VOLUME 5 AIRMAN CERTIFICATION
CHAPTER 4 TITLE 14 CFR PART 63 CERTIFICATION—FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS
Section 2 Oral and Flight Tests—Flight Engineer Applicants Engaged in Operations Under Title 14 CFR Part 121, 135, or 91 Subpart K.
5-1006 ORAL TEST EVENTS. The events that should be evaluated on the oral test are specified in figure 5-130, Flight Engineer Oral Test Job Aid. Volume 5, chapter 1, section 3, provides guidance for the conduct of the oral test.
5-1007 ORAL TEST STANDARDS. In addition to the standards discussed in volume 5, chapter 1, section 3, applicants must be able to complete a typical takeoff data card. Applicants must also be able to apply corrections to the takeoff data computations, such as contaminated runway corrections, anti-skid inoperative corrections, and minimum equipment list (MEL)/configuration deviation list (CDL) penalties. Applicants must demonstrate the ability to extract aircraft performance data, such as maximum allowable altitude, cruise exhaust pressure ratio (EPR), anti-ice corrections, and landing data from the operator’s aircraft operating manual.
5-1008 ACCEPTABLE METHODS OF ACCOMPLISHING FLIGHT TESTS. A flight engineer (FE) flight test is comprised of two phases: a normal procedures phase, and an abnormal/emergency procedures phase.
A. Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) section (§) 63.39 requires that applicants demonstrate that they can perform the normal duties and procedures of FEs in actual flight during the certification test. Most 14 CFR part 121 operators have been granted exemption No. 4901 (also known as the Air Transport Association of America (ATA) exemption). Under the terms of this exemption, applicants may be evaluated during the normal procedures phase in a “flight engineer simulator.” See paragraph 5-1009 below for further information on this exemption.
NOTE: A flight engineer simulator is the equivalent of a level 6 training device or higher, but does not need to have motion.
B. The abnormal and emergency procedures phase of the flight test may be conducted in either an aircraft or a flight engineer simulator.
NOTE: The ATA exemption only applies to the normal procedures phase and does not apply to the abnormal/ emergency procedures phase.
C. The normal phase and the abnormal/emergency procedures phase of the flight test must be conducted in two distinct phases. When both phases are conducted in an airplane, or in a flight simulator, the phases may be conducted on the same flight, but must be conducted separately.
5-1009 AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA (ATA) EXEMPTION. The ATA exemption allows an FE applicant, who is employed by a member airline of the ATA, to accomplish the normal procedures phase of the flight test in a flight engineer simulator. Under this exemption, there are two options for conducting the normal procedures phase of the certification flight test.
A. Tests With Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) Scenarios. Under the exemption, all applicants may be administered a normal procedures phase with an approved LOFT scenario. Successful applicants tested in this manner are issued unrestricted certificates.
B. Tests Without LOFT Scenarios. The normal procedures phase of the flight test may only be conducted in a flight engineer simulator without a LOFT scenario for the following applicants:
· Applicants for additional class ratings,
· Applicants for initial FE certificates who have qualified for the certificate on the basis of flightcrew experience14 CFR § 63.37(b) subparagraphs (4) through (6), and
· Applicants for initial FE certificates who qualify under § 63.37(b)(7) and hold a commercial pilot certificate and instrument ratings.
NOTE: Applicants for initial FE certificates who do not meet the requirements of this paragraph B must complete the normal procedures phase either in an airplane or in a flight simulator using a LOFT scenario.
C. Inspectors and examiners must place a restriction on the certificate of an applicant who has been administered a normal procedures phase of the flight test in a flight simulator without an approved LOFT scenario. When required, the restriction shall read as follows: “This certificate is subject to the provisions of exemption No. 4901.”
D. Before this restriction can be removed, the FE must complete 12 hours of operating experience (OE) under the supervision of an FE designated by the principal operations inspectors (POI). This period of supervision may be reduced by 1 hour for each takeoff and landing over 6 hours, but not less than 6 hours of supervised operating experience (SOE). The FE must obtain a letter from a check airman stating that the required SOE has been completed. The FE may exchange the restricted FE certificate and the check airman’s letter for an unrestricted certificate. This exchange may be made by any Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) or by an examiner authorized to conduct FE certification for the airman’s employer in the applicable airplane type.
E. The satisfactory completion of the normal procedures phase of the flight test in a flight simulator does not satisfy the requirement of § 63.39(b)(1) , which requires evaluation of the applicant performing an exterior preflight inspection. Inspectors and examiners may not issue a certificate until this requirement is met. Under the ATA exemption, this event may be accomplished by pictorial means for applicants who have been trained in a part 121 training program and who are employed by an ATA member airline.
5-1010 CONDUCT OF A FLIGHT ENGINEER (FE) FLIGHT TEST. In addition to the specific guidance provided in this paragraph, inspectors and examiners should refer to the guidance in volume 5, chapter 1, section 3 concerning the conduct of flight tests. Figure 5-131, Flight Engineer Flight Test Job Aid, will aid inspectors and examiners in the planning and conduct of flight tests.
A. Normal Procedures Phase. In the normal procedures phase of the flight test, the applicant must be able to perform the normal duties of an FE while interacting with a full crew during preflight, start, taxi, takeoff, climb, cruise, descent, landing, and securing the airplane. This demonstration must include airplane performance computations, cruise control, and the normal paperwork required by the operator. As a minimum, the flight profile must provide for a climb to a typical cruise altitude, a cruise portion long enough for the inspector or examiner to evaluate the applicant’s proficiency in cruise flight, a descent into the terminal area, and an instrument approach.
B. Abnormal and Emergency Procedures Phase. The applicant must be able to perform the duties of an FE in abnormal and emergency conditions while interacting with a full crew. The abnormal and emergency procedures phase may be accomplished in a flight simulator regardless of the applicant’s qualifying experience or flight training.
1) The inspector or examiner must evaluate the applicant performing as many procedures as necessary to determine the applicant’s competence and proficiency. These procedures shall be selected from the operator’s aircraft operating manual.
2) When permitted by this handbook, inspectors and examiners should conduct the abnormal and emergency procedures phase of the flight test on the same flight simulator or airplane flight as the normal procedures phase. Abnormal procedures may be integrated into the normal procedures phase when practical and convenient. Emergency procedures may be evaluated on the same flight as the normal procedures phase, but must be conducted as a separate phase.
3) The inspector or examiner should sequence events into a realistic scenario that tests the applicant’s ability to interpret and analyze cockpit indications, operate the controls at the FE station, and coordinate with the other crewmembers while resolving these problems.
C. Flight Test Conditions. The following guidance applies to conditions under which FE flight tests must be conducted:
1) No flight tests or portions of flight tests may be conducted in airplanes on revenue flights.
2) On airplane flights, all crew positions except the FE’s position must be occupied by qualified crewmembers. If the flight test is conducted in a flight simulator, all crewmembers do not need to be qualified and current, but they must be proficient in the duties of the positions they occupy. The operator must provide a means for ensuring that individuals who are not qualified and current to conduct line operations remain proficient. One way (but not the only way) the operator may satisfy this requirement is to conduct an annual proficiency check using the same standards as required for a pilot in command (PIC).
3) The inspector or examiner conducting the flight test shall not occupy a crew position during the flight test.
4) Inspectors and examiners should avoid asking unnecessary questions, making comments, and shall discourage any conversation not specifically concerning the conduct of the flight test. Inspectors and examiners should take notes during the flight test for use during debriefing.
5) Inspectors and examiners should require that the preflight and postflight paperwork duplicates that used by the operator during line operations. This ensures that the test is realistic and allows adequate evaluation of the applicant’s performance.
5-1011 FLIGHT TEST EVENTS. The following conditions and techniques for presenting selected maneuvers and procedures are provided to increase the standardization, reliability, and validity of the flight testing process. The inspector or examiner should vary the events as well as the sequence and conditions of those events presented. By varying the conduct of the flight test, the inspector or examiner can evaluate the adequacy of the operator’s training program and the preparation of the applicant. Both the flight simulator and the airplane have unique advantages for flight tests. Inspectors and examiners should plan flight tests to use the advantages offered by either the flight simulator or the airplane.
A. Preflight Inspection. The applicant shall be observed performing the inspection of the aircraft interior, exterior, and emergency equipment in accordance with the operator’s aircraft operating manual. These inspections should not be an extension of the oral test phase in which system knowledge is examined, but a demonstration of the applicant’s ability to perform the appropriate safety checks. The inspector or examiner shall limit questions to only those necessary for determining if applicants can recognize when a component is in an unsafe condition. The applicant shall be evaluated while performing inspections of those items specified in the operator’s aircraft operating manual.
1) When the operator has been granted the ATA exemption, the applicant may be examined on the exterior inspection by pictorial means. On all other flight tests, an actual inspection of an airplane is required. Whether the flight test is conducted on the actual aircraft or by pictorial means, the inspector should ask specific questions about what is to be examined and what is an acceptable or unacceptable state. For testing purposes, the exterior inspection may be conducted before or after the actual flight at the inspector’s or examiner’s discretion.
2) The applicant shall be required to complete the FE’s portion of the interior and cockpit preflight check using the procedures in the operator’s aircraft operating manual. The proper challenges and responses to the checklist must be used. When the flight test is conducted in a flight simulator, it is appropriate for the inspector or examiner to present minor malfunctions or to place switches out of position to determine if the applicant is accurately performing the specified checks. It is appropriate to include problems that require reference to the MEL.
B. Fuel Load. The applicant must demonstrate proficiency in the operator’s procedures for checking and verifying the fuel load and management of the fuel panel. It is appropriate to present such problems as inoperative tank and totalizer gages or stuck fuel valves.
C. Engine Start Procedures. The applicant shall be required to perform the engineer duties during engine start, using the procedures specified by the operator’s aircraft operating manual. When the flight test is conducted in a flight simulator, it is appropriate for the inspector or examiner to present one or more abnormal conditions such as a hot start or malfunctioning air or start valve. The problem should be carried through to the conclusion that would be expected in line operations for the evaluation of crew coordination and applicant proficiency.
D. Taxi. Inspectors and examiners shall evaluate the applicant’s ability to perform the applicable checklists, to compute data, and to remain aware of clearances, restrictions, and radio calls.
E. Powerplant Checks. Powerplant checks should be accomplished before takeoff in accordance with the checklist. In a flight simulator, it is appropriate for an inspector or an examiner to present minor malfunctions to determine if the applicant is accurately performing these checks.
F. Takeoff and Climb. The applicant should be able to compute takeoff and climb performance. The applicant shall be required to demonstrate an ability to perform assigned duties in accordance with the operator’s aircraft operating manual while remaining aware of the progress of the flight during takeoff and climb. The applicant should also be aware of traffic in the terminal area.
G. Cruise and Fuel Management. It is not necessary for the flight to remain in cruise flight for more than several minutes. The applicant shall be required, however, to establish cruise flight, compute required performance data, and complete the required paperwork. The applicant must be able to manage the fuel panel in accordance with the operator’s aircraft operating manual. In the flight simulator, the inspector or examiner may accelerate the fuel burn to accomplish this evaluation in an expeditious manner. Inspectors and examiners should induce problems such as stuck fuel valves or fuel imbalance. The applicant may be required to recompute range and fuel reserves for a diversion to an alternate airport.
H. Descent and Approach. The applicant must demonstrate an ability to perform assigned duties in accordance with the operator’s aircraft operating manual in the descent and approach phases. The applicant must remain aware of the progress of the flight and traffic in the terminal area. The applicant should be able to monitor an instrument approach and support the pilots with required crew coordination and “call outs” on the approach.
I. Abnormal and Emergency Procedures. These events are tests of the applicant’s ability and proficiency in perceiving indications, analyzing conditions, and acting in accordance with the procedures prescribed by the operator’s aircraft operating manual. Inspectors and examiners shall induce problems and observe the applicant’s performance. These events are not to be conducted as an extension of the oral test. See the guidance on the flight test phase in volume 5, chapter 1, section 3.
5-1012 STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE. In addition to the guidance on the flight test phase in volume 5, chapter 1, section 3, inspectors and examiners are provided the following specific guidance for judging an applicant’s performance on an FE flight test:
A. Systems Operator Skills. The applicant must be proficient in interpreting cockpit indications, be able to analyze the state of aircraft systems from these indications, and be proficient in operating the controls on the FE panel. The applicant must be sufficiently familiar with the operator’s aircraft operating manual and systems operations to be able to select the correct procedure to apply in case of a malfunction.
B. Coordination Skills. The applicant must be able to establish priorities and accomplish required duties in a timely and accurate manner. An FE is more than a systems operator and must be able to act as a team member and maintain an awareness of the aircraft’s position and current situation. An FE must be able to “keep the checklist moving” and anticipate the need for performance data and power settings. The FE must keep the pilots informed of the aircraft’s systems status. The FE must also support the pilots on radio transmissions while scanning for other terminal area traffic and monitoring the approach procedure.
5-1013 PLANNING A SIMULATOR FLIGHT TEST SEGMENT. The most important factor in conducting an efficient flight test is proper planning. The following sequence is recommended:
A. Determine the Method of the Flight Test. If the flight test is conducted under the ATA exemption, the entire flight test may be conducted in a flight simulator. If it is not conducted under this exemption, the normal procedures phase must be conducted in an airplane (see paragraph 5-1009 above).
B. Determine Flight Simulator/Training Device Capabilities. Inspectors and examiners should familiarize themselves with the capabilities of the specific flight simulator or training device to be used. The problems and malfunctions to be presented must be planned and the flight simulator must be appropriately programmed.
C. Review the Operator’s Manual. Inspectors shall acquaint themselves with the operator’s aircraft operating manual, especially the sections on systems, crew coordination, and procedures.
D. Plan a Scenario. From the information learned in the previous steps, inspectors or examiners should be able to construct scenarios that will permit the efficient use of time and which will present the testing events in a realistic sequence. The sequence of events and the environmental conditions in which the events are presented must be planned before the flight test. When planning subsequent flight tests, the events and the environmental conditions should be varied. This variety ensures that applicants are presented with new problems and that the flight testing includes a sampling of the operator’s entire FE training program over a period of time.
E. Determine Flight Simulator Operation. Either the inspector or an operator’s employee may operate the flight simulator control panel during the flight test. Before an inspector operates a flight simulator or training device control panel, that inspector must receive instruction and clearance from an authorized representative of the operator. When an operator’s employee operates the flight simulator control panel, that employee must be briefed on the sequence of events and signals to be used during the flight test. Inspectors shall not delegate the flight test planning function to an operator’s employees. Inspectors must plan the sequencing of events and the conditions under which events are conducted.
5-1014 APPLICANT BRIEFING. Before beginning the flight test, inspectors or examiners shall brief applicants on how the flight test is to be conducted and what is to be required of the applicant on the flight test. A briefing outline is included on applicable job aids. Inspectors and examiners are encouraged to develop their own expanded, individual supplements to the outline on the Flight Examiner Flight Test Job Aid.
5-1015 SUPPORTING CREWMEMBERS. All crew positions required by the approved airplane flight manual (AFM) must be occupied by personnel qualified in accordance with this handbook during the flight test (see volume 5, chapter 1, section 1, paragraph on testing policies). Under no conditions will an inspector or examiner conduct a flight test with a second applicant filling a crew position.
A. Inspectors and examiners shall brief supporting crewmembers that they are to perform their duties as specified in the operator’s aircraft operating manual. The crewmember acting as PIC must perform PIC functions realistically. Supporting crewmembers must provide normal crew coordination support; however, they shall not be permitted to lead the applicant when the applicant is expected to take the initiative.
B. The applicant’s ability to compute takeoff and approach data is evaluated on the oral test. Unless data computation is specifically the FE’s duty, it is not required during the flight test segment. Inspectors and examiners should coordinate with a supporting crewmember to provide the data that will be required during the flight test.
5-1016 CONDUCTING A FLIGHT TEST IN A SIMULATOR. Conducting a flight test in a flight simulator or training device is a skill requiring study and practice. Inspectors and examiners must endeavor to conduct flight tests in a manner that reproduces actual flight conditions as accurately as possible. Prior planning is an essential element. See paragraph 5-1013 above for a recommended method of planning the flight test.
A. When possible, the initial flight test parameters should be programmed into the flight simulator before the applicant arrives at the flight simulator, or this should be accomplished by someone other than the inspector or examiner. The inspector’s or examiner’s attention needs to be focused on the actions of the applicant and crew during the cockpit preparation phase of the flight test.
B. The flight test must be paced so that applicants are not rushed, but events proceed in an orderly and efficient manner. Experience has shown that a proficient inspector or examiner can conduct a complete initial FE certification or added class rating simulator flight test in approximately 1-1/2 hours. A flight test that extends beyond 2 hours may indicate poor performance on the part of the applicant or poor technique on the inspector’s or examiner’s part.
C. The flight simulator should not be frozen in position. During the cruise phase, the flight simulator may be moved along the flight plan route to facilitate entry into the descent and approach phase. The fuel burn may be accelerated or adjusted to accommodate moving the flight simulator ahead. Inspectors and examiners shall ensure that the aircraft’s ground speed and fuel burn, however, are not accelerated until the applicant has demonstrated proficiency in fuel management.
D. Inspectors and examiners are required to evaluate the normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures that are published in the operator’s aircraft operating manual but which are not explicitly specified as flight test events in the 14 CFR part. Two or three of these events is a reasonable number per flight test and should accomplish the purpose of ensuring that the applicant is proficient throughout the range of events in which training was conducted. The flight test is a test of proficiency and not of endurance. Inspectors and examiners are cautioned to exercise judgment and not to unnecessarily extend a flight test.
E. When a flight simulator malfunctions, it may appear to the applicant to be a problem with an aircraft system. When this or any other problem occurs, the applicant should not assume that the problem is a flight simulator malfunction, but should deal with it as though the problem has been encountered in an airplane.
F. Occasionally, a flight test will be delayed or interrupted due to malfunctions or power failures. When such interruptions occur, inspectors or examiners should be aware of the applicant’s nervousness or fatigue. In fairness to the applicant, it may become necessary for the inspector or examiner to reschedule the remaining portion of the test segment.
5-1017 CONDUCTING A FLIGHT TEST IN AN AIRPLANE. Previous planning is essential for the efficient conduct of a flight test in an airplane. The inspector or examiner must coordinate closely with the PIC in planning. Standard procedures as specified in the operator’s aircraft operating manual must be followed in the performance of all events. All emergencies and abnormalities conducted in an airplane shall be simulated. An engine may be shut down and restarted in flight, provided the minimum altitude specified in the operator’s aircraft operating manual is observed. Before a problem is introduced, the inspector, examiner, or PIC, as appropriate, shall announce to the crew that a simulated problem is being introduced.
A. Procedures for introducing simulated abnormal and emergency problems must in accordance with the operator’s aircraft operating manual, training manual, or other directives. Inspectors and examiners may introduce problems by sounding a warning horn, a fire bell, or by illuminating a warning light, provided the warning can be produced with a test switch that does not activate a system. Circuit breakers will not be opened to introduce problems. When an emergency or abnormal checklist procedure requires a circuit breaker to be opened, the circuit breaker will only be opened if the action cannot be simulated and the effect of opening the circuit breaker enhances the safety of the operations. For example, it is permissible to disable the ground proximity warning according to the checklist, on a no-flap approach, because the warning would continue to sound throughout the approach. It would not be permissible, however, to open a circuit breaker on an electrically driven hydraulic pump that could be turned off by a switch. Deactivated systems shall be fully reactivated immediately after the need for deactivation is over. For example, in some airplanes a hydraulic system must be depressurized before an alternate landing gear extension can be performed. In this case, the hydraulic system should be repressurized immediately after the landing gear is extended. It is appropriate to use streamers or other devices as reminders that systems have been deactivated.
B. On flight tests conducted entirely in an airplane, inspectors and examiners shall not limit the problems given to applicants to the required engine failures only. Problems should be realistic. The selection of such problems in an airplane is more limited than in a flight simulator because of both safety and operational limitations. Certain problems, however, can be practically and safely conducted in an airplane. Examples include simulated instrument failures that lead to the selection of alternate switching, demonstration of manual operation of the pressurization system, or simulated electrical faults requiring alternate landing gear or flap extension.
C. Should an actual malfunction occur while an emergency is being simulated, the flight test shall be immediately suspended, all systems restored to normal, and the problem resolved before the flight test is restarted. If a throttle has been retarded when an actual malfunction occurs, the safety pilot shall immediately restore engine thrust to normal on all engines.
5-1018 DEBRIEFING. The inspector or examiner shall inform the applicant of the result of the flight test segment during the debriefing. See volume 5, chapter 1, section 3.
Figure 5-130, Flight Engineer Oral Test Job Aid
Figure 5-131, Flight Engineer Flight Test Job Aid
RESERVED. Paragraphs 5-1019 through 5-1035.