to the testing of applicants trained and tested outside of parts
programs, where different conditions prevail. This section contains general direction and guidance for the conduct of all airplane flight
tests, regardless of whether a test is conducted in an FSTD or in an airplane.
Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 3 contains
specific guidance for the conduct of flight tests in an airplane FSTD.
Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 4 contains
specific guidance for the conduct of flight tests in an actual airplane.
Volume 5, Chapter 3, Sections 5 and
specific guidance for the conduct of flight tests in a helicopter.
Volume 5, Chapter 3, Section 7 contains
guidance for the documentation of practical tests.
5-827 ORAL TEST EVENTS. Inspectors and examiners should use the
ATP/Type Rating Oral Test—Airplane Job Aid when conducting oral tests for ATP
certificates with airplane category ratings or for airplane type ratings being
added to ATP certificates (see Figure 5-112, ATP/Type Rating Oral Test Job Aid—Airplane).
The topics to be examined are printed on the job aid in an abbreviated form.
Most of the topics are self-explanatory; however, a discussion of selected topics
for pilot applicants of airplanes requiring a Flight Engineer (FE) follows:
A. FE Station. On airplanes requiring an FE, a pilot applicant
must demonstrate knowledge of controls and indicators at the FE’s station. The
applicant’s level of knowledge must be sufficient for safe operation of the airplane if the FE is incapacitated or absent from the flight deck.
B. Takeoff Data. Although the duty of computing takeoff and landing
data is usually accomplished by the FE, pilot applicants must be able to complete
typical takeoff and landing data computations. These computations must include
application of proper corrections (such as a contaminated runway, inoperative
antiskid, and minimum equipment list (MEL) or Configuration Deviation List (CDL) penalties).
C. Performance Computations. An applicant must demonstrate the
ability to extract aircraft performance data (such as maximum allowable altitude,
cruise power settings, and driftdown performance from the aircraft performance charts).
D. Weight and Balance (W&B). An applicant must demonstrate
the ability to compute or validate W&B using the operator’s procedures.
5-828 WAIVER AUTHORITY. Title 14 CFR part
inspectors and examiners to waive certain events on the flight test. Events that may be waived totally or partially are indicated
on the job aids. The following guidance applies to the use of waiver authority:
A. Use of Waiver. The use of waiver authority is not automatic.
Inspectors and examiners are cautioned to exercise judgment in the use of this
authority. When an applicant demonstrates a high level of performance, inspectors
and examiners should make liberal use of the waiver authority. When an applicant’s
performance approaches minimum acceptable standards, however, none of the events of the flight test should be waived.
B. Waiver Provisions. Inspectors and examiners are cautioned that some waiver
provisions apply to portions of a series of events rather than to the whole
event (e.g., stall prevention). Other events have specific conditions that must
be fully met before waiver authority may be exercised. A discussion of the conditions
and limitations of waiver authority is included with the discussion of the specific events in the following paragraphs.
5-829 PREPARATION AND SURFACE OPERATIONS EVENTS. Applicants shall
be observed performing interior, exterior, and emergency equipment inspections
and performing engine start, taxi, and powerplant checks in accordance with the operator’s aircraft operating manual.
A. Exterior Inspection. The exterior inspection is not an extension of the
oral phase in which systems knowledge is examined, but rather a demonstration
of an applicant’s ability to perform appropriate safety checks. Inspectors and
examiners shall limit questions to only those necessary for determining if an
applicant can recognize when a component is in an unsafe condition. The exterior
inspection may be conducted before or after the flight test at the inspector’s
or examiner’s discretion. Many operators have exemptions permitting the exterior
preflight test event to be conducted using pictorial means. The exterior inspection
may be waived when an FE is a required crewmember. When the exterior inspection
is waived, pilot applicants shall be required to complete those flight deck,
interior, and emergency equipment inspections defined as the pilot in command’s
(PIC) responsibility. Inspectors and examiners shall determine whether an applicant
inspects these items in accordance with the procedures in the operator’s aircraft operating manual.
B. Cabin Inspection. An applicant shall be evaluated on the ability
to perform a cabin inspection when this inspection is specified as a PIC responsibility
by the operator’s aircraft operating manual. Inspectors and examiners should
occasionally sample an applicant’s knowledge of the location and use of emergency
equipment in the cabin, and the operation of cabin doors, even when the cabin inspection is not designated as a flightcrew member responsibility.
C. Flight Deck Preflight Inspection. An applicant shall be required
to complete the flight deck preflight checks using the procedures specified
in the operator’s aircraft operating manual and using the appropriate checklists.
The proper challenges and responses to the checklist must be used. When the
flight test is conducted in an FSTD, it is appropriate for the inspectors or
examiners to present minor malfunctions to determine if the applicant is accurately performing the specified checks.
D. Engine Start Procedures. An applicant shall be required to
perform an engine start using the correct procedures. When the flight test is
conducted in an FSTD, it is appropriate for inspectors and examiners to present
an abnormal condition such as a hot-start or malfunctioning air or start valve.
The abnormal condition should be carried through to the expected conclusion
in line operations for the purpose of evaluating crew coordination and the applicant’s proficiency.
E. Taxiing or Sailing. Inspectors and examiners shall evaluate the applicant’s
ability to safely maneuver the airplane on the surface and to manage outside
vigilance while accomplishing flight deck procedures. The applicant must ensure
that the taxi path is clear of obstructions, comply with local taxi rules and
air traffic control (ATC) instructions, properly use checklists, and maintain control of the crew and airplane.
F. Powerplant Checks. Powerplant checks must be accomplished
in accordance with the appropriate checklist and procedures before takeoff.
In an FSTD, inspectors and examiners should present appropriate instrument or
system malfunctions to determine if the applicant is accurately performing these checks.
5-830 TAKEOFF EVENTS. An applicant shall be required to accomplish
each of the following takeoff events. These events may be combined when convenient and practical.
A. Normal Takeoff. A normal takeoff is defined as a takeoff beginning
from a standing or rolling start (not from a touch-and-go) with all engines operating normally during the takeoff and initial climb phase.
B. Instrument Takeoff. An instrument takeoff is defined as one
in which instrument conditions are encountered or simulated at or before reaching
an altitude of 100 feet above airport elevation. In an FSTD, the visibility
value should be set to the minimum authorized by the operator’s operations specifications
(OpSpecs). An applicant shall be evaluated on the ability to control the airplane,
including making the transition to instruments as visual cues deteriorate. An
applicant must also be evaluated on the planning of the transition to an instrument
navigation environment. This event may be conveniently combined with an area departure.
C. Engine Failure on Takeoff (For Multiengine Airplanes). An
applicant must demonstrate the ability to maintain control of the airplane and
to continue a takeoff with the failure of the most critical powerplant. When
the flight test is conducted in an airplane, the failure shall be simulated.
The takeoff configuration, airspeeds, and operational procedures must be in
accordance with the operator’s aircraft operating manual. When the flight test
is conducted in two segments (full flight simulator (FFS) and airplane), this
event shall be conducted in the FFS segment of the flight test. This event should
not be repeated in the airplane portion of the flight test unless an unusual situation occurs.
1) When the flight test is being conducted in an airplane belonging
to the transport and commuter category family, the engine failure shall be introduced
at a speed after takeoff decision speed (V1) and before takeoff safety
speed (V2), and appropriate to the airplane and the prevailing conditions.
When either V1 and V2, or V1 and rotation speed
(VR), are identical, the failure shall be introduced as soon as possible after V1 is passed.
2) When the flight test is conducted in an airplane not in the
transport and commuter category family, the engine failure shall be introduced at a speed and altitude that is appropriate for the airplane.
NOTE: Some nontransport multiengine airplanes cannot climb or maintain
altitude with an engine out. When conducting a flight test in such an airplane,
inspectors and examiners should use their authority to modify this event. For
example, an engine failure recognition problem and engine shutdown may be performed at a safe altitude.
D. Rejected Takeoff. A rejected takeoff is a potentially hazardous
situation that flightcrews must be trained to handle correctly. As a testing
event it must be presented in a realistic and meaningful manner. The event is
a test of an applicant’s ability to correctly respond to a critical situation
and to correctly manage the actions necessary for safeguarding the airplane and passengers once the airplane is brought to a stop.
1) When a flight test is conducted in an FFS, performance parameters
should be adjusted to make the takeoff critical. For example, the temperature
and airplane weight can be adjusted so that takeoff performance is runway-limited.
Another technique is to lower the visibility and make the runway wet, presenting
the applicant with a tracking problem. Inspectors and examiners should take
care in selecting the malfunction used to induce the reject response. The malfunction
should be one that clearly and unequivocally requires rejection of the takeoff.
The malfunction should be introduced at a speed that is as close to V1
as possible, yet still allowing the applicant enough time to perceive and respond
to the problem before reaching V1. It is appropriate for inspectors
and examiners to occasionally introduce a problem in a way that leads to an evacuation of the airplane. This event shall not be waived in an FFS.
2) When a flight test is conducted in an airplane belonging to
the transport and commuter category family, a rejected takeoff at approximately
V1 can be unsafe and can cause damage to the airplane. Inspectors
and examiners are expected to use caution when inducing a rejected takeoff in
an airplane for flight test purposes. For this event to be meaningful, it should
be introduced at a speed close to V1. Therefore, inspectors and examiners
are authorized to waive this event and should do so when the airplane weight,
ambient temperature, and tire limits preclude the event from being conducted
in a realistic manner. In other families of airplanes, the rejected takeoff
shall be performed at a speed of less than 50 percent of minimum controllable airspeed with the critical engine inoperative (VMC).
3) An applicant must be able to recognize the need to initiate
a rejected takeoff, perform the correct procedures in a timely manner, and to
bring the airplane to a stop on the runway. Once the airplane or FFS is brought
to a stop, appropriate procedures must be initiated. Consideration must be given to the possibility of overheated brakes and fire.
E. Crosswind Takeoffs. A crosswind takeoff from a standing or
rolling start (not a touch-and-go) must be evaluated to the extent practical
on all flight tests. When appropriate, a crosswind takeoff may be evaluated simultaneously with other types of takeoffs.
1) When the flight test is conducted in an airplane, inspectors
and examiners will usually have very little control over existing meteorological,
airport, and traffic conditions. Inspectors and examiners are expected to make
a reasonable attempt to evaluate a takeoff on a runway not favorably aligned
with the prevailing wind. It will frequently be necessary, however, to evaluate
this event with the crosswind component that exists on the active runway.
2) FFSs are capable of realistically duplicating crosswinds.
Crosswind takeoffs shall be evaluated on all flight tests conducted in an FFS.
The crosswind component entered in the instructor operating station (IOS) shall
be between 10 and 15 knots. Occasionally, however, the crosswind components
should be in excess of 15 knots, but must not exceed the crosswind component
allowed by the operator’s aircraft operating manual, or the maximum demonstrated
value given in the approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM). The purpose of testing
at such higher crosswind components is to determine whether applicants are being
trained throughout the range of the flight envelope. When level A FFSs are used,
principal operations inspectors (POI) must determine the maximum values at which the crosswind simulation is realistic.
5-831 CLIMB, EN ROUTE, AND DESCENT EVENTS.
A. Area Departures and Arrivals. The area departure and arrival
events should include intercepting radials, tracking, and climbs or descents
with restrictions. Whenever practical, a standard instrument departure or standard
arrival should be used. Many of the standard procedures, however, are not suitable
for the purpose of testing an applicant’s abilities. For example, common radar
departures are essentially initial-climb instructions for a radar handoff, and
provide little opportunity for testing an applicant’s ability to set up and
use the navigation equipment normally used on an area departure. If a suitable
published procedure is not available and circumstances allow, the inspector
or examiner should give a clearance that presents the desired tests. Inspectors
and examiners should allow applicants to use all installed equipment. The autopilot
may or may not be used at the inspector’s or examiner’s discretion. The applicant’s
use of navigation equipment, and other crewmembers, and the applicant’s ability
to adhere to ATC clearances and restrictions shall be evaluated. Inspectors
and examiners may waive one, but not both, of these events. Under normal circumstances, one of the two events should be waived.
B. Holding. Inspectors and examiners should give holding clearances with
adequate time available for the applicant to identify the holding fix, select
the appropriate speed, and plan the entry. Applicants should be allowed to use
all aids normally available on the flight deck (such as wind drift readouts).
At least the initial entry and one complete turn in the holding pattern should
be completed before another clearance is issued. The applicant’s performance
shall be evaluated in accordance with the holding procedures outlined in the
operator’s aircraft operating manual, the instructions issued by ATC, and the
published holding pattern criteria. Holding airspeed must be as specified by
the operator’s aircraft operating manual; however, it must not be allowed to
exceed the regulatory limit. If the operator’s manual requires a speed higher
than that allowed by regulation, the applicant must resolve the conflict by
requesting an amended ATC clearance or by selecting an airplane configuration
in which it is safe to comply with the regulatory speed. Inspectors and examiners
should waive holding when an applicant’s performance on other events has indicated a high degree of proficiency.
C. Steep Turns. This event consists of a level turn in each direction
with a bank of 45 degrees, continuing for at least 180 degrees, but not more
than 360 degrees. Inspectors and examiners shall direct special attention to
an applicant’s smoothness, coordination, and orientation. Steep turns may be
waived, and should be if an applicant’s performance on other events has indicated a high degree of proficiency.
D. Stall Prevention (approaches to stalls). Inspectors and examiners must
evaluate the applicant’s ability to recognize and recover from an impending
stall in three separate airplane configurations: clean configuration, takeoff
configuration (except where the airplane uses only a zero-flap takeoff configuration),
and landing configuration. At least one impending stall recovery must be performed
while in a turn with a bank angle between 15 and 30 degrees. One impending stall
should be initiated by commands to the autopilot (if installed). Impending stall
recovery in the clean configuration should be evaluated at a high altitude near
the airplane’s maximum operating altitude. (Refer to the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC)
Prevention and Recovery Training.)
NOTE: This requirement applies to all airplane types, including those
with flight envelope protection and fly-by-wire flight controls. Inspectors
and examiners should reference the applicable Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report for recommendations to conduct this maneuver.
1) The inspector or examiner is responsible for establishing
the flight conditions associated with the configuration being evaluated. While
the pilot may fly the entry profile, the pilot will not be evaluated on the
entry. The satisfactory completion of the event is based on the pilot’s initiating
recovery at the first indication of an impending stall (e.g., buffet, stick
shaker, or aural warning) and the accomplishment of the proper recovery procedure.
2) When evaluation of stall prevention is performed in an airplane,
the operator’s minimum entry and recovery altitudes must be observed. In an
FSTD, evaluation of stall prevention may be maneuver-based or scenario-based
with an entry altitude consistent with normal operating environments. The entry
parameters, including W&B, should be within airplane limitations to ensure
adequate performance for recovery from first indication of an impending stall.
3) When the flight test is conducted in an FSTD, inspectors and
examiners should occasionally require an applicant to recover from an impending
stall at high altitude. Evaluation of stall prevention in various flight regimes
should be accomplished to determine whether the operator’s training program has adequately prepared applicants for flight in those regimes.
4) Evaluation of stall prevention must not be based on altitude
loss. Pilots must be evaluated on recovering at the first indication of an impending
stall, even if it is based on an aural or visual indication that occurs before
the stick shaker or stick pusher (if installed), and their timely and effective
use of available energy (i.e., altitude and speed) during recovery. The inspector
or examiner must consider the variables that are present at the time of the
indication of an impending stall and their effect on the recovery. Evaluation criteria are:
· Prompt recognition of impending stall,
· Correct application of the stall recovery procedure, and
· Recovery without exceeding the airplane’s limitations.
5) Stall recovery procedures must be in accordance with the operator’s aircraft operating manual (if applicable) or AC
and examiners may waive all but one of the impending stall recoveries. This waiver authority should be used when an applicant’s performance
in other events indicates a high degree of proficiency.
E. Specific Flight Characteristics. This event consists of recovery
from flight characteristics specific to the airplane type, such as a Dutch roll
or a high rate of descent. These specific flight characteristics, when applicable,
are specified in the FSB report for the particular airplane type. Inspectors
and examiners shall evaluate an applicant on recognition and recovery from these
specific flight characteristics, when applicable. The procedures used for recovery
must be those specified in the operator’s aircraft operating manual. When applicable,
this event may be waived. This event should be waived when the applicant’s performance in other events indicates a high degree of proficiency.
5-832 APPROACH EVENTS. The approaches described in this paragraph
are required on all flight tests. They may be combined when appropriate.
A. Instrument Landing System (ILS) Approach. Inspectors and examiners
shall require applicants to fly a minimum of one normal (all-engines-operative)
ILS. In addition, when multiengine airplanes are used, one manually controlled
ILS with a powerplant failure is also required. When the flight test is conducted
as a two-segment flight test, a manually controlled, normal ILS must be flown in the airplane segment of the flight test.
1) When the operator’s aircraft operating manual prohibits raw
data approaches, the flight directors (FD) must be used during the manually
controlled ILS approach. In this case, a raw data approach is not required to complete the flight test.
2) If the operator’s aircraft operating manual permits raw data
ILS approaches to be conducted, the operator must provide training in the use
of raw data for controlling an airplane during ILS approaches. If the operator’s
airplanes are equipped with a FD system, the FD must be used on at least one
manually controlled ILS approach. While a raw data approach is not required
to complete a flight test, inspectors and examiners should occasionally require
a raw data approach to determine whether the operator’s training program is adequately preparing applicants.
3) For all raw data and FD ILS approaches flown in an FSTD, inspectors
and examiners shall require applicants to use a decision height (DH) of 200
feet above the touchdown zone (TDZ). When raw data is used on ILS approaches
in an airplane, inspectors and examiners shall require applicants to use a DH of 200 feet
above the TDZ. When the FD is used on ILS approaches in an airplane,
inspectors and examiners shall require applicants to use a DH of 100 feet above
the TDZ. However, if the applicant has accomplished an ILS using a 200 foot
height above touchdown (HAT) in the FSTD segment of the flight test, the published
DH shall be used in the airplane portion of the test. The DH shall be determined
by barometric altimeter. Inspectors and examiners shall inform applicants that
this DH is for flight test purposes only and does not correlate to any minimums
used in actual operations. If the flight test is being conducted in actual weather
conditions, the DH shall be the published DH. The applicant must be able to
track the Localizer (LOC) and glideslope (GS) smoothly and without significant
excursion during the final approach segment. The LOC indication shall not exceed
¼-scale deflection at DH. When the ILS indicator is calibrated with the first
dot at the ½-scale deflection point and a second dot at the full-scale point,
the deflection at DH must not exceed half the distance to the first dot. The GS shall not exceed ½-scale deviation (one dot) at DH.
4) When the operator’s airplanes are equipped with autopilot
couplers, at least one coupled autopilot ILS approach must be flown. If the
autopilot has the capability and the operator is authorized by OpSpecs to conduct
automatic landings, the coupled approach shall terminate in either an autolanding
or a coupled missed approach. When an autoland is conducted, it shall not be
credited as one of the three required manually controlled landings. When the
flight test is conducted entirely in an airplane or entirely in an FFS, the
autopilot coupled approach may be combined with the normal ILS (all-engines-operative)
approach. This combination is permitted because the applicant’s ability to manually control an ILS approach is evaluated on the ILS with an engine out.
5) Qualification for Category II (CAT II) and Category III (CAT
III) operations are not part of a type rating or ATP flight test. To satisfy
the requirements for these types of operations, additional events that are not
required for the ATP Certificate or a type rating will normally be required.
The qualification checks for these types of operations, however, may be conducted
in conjunction with an ATP or type rating test as a convenience to the operator
and the applicant. However, if one of these additional events is unsatisfactory,
the entire flight test is unsatisfactory. Therefore, the choice of whether to
combine these events with the certification flight test is up to the applicant.
Inspectors and examiners shall ensure that applicants understand these ground
rules before conducting these additional events in conjunction with a certification test.
6) Qualification check requirements for CAT II and CAT III operations,
including the required number and types of approaches, are established by the
operator’s approved training program. If an applicant is simultaneously qualifying
for these authorizations during the certification flight test, the approaches
discussed in subparagraphs 1)–3) above may be credited toward these requirements when the approach requirements are compatible.
7) Inspectors and examiners shall use a crosswind component of
8 to 10 knots (not to exceed 10 knots) on at least one of the ILS approaches
conducted in an FSTD. The use of this crosswind is to evaluate the applicant’s
ability to track the LOC and not the applicant’s ability to accomplish a crosswind landing.
8) When the flight test is conducted in an FSTD, the Runway Visual
Range (RVR) should be set to the minimum value specified for the approach. If
the inspector or examiner plans for the applicant to acquire the runway and
to continue below DH, the ceiling should be set to a value of approximately
50 feet above HAT (the exact value depends on the characteristics of the specific
FSTD). When the flight test is conducted in an airplane, the vision restriction
device must remain in use until just before the airplane arrives at the DH used for the flight test.
9) Flightcrew procedures, airplane configuration, and airspeeds
must be as specified in the operator’s aircraft operating manual. Turbojet airplanes must be stabilized before descending below 1,000 feet above the TDZ.
B. Nonprecision Approaches (NPA). Inspectors and examiners shall require
applicants to demonstrate two nonprecision instrument approaches that are authorized
in the operator’s OpSpecs. The second approach must be based on a different type of Navigational Aid (NAVAID) than the first approach.
1) Inspectors and examiners shall allow the applicant to use any aid normally available
on the flight deck, such as the FD and drift and groundspeed readouts. Many
operators train their pilots to perform NPAs using the autopilot. At least one
NPA must be manually flown on the flight test, except when the operator’s manual prohibits manually flown NPAs.
2) When NPAs are conducted in an FSTD, a crosswind component
of 10 to 15 knots shall be used on at least one of the NPAs. The purpose of
the crosswind component is to test an applicant’s ability to track the approach
course, not to evaluate crosswind landings. Crosswind landings, however, may be combined with a NPA.
3) In an airplane, the vision restriction device shall remain
in use until the airplane arrives at the minimum descent altitude (MDA) and
a distance from the runway approximating the required visibility for the approach.
In an FSTD, inspectors and examiners shall enter a ceiling of approximately
50 feet higher than the published MDA. A visibility value of approximately ¼
mile greater than the published minimums value shall be used, depending on the characteristics of the particular FSTD.
NOTE: If the approach to be conducted is a lateral navigation (LNAV)/vertical
navigation (VNAV) with a published decision altitude (DA), the FSTD visibility
should be set to the HAT at the DA, divided by 300 feet (a constant); then add ¼ mile. For example:
To set FSTD visibility where DA = 1000 ft and HAT at DA = 600 ft
Divide 600 ft by 300 ft = 2 (miles visibility)
Add ¼ mile visibility
Set FSTD visibility at 2¼ miles
This setting permits the flightcrew to acquire
the approach lights visually before reaching the published DA, and precludes
an unnecessary missed approach when the approach is otherwise satisfactory.
4) When tracking is accomplished by means of an automatic direction
finder (ADF) bearing pointer, the tolerance is ±5 degrees of the final approach
course. When tracking a LOC signal, the tolerance is a ¼-scale deviation (½-dot).
When tracking a very high frequency omni-directional range station (VOR) signal,
the tolerance is a ¼-scale deviation of the course deviation indicator (CDI).
The reason for these tolerances is terrain. Also, at the visual descent point
(VDP) or its equivalent, the airplane must be in a position that it can be aligned
with the runway without excessive maneuvering. Turbojet airplanes must be stabilized before descending below the MDA or 500 feet, whichever is lower.
C. Circling Approach Maneuver. Operators are not required to
train flightcrew members in circling approach maneuvers if the operator’s manual
prohibits such maneuvers with a ceiling below 1,000 feet and a visibility of
less than 3 miles. Inspectors and examiners shall waive this event if the operator
does not train flightcrew members for the maneuver. If the operator provides
training on the circling maneuver, it may be waived when local conditions beyond
the control of the inspector or examiner, such as traffic or available approaches, prevent the maneuver from being conducted in a realistic manner.
1) For the purpose of flight testing, the visual maneuvering
portion of a circling maneuver begins at the circling MDA of an NPA and requires
a change in heading from the final approach course to the runway heading of
at least 90 degrees. The inspector or examiner, however, is authorized to modify
this event. For example, when traffic conditions preclude a circling approach,
if ATC approval is attained, the visual portion of the event can be entered
from a modified visual flight rules (VFR) traffic pattern at a point downwind and abeam the touchdown point.
2) The angle of bank for a circling maneuver should not exceed
30 degrees. The airplane must not descend below MDA until the runway environment
is clearly visible to the applicant, and the airplane is in a position for a
normal descent to the touchdown point. Turbojet airplanes must be stabilized
in the landing configuration before descending below the MDA or 500 feet above touchdown zone elevation (TDZE), whichever is lower.
D. Maneuver To a Landing With 50 Percent of Powerplants Inoperative.
Inspectors and examiners shall require an applicant to demonstrate an approach and landing with 50 percent of powerplants inoperative.
1) Inspectors and examiners should introduce this event in a
realistic manner. Consideration should be given to the airplane weight, atmospheric
conditions, and airplane position. The airplane position, when the engine failure
is introduced (second engine in a three- or four-engine airplane) should provide
enough room for the applicant to maneuver the airplane. In an FFS, the weight
should be adjusted to simulate realistic conditions, but still allow the applicant
enough time to exercise judgment. In a three-engine airplane, this event must
be performed with the center and an outboard engine failed. In a four-engine airplane, both powerplant failures must be on the same side.
2) In two-engine airplanes, the engine-out ILS may be credited
simultaneously with this event. In three- and four-engine airplanes, this event
should be conducted in visual conditions. A visual pattern should be used rather
than a vector to the final approach, so that the applicant’s judgment with respect
to maneuvering the airplane can be evaluated. When this event is conducted in
an FFS, the electronic GS or Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) shall not
be made available for the applicant’s use. In the airplane, it may not be possible
to have the VASI turned off. In daylight conditions, however, inspectors and
examiners should request that the VASI be turned off. In an airplane at night, an electronic GS or VASI must be available and used.
NOTE: An approach with a simulated failure of the most critical powerplant
must always be performed in the airplane segment of a two-segment flight test.
That event is required in the airplane segment, even when a maneuver and landing
with 50 percent of powerplants inoperative has already been previously accomplished in an FFS.
E. No-Flap or Partial-Flap Approach. Inspectors and examiners
shall require an applicant to perform a no-flap approach in all airplanes except
those airplanes that have alternate flap extension procedures and in which the
FSB has determined that no-flap approaches are not required. If a no-flap approach
is not required, the FSB may still require that a partial-flap approach be accomplished.
In this case, inspectors and examiners are only required to evaluate an applicant’s
demonstration of a partial-flap approach. However, inspectors and examiners
may evaluate applicants conducting partial-flap or no-flap approaches any time
procedures for such approaches are published in the operator’s aircraft operating manual.
1) For either a partial or no-flap approach, the limitations
specified for the use of VASI and electronic GS guidance in the 50 percent engine
failure maneuver (see subparagraph 5-832D2) above) apply. The approach shall
be flown from a visual pattern from at least a downwind position, so that the
applicant may be evaluated on planning for the approach. The approach should
be presented in a realistic manner. In an FFS, inspectors and examiners shall
adjust the landing weight to require an applicant to exercise judgment in matters such as approach speed and runway limitations.
2) When the flight test is conducted in a transport or commuter
category airplane, a touchdown from a no-flap or partial-flap approach is not
required and shall not be attempted. The approach must be flown to the point
that the inspector or examiner can determine whether the landing would or would
not occur in the TDZ. In an FFS, the landing must be completed to a full stop
so that the applicant’s ability to control the airplane and to use correct procedures may be evaluated.
NOTE: The events required in subparagraphs 5-832D and E above should
be conducted in an FFS whenever practical. These events should not be repeated
in the airplane segment of the flight test unless an unusual situation occurs.
F. Acceptable Performance for Approach Events. The airspeed and
altitude on downwind and base leg, or on an intercept to final approach, must
be as specified in the operator’s flight manual. The airspeed on final approach
must be adjusted for wind and gusts in accordance with the flight manual and
must be positively and accurately maintained throughout the approach. The approach
angle must be controlled and be appropriate to both the airplane and approach
being flown. If a windshear or a ground proximity warning (GPW) should occur,
an applicant must respond in a prompt and positive manner. For turbojets, the
approach must be stabilized, the airplane in the landing configuration, with
a sink rate of less than 1,000 feet per minute (fpm), not later than the following heights:
1) For all straight-in instrument approaches, the approach must
be stabilized before descending below 1,000 feet above the airport or TDZ.
2) For visual approaches and landings, the approach shall be
stabilized before descending below 500 feet above the airport elevation.
3) For the final segment of a circling approach maneuver, the
approach must be stabilized 500 feet above the airport elevation or at the MDA, whichever is lower.
NOTE: Use of the stabilized concept is mandatory for all turbojet airplane
operations. It is recommended for all propeller-driven airplanes when conducting operations in instrument flight rules (IFR) weather conditions.
5-833 LANDING EVENTS. A total of three manually controlled landings
must be accomplished on all flight tests. When a two-segment FSTD and airplane
flight test is conducted, a minimum of three manually controlled landings must
be performed in the airplane. If the flight test is conducted in an amphibious airplane, one landing must be on water. The required events are as follows:
A. Normal Landings. A normal landing is defined as a manually
controlled landing in the normal landing configuration (as specified in the
operator’s aircraft operating manual), with normal power available, and without
reference to an electronic GS. A normal landing can be accomplished from either a visual pattern or from an NPA.
B. Crosswind Landings. A manually controlled landing with a crosswind
must be accomplished on all flight tests. The crosswind landing may be combined with any other landing event.
1) When the flight test is conducted in an airplane, inspectors
and examiners usually have little control over existing meteorological, airport,
and traffic conditions. As such, an inspector or examiner is expected to make
a reasonable attempt to evaluate a landing on a runway not favorably aligned
with the prevailing wind. It will frequently be necessary, however, to evaluate
this event with the crosswind component currently existing on the active runway.
2) FFSs are capable of realistically duplicating a crosswind
for landing. Crosswind landings must be evaluated on all flight tests conducted
in FFSs. The crosswind component entered in the IOS shall be between 10 and
15 knots. Occasionally, however, the crosswind components should be in excess
of 15 knots, but must not exceed the crosswind component allowed by the operator’s
aircraft operating manual (or the maximum demonstrated value given in the AFM).
The purpose of testing at such higher crosswind components is to determine whether
applicants are being trained throughout the range of the flight envelope. When
level A FFSs are used, POIs must determine the maximum values at which the crosswind
simulation is realistic. Crosswind landings should normally be performed from a VFR traffic pattern, but may be accomplished from an NPA.
C. Landing in Sequence from an ILS Approach. On the landing from
an ILS approach, the runway environment should become visible to the applicant
as close as possible to the DH being used for the flight test. The applicant
must complete the landing without excessive maneuvering and within the TDZ.
The approach angle must not be erratic, excessively steep, or shallow in the visual segment.
D. Accuracy Landings (single-engine only). The accuracy landing
event consists of three approaches and spot landings from an altitude of 1,000
feet or less, with the engine throttled and an approach requiring a 180 degree
change of heading. (“Throttled” means that as power is reduced, it shall not
again be increased above that point until after touchdown.) Touchdown must be
in a normal landing attitude and configuration, beyond but within 200 feet of
a designated point. One of the three landings must be from a forward slip. Although
circular approaches are acceptable, two 90-degree turns with a straight base
leg are preferred. This event is not required if the applicant holds a commercial pilot certificate.
E. Rejected Landing. The rejected landing shall be initiated
from a point approximately 50 feet above the runway. This event may be combined with an instrument missed approach.
F. Engine-Out Landing. One landing with the most critical powerplant
inoperative must be evaluated. When a two-segment flight test is conducted,
this event must be performed in the airplane. When conducted in an airplane, the engine failure shall be simulated.
G. Landing With 50 Percent of Powerplants Inoperative. A landing
with 50 percent of powerplants inoperative must be evaluated. In a three-engine
airplane, the event must be performed with the center and one outboard engine
inoperative. In a four-engine airplane, both powerplant failures must be on
the same side. When this event is conducted in an airplane, the engine failures shall be simulated.
H. No-Flap or Partial-Flap Landings. No-flap or partial-flap
landings are not required to complete the flight test. When the flight test
is conducted in a transport category airplane in actual flight, a touchdown
from a no-flap or partial-flap approach is not required and shall not be attempted.
The approach must be flown to the point that the inspector or examiner can determine
whether the landing would or would not occur in the TDZ. In an FFS, the landing
should be completed to a full stop so that the applicant’s abilities to control
the airplane and use correct procedures under abnormal circumstances may be
evaluated. For example, the airplane might have a pitch-up tendency with spoiler extension in the no-flap or partial-flap landing configuration.
I. Acceptable Performance for Landing Events. Landings must be
in the TDZ, at the correct speed for the airplane, without excessive float,
and on the runway centerline (RCL). The rate of descent at touchdown must be
controlled to an acceptable rate for the airplane involved. Side load on the
landing gear must not be excessive, and positive directional control must be
maintained through the rollout. Management of spoilers and thrust reversers must be in accordance with the operator’s aircraft operating manual.
5-834 MISSED APPROACH EVENTS. Missed approaches from two separate
instrument approaches are required to complete the flight test. At least one
missed approach must be flown through the entire missed approach procedure,
unless traffic or ATC restrictions prevent completing the entire procedure.
One missed approach is required from an ILS. When the flight test is conducted
in a multiengine airplane that has a single‑engine climb capability, one missed
approach should be accomplished with the most critical powerplant inoperative.
The engine-out and ILS missed approaches may be combined; however, to complete
the flight test, at least two missed approaches are required. When the flight
test is a two-segment flight test, the engine-out missed approach should be accomplished in the FSTD segment.
A. Flight Test Not in Transport or Commuter Category Airplane.
When a flight test is conducted in an airplane that does not belong to the transport
or commuter category family, airplane performance may be critical. Inspectors
and examiners should use their authority to modify the event. For example, a
missed approach may be combined with a simulated powerplant failure at a safe altitude.
B. Flight Test in a Three- or Four-Engine Airplane. A missed
approach from an approach with 50 percent of powerplants inoperative is not
required to complete the flight test for three- and four-engine airplanes. However,
when procedures for 50 percent of powerplant-inoperative missed approaches are
published in the operator’s aircraft operating manual, inspectors and examiners
may evaluate the event to determine if applicants are being trained to proficiency
in the event. When this event is conducted in a three-engine airplane, the center
and one outboard engine must be inoperative. When this event is conducted in
a four-engine airplane, two engines on the same side must be inoperative. When
the missed approach event is conducted in an airplane, the engine failures shall be simulated.
C. Flight Test in an FSTD. When a flight test is conducted in
an FSTD, inspectors and examiners should make use of the IOS environmental and
fault panels to induce the missed approach decision. For example, many FSTDs
have provisions to offset the LOC so that the airplane is not in a position to continue the approach below DH.
D. Criteria for Initiation of Missed Approach. Applicants must
promptly execute the missed approach procedure if the runway environment is
not acquired at DH on an ILS approach. If the runway environment is not in sight
on an NPA, or if the airplane is not in a position to land at the missed approach
point, the applicant must initiate a missed approach. Should conditions prevent
continuation of any type of approach at any point, the applicant must initiate
a missed approach. For example, a missed approach above DH might be required
when an instrument failure flag appears. A missed approach is required if the
airplane is below DH or MDA and cannot be properly aligned with the runway or
if the applicant loses sight of the runway environment. An applicant must adhere
to the published missed approach or the instructions given by ATC and observe
the procedures and limitations in the operator’s aircraft operating manual.
An applicant must properly use the available aids and other crewmembers when making the transition back to the instrument navigation environment.
5-835 NORMAL AND ABNORMAL PROCEDURES. Inspectors and examiners shall
require an applicant to demonstrate the proper use of as many of the airplane’s
systems and devices as necessary to determine if the applicant has a practical
knowledge of the use of these systems. Evaluation of normal and abnormal procedures
can usually be accomplished in conjunction with other events and does not normally
require a specific event to test the applicant’s use of the airplane’s systems
and devices. An applicant’s performance must be evaluated on the maintenance
of airplane control, the ability to recognize and analyze abnormal indications,
and the ability to apply corrective procedures in a timely manner. Systems to be evaluated include, but are not limited to, the following:
· Anti-icing and deicing systems;
· Autopilot systems;
· Automatic or other approach system aids;
· Stall warning devices, stall avoidance devices, and stability
· Airborne Radar (AR) devices; and
· Any other available systems, devices, or aids, such as flight
management systems (FMS).
5-836 EMERGENCY PROCEDURE EVENTS. An applicant must be able to competently
operate all installed emergency equipment and to correctly apply the procedures specified in the operator’s aircraft operating manual.
A. Powerplant Failures. Inspectors and examiners may introduce
malfunctions requiring an engine shutdown at any time during the flight test.
This provision is not intended as authority to require an unrealistic number
of failures, but to permit such failures at times when they are most appropriate.
Powerplant failures should be limited to those necessary for determining an
applicant’s proficiency. An applicant must promptly identify the inoperative
engine and initiate correct action while maneuvering the airplane safely. If
the airplane is not capable of maintaining altitude with an engine inoperative,
the applicant is expected to maintain the best engine-out climb speed while descending. Smooth application of flight controls and proper trim are required.
B. Other Emergency Procedures. Inspectors and examiners should
sample as many of the following events as necessary for determining whether an applicant is proficient in identifying and responding to emergency
· Fire in flight;
· Smoke control;
· Rapid decompression;
· Emergency descent (with and without structural damage);
· Hydraulic and electrical system failure or malfunctions (if
safe and appropriate);
· Landing gear and flap systems failure or malfunctions;
· Navigation or communications equipment failure; and
· Any other emergency procedures outlined in the operator’s aircraft
operating manual or training program.
5-837 STANDARDS OF ACCEPTABLE PERFORMANCE. The ATP Certificate is
the highest grade of pilot certificate awarded. An applicant for this certificate
must possess a degree of piloting skills beyond that required for lower grades
of certificates. The applicant must be the master of the airplane, the crew,
and the situation throughout the airplane’s operational envelope. Inspectors
and examiners shall sample an applicant’s ability to safely and practically
operate the airplane throughout the range of the approved operational envelope.
For example, an ATP applicant would be expected to be able to maintain 180 knots
to the marker, configure the aircraft, and establish a stabilized approach before
descending below 1,000 feet above ground level (AGL) while smoothly tracking the GS and LOC.
A. Manipulative Skills. The manipulative skill standards for
the ATP Certificate are the most rigorous of all pilot certificates issued.
The skills requirement for the ATP Certificate and for other certificates differs
not in the tolerances allowed but in the degree of mastery required. The applicant
for an ATP Certificate must demonstrate the ability to operate the airplane
smoothly under a complex set of circumstances. The applicant’s performance must
be such that the inspector or examiner is never seriously in doubt of the successful
outcome of each event of the flight test. The determination of whether an applicant’s
performance is acceptable or not is derived from the experience and judgment
of the inspector or examiner. It is imperative that inspectors and examiners
be fair and consistent when making their determinations. For example, weather,
airplane responsiveness, traffic, and other factors beyond an applicant’s control
may cause the applicant to deviate briefly during the accomplishment of a maneuver.
In the case of turbulence, the applicant is expected to adhere to the procedures
for adjusting the target speed as specified in the operator’s aircraft operating
manual. In such a situation, an applicant who makes a determined effort, is
generally successful in maintaining close control, and does not deviate to the
extent safety is compromised, should be considered to have met the standard.
B. Flight Management Skills. The term “pilot-in-command” implies
that the pilot is the leader of a crew and bears the final responsibility for
the safe conduct of the flight. This standard, more than any other, distinguishes
the successful applicant for an ATP Certificate from those holding other grades
of certificates. The ATP flight test must not be limited to a simple demonstration
of a series of events. An ATP applicant must demonstrate a mastery of complex
problems, good judgment, situational awareness, Crew Resource Management (CRM), and leadership skills.
Figure 5-112. ATP/Type Rating Oral Test Job Aid—Airplane
RESERVED. Paragraphs 5-838 through 5-855.