VOLUME 5 AIRMAN CERTIFICATION
CHAPTER 3 AIRLINE TRANSPORT PILOT (ATP) CERTIFICATION UNDER TITLE 14 CFR
91 SUBPART K
Section 5 Oral and Flight Test Events in Helicopters for ATP Applicants Engaged in Operations Under Title 14 CFR Part
91 Subpart K
5-906 DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC EVENTS. Inspectors and examiners should
use the ATP/Type Rating Oral Test Job AidóHelicopter and the ATP/Type Rating
Flight Test Job AidóHelicopter checklists when conducting oral and flight tests
(see Figures 5-120 and 5-121). The events required on these tests are listed
on the job aids. In the paragraphs that follow, the conditions and techniques
for presenting selected events are provided for the purpose of increasing standardization,
reliability, and validity of the flight test process for helicopters.
5-907 WAIVER OR MODIFICATION OF FLIGHT TEST EVENTS. Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part
inspectors and examiners to modify or waive the events specified by part
B, to ensure reasonable and safe use of the helicopter during flight. Inspectors and examiners should not waive an event for convenience,
but shall not hesitate to use the waiver authority for the purpose of safety.
5-908 PREPARATION AND SURFACE OPERATION EVENTS. An applicant shall
be observed performing the inspection of the helicopter interior, exterior,
and emergency equipment while performing engine‑start, taxi, and powerplant checks in accordance with the operatorís aircraft operating manual.
A. Exterior Inspection. The exterior inspection is not an extension
of the oral phase in which systems knowledge is examined, but is a demonstration
of an applicantís ability to perform a safety check. Inspectors and examiners
shall limit questions to those necessary for determining whether an applicant
can recognize components that are in an unsafe condition. The inspector or examiner
shall determine whether the applicant inspects these items in accordance with the procedures in the operatorís aircraft operating manual.
B. Cockpit Preflight Inspection. An applicant shall be required
to complete the cockpit preflight check following the procedures in the operatorís
aircraft operating manual while using the appropriate checklist. An applicant
should be asked to demonstrate the use of the minimum equipment list (MEL) and
to conduct a passenger briefing. In helicopters requiring more than one pilot, the proper challenges and responses to the checklist must be used.
C. Engine-Start and Rotor Engagement. The applicant shall be
required to perform an engine-start and rotor engagement using the correct procedures.
Simulated problems may be introduced and should be carried through to the expected
conclusion in line operations for the purpose of evaluating crew coordination and the applicantís proficiency.
D. Taxiing or Surface Hover. The inspector or examiner shall
evaluate the applicantís ability to safely maneuver the helicopter in proximity
to the surface while managing outside vigilance and accomplishing cockpit procedures.
The applicant must ensure that the taxi path is clear of obstructions, comply
with local taxi rules and control tower instructions, make proper use of checklists, and maintain control of the helicopter and crew.
E. Powerplant Checks. Powerplant checks must be accomplished
before takeoff in accordance with the operatorís aircraft operating manual.
5-909 TAKEOFF EVENTS. The applicant must accomplish each of the
following takeoff events. These events may be combined when convenient and practical.
A. Normal Takeoff. A normal takeoff is defined as a takeoff beginning
from a standing position on the surface or from a stabilized hover and not accompanied
by an engine failure or malfunction during the takeoff or initial climb phase.
B. Instrument Takeoff. An instrument takeoff is defined as one
in which instrument conditions are encountered or simulated at or before reaching
an altitude of 100 feet above the airport elevation. The applicant shall be
evaluated on control of the helicopter including transition to instruments as
visual cues deteriorate. The applicant must also be evaluated on planning for
the transition to an instrument navigation environment. This event may be conveniently combined with an area departure.
C. Engine Failure on Takeoff. The applicant must demonstrate
the ability to maintain control of the helicopter with the simulated failure of a powerplant.
1) In single-engine helicopters, this event shall consist of
a simulated power loss at a point (no lower than 500 feet above ground level
(AGL)) requiring a descent to a location other than the departure point. This
event need only be continued to a point where the inspector or examiner can
make a determination of the applicantís proficiency. The event shall be terminated
in a power recovery. This is a potentially hazardous event and shall be presented
in a realistic manner that is consistent with safety. Inspectors shall exercise
care when introducing the simulated engine failure at a reasonable airspeed
and altitude, and give ample consideration to the helicopterís characteristics,
length of landing area, surface conditions, wind direction and velocity, and
any other pertinent factors that may adversely affect safety. Inspectors and
examiners shall not introduce a simulated power failure in a single-engine helicopter
in an area where an actual touchdown could not be completed safely, should it become necessary.
2) In multiengine helicopters, the applicant shall demonstrate
the ability to safely continue a takeoff with simulated failure of a powerplant at an airspeed that permits continued climb in forward flight.
3) Helicopter configuration, airspeed, and operational procedures
shall be as recommended in the operatorís aircraft operating manual.
D. Rejected Takeoff. A rejected takeoff is a potentially hazardous
event. It should be presented in a realistic manner; however, it must be consistent with safety.
1) In single-engine helicopters, inspectors and examiners shall
introduce a simulated problem so that a quick stop is required. Inspectors and
examiners shall not introduce a simulated powerplant failure when testing this
event in a single-engine helicopter. Instead, this event might be introduced
by requesting the applicant to climb over a simulated obstacle on takeoff. Once
the takeoff is in progress, the inspector or examiner can then inform the applicant that the climb will not clear the simulated obstacle.
2) In multiengine helicopters, inspectors and examiners shall
introduce a problem requiring an abort before the helicopter reaches a speed at which the helicopter is committed to takeoff.
3) Inspectors and examiners shall take precautions to introduce
the simulated failure at a reasonable airspeed and altitude, giving due consideration
to the helicopterís characteristics, length of landing area, surface conditions,
wind direction and velocity, and any other pertinent factors that may adversely affect safety.
Note: The performance characteristics of some nontransport helicopters
may make the introduction of a simulated engine failure on takeoff a potentially
hazardous situation. When conducting a flight test in such helicopters, inspectors and examiners should use their authority to waive or modify this event.
E. Crosswind Takeoff. A crosswind takeoff from a standing position
on the surface or a stabilized hover must be evaluated on all flight tests.
When appropriate, a crosswind takeoff may be evaluated simultaneously with other types of takeoffs.
5-910 CLIMB, EN ROUTE, AND DESCENT EVENTS.
A. Area Departures and Arrivals. The area departure and arrival
events include intercepting radials, tracking, and climbs or descents with restrictions.
When practical, a standard instrument departure or standard arrival should be
used; however, many published procedures are not suitable for testing an applicantís
abilities. For example, common radar departures are essentially initial climb
instructions for a radar hand-off. If a suitable published procedure is not
available and circumstances permit, the inspector or examiner shall give a clearance
that presents the desired tasks. Inspectors and examiners should allow applicants
full use of all installed equipment. The applicantís use of navigation equipment,
use of other crewmembers, and adherence to air traffic control (ATC) clearances and restrictions shall be evaluated.
B. Holding. Inspectors and examiners should give holding clearances
with adequate time available for the applicant to identify the holding fix,
select the appropriate speed, and plan the entry. Applicants should be allowed
the use of all aids normally available in the cockpit (such as wind drift readouts).
At least the initial entry and one complete turn in the holding pattern should
be completed before another clearance is issued. The applicantís performance
shall be evaluated on the basis of compliance with the holding procedures outlined
in the operatorís aircraft operating manual, compliance with instructions issued
by ATC, and the published holding criteria. Holding airspeed must be as specified by the operatorís aircraft operating manual.
C. Steep Turns. This event consists of a level turn in each direction with a bank of
30 degrees, continuing for at least 180 degrees, but not more than 360 degrees.
Airspeed, altitude, and bank angle must be controlled within the tolerances
specified in the current edition of FAA-S-8081-5, Airline Transport Pilot and Aircraft Type Rating
Practical Test Standards for
Airplane. Inspectors and examiners shall direct special attention to an applicantís smoothness, coordination, and orientation.
D. Unusual Attitude Recovery. An unusual attitude recovery shall
be given at an altitude consistent with a safe recovery by the safety pilot,
if the applicant is unable to make a proper recovery. The applicant must recognize
the helicopterís attitude and respond correctly. Inspectors and examiners shall
observe the minimum altitudes specified for this event in the operatorís aircraft operating manual.
E. Settling with Power. The applicant must recognize and initiate
immediate recovery from a critical rapid descent with power. For purposes of
this maneuver, settling is reached when a perceptible buffet is felt or an indication
of immediate settling is detected. If this event is prohibited in the operatorís
aircraft operating manual, it shall not be conducted in flight, but shall be tested orally.
F. Specific Flight Characteristics. This event consists of recovery
from flight characteristics that are specific to the helicopter type. These
specific flight characteristics, when applicable, are specified in the Flight
Standardization Board (FSB) report for the particular helicopter type. The inspector
or examiner shall evaluate the applicant on recognition and recovery from the
specific flight characteristic, when applicable. The procedures used for recovery must be those specified in the operatorís aircraft operating manual.
5-911 APPROACHES TO LANDINGS. The approaches described below are
required on all flight tests but may be combined, when appropriate.
A. Instrument Landing System (ILS) Approaches. Inspectors and examiners
shall require applicants to fly a minimum of one normal, all engines operative,
ILS. In addition, when multiengine helicopters are used, one manually controlled ILS with an accompanying powerplant failure is also required.
1) When the operatorís aircraft operating manual requires the use of a flight director,
the flight director must be used during the manually controlled ILS approaches.
If the manually controlled ILS approach is flown using a flight director, a
raw data approach is not required to complete the flight test. When the flight
director is used on an ILS approach, the applicant shall be required to use
a decision height (DH) of 100 feet above the touchdown zone (TDZ). The DH shall
be determined by the barometric altimeter. Inspectors and examiners shall ensure
that the applicant is aware that this DH is for flight test purposes only and
does not correlate to any minimums used in actual operations.
2) If the operatorís aircraft operating manual permits the conduct
of raw data ILS approaches, the operator must train applicants on the use of
raw data for controlling the aircraft during the approach. In this case, the
flight director must be used on at least one manually controlled ILS approach.
While a raw data approach is not required to complete the flight test, inspectors
and examiners should occasionally require a raw data approach to determine whether
the operatorís training program is adequately preparing applicants. For raw
data ILS approaches, the inspector or examiner shall require the applicant to
use a DH of 200 feet above the TDZ. The inspector or examiner shall ensure that
the applicant is aware that this DH is for flight test purposes only and does not correlate to any minimums used in actual operations.
3) When the operatorís helicopters are equipped with autopilot couplers, at least
one coupled autopilot ILS approach shall be flown. If the autopilot has the
capability and the operator is authorized by operations specifications (OpSpecs)
to conduct automatic landings, the coupled approach shall terminate in either
an autolanding or a coupled-missed approach. When the flight test is conducted
in a multiengine helicopter, the autopilot-coupled approach may be combined
with the normal ILS (all engines operative) approach. This combination is permitted
because the applicantís ability to manually control an ILS approach is evaluated on the ILS with an engine out.
4) The vision restriction device must remain in use until just
before the helicopter arrives at the DH used for the flight test.
5) Flightcrew procedures, helicopter configuration, and airspeeds
must be as specified by the operatorís aircraft operating manual. During each
phase of the approach, the airspeed must not deviate from the target speed by more than the tolerances specified in the
practical test standards
The inspector or examiner shall ensure that the applicant is aware that this
DH is for flight test purposes only and does not correlate to any minimums used
in actual operations. If the flight test is being conducted in actual weather conditions, the DH shall be the published DH.
B. Nonprecision Approaches. The inspector or examiner shall require
the applicant to demonstrate two different types of manually-controlled nonprecision
instrument approaches authorized by the operatorís OpSpecs.
1) The inspector or examiner shall allow the applicant to use
any aid usually available in the cockpit, such as flight director, drift, and
ground speed readouts. Some operators train their pilots to perform nonprecision
approaches using the autopilot. While this training should be encouraged, at
least one nonprecision approach must be manually flown on the flight test.
2) The vision restriction device shall remain in place until
the helicopter arrives at minimum descent altitude (MDA) and a distance from
the runway approximating the required visibility for the approach.
3) Applicants must remain within the tolerance established for
terrain clearance. Also, at the visual descent point or its equivalent, the
aircraft must be in a position that it can be aligned with the runway without excessive maneuvering.
C. Circling Approach Maneuver. To qualify as a circling approach
for flight test purposes, the procedure to be flown must require a change in
heading from the final approach course to the runway heading of at least 90
degrees. This event may be waived if local conditions, beyond the control of
the applicant (traffic or available approaches), prevent it from being conducted in a realistic manner.
1) The inspector or examiner may modify the event. For example,
with the towerís approval, the visual maneuver portion of the event could be
entered from a modified visual flight rules (VFR) traffic pattern at a point downwind and abeam the touchdown point.
2) The angle of bank for a circling maneuver should not exceed
30 degrees. Altitude and airspeed must not exceed the tolerances specified in the
helicopter shall not descend below MDA until the runway environment
is clearly visible to the applicant, and the helicopter is in a position for a normal descent to the touchdown point.
5-912 LANDING EVENTS. The following landings are required but may be combined when appropriate:
A. Normal Landing. A normal landing is defined as an approach
to a stabilized hover or a touchdown, with normal power available. A normal
landing can be accomplished from either a visual pattern or from a nonprecision approach.
B. Landing in Sequence from an ILS Approach. On the landing from
an ILS approach, the runway environment should become visible to the applicant
as close as possible to the DH being used for flight test purposes. An applicant
must complete the approach to a landing or stabilized hover without excessive
maneuvering and within the runway TDZ. The approach angle must not be erratic, excessively steep, or shallow in the visual segment.
C. Crosswind Landing. Crosswind landings will normally be performed
from a VFR traffic pattern, but may be combined from a nonprecision approach.
D. Maneuver and Landing with a Powerplant InoperativeóMultiengine
Helicopters. Inspectors and examiners should introduce this event in a realistic
manner. Consideration should be given to the helicopter weight, atmospheric
conditions, and helicopter position. The helicopter position at the onset of
the engine failure should allow enough room for the applicant to maneuver the helicopter and to exercise judgment.
E. Autorotation (Single-Engine Only). An autorotation is required
for single-engine helicopters. Inspectors are cautioned to ensure that the landing
area is appropriate for such operations. All autorotation approaches to off airport sites will be terminated in power recoveries.
5-913 MISSED APPROACH EVENTS. Missed approaches from two separate instrument
approaches are required to complete the flight test. At least one missed approach
shall be flown through the entire missed approach procedure, unless traffic
or ATC restrictions prevent completing the entire procedure. One missed approach
is required from an ILS. When the flight test is conducted in a multiengine
helicopter, one missed approach is required with the most critical powerplant
inoperative. The engine-out and ILS missed approaches may be combined; however,
to complete the flight test a minimum of two missed approaches are still required.
A. Missed Approach with a Critical Powerplant Inoperative. Inspectors
and examiners must exercise good judgment concerning the performance characteristics
of the helicopter involved when performing a missed approach with the critical
powerplant inoperative. When helicopter performance is critical, inspectors
and examiners should use their authority to modify the event. For example, a
go-around may be combined with a simulated powerplant failure at a safe altitude.
B. Initiating a Missed Approach. The applicant must promptly execute the
missed approach procedure if the runway environment is not acquired at DH on
an ILS approach. If the runway environment is not in sight on a nonprecision
approach, or if the aircraft is not in a position to land at the missed approach
point, the applicant must initiate a missed approach. If conditions on any type
of approach prevent continuation of the approach, the applicant must initiate
a missed approach. For example, a missed approach above DH might be required
when an instrument failure flag appears. A missed approach is required if the
helicopter is below DH or MDA and cannot be properly aligned with the runway,
or if the applicant loses sight of the runway environment. The applicant must
adhere to the published missed approach or the instructions given by ATC and
observe the procedures and limitations in the operatorís aircraft operating
manual. An applicant must properly use the available aids and other crewmembers
when making the transition back to the instrument navigation environment.
5-914 NORMAL AND ABNORMAL PROCEDURE EVENTS. The inspector or examiner
shall require the applicant to demonstrate the proper use of as many of the
helicopterís systems and devices as necessary to determine if the applicant
has a practical knowledge of the use of such systems. Evaluation of normal and
abnormal procedures can usually be accomplished in conjunction with other required
events and does not normally require a specific event to test the applicantís
use of these systems and devices. The applicantís performance must be evaluated
on the maintenance of helicopter control, the ability to recognize and analyze
abnormal indications, and the ability to apply corrective procedures in a timely
manner. Systems to be evaluated include, but are not limited to, the following:
∑ Anti-icing and deicing systems;
∑ Autopilot and stability augmentation systems;
∑ Navigation and airborne radar systems; and
∑ Any other available systems, devices, or aids available (such
as flight management systems (FMS)).
5-915 EMERGENCY PROCEDURE EVENTS. The applicant must be able to
competently operate all installed emergency equipment and to correctly apply
the procedures specified in the operatorís aircraft operating manual.
A. Powerplant Failures. Inspectors and examiners may introduce
malfunctions requiring an engine shutdown during the flight test. This provision
is not intended as authority to require an unrealistic number of failures, but
to permit such failures at times when they are most appropriate. Powerplant
failures should be limited to those necessary for determining an applicantís
proficiency. If a multiengine helicopter is not capable of maintaining altitude
with an engine inoperative, applicants are expected to maintain the best engine-out
climb speed while descending. The applicant must promptly identify the inoperative
engine and initiate correct action while maneuvering the helicopter safely. Smooth application of flight controls and proper trim is required.
B. Other Emergency Procedures. Inspectors and examiners should
sample as many of the following events as necessary for determining whether
an applicant is proficient in identifying and responding to emergency situations:
∑ Fire in flight;
∑ Smoke control;
∑ Hydraulic and electrical system failure or malfunctions (if safe
∑ Navigation or communications equipment failure; and
∑ Any other emergency procedures outlined in the operatorís aircraft
operating manual or training program.
5-916 STANDARDS OF ACCEPTABLE PERFORMANCE. The highest grade of
pilot certificate issued is the airline transport pilot (ATP) certificate. An
applicant for this certificate must possess the highest degree of piloting skills
and be the master of the helicopter, the crew, and the situation throughout
the aircraftís operational envelope. In addition to the guidance on standards of performance for the oral test phase discussed in
Volume 5, Chapter 1, Section 3, the
following guidance applies to the ATP certificate.
A. Manipulative Skills. The manipulative skill standards for
the ATP certificate are the most rigorous of all pilot certificates issued.
The skills requirement for the ATP certificate and for other certificates differs
not in the tolerances allowed but in the degree of mastery required. The applicant
for an ATP certificate must demonstrate the ability to operate the aircraft
smoothly under a complex set of circumstances. The applicantís performance must
be such that the inspector or examiner is never seriously in doubt of the successful
outcome of each event of the flight test. The determination of whether an applicantís
performance is acceptable or not is derived from the experience and judgment
of the inspector or examiner. It is imperative that inspectors and examiners
be fair and consistent when making their determinations. For example, weather,
helicopter responsiveness, traffic, and other factors beyond an applicantís
control may cause the applicant to deviate briefly during the accomplishment
of a maneuver. In the case of turbulence, the applicant is expected to adhere
to the procedures for adjusting the target speed as specified in the operatorís
helicopter operating manual. In such a situation, an applicant who makes a determined
effort, who is generally successful in maintaining close control, and who does
not deviate to the extent safety is compromised, should be considered to have met the standard.
B. Flight Management Skills. The term ďpilot in commandĒ (PIC)
implies that the pilot is the leader of a crew and bears the final responsibility
for the safe conduct of the flight. This standard, more than any other, distinguishes
the successful applicant for an ATP certificate from those holding other grades
of certificates. The ATP flight test must not be limited to a simple demonstration
of a series of events. An ATP applicant must demonstrate a mastery of complex
problems, good judgment, situational awareness, cockpit management, and leadership skills.
Figure 5-120. ATP/Type Rating Oral Test Job AidóHelicopter
Figure 5-121. ATP/Type Rating Flight Test Job AidóHelicopter
RESERVED. Paragraphs 5-917 through 5-935.