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8900.1 CHG 570

VOLUME 5  AIRMAN CERTIFICATION

CHAPTER 9  OTHER AIRMEN AUTHORIZATIONS

Section 2  Airman Qualification Requirements for Aircraft for Which the Operating Limitations Require an FAA‑Issued Authorization to Act as Pilot in Command

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Source Basis: Administrative.

5-1576    PROGRAM TRACKING AND REPORTING SUBSYSTEM (PTRS) ACTIVITY CODE. 1579.

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5-1577    OBJECTIVE. This task provides guidance on procedures and policies for issuing an authorization for an airman to fly as a pilot in command (PIC) in an aircraft for which the operating limitations require a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)‑issued authorization to act as PIC. This authorization may be listed on an Airman Certificate designating Authorized Experimental Aircraft (AEA) that the airman is qualified to fly. These aircraft have Special Airworthiness Certificates (Experimental) and are large aircraft, turbojet‑powered aircraft, or other aircraft specifically identified by the Administrator as described in this section that require a specific authorization for a person to act as PIC during flight. Figure 5‑173, Experimental Aircraft Authorizations, lists some of these aircraft.

5-1578    GENERAL. Experimental aircraft may hold Special Airworthiness Certificates under the following Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 21 sections:

14 CFR Section

Special Airworthiness Certificate for Experimental Purpose of:

§ 21.191(a)

Research and Development

§ 21.191(b)

Showing Compliance with Regulations

§ 21.191(c)

Crew Training

§ 21.191(d)

Exhibition

§ 21.191(e)

Air Racing

§ 21.191(f)

Market Surveys

§ 21.191(g)

Operating Amateur‑Built Aircraft

§ 21.191(h)

Operating Primary Kit‑Built Aircraft

§ 21.191(i)

Operating Light‑Sport Aircraft

A.    Background. The FAA requires pilot authorizations to operate some aircraft in the experimental category, including some former military, all turbojet‑powered (for this section, all turbojet‑powered includes all turbofan‑powered), all rocket‑powered, and all large (over 12,500 pounds maximum gross takeoff weight (MGTOW)) aircraft, and any other aircraft requiring specific pilot skills. Examples of such models are the Northrop F‑5, Bell P‑63, MiG‑15, Ju‑52, Mi‑24, and the BD‑5J. The FAA also requires authorizations to act as PIC of large or turbojet‑powered aircraft undergoing type certification.

1)    The requirement for an FAA authorization to act as PIC of certain experimental aircraft is contained in the FAA‑issued aircraft operating limitations. Pilots are required to comply with the FAA‑issued operating limitations by 14 CFR part 91, § 91.9(a).
2)    Because these aircraft are not type certificated (TC), a type rating is not available. In the absence of type ratings for these aircraft, it is the FAA’s objective to ensure, for the pilots flying these aircraft, a level of safety and proficiency similar to what is available for an aircraft with a type rating.
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3)    The General Aviation and Commercial Division (AFS‑800) provides policy and guidance for the oversight of vintage and experimental aircraft. Questions concerning these areas should be directed to the General Aviation Operations Branch (AFS‑830).
4)    The Regulatory Support Division (AFS‑600) provides policy, guidance, and oversight of the FAA Vintage and Experimental Aircraft Program which provides practical tests in large vintage, experimental/exhibition, and crew training aircraft. Questions concerning these areas should be directed to the Specialty Aircraft Examiner Branch (AFS‑610).
5)    This section provides guidance to aviation safety inspectors (ASI), certificated flight instructors (CFI), authorized aircraft instructors (AAI), and experimental aircraft examiners (EAE) who hold EAE privileges on the appropriate methods for certifying a pilot to become qualified to operate experimental aircraft that the operating limitations require an FAA‑issued authorization to act as PIC. Additional guidance is provided for issuing an authorization to fly these aircraft and listing any applicable limitations on an Airman Certificate.

B.    Definitions.

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1)    Aircraft Type. Aircraft type, understanding that aircraft covered by the provisions in this section may or may not be TC’d aircraft, means a specific make and model, such as the P‑51, MiG‑15, Ju‑52, or SBD.
2)    Authorized Experimental Aircraft (AEA) Authorization. An authorization issued by the FAA or by an authorized representative of the FAA to act as PIC for a particular experimental aircraft for which the operating limitations require an FAA‑issued authorization to act as PIC. This aircraft authorization (AEA) is listed specifically on the Airman Certificate or may be in the form of a temporary letter of authorization (LOA).
3)    Authorized Aircraft Instructor (AAI) Certificate. Issuance of this certificate grants the holder limited authority to provide training in and make recommendations for one or more specific aircraft. The AAI certificate is valid for a period of 24 calendar‑months. An AAI may provide training and a recommendation for the evaluation of applicants for authorizations to operate specific aircraft in a special airworthiness (experimental) category for which the operating limitations require an FAA‑issued authorization to act as PIC. AAI certificates were issued to the holders of letters of operational authority (LOOA). The issuance of authorized instructor certificates ended on July 31, 2005. No new authorized instructor certificates will be issued under this program. An AAI may apply for renewal prior to the certificate’s expiration by submitting FAA Form 8710‑1, Airman Certificate and/or Rating Application, to any EAE. Renewal criteria and procedures will be the same as for flight instructor renewal as detailed in FAA Order 8900.2, General Aviation Airman Designee Handbook, Chapter 7, Section 15, paragraphs 93a(2)(a) and 97. If the AAI certificate has expired, the AAI may still apply with FAA Form 8710‑1, but will be required to take a practical test with an EAE for reinstatement. Reinstatement procedures will be the same as for flight instructor reinstatement as detailed in Order 8900.2, Chapter 7, Section 15, paragraphs 95 and 97.
4)    Comparable Aircraft. A “comparable aircraft,” as referred to in this section, means an aircraft with similar characteristics. For an aircraft to be considered comparable, it should have sufficiently similar characteristics that a pilot’s proficiency in one make and model can be determined as qualifying for the other, allowing for some minor differences in flying characteristics and operating procedures. Similar characteristics that may be identified are:

    Original intended use (e.g., student training or advanced combat roles);

    Number of engines;

    Piston‑powered or turbine‑powered;

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    Landing gear configuration (e.g., conventional or tricycle landing gear);

    Wing design (e.g., swept, delta, or straight‑wing); and

    Performance factors (e.g., subsonic, transonic, or supersonic design).

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NOTE:  The application of training and evaluating in comparable aircraft is addressed in paragraph 5‑1583.

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5)    Experimental Aircraft Examiner (EAE). An individual designated by the FAA to conduct evaluations of applicants who wish to add an experimental aircraft authorization to their pilot certificate. These pilot certificate authorizations are applicable to aircraft holding Special Airworthiness Certificates for experimental purposes (part 21)). EAEs serve in a national capacity and may be authorized to conduct evaluations in one or more types of aircraft.

NOTE:  Only ASIs specifically authorized by AFS‑830 may conduct practical tests/evaluations in experimental aircraft that hold Special Airworthiness Certificates as addressed in this section. Also, the ASI must hold an AEA authorization for the subject aircraft. These authorized ASIs may perform tasks discussed in this section that are otherwise accomplished by an EAE.

6)    Former Military Aircraft. Unless otherwise stated in this section, the term applies to both U.S.‑manufactured and non‑U.S.‑manufactured, turbine‑ and piston‑powered aircraft that were operated by the United States and other state‑sponsored militaries.
7)    Operating Limitations. Per FAA Order 8130.2, Airworthiness Certification of Aircraft, Chapters 12 through 16, operating limitations are issued as part of an aircraft’s Special Airworthiness Certificate which typically, depending on revision, include requirements for pilot ratings/authorizations to act as PIC of the aircraft holding a Special Airworthiness Certificate.
8)    Temporary Letter of Authorization (LOA). A temporary LOA may be issued to an airman when required by the aircraft’s FAA‑issued aircraft operating limitations. Such temporary LOAs may be issued to airmen for several circumstances to act as PIC in either single‑place, single‑control aircraft or multi‑place, multi‑control aircraft. See paragraph 5‑1592 for circumstances requiring issuance and procedures for issuing temporary LOAs. A temporary LOA may also be issued for one‑of‑a‑kind or first‑of‑its‑kind aircraft as approved by AFS‑830. A temporary LOA may also be required for aircraft issued Special Airworthiness Certificates for other than exhibition, air racing, crew training, or amateur‑built. Temporary LOAs are typically limited to minimum flightcrew only. In most cases, this will limit the aircraft to solo flight operations only. Operation with more than one crewmember must be authorized by AFS‑830. The issuance of temporary LOAs shall be coordinated with AFS‑830.

C.    Title 14 CFR. The following paragraphs primarily pertain to the issuance of an authorization for experimental category aircraft with airworthiness certificates issued for the purpose of exhibition (§ 21.191(d)), air racing (§ 21.191(e)), and operating amateur‑built aircraft (§ 21.191(g)).

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NOTE:  Experimental aircraft certificated for other purposes such as research and development (§ 21.191(a)), showing compliance with regulations (§ 21.191(b)), and market surveys (§ 21.191(f)) are normally granted only to manufacturers and will be discussed also. Refer to Order 8130.2 for further guidance. Aircraft issued an experimental certificate under § 21.191 are issued operating limitations per § 91.319.

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5-1579    AIRCRAFT REQUIRING AUTHORIZATIONS. Title 14 CFR part 61, § 61.31(a) requires type ratings for certain aircraft. This section of the rule specifies that persons who act as PIC of large aircraft, turbojet‑powered airplanes, and other aircraft specifically identified by the FAA must hold a type rating for that aircraft. Type rating designations are supplied by the FAA after recommendation by a Flight Standardization Board (FSB) and are only applied to aircraft that have completed the type certification process. If the manufacturer (or builder) has not applied for a TC, no type rating is available.

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A.    Operating on a Temporary Basis. However, § 61.31(b) does provide for an authorization in the form of an LOA to operate on a temporary basis an aircraft that would normally have a type rating. When applied to aircraft that have a type rating, Volume 5, Chapter 9, Section 3 should be used for guidance. When applied to operation of aircraft for which the operating limitations require an FAA‑issued authorization to act as PIC, the authorization is required by § 91.9 and the procedures outlined in this section.

NOTE:  A manufacturer (or TC holder) who wishes to obtain a TC approval for an aircraft so that a pilot may obtain a rating based on that designation must submit the aircraft for an evaluation to the Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG) to establish an FSB. The FSB evaluates training, checking, and currency for flightcrew members, recommends minimum training requirements, and establishes pilot type rating requirements for certain new or modified aircraft.

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1)    A person may act as PIC of an aircraft that has a type designation if that person holds a type rating for that aircraft. The type rating is also valid for the experimental version of the same aircraft when the aircraft’s special operating limitations require a FAA‑issued authorization to act as PIC.
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2)    An airman who holds a type rating for that aircraft model may act as PIC for all of the aircraft of the same model, regardless of the type of airworthiness certificate held for the aircraft. The applicant may complete the appropriate aircraft type rating practical test in the subject aircraft. The holder of such an aircraft type rating must adhere to the applicable provisions of parts 61 and 91, and any additional limitations appropriate to the operation of an aircraft with an experimental airworthiness certificate.
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3)    An airman who holds an experimental authorization may not act as PIC of a TC’d version of that aircraft.

NOTE:  For example, in reference to subparagraphs 2) and 3) above, a pilot who holds a type rating for a T‑33 may act as PIC for a T‑33 that holds a Special Airworthiness Certificate. However, a pilot who holds only an AEA authorization for the T‑33 may not act as PIC of a T‑33 that holds a limited airworthiness certificate (i.e., requires a type rating).

B.    Unestablished Type Rating Designation. Certain aircraft which have been issued U.S. Special Airworthiness Certificates, and for which a type rating designation has not been established, require an authorization (previously an LOA) for the operation of the aircraft by the PIC. Aircraft requiring authorizations for operation include:

1)    Those aircraft that would normally require a type designation and require the PIC to hold a type rating, and which fall under the requirements of § 61.31(a)(1) through (3), including:

    Aircraft with an MGTOW in excess of 12,500 pounds (§ 61.31(a)(1)), and

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    Turbojet‑powered and rocket‑powered aircraft (§ 61.31(a)(2)).

2)    Propeller‑driven experimental aircraft with more than 800 horsepower and with a never‑exceed speed (VNE) in excess of 250 knots (e.g., the OV‑10, F8F Bearcat, certain T‑28 models, and the Messerschmitt Bf 109).
3)    Both piston‑powered and turbine‑powered rotorcraft whose MGTOW exceeds 12,500 pounds.

NOTE:  A number of small World War II aircraft, such as the P‑51, P‑40, and P‑63, may be certificated in the limited category. Since these aircraft have been issued a TC, no aircraft authorization is required for an airman to act as PIC beyond the requirements of part 61. However, should the aircraft be recertificated in the experimental category, an AEA authorization is required for an airman to act as PIC of that aircraft.

C.    Second in Command (SIC). If an SIC is required by the aircraft operating limitations or by § 91.531, the SIC must be qualified in accordance with § 61.55. The SIC does not need to hold a PIC aircraft authorization. SIC authorizations can be issued for experimental aircraft in accordance with the same procedures used for the issuance of SIC type ratings.

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5-1580    ELIGIBILITY FOR AN AIRCRAFT AUTHORIZATION. Aircraft authorizations may be issued by either an EAE or an ASI (Operations) authorized by AFS‑830 and AFS‑610 (see the note under subparagraph 5‑1578B5). Once an experimental aircraft authorization is issued to an individual, it will be issued for an indefinite period of time without an expiration date.

NOTE:  For subparagraphs A through E below, when certain circumstances exist where a candidate possesses appropriate and sufficient experience in a particular category (i.e., “powered lift” versus “airplane”) of aircraft, the EAE will coordinate with AFS‑830 and AFS‑610 for exceptions to criteria listed below for issuance of the requested pilot authorization.

A.    Former Military Turbojet/Turboshaft‑Powered Aircraft. To be eligible for an authorization to act as PIC of a former military turbojet/turboshaft‑powered aircraft, an applicant must:

1)    Possess at least a U.S. private pilot certificate with an appropriate category and class rating for the configuration of the aircraft;
2)    Hold an instrument rating;
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3)    Possess at least a valid U.S. third‑class medical certificate or equivalent (U.S. Military Flight Medical or U.S. driver’s license in accordance with the FAA BasicMed process (pilots using BasicMed may not exceed 250 knots indicated airspeed (KIAS)));
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4)    Have logged a minimum of 500 hours of pilot flight time in the aircraft category and have completed the U.S. armed services qualification checkout described in this section; or have logged a minimum of 1,000 hours pilot flight time, including 500 hours as PIC in the aircraft category, and have completed the training requirements of this section; and
5)    If the aircraft is capable of supersonic flight, have a minimum of 250 hours of pilot flight time as PIC of a fixed‑wing turbojet‑powered aircraft, in a Group V, VI, or VII aircraft (see Figure 5‑173), or present proof of completion of a U.S. military qualification in a supersonic turbojet‑powered aircraft.

B.    Former Military Propeller‑Driven Airplane. To be eligible to serve as PIC of a former military propeller‑driven airplane that has a MGTOW exceeding 12,500 pounds, or which has a horsepower rating of more than 800 horsepower and a VNE that exceeds 250 knots, an applicant must:

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1)    Possess at least a U.S. private pilot certificate with an appropriate category and class rating;
2)    Possess at least a valid U.S. third‑class medical certificate or equivalent (U.S. Military Flight Medical or U.S. driver’s license in accordance with the FAA BasicMed process (pilots using BasicMed may not operate an aircraft with a MGTOW above 6,000 pounds));
3)    Have logged a minimum of 500 hours of pilot flight time; and
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4)    Have completed the training requirements of this section.

C.    Turbojet‑Powered or Rocket‑Powered Airplane. To be eligible to serve as PIC of a turbojet‑powered or rocket‑powered airplane not considered to be a former military airplane, an applicant must:

1)    Possess at least a U.S. private pilot certificate with an appropriate category and class rating;
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2)    Possess at least a valid U.S. third‑class medical certificate or equivalent (U.S. Military Flight Medical or U.S. driver’s license in accordance with the FAA BasicMed process (pilots using BasicMed may not exceed 250 KIAS));
3)    Hold an instrument rating appropriate to the category;
4)    Have completed the training requirements of this section; and
5)    If the aircraft has a VNE of 250 KIAS or greater, have a minimum of 250 hours of pilot flight time as PIC in a complex, high performance airplane.

D.    Large Aircraft of More Than 12,500 Pounds MGTOW. To be eligible to serve as PIC of a large aircraft (more than 12,500 pounds MGTOW) not considered a former military aircraft, an applicant must:

1)    Possess at least a U.S. private pilot certificate with an appropriate category and class rating;
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2)    Possess at least a valid U.S. third‑class medical certificate or equivalent (U.S. Military Flight Medical);
3)    Hold an instrument rating appropriate to the category; and
4)    Have completed the training requirements of this section.

E.    Experimental Propeller‑Driven Aircraft. To be eligible for an authorization to serve as PIC of an experimental propeller‑driven aircraft that has a horsepower rating of more than 800 and a VNE that exceeds 250 knots, an applicant must:

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1)    Possess at least a U.S. private pilot certificate with an appropriate category and class rating (e.g., airplane or single‑engine land);
2)    Possess at least a valid U.S. third‑class medical certificate or equivalent (U.S. Military Flight Medical or U.S. driver’s license in accordance with the FAA BasicMed process (pilots using BasicMed may not exceed 250 KIAS));
3)    Have logged a minimum of 500 hours of pilot flight time;
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4)    Have completed the training requirements this section; and
5)    Have logged 50 hours complex time.

5-1581    APPLICATION FOR AN AIRCRAFT AUTHORIZATION.

A.    Submissions.

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1)    Applicants for authorizations based on § 61.73, military competence, who meet the requirements of subparagraph 5‑1582A2) may submit FAA Form 8710‑1 and the appropriate documentation showing PIC qualification and assignment (per subparagraph B) to an EAE or ASI who possesses Military Competency Examiner (MCE) authorization for AEA that meet the criteria of subparagraph 2). An evaluation will be made of the documentation to determine if the applicant meets the requirements for issuance of an aircraft authorization without further testing.
2)    An applicant (other than military competence) for an authorization may submit FAA Form 8710‑1 and must provide copies of his or her training records or logbook records to document his or her ground and flight training to the EAE who will conduct the practical test/evaluation.

B.    Documentation. A review will be made of the documentation to determine if the applicant meets the minimum requirements for the issuance of an aircraft authorization. Upon successful completion of the practical test/evaluation, the EAE will issue an AEA authorization.

NOTE:  See Figure 5‑180 for an example of an endorsement by a CFI/AAI that the candidate has received the training required by subparagraph 5‑1582B and is prepared for an FAA practical test for an AEA authorization.

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NOTE:  Aliens seeking flight training must register with the Transportation Security Administration’s (TSA) Alien Flight Student Program (AFSP) at https://www.flightschoolcandidates.gov or call the AFSP Help Desk at 571‑227‑1004.

5-1582    QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS. The examiner must receive documented evidence of appropriate qualification or training before the authorization can be issued. If the applicant is applying for the authorization based on military competence as allowed by § 61.73, the EAE or inspector should refer to the documentation requirements of this order. If the applicant has received training under subparagraph A1) below, he or she must provide appropriate documentation of the training before the examiner conducts the practical test/evaluation.

A.    Qualification Options. The applicant may qualify by one of the following:

1)    Ground and Flight Training. The applicant must receive and log both ground and flight training as listed in subparagraph B below. Upon completion of the training program, the CFI or AAI must endorse the applicant’s logbook or training record and certify that the applicant is proficient to take the required practical test/evaluation. An instructor endorsement must also be made on the back of FAA Form 8710‑1 within 2 calendar‑months of the date of the practical test/evaluation.
a)    Training in the specific aircraft type may be provided by a CFI or the holder of an AAI certificate for multi‑seat aircraft that have functioning dual controls.
b)    For single‑seat aircraft or single‑control aircraft, ground and flight training in a comparable aircraft (multi‑seat with functioning dual controls) may be provided by a CFI or AAI (see paragraph 5‑1583 below). However, the applicant must complete a transition training program in the specific aircraft type with ground instruction provided by a CFI or AAI for that specific aircraft. Upon successful completion of the ground portion of the training, the applicant must have a logbook endorsement for solo flight in the specific make and model aircraft from a CFI or AAI before solo flight in that aircraft. This endorsement for solo flight can be used only for proficiency flying in preparation for the practical test/evaluation. The endorsement must be limited to 60 calendar‑days and will limit the applicant’s Area of Operation to the local area with takeoffs and landings only at the applicant’s home base airport or training base of operations. No cross‑country authorizations should be included unless necessary for the practical test/evaluation. The solo endorsement can include any other limitations deemed necessary by the instructor.
c)    Solo endorsements may only be issued if the aircraft operating limitations issued under Order 8130.2 permit solo operations based on a logbook endorsement.

NOTE:  See Figure 5‑181, Example Logbook Endorsement to Act as PIC for Solo Practice FAA Practical Test, for an example of a solo endorsement as detailed in subparagraphs b) and c) above.

NOTE:  Solo endorsements will not be made for multi‑place, multi‑control aircraft.

d)    If the operating limitations do not permit logbook endorsements, after completion of the ground portion of the training, the airman should contact the appropriate Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) and obtain a temporary LOA to permit limited local area solo practice. Temporary LOAs should be issued only when required by the aircraft operating limitations and when necessary for solo practice and to complete the practical test/evaluation for an authorization to be added to the Airman Certificate (see Figure 5‑174, Sample Temporary LOA for Exhibition or Amateur‑Built Aircraft PIC).
2)    U.S. Military Competence or Experience. The applicant may have completed a U.S. armed services qualification checkout to act as PIC in a specific type of aircraft. Authorizations may only be issued for the operation of civil‑registered aircraft of the military type. Authorizations will not be issued based upon military competence or experience unless the applicant can show a need for a civil authorization. This would be shown by identifying a U.S. civil variant of the aircraft. The civil aircraft must be FAA‑registered and hold an FAA‑issued Special Airworthiness Certificate.

NOTE:  Flight time logged by an applicant as a student in a U.S. military flight school (i.e., U.S. Air Force Specialized Undergraduate Pilot Training), prior to receiving a military pilot rating does not count as flying time to qualify for U.S. military competence or experience.

B.    Training Requirements.

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1)    Ground training must include the following as appropriate to the aircraft:

    The aircraft’s systems and components.

    Ground emergency procedures, including abnormal procedures, if described in the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM)/Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM) or checklist.

    Flight emergency procedures, including abnormal procedures, if described in the AFM/RFM or checklist.

    Use of performance charts, including (but not limited to) takeoff, climb, cruise, and landing.

    Fuel requirements and fuel management.

    Runway requirements and limitations (e.g., minimum runway lengths and crosswind limits of the airplane).

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    Contents of the AFM/RFM or equivalent.

    Operating limitations prescribed for the specific aircraft, both manufacturer’s and FAA‑issued.

    Operation of the aircraft in the high-altitude realm, if applicable.

    Recovery from abnormal flight profiles based on specific aircraft characteristics.

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2)    The applicant’s flight training must include the following as appropriate to the aircraft:

    Aircraft preflight.

    Crew resource management, including single‑pilot, as appropriate.

    Powerplant start procedure, taxiing, and pretakeoff checks.

    Normal and crosswind takeoff.

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    Powerplant failure in a hover (rotorcraft only).

    Powerplant failure during takeoff.

    Rejected takeoff.

    Flight at critically slow airspeeds in all appropriate configurations.

    Approaches to and recovery from stalls, as appropriate.

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    Entry and recovery from a vortex ring state (rotorcraft only).

    Recovery from normal and abnormal flight profiles based on specific aircraft characteristics, including unusual attitudes.

    Normal, emergency, and abnormal procedures.

    Landing with simulated powerplant failure.

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    Power recovery autorotation (rotorcraft only).

    Normal and crosswind landings.

    Landing from a no‑flap or a nonstandard flap approach.

    Rejected landing.

    Fuel low level/return to base procedures.

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    Specific aircraft characteristics. This may include aerobatics, if appropriate to the airplane and if the applicant can provide operating limitations required by § 91.319 authorizing aerobatics and specific maneuvers.

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NOTE:  Training and evaluation of aerobatic maneuvers appropriate to the aircraft as subset of specific aircraft characteristics is not intended to evaluate the precision of any maneuvers, but instead to train and/or evaluate a student/candidate’s awareness and safe control when initiating such maneuvers and the ability to complete any maneuver in a safe manner.

5-1583    TRAINING AND/OR EVALUATING IN COMPARABLE AIRCRAFT. Some single‑seat aircraft have two‑seat variants that may be available for the applicant’s use in training. Examples include the DC‑A4, MiG‑15, and multi‑seat, multi‑control conversions of the N‑P51. However, some single‑seat, single‑control aircraft are unique and training in a comparable aircraft may be highly desirable. Other unusual circumstances may also require the use of comparable aircraft and must be coordinated with AFS‑830 and AFS‑610.

A.    Single‑Seat Aircraft With a Two‑Seat Variant. An applicant with a single‑seat airplane (e.g., MiG‑15 and DC‑A4) must accomplish the training described in subparagraph 5‑1582B2). The applicant must accomplish that training in a two‑seat variant of that aircraft (e.g., MiG‑15 UTI and TA‑4J).

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B.    Determining Comparable Aircraft. In determining comparable aircraft for training purposes and for issuing authorizations, the FAA may require the applicant to receive training in an aircraft that most nearly duplicates the characteristics of the specific aircraft for which the authorization is issued (see subparagraph 5‑1578B4)). The decision of whether or not to require training and/or evaluation of a pilot candidate in a “comparable aircraft” should consider several factors to include, but not be limited to:

    The uniqueness of the aircraft type.

    The complexity and flight characteristics/performance of the aircraft type.

    The flight background/experience/total flying time of the applicant that is if the candidate already has extensive operational experience in the military in an equivalent “comparable aircraft” (i.e., an F‑16, or F‑18 when applying for a Kfir, or is already qualified and experienced in the N‑P51, F8F, and Spitfire, when applying for the F4F, waiving training/evaluation in a “comparable aircraft” may be appropriate).

    The number of similar types in which the candidate has earned previous qualification.

    The existence (or nonexistence) of a suitable “comparable aircraft.”

    If a suitable “comparable aircraft” exists, it may not available to the pilot candidate due to circumstances beyond the pilot candidate’s control.

NOTE:  To facilitate an exception to a requirement for “comparable aircraft” training/evaluation based on any of the above factors, the EAE will coordinate with AFS‑830 and AFS‑610 and present all information pertinent to the particular situation with the assurance that an appropriate level of safety will be maintained by the proposed training/evaluation program for the pilot candidate.

NOTE:  Examples where no comparable aircraft exists are the Gannet, Mosquito, and ARES. Examples where a comparable aircraft exists, but may not be available to the pilot are the FB‑11 and Kfir.

C.    Considerations for Training in Comparable Aircraft. In general, a comparable aircraft is one that duplicates the flight characteristics with enough similarity that flight training and/or evaluation in one will qualify the pilot (with aircraft‑specific ground training being required) to safely operate the actual aircraft. With all the varieties of foreign and military aircraft that have been produced over the years, reducing this concept to a definitive formula is not practical. However, generally, fighters built before 1960 or jet trainers from any period are not comparable to current first‑line fighters, regardless of wing design.

D.    Initial Training. When a comparable aircraft is to be used for initial training, the applicant should contact an EAE, who will coordinate with AFS‑830 and AFS‑610 to ensure that the proposed aircraft meets the requirements of this section.

1)    Include transition ground and flight training appropriate to the aircraft.
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2)    Provide the applicant with training at least equivalent in scope and content to the requirements as outlined in this section.
3)    No pilot will be found qualified for issuance of an authorization for a specific aircraft based entirely on initial training in a comparable aircraft. If the applicant completes initial training in a comparable aircraft, the applicant must then complete transition training and complete a flight evaluation in the specific aircraft before issuance of a specific aircraft authorization.
Indicates new/changed information.

5-1584    PILOTS WHO POSSESS “ALL MAKES AND MODELS OF SINGLE‑ENGINE AND MULTIENGINE, PISTON‑POWERED AUTHORIZED AIRCRAFT.” In the past, airmen were issued LOAs with the authorization for “all makes and models of single‑engine and multiengine, piston‑powered authorized aircraft,” commonly known as an unlimited LOA. An individual who held such an LOA and applied for an authorization during the program transition had the “all makes and models” authorization added to their reissued Airman Certificate. In addition to the above‑listed authorization, each aircraft that the individual had authorization to fly as PIC was listed on the Airman Certificate under “Authorized Experimental Aircraft.”

A.    Authorization. The presence of the “all makes and models” authorization indicates that the holder need only obtain aircraft‑specific training and a logbook endorsement/statement of training from an authorized instructor, or a pilot who is qualified in the aircraft to show qualification to add an additional piston‑powered aircraft to the pilot certificate. The “all makes and models” authorization does not grant an authorization to act as PIC of an aircraft not listed on the pilot certificate except for the flight(s) in accordance with subparagraphs C and/or D below.

B.    Additional Qualifications. Individuals who have this authorization may become qualified in additional piston‑powered aircraft by completing training for the aircraft. The ground and flight training program must meet the requirements listed in this section.

C.    Ground Training. The ground training, including cockpit familiarization, will be conducted by a CFI, an AAI, or in rare circumstances (when no CFI or AAI is available), a U.S./International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)‑certificated pilot qualified in the aircraft, who will make an endorsement or enter a statement of training indicating completion of the ground training in the airman’s logbook.

NOTE:  See Figure 5‑182, Example Statement of Training for All Makes and Models, for an example of a logbook endorsement/statement of training for a pilot who possesses “all makes and models of single‑engine and multiengine, piston‑powered authorized aircraft.”

D.    Multi‑Seat With Functioning Dual Controls. If the aircraft is a multi‑seat with functioning dual controls, the CFI, AAI, or in rare circumstances (when no CFI or AAI, is available), a U.S./ICAO‑certificated pilot who is qualified in the aircraft will complete the flight training with the airman. Once both portions of the training are completed, the individual will be considered qualified in the aircraft.

E.    Completion. Within 2 calendar‑months of completion of the qualification training and at least one flight as PIC, the airman must present a completed FAA Form 8710‑1 along with the logbook endorsements/statements of training to an EAE or ASI.

F.    FAA Form 8710‑1 Sections. The “Instructor Action” section on the back side of the FAA Form 8710‑1 will not be completed. The EAE or ASI will complete the “Designated Examiner or Airman Certification Representative Report” section since EAE and ASI procedures include reviewing the applicant’s logbook or training record, and verifying the applicant in accordance with pertinent procedures. In the “Remarks” block of the “Attachments” section, the EAE or ASI will enter the following statement: “FAA practical test is not required. Applicant is holder of all makes and models of single‑engine and multiengine, piston‑powered authorized aircraft.” Upon verification of the aircraft qualification, the aircraft will be added as an AEA to the airman’s certificate.

5-1585    EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT OF SAME MAKE AND MODEL AS TYPE‑DESIGNATED AIRCRAFT. Some makes and models of surplus military aircraft were originally TC’d in the limited or restricted category after World War II. At that time, they were issued TCs if their MGTOW was greater than 12,500 pounds. Examples of these aircraft are the B‑17, P‑38, B‑25, and TBF/TBM. All of these aircraft received type certificate data sheets (TCDS) and required the PIC to hold an appropriate type rating since they are large aircraft. Subsequently, some of the aircraft have been certificated in the experimental category. For operation of these aircraft, an airman may elect to satisfactorily complete either of the following procedures to serve as PIC of the aircraft.

Indicates new/changed information.

A.    Aircraft Type Rating Practical Test. The applicant may complete the appropriate aircraft type rating practical test in the aircraft. Upon successful completion of all of the required tasks, the established type rating may be placed on the airman’s certificate. The airman may then serve as PIC of aircraft of that make and model, regardless of the category of certification.

Indicates new/changed information.

B.    Program of Training and Practical Test/Evaluation. The applicant may complete a program of training and satisfactorily complete the practical test/evaluation for the issuance of an AEA authorization on the airman’s certificate. The airman may only serve as PIC of aircraft of that make and model holding a Special Airworthiness Certificate in the experimental category.

5-1586    FLIGHT EVALUATION. Practical tests/evaluations are required for those applicants who do not meet the military competence requirements of this section (except for airmen with “all makes and models of single‑engine or multiengine, piston‑powered authorized aircraft” authorizations). These evaluations must be conducted in accordance with the guidance contained in this section.

NOTE:  FAA‑S‑8081‑5, Airline Transport Pilot and Aircraft Type Rating Practical Test Standards for Airplane, and FAA‑S‑8081‑20, Airline Transport Pilot and Aircraft Type Rating Practical Test Standards for Helicopter, are not the governing documents for EAEs or ASIs administering FAA practical tests in aircraft for which the operating limitations require an FAA‑issued authorization to act as PIC. This is because pilots being tested/evaluated under the provisions of this section are issued an AEA authorization, not a type rating. Also, some aircraft addressed within this section may not be capable of, or it would be unsafe to perform, some tasks required in FAA‑S‑8081‑5 and FAA‑S‑8081‑20. That being understood, EAEs and ASIs will abide by the applicable and appropriate guidance contained in the paragraphs of the Introduction section of FAA‑S‑8081‑5 and FAA‑S‑8081‑20. Additionally, when possible, EAEs and ASIs will use evaluation criteria as listed within FAA‑S‑8081‑5 and FAA‑S‑8081‑20 for the appropriate tasks detailed in Figure 5‑172, General Guidance of Areas of Operation and Tasks.

A.    Conduct of the Flight Evaluation. An EAE (or a qualified ASI (Operations) authorized by AFS‑830 and AFS‑610) must conduct the knowledge and flight evaluation. The evaluation will be conducted in the specific aircraft for which the applicant has applied for an authorization (for multi‑seat aircraft). For those applicants using comparable aircraft (for single‑seat or multi‑seat, single‑control aircraft), an evaluation may be conducted in the comparable aircraft. The final portion of the flight evaluation must be conducted in the specific aircraft and may be observed from the ground or from a chase aircraft.

Indicates new/changed information.
1)    The EAE who conducts the evaluation is responsible for determining whether the applicant meets the standards outlined in the objective of each task within the Areas of Operation in FAA guidance.
a)    The EAE will meet this responsibility by determining whether the applicant’s knowledge and skill meets the objective in all required tasks.
Indicates new/changed information.

NOTE:  For an AEA authorization in an aircraft covered under the FAA Vintage and Experimental Aircraft Program, the evaluator has discretion to omit any skill element(s) deemed not required, unable to perform, unsuitable or unsafe for the operational and/or performance characteristics of the aircraft, provided that such determinations are coordinated with AFS‑610. See Figure 5‑172 for general guidance of Areas of Operation and tasks to be evaluated.

b)    The EAE may observe the flight from the aircraft being used for the test, or from the ground or a chase aircraft (for single‑seat or single‑control aircraft).
2)    The EAE will use the tables in Figure 5‑172 to determine the tasks appropriate to be tested, based on the aircraft type, its configuration, operating characteristics, and aircraft limitations. The Areas of Operation and tasks in Figure 5‑172 are drawn parallel to those found in FAA‑S‑8081‑5 and FAA‑S‑8081‑20. Although, FAA‑S‑8081‑5 and FAA‑S‑8081‑20 are not the governing documents for administrating a practical test for an AEA authorization, the EAE must reference those documents when evaluating skills and for the established criteria for the performance of specific tasks.
3)    ASIs conducting flight checks must be authorized by AFS‑610 and must meet the qualification and currency requirements of Volume 1, Chapter 3, Section 6.

B.    Unsatisfactory Flight Evaluation. If an applicant does not perform satisfactorily, issue FAA Form 8060‑5, Notice of Disapproval of Application. The applicant may reapply after receiving additional training and submitting FAA Form 8710‑1.

Figure 5-172.  General Guidance of Areas of Operation and Tasks

Experimental Aircraft Authorization – FIXED‑WING

Area of Operation

Tasks

Preflight Preparation

1.   Equipment Examination.

2.   Performance and Limitations.

3.   Water and Seaplane Characteristics (Airplane Mutliengine Sea (AMES)/Airplane Single‑Engine Sea (ASES)).

4.   Seaplane Bases, Maritime Rules, and Aids to Marine Navigation (AMES/ASES).

Preflight Procedures

1.   Preflight Inspection.

2.   Powerplant Start.

3.   Taxiing.

4.   Sailing (AMES/ASES).

5.   Seaplane Base/Water Landing Site Markings and Lighting (AMES/ASES).

6.   Pretakeoff Checks.

Takeoff and Departure Phase

1.   Normal and Crosswind Takeoff.

2.   Glassy Water Takeoff and Climb (AMES/ASES).

3.   Rough Water Takeoff and Climb (AMES/ASES).

4.   Confined-Area Takeoff and Climb (AMES/ASES).

5.   Instrument Takeoff.

6.   Powerplant Failure During Takeoff.

7.   Rejected Takeoff.

8.   Departure Procedures.

In‑Flight Maneuvers

1.   Steep Turns.

2.   Approaches to Stalls and Stall Recovery.

3.   Powerplant Failure—Multiengine Airplane.

4.   Powerplant Failure—Single‑Engine Airplane.

5.   Specific Flight Characteristics (to Include Aerobatic Maneuver(s) Where Appropriate).

6.   Recovery from Unusual Attitudes.

Instrument Procedures*

1.   Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR)/Flight Management System Procedures (FMSP).

2.   Precision Approach (PA).

3.   Nonprecision Approach (NPA).

Landings and Approaches to Landings

1.   Normal and Crosswind Approaches and Landings.

2.   Approach and Landing with (Simulated) Powerplant Failure—Multiengine Airplane.

3.   Rough Water Approach and Landing (AMES/ASES).

4.   Glassy Water Approach and Landing (AMES/ASES).

5.   Confined‑Area Approach and Landing (AMES/ASES).

6.   Rejected Landing.

7.   Landing from a No‑Flap or a Nonstandard Flap Approach.

Normal and Abnormal Procedures

Normal and Abnormal Procedures.

Emergency Procedures

Emergency Procedures.

Postflight Procedures

1.   After‑Landing Procedures.

2.   Anchoring (AMES/ASES).

3.   Docking and Mooring (AMES/ASES).

4.   Beaching (AMES/ASES).

5.   Ramping (AMES/ASES).

6.   Parking and Securing.

*For experimental aircraft, the demonstration of one PA and one NPA satisfies this requirement.

 

Experimental Aircraft Authorization – FIXED‑WING (VFR ONLY Limitation)

Area of Operation

Tasks

Preflight Preparation

1.   Equipment Examination.

2.   Performance and Limitations.

3.   Water and Seaplane Characteristics (Airplane Multiengine Sea (AMES)/Airplane Single‑Engine Sea (ASES)).

4.   Seaplane Bases, Maritime Rules, and Aids to Marine Navigation (AMES/ASES).

Preflight Procedures

1.   Preflight Inspection.

2.   Powerplant Start.

3.   Taxiing.

4.   Sailing (AMES/ASES).

5.   Seaplane Base/Water Landing Site Markings and Lighting (AMES/ASES).

6.   Pretakeoff Checks.

Takeoff and Departure Phase

1.   Normal and Crosswind Takeoff.

2.   Glassy Water Takeoff and Climb (AMES/ASES).

3.   Rough Water Takeoff and Climb (AMES/ASES).

4.   Confined‑Area Takeoff and Climb (AMES/ASES).

5.   Powerplant Failure During Takeoff.

6.   Rejected Takeoff.

In‑Flight Maneuvers

1.   Steep Turns.

2.   Approaches to Stalls and Stall Recovery.

3.   Powerplant Failure—Multiengine Airplane.

4.   Powerplant Failure—Single‑Engine Airplane.

5.   Specific Flight Characteristics & Aerobatics.

6.   Recovery from Unusual Attitudes.

Instrument Procedures

Not Applicable.

Landings and Approaches to Landings

1.   Normal and Crosswind Approaches and Landings.

2.   Approach and Landing with (Simulated) Powerplant Failure—Multiengine Airplane.

3.   Rough Water Approach and Landing (AMES/ASES).

4.   Glassy Water Approach and Landing (AMES/ASES).

5.   Confined‑Area Approach and Landing (AMES/ASES).

6.   Rejected Landing.

7.   Landing from a No‑Flap or a Nonstandard Flap Approach.

Normal and Abnormal Procedures

Normal and Abnormal Procedures.

Emergency Procedures

Emergency Procedures.

Postflight Procedures

1.   After‑Landing Procedures.

2.   Anchoring (AMES/ASES).

3.   Docking and Mooring (AMES/ASES).

4.   Beaching (AMES/ASES).

5.   Ramping (AMES/ASES).

6.   Parking and Securing.

 

Experimental Aircraft Authorization – FIXED‑WING (Removal of VFR ONLY Limitation)

Area of Operation

Tasks

Takeoff and Departure Phase

1.   Instrument Takeoff.

2.   Powerplant Failure During Takeoff.

3.   Rejected Takeoff.

4.   Departure Procedures.

Instrument Procedures*

1.   Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR)/Flight Management System Procedures (FMSP).

2.   Precision Approach (PA).

3.   Nonprecision Approach (NPA).

Normal and Abnormal Procedures

Normal and Abnormal Procedures.

Emergency Procedures

Emergency Procedures.

*For experimental aircraft, the demonstration of one PA and one NPA satisfies this requirement.

 

Experimental Aircraft Authorization – ROTOR WING

Area of Operation

Tasks

Preflight Preparation

1.   Equipment Examination.

2.   Performance and Limitations.

Preflight Procedures

1.   Preflight Inspection.

2.   Powerplant Start.

3.   Taxiing.

4.   Pretakeoff Checks.

Takeoff and Departure Phase

1.   Normal and Crosswind Takeoff.

2.   Instrument Takeoff.

3.   Powerplant Failure During Takeoff.

4.   Rejected Takeoff.

5.   Instrument Departure.

In‑Flight Maneuvers

1.   Steep Turns.

2.   Powerplant Failure—Multiengine Helicopter.

3.   Powerplant Failure—Single‑Engine Helicopter.

4.   Recovery from Unusual Attitudes.

5.   Settling with power.

Instrument Procedures*

1.   Instrument Arrival.

2.   Precision Approaches (PA).

3.   Nonprecision Approaches (NPA).

Landings and Approaches to Landings

1.   Normal and Crosswind Approaches and Landings.

2.   Approach and Landing with (Simulated) Powerplant Failure—Multiengine Helicopter.

3.   Rejected Landing.

Normal and Abnormal Procedures

Normal and Abnormal Procedures.

Emergency Procedures

Emergency Procedures.

Postflight Procedures

1.   After‑Landing Procedures.

2.   Parking and Securing.

*For experimental aircraft, the demonstration of one PA and one NPA satisfies this requirement.

 

Experimental Aircraft Authorization – ROTOR WING (VFR ONLY Limitation)

Area of Operation

Tasks

Preflight Preparation

1.   Equipment Examination.

2.   Performance and Limitations.

Preflight Procedures

1.   Preflight Inspection.

2.   Powerplant Start.

3.   Taxiing.

4.   Pretakeoff Checks.

Takeoff and Departure Phase

1.   Normal and Crosswind Takeoff.

2.   Powerplant Failure During Takeoff.

3.   Rejected Takeoff.

In‑Flight Maneuvers

1.   Steep Turns.

2.   Powerplant Failure—Multiengine Helicopter.

3.   Powerplant Failure—Single‑Engine Helicopter.

4.   Recovery from Unusual Attitudes.

5.   Settling with power.

Instrument Procedures

Not Applicable.

Landings and Approaches to Landings

1.   Normal and Crosswind Approaches and Landings.

2.   Approach and Landing with (Simulated) Powerplant Failure—Multiengine Helicopter.

3.   Rejected Landing.

Normal and Abnormal Procedures

Normal and Abnormal Procedures.

Emergency Procedures

Emergency Procedures.

Postflight Procedures

1.   After‑Landing Procedures.

2.   Parking and Securing.

 

Experimental Aircraft Authorization – ROTOR WING (Removal of VFR ONLY Limitation)

Area of Operation

Tasks

Takeoff and Departure Phase

1.   Instrument Takeoff.

2.   Powerplant Failure During Takeoff.

3.   Rejected Takeoff.

4.   Instrument Departure.

Instrument Procedures*

1.   Instrument Arrival.

2.   Precision Approaches (PA).

3.   Nonprecision Approaches (NPA).

Landings and Approaches to Landings

Approach and Landing with (Simulated) Powerplant Failure—Multiengine Helicopter.

Normal and Abnormal Procedures

Normal and Abnormal Procedures.

Emergency Procedures

Emergency Procedures.

*For experimental aircraft, the demonstration of one PA and one NPA satisfies this requirement.

5-1587    ISSUANCE. After receiving a completed application, accepting the training documentation, reviewing the recommendation, and conducting a practical test/evaluation with a satisfactory result, issue the applicant FAA Form 8060‑4, Temporary Airman Certificate, with the appropriate experimental aircraft authorization.

5-1588    VFR ONLY LIMITATION. Pilots of large and turbojet‑powered aircraft must hold an instrument rating. If the aircraft used for the practical test/evaluation is not equipped such that the applicant can demonstrate instrument skills, the EAE or ASI will place a limitation on the applicant’s certificate noting “VFR ONLY.” In the case of single‑place or single‑control aircraft, the applicant must demonstrate instrument competency in a comparable aircraft with two seats and two sets of controls or the limitation “VFR ONLY” must be placed on the airman’s certificate.

5-1589    RECENCY OF EXPERIENCE.

A.    Annual Proficiency Checks. In August 2011, the FAA amended § 61.58 to require annual proficiency checks in turbojet‑powered aircraft. This change permits the operation of experimental jet aircraft carrying passengers if the PIC has completed a jet aircraft proficiency check conducted by an FAA designated examiner or ASI.

Indicates new/changed information.

B.    Flight Reviews. ASIs should encourage holders of authorizations to complete a flight review in at least one aircraft for which an authorization is held every 24 calendar‑months. This flight review may be conducted in a comparable aircraft per the appropriate aircraft sets referenced in this section. The flight review will be conducted in accordance with § 61.56.

5-1590    INSTRUMENT PRIVILEGES.

Indicates new/changed information.

A.    Requirements for Instrument Privileges. If an applicant for an authorization or an authorization holder desires to exercise instrument privileges in a large or turbojet AEA, then the applicant must demonstrate instrument competency during the flight evaluation.

B.    Removal of the VFR Only Limitation. A pilot may have a “VFR ONLY” limitation removed by demonstrating instrument flight competence in the actual aircraft, in a full flight simulator (FFS), or in a similarly equipped aircraft that has comparable performance characteristics. A comparably equipped aircraft should contain equipment similar to that of the airplane for which the authorization is held. The “VFR ONLY” limitation removal would apply to all comparable aircraft within the same group (see Figure 5‑173, Experimental Aircraft Authorizations).

NOTE:  This does not relieve the applicant from demonstrating instrument proficiency for future AEA authorizations.

NOTE:  When a demonstration is conducted in a FFS or a comparably equipped aircraft, the applicant must demonstrate competence based solely upon the equipment/crew complement for the aircraft for which the authorization is held. For example, if an aircraft does not require an SIC or have an autopilot system, the applicant may not use an SIC or the autopilot for the instrument competence demonstration.

Indicates new/changed information.

5-1591    AIRCRAFT TYPES NOT PREVIOUSLY OPERATED IN THE UNITED STATES. On occasion, an aircraft is brought into the United States, added to the FAA Aircraft Registry, as a new production, newly built, or modified as an experimental aircraft, which requires the pilot to hold an authorization in accordance with subparagraph 5‑1579.

Indicates new/changed information.

A.    Training Plan. Since there may be no one qualified to provide the training, the owner/operator must provide a training plan that provides for a qualified applicant. This may include training outside the United States, using an experienced test pilot to test the aircraft and provide training points, or other similar plan. The plan and its execution must be coordinated with the EAE who will be conducting the practical test/evaluation and AFS‑830.

B.    Inquiries. Field personnel who receive inquiries about such aircraft should contact AFS‑610 for designee issues and AFS‑830 for experimental aircraft policy.

C.    Designators. If designators for authorized aircraft are not listed or are otherwise incorrect or unavailable, EAE will notify AFS‑830 and request the new designator prior to conducting the practical test/evaluation. Inclusion in the lists will be made through coordination with AFS‑830 and the Airmen Certification Branch (AFB‑720).

5-1592    TEMPORARY LOAs.

Indicates new/changed information.

A.    Special Cases. For one‑of‑a‑kind, first‑of‑its‑type, or amateur‑built aircraft, practice in a single‑place aircraft; or other special cases, a temporary LOA may be issued. Temporary LOAs may only be issued for a specific purpose and should be for a specified, limited duration. ASIs who receive requests for temporary LOAs for operating experimental aircraft must coordinate with AFS‑830 before issuing them. These LOAs may be required to ensure compliance with the aircraft operating limitations. Generally, the circumstances for which a temporary LOA will be issued for experimental aircraft include the following:

1)    Authorize the pilot to act as PIC in a single‑place, single‑control aircraft for the purpose of solo practice and proficiency in preparation for an FAA practical test, and for taking the FAA practical test.

NOTE:  This temporary LOA may be issued by an authorized EAE examiner.

2)    There is no EAE authorized in the aircraft to administer the practical test. In this case, AFS‑610 will authorize the best qualified EAE to administer the practical test. The temporary LOA will authorize the pilot candidate to act as PIC solely for the purpose of taking the practical test.
3)    An EAE is authorized in the aircraft, but is not available to administer the practical test. In this case, AFS‑610 will authorize the best qualified EAE to administer the practical test. The temporary LOA will authorize the pilot candidate to act as PIC solely for the purpose of taking the practical test.
4)    An EAE who is authorized in the aircraft elects not to act as PIC during the practical test but instead elects to have the candidate act as PIC in accordance with § 61.47(b). The temporary LOA will authorize the pilot candidate to act as PIC solely for the purpose of taking the practical test.

NOTE:  Normally, temporary LOAs will not be issued to airmen for solo practice in multi‑place, multi‑control aircraft in preparation for taking a practical test. For unusual situations or circumstances (e.g., first‑of‑its‑kind of an experimental aircraft type entering the United States or first‑of‑its‑kind of an experimental multi‑seat, multi‑control aircraft), the EAE/ASI will coordinate with AFS‑830, AFS‑610, and on rare occasions, the Certification Procedures Branch (AIR‑6C0).

B.    Temporary LOA Differences. Temporary LOAs for the operation of experimental aircraft should not be confused with temporary LOAs for the operation of TC’d aircraft. Section 61.31(b) permits operating TC’d aircraft under limited circumstances. These LOAs are issued in accordance with the guidance in Volume 5, Chapter 9, Section 3.

Indicates new/changed information.

C.    Other Situations. Temporary LOAs may also be issued in other situations (discussed in paragraph 5‑1578) such as:

    Aircraft holding Special Airworthiness Certificates for research and development, § 21.191(a).

    Aircraft holding Special Airworthiness Certificates for showing compliance with regulations, § 21.191(b).

    Aircraft holding Special Airworthiness Certificates for crew training, § 21.191(c).

    Aircraft holding Special Airworthiness Certificates for market surveys, § 21.191(f).

    Pilots participating in the FSB process who have taken and passed a practical examination, but are awaiting the establishment of a pilot type rating designation by the FAA.

NOTE:  In these cases, the temporary LOA should be issued with duration equal to the duration of the program for which the airworthiness certificate was issued, or in the case of the FSB, the duration should be until the FAA approves the FSB report and establishes the type rating. These LOAs may be issued by the ASI after coordination with AFS‑800 or by the FSB chairman (see Figures 5‑176 and 5‑179).

5-1593    PREREQUISITES AND COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS.

Indicates new/changed information.

A.    Prerequisites. This task requires knowledge of part 61 requirements, FAA policies, and qualification as an ASI (Operations) authorized by AFS‑830 and AFS‑610. Additionally, if an ASI conducts a flight proficiency demonstration in certain turbojet or large aircraft, the ASI must meet specific aircraft qualifications.

B.    Coordination. This task requires coordination with AFS‑830 and AFS‑610 and may require coordination with the airworthiness unit, EAEs, other Operations ASIs, or industry organizations.

Indicates new/changed information.

5-1594    REFERENCES, FORMS, AND JOB AIDS.

A.    References (current editions):

    Title 14 CFR Parts 1, 61, and 91.

Indicates new/changed information.

    FAA Order 8130.2, Airworthiness Certification of Aircraft.

B.    Forms:

    FAA Form 8710‑1, Airman Certificate and/or Rating Application.

    FAA Form 8060‑4, Temporary Airman Certificate.

    FAA Form 8060‑5, Notice of Disapproval of Application.

Indicates new/changed information.

C.    Job Aids. Sample letters and figures.

5-1595    PROCEDURES.

A.    Receive Initial Inquiry.

1)    Upon inquiry from an applicant, explain the application procedures and eligibility requirements for an aircraft authorization.
Indicates new/changed information.
2)    Determine which qualification option the applicant will complete.
Indicates new/changed information.
3)    If the applicant meets the eligibility requirements of paragraph 5‑1580, advise the applicant to provide the following documents to the ASI or EAE:

    A completed and correct FAA Form 8710‑1, in ink or typewritten.

    A valid Airman Certificate.

Indicates new/changed information.

    A valid U.S. third‑class medical certificate or equivalent (U.S. Military Flight Medical or U.S. driver’s license in accordance with the FAA BasicMed process).

    A personal logbook or other records substantiating the flight experience requirements.

Indicates new/changed information.

    Required endorsements and recommendation on FAA Form 8710‑1 from an authorized instructor.

    Documentation of completion of ground and flight training. This can consist of logbook entries, a formal syllabus for training with grade sheets, etc.

    An acceptable form of photo identification.

B.    Review Application. Collect and review the documents and records listed in this section.

1)    Verify the applicant’s identity by inspecting an acceptable form of identification (see Volume 5, Chapter 1, Section 1).
a)    Compare the identification with the personal information provided on FAA Form 8710‑1.

1.    If the applicant’s identity can be verified, review FAA Form 8710‑1.

2.    If the applicant’s identity cannot be verified because of lack of identification or inadequate identification, explain what type of identification is acceptable. Instruct the applicant to return with appropriate identification to reapply.

Indicates new/changed information.
b)    Ensure completion of the airman certification information.
c)    Ensure completion of the recommending instructor information.
d)    Determine if the applicant needs a temporary authorization to conduct practice or proficiency flying, and if so, issue a temporary authorization in accordance with the procedures shown in this section.
2)    Review FAA Form 8710‑1 for the following:
Indicates new/changed information.
a)    In section I, verify that the applicant has marked the appropriate box for grade of certificate and has marked the box labeled “Other” and has written “Authorized Experimental Aircraft, [FAA Experimental Aircraft Designator]” in the blank.
b)    Ensure that the applicant has completed section I, items A through O.
c)    Ensure that the applicant has completed the appropriate portion of section II.
d)    Ensure that the applicant has completed the relevant portions of section III.
e)    Ensure that the applicant checked “Yes” or “No” in section IV.
f)    Ensure that the applicant has signed and dated the application form in section V.
Indicates new/changed information.
g)    An AAI or CFI recommendation (reverse side of FAA Form 8710‑1) is required for an application for authorization. Additionally, an endorsement must be made in the pilot’s logbook for the applicant to take a practical test/evaluation.
h)    If FAA Form 8710‑1 is not complete, do not accept the application. Indicate the incomplete areas and return the application to the applicant for correction.
i)    If FAA Form 8710‑1 is complete and accurate, determine if the applicant is eligible for the issuance of an authorization or for a practical evaluation.
Indicates new/changed information.
j)    Substantiate the applicant’s eligibility by examining the pilot’s logbook or other records, comparing the data with that listed on FAA Form 8710‑1 and the requirements from this section.
3)    If the applicant is not eligible, indicate the areas that are deficient and close out the PTRS record with an appropriate comment.
Indicates new/changed information.
4)    If the applicant is eligible for the issuance of an authorization, conduct the practical test.

C.    Conduct the Practical Test. An ASI (Operations) or an EAE may accomplish the practical test.

1)    Operations ASIs may conduct flight evaluations in an aircraft if they:

    Hold the authorized experimental aircraft authorization for that aircraft;

    Meet the recency‑of‑experience requirements in Volume 1, Chapter 3, Section 6; and

    Are specifically authorized by AFS‑830.

2)    If an ASI is to conduct the flight evaluation in the aircraft, the Operations ASI should coordinate with the airworthiness unit to examine the aircraft and/or the airworthiness documentation.
Indicates new/changed information.
3)    If the Airworthiness ASI determines that the aircraft is not in safe condition for flight or that the documentation is not adequate, reschedule the practical test/evaluation.
4)    An Operations ASI or an EAE may conduct the practical test and observe the flight portion either from the ground or in a chase aircraft in the case of a single‑seat aircraft or on board the aircraft in the case of a multi‑seat aircraft.
5)    If the practical test is unsatisfactory, the ASI or EAE should perform the following:
a)    Debrief the applicant on the deficient areas.
Indicates new/changed information.
b)    Reschedule the practical test/evaluation.
c)    Issue FAA Form 8060‑5, granting credit for the maneuvers passed.
Indicates new/changed information.
d)    On FAA Form 8710‑1, in the “Aviation Safety Inspector or Technician Report” section or “Designated Examiner or Airman Certification Representative Report” section:

1.    Check the box, “I have personally delivered the Written Notification under the Pilot’s Bill of Rights to the applicant.”

2.    Check the box labeled “Disapproved.”

Indicates new/changed information.

3.    Indicate the location and duration of the practical test/evaluation test.

4.    In the field for Certificate or Rating for Which Tested, enter “Authorized Experimental Aircraft” and the category/class.

5.    Indicate the type of aircraft and the registration number.

Indicates new/changed information.

6.    Enter the date of the test, sign the report, and identify the FAA office by routing code.

7.    In the “Attachments” section, complete the “Airman’s Identification (ID)” section. Indicate what was used to verify the applicant’s identity.

6)    If the demonstration is satisfactory, issue FAA Form 8060‑4 with the specific aircraft authorization listed in (see Figure 5‑173) and any appropriate limitations (see Figure 5‑177, Sample FAA Form 8060‑4, Temporary Airman Certificate, With the Specific Aircraft Listed). On FAA Form 8710‑1, in the “Aviation Safety Inspector and Technician Report” section or the “Designated Examiner or Airman Certification Representative Report” section:
a)    Check the box “I have personally delivered the Written Notification under the Pilot’s Bill of Rights to the applicant.”
b)    Check the box labeled “Approved.”
Indicates new/changed information.
c)    Indicate the location and duration of the practical test/evaluation.
d)    In the field for “Certificate or Rating for Which Tested,” enter “Authorized Experimental Aircraft” and the category/class.
e)    Indicate the type of aircraft and the registration number.
Indicates new/changed information.
f)    Enter the date of the test, sign the report, and identify the FAA office by routing code.
g)    In the “Attachments” section, complete the “Airman’s Identification (ID)” section. Indicate the document used to verify the applicant’s identity.

D.    Complete Certification File.

1)    Ensure the “Aviation Safety Inspector and Technician Report” section or “Designated Examiner or Airman Certification Representative Report” section of FAA Form 8710‑1 is complete.
2)    Forward the completed certification file to AFB‑720 for inspectors and to AFS‑610 for examiners.

E.    Complete the PTRS Record.

1)    Activity Number. 1579.
2)    Make‑Model‑Series. If the aircraft is not listed in the lookup table, use:

    EXHIB‑EXPER‑DOM for other domestic experimental aircraft; and

    EXHIB‑EXPER‑FOR for other foreign experimental aircraft.

Indicates new/changed information.
3)    Applicant and Instructor Name. Self‑explanatory.
4)    Section IV, Comment. Use appropriate comment and opinion codes, and list limitations, authorizations, and any other descriptive information.

5-1596    TASK OUTCOMES. Completion of this task results in one or more of the following:

    Issuance or reissuance of an authorization.

    Denial of an authorization.

    Issuance or reissuance of a temporary authorization.

    Issuance of a letter of discontinuance with credit given for flight procedures demonstrated.

Indicates new/changed information.

5-1597    FUTURE ACTIVITIES.

    Issuance of additional authorizations for other aircraft.

    Removal of a limitation from an authorization.

    Possible enforcement investigation if the holder of an authorization operates contrary to 14 CFR, with action against the pilot certificate held.

Indicates new/changed information.

Figure 5-173.  Experimental Aircraft Authorizations

NOTE:  Since new types of aircraft continue to be added to the list, this list may not be the most current. Contact the General Aviation Operations Branch (AFS‑830), or access the FAA Vintage and Experimental Aircraft Program website at http://www.faa.gov/licenses_certificates/vintage_experimental/ for the most up‑to‑date list.

GROUP I – PISTON‑POWERED AIRCRAFT, SINGLE‑ENGINE, CONVENTIONAL GEAR

MODEL DESIGNATION

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNATION

CURRENT TYPE DESIGNATION

NUMBER of ENGINE(S)

GEAR

Chance Vought

OS2U Kingfisher

CHV‑OS2U

 

SE

CONV

Chance Vought/Goodyear

F4U‑1/FG1D Corsair

CHV‑F4U

 

SE

CONV

Curtiss

P‑36

CU‑P36

 

SE

CONV

Curtiss

P‑40 Kittyhawk/Warhawk

CU‑P40

 

SE

CONV

Curtiss

SB2C Helldiver

CU‑SB2C

 

SE

CONV

Douglas

AD‑1‑7/AD‑4N Skyraider

DC‑AD1

 

SE

CONV

Douglas

SBD/A‑24 Dauntless

SBD/A24

DC‑A24

SE

CONV

Focke‑Wulf

FW‑190

FW‑190

 

SE

CONV

Grumman

F3F

G‑F3F

 

SE

CONV

Grumman/Eastern/

General Motors

TBF/TBM Avenger

G‑TBM

G‑TBM

SE

CONV

Grumman/General Motors

F4F/FM2 Wildcat

G‑F4F

 

SE

CONV

Grumman/General Motors

F6F Hellcat

G‑F6F

 

SE

CONV

Grumman/General Motors

F8F Bearcat

G‑F8F

 

SE

CONV

Grumman/General Motors

J2F Duck

G‑J2F

 

SE

CONV

Hawker

Hurricane Mk I–II

H‑HURC

 

SE

CONV

Hawker

FB‑11 Sea Fury

H‑FB‑11

 

SE

CONV

Hawker

Tempest

H‑TMPST

 

SE

CONV

Messerschmitt

Bf 109/CAFA

BF‑109

 

SE

CONV

Mitsubishi

A6M Zero

MI‑A6M

 

SE

CONV

North American

A‑36 Apache

N‑A36

 

SE

CONV

North American

O‑47 Owl

N‑O47

 

SE

CONV

North American

P‑51 Mustang

N‑P51

 

SE

CONV

North American

P‑64

N‑P64

 

SE

CONV

North American

Super T6

N‑T6S

 

SE

CONV

Republic

P‑43 Lancer

R‑P43

 

SE

CONV

Republic/Curtiss

P‑47 Thunderbolt

R‑P47

 

SE

CONV

Seversky

P‑35/AT‑12 Guardsman

SE‑P35

 

SE

CONV

Supermarine

Spitfire Mk I–XVIII

SPITFIR

 

SE

CONV

Yakovlev

Yak‑3

YAK‑3

 

SE

CONV

Yakovlev

Yak‑9

YAK‑9

 

SE

CONV

 

Aircraft below are listed on Designated Pilot Examiner’s (DPE) Certificate of Authority (COA) with experimental aircraft examiner (EAE) authority by the Specialty Aircraft Examiner Branch (AFS‑610) ONLY.

GROUP II – PISTON‑POWERED AIRCRAFT, SINGLE‑ENGINE, TRICYCLE GEAR

MODEL DESIGNATION

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNATION

CURRENT TYPE DESIGNATION

NUMBER of ENGINE(S)

GEAR

Bell

P‑39 Airacobra

BL‑P39

 

SE

TRI

Bell

P‑63 Kingcobra

BL‑P63

 

SE

TRI

North American

T‑28 Trojan

N‑T28

 

SE

TRI

Yakovlev

Yak‑11

YAK‑11

 

SE

TRI

 

GROUP III – PISTON‑POWERED AIRCRAFT, MULTIENGINE, TWO‑ENGINE

MODEL DESIGNATION

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNATION

CURRENT TYPE DESIGNATION

NUMBER of ENGINE(S)

GEAR

Consolidated/

General Dynamics

PBY Catalina

CV‑PBY5

CV‑PBY5

ME

TRI

Consolidated/

General Dynamics

PB4Y‑1 and 2

CV‑P4Y

CV‑P4Y

ME

TRI

Consolidated/

General Dynamics

RB‑24/LB‑30/

C‑87A/B‑24

CV‑LB30

CV‑LB30

ME

TRI

De Havilland

Mosquito

MOSQUTO

 

ME

CONV

Douglas

A‑20 Havoc

DC‑A20

DC‑A20

ME

TRI

Douglas

A‑26 Invader

DC‑B26

DC‑B26

ME

TRI

Douglas

B‑23 Dragon

DC‑B23

DC‑B23

ME

CONV

Fairchild

C‑82A Packet

C‑82A

C‑82A

ME

TRI

Grumman

F7F Tigercat

G‑F7F

 

ME

TRI

Grumman

HU‑16 Albatross

G‑111

G‑111

ME

TRI

Grumman

S2F Tracker/

C‑1 Trader

G‑S2

G‑S2

ME

TRI

Heinkel

He 111/

CAFA 1101

HE‑111

 

ME

CONV

Howard

Howard 500

HW‑500

HW‑500

ME

CONV

Lockheed

P‑38 Lightning

L‑P38

 

ME

TRI

Lockheed

Lodestar/C‑60

L‑18

L‑18

ME

CONV

Martin

B‑26/JM‑1 and 2 Marauder

M‑B26

M‑B26

ME

TRI

North American

B‑25/PBJ‑1J Mitchell

N‑B25

N‑B25

ME

TRI

North American

F‑82 Twin Mustang

N‑F82

 

ME

CONV

 

GROUP IV – PISTON‑POWERED AIRCRAFT, MULTIENGINE, MORE THAN TWO‑ENGINE

MODEL DESIGNATION

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNATION

CURRENT TYPE DESIGNATION

NUMBER of ENGINE(S)

GEAR

Avro

Lancaster

LANCSTR

 

ME

CONV

Avro

Shackleton

SHAKLTN

 

ME

CONV

Boeing

B‑17 Flying Fortress

B‑17

B‑17

ME

CONV

Boeing

B‑29 Superfortress

B‑29

 

ME

TRI

Consolidated/

General Dynamics

RB‑24/LB‑30/

C‑87A/B‑24

CV‑LB30

CV‑LB30

ME

TRI

Junkers

Ju 52

JU‑52

 

ME

CONV

 

GROUP V – TURBINE & TURBOJET‑STRAIGHT WING, SINGLE‑ENGINE

MODEL DESIGNATION

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNATION

CURRENT TYPE DESIGNATION

Aero Vodochody

L‑29 Delfin

AV‑L29

 

Aero Vodochody

L‑39 Albatros

AV‑L39

 

Aero Vodochody

L‑159 Alca

AV‑L159

 

Bede

BD‑5J

BD‑5J

 

British Aircraft Corp.

Jet Provost

PROVOST

 

British Aircraft Corp.

BAC 167 Strikemaster

BA‑167

 

Canadair

CL‑41 Tutor

CL‑41

 

Cirrus

Vision Jet SF50

SF‑50

 

COMP‑LET SROORGANIZACNI SLOZK

TST‑14J BonusJet

TST‑14

 

de Havilland

DH.110/115 Vampire

DH‑115

 

de Havilland

DH.112 Venom

DH‑112

 

Fairey

Gannett

GANNETT

 

Federal Aircraft Factory

C‑3605 Schlepp

SWC3605

 

Grumman

F9F Panther

G‑F9F

 

Lockheed/Canadian/Kawasaki

T‑33/F/P‑80

Shooting Star

T‑33

 

Pilatus

PC‑9

PIL‑PC9

 

Republic

F‑84F Thunderstreak

R‑F84

 

SIAI‑Marchetti

S‑211

S‑211

 

Soko

G‑2 Galeb/J‑21 Jastreb

SO‑G2

 

Sonex Aircraft

SubSonex

SUBSONX

 

Temco TT‑1

TT‑1 Pinto

TT‑1

 

Viper Aircraft Corporation

Viper Jet MK II

VIPER

 

WSK‑PZL‑Mielec

TS‑11 Iskra

WSK‑TS11

 

*NOTE: Only those aircraft certified as Airplane—Excludes Glider.

 

GROUP VI – TURBINE & TURBOJET‑STRAIGHT WING, MULTIENGINE

MODEL DESIGNATION

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNATION

CURRENT TYPE DESIGNATION

Aerospatiale

Fouga CM‑170 Magister

CM‑170

 

Bell

P‑59 Airacomet

BL‑P59

 

Cessna

A‑37 Dragonfly/

T‑37 Tweet

CE‑T37

 

Construcciones Aeronauticas SA (CASA)

HA‑200 Saeta

CAHA200

 

English Electric

Canberra TT‑18

CANBERA

 

Gloster Aircraft Co.

Meteor Mk III

METEOR

 

Grumman

OV‑1 Mohawk

G‑OV1

 

Grumman

G‑73 Mallard Turbine

G‑73T

 

Maverick Jets Inc.

Maverick Jet

MAVERIK

 

North American

T‑2 Buckeye

RI‑T2

 

North American

OV‑10 Bronco

RI‑OV10

 

Scaled Composites

Proteus

PROTEUS

 

Scaled Composites

WhiteKnightTwo

WHTKNT2

 

 

GROUP VII – TURBOJET & ROCKET‑SWEPT WING/SUBSONIC, SINGLE‑ENGINE

MODEL DESIGNATION

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNATION

CURRENT TYPE DESIGNATION

Bede

BD‑10

BD‑10

 

Dassault/Dornier

Alpha Jet

DO‑AJET

 

Hawker Siddeley

Hawker Hunter

HUNTER

 

Hindustan Aeronautics (Folland)

Gnat Mk‑1

GNAT

 

Ling‑Temco‑Vought

Corsair II

LTV‑A7

 

McDonnell Douglas

A‑4 Skyhawk

DC‑A4

 

McDonnell Douglas/

British Aerospace Corp.

AV‑8 Harrier

BAE‑AV8

 

McDonnell Douglas/

British Aerospace Corp.

T‑45 Goshawk

HAWK

 

Messerschmitt

Me 262

ME‑262

 

Mikoyan‑Gurevich

MiG‑15/UTI Fagot/Midget

MIG‑15

 

Mikoyan‑Gurevich

MiG‑17 Fresco

MIG‑17

 

North American

F‑86 Sabre

N‑F86

 

North American

FJ‑4 Fury

N‑FJ4

 

Scaled Composites

ARES

ARES

 

 

GROUP VIII – TURBOJET & ROCKET‑SWEPT WING/SUPERSONIC SINGLE‑ENGINE

MODEL DESIGNATION

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNATION

CURRENT TYPE DESIGNATION

General Dynamics

F‑16 Fighting Falcon

CV‑F16

 

Lockheed

F‑104 Starfighter

L‑F104

 

Mikoyan‑Gurevich

MiG‑21 Fishbed

MIG‑21

 

Mikoyan‑Gurevich

MiG‑23 Flogger

MIG‑23

 

North American

F‑100 Super Sabre

N‑F100

 

Republic

F‑105 Thunderchief

R‑F105

 

Saab

J 35 Draken

SA‑J35

 

Virgin Galactic

SpaceShipTwo (Rocket)

SPCSHP2

 

Vought

F‑8 Crusader

CHV‑F8

 

 

GROUP IX – TURBOJET & ROCKET‑SWEPT WING/SUPERSONIC MULTIENGINE

MODEL DESIGNATION

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNATION

CURRENT TYPE DESIGNATION

British Aircraft Corp

Lighting

LIGHTNG

 

McDonnell Douglas

F‑4 Phantom

DC‑F4

 

McDonnell Douglas

F‑15 Eagle

DC‑F15

 

McDonnell Douglas

F/A‑18 Hornet

DC‑F18

 

Mikoyan‑Gurevich

MiG‑29 Fulcrum

MIG‑29

 

Northrop

F‑5 Tiger

NH‑F5

 

Northrop

T‑38 Talon

NH‑T38

 

Sukhoi

Su‑27 Flanker

SU‑27

 

 

GROUP X – ROTORCRAFT

MODEL DESIGNATION

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNATION

CURRENT TYPE DESIGNATION

Boeing

Sea Knight

BV‑107

BV‑107

Columbia Helicopters

Chinook

BV‑234

BV‑234

Mil Moscow Helicopter

Hip

MI‑8/17

 

Mil Moscow Helicopter

Hind

MI‑24

 

Sikorsky

Black Hawk Series

S‑70

S‑70

Sikorsky

Sky Crane

S‑60

S‑60

Sikorsky

Sea King

S‑61

S‑61

Figure 5-174.  Sample Temporary LOA for Exhibition or Amateur‑Built Aircraft PIC

NOTE:  The temporary letter of authorization (LOA) is issued by an Operations ASI or an authorized experimental aircraft examiner (EAE) to authorize a PIC in a single-place, single‑control aircraft for the purpose of solo practice and proficiency in preparation for an FAA practical test, and for taking the FAA practical test.

FAA Letterhead

[Date]

[Name and Address]

Dear [Name]:

This temporary letter of authorization (LOA) allows you to act as pilot in command (PIC) in the following experimental aircraft:

Indicates new/changed information.

[Authorized Experimental Aircraft (AEA) designation from Figure 5‑173.]

Indicates new/changed information.

Flights made under this authorization will be conducted in accordance with the Special Airworthiness Certificate operating limitations and all applicable Federal aviation regulations. This letter does not authorize solo flights in multi‑place aircraft in which the applicant is being trained, flights to or from aviation events, and does not authorize the performance of aerobatics in air shows.

Indicates new/changed information.

Flights made under this LOA must only be for solo proficiency and practice flying in preparation for an FAA practical test and for completion of the practical test. All operations under this LOA are limited to solo flights in the single‑seat aircraft of the aircraft type listed above.

This LOA is only valid when [Name] has received a logbook or training record signed by a qualified instructor stating that the airman has received all of the required training and has been found by the instructor to be competent to serve as PIC in the single‑seat aircraft.

Operations are limited to the following geographical area:

Indicates new/changed information.

[Inspectors or EAEs should describe an area large enough to reasonably conduct proficiency and practice flying in preparation for a practical test for the type airplane.]

This authorization expires on [60 calendar‑days or less from the date of issuance] unless sooner modified, suspended, or revoked by the FAA.

Sincerely,

Indicates new/changed information.

[ASI (Operations)/EAE’s signature]

Figure 5-175.  Sample Temporary LOA for Exhibition or Amateur‑Built Aircraft—No EAE Qualified

NOTE:  In these cases, the Specialty Aircraft Examiner Branch (AFS‑610) will authorize the “best qualified” experimental aircraft examiner (EAE) to administer the practical test. The temporary letter of authorization (LOA) will authorize the pilot candidate to act as pilot in command (PIC) solely for the purpose of taking the practical test.

NOTE:  The temporary LOA is issued by the appropriate Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) in coordination with the General Aviation Operations Branch (AFS‑830) when there is no EAE qualified in the aircraft to administer the practical test, or an EAE is qualified in the aircraft but is not available, or an EAE who is qualified in the aircraft elects not to act as PIC during the practical test but instead elects to have the candidate act as PIC in accordance with 14 CFR part 61, § 61.47(b).

FAA Letterhead

[Date]

[Name and Address]

Dear [Name]:

This temporary letter of authorization (LOA) allows you to act as pilot in command (PIC) in the following experimental aircraft:

[Authorized Experimental Aircraft (AEA) designation from Figure 5‑173.]

Flights made under this authorization will be conducted in accordance with the Special Airworthiness Certificate operating limitations and all applicable Federal aviation regulations. This letter does not authorize solo flights in single‑ or multi‑place models of aircraft in which the applicant is being trained.

Flight(s) made under this LOA must only be for completion of the FAA practical test with an FAA‑designated examiner.

This LOA is only valid when [Name] has received a logbook or training record signed by a qualified instructor stating that the airman has received all of the required training and has been recommended by the instructor on an FAA Form 8710‑1 as ready to take the test.

Operations are limited to the following geographical area:

[Inspectors should describe an area large enough to reasonably conduct a practical test for the type airplane.]

This authorization expires on [60 calendar‑days or less from date of issuance] unless sooner modified, suspended, or revoked by the FAA.

Sincerely,

[ASI’s (Operations) signature]

NOTE:  Normally, temporary LOAs will not be issued to an airman for solo practice in multi‑place, multi‑control aircraft in preparation for taking a practical test. For unusual situations or circumstances (e.g., first‑of‑its‑kind of an experimental aircraft type entering the United States or first‑of‑its‑kind of an experimental multi‑seat, multi‑control aircraft), the EAE/aviation safety inspector (ASI) will coordinate with the General Aviation Operations Branch (AFS‑830) and the Specialty Aircraft Examiner Branch (AFS‑610).

Figure 5-176.  Letter of Authority for Other Than Exhibition or Amateur‑Built

FAA Letterhead

[Date]

[Name and Address]

Dear [Name]:

Indicates new/changed information.

This letter authorizes you to act as pilot in command (PIC) in the following experimental [enter description of experimental basis] aircraft:

“New and Different‑1”

Flights made under this authorization will be conducted in accordance with the Special Airworthiness Certificate operating limitations and all applicable Federal aviation regulations. This letter by itself does not authorize the performance of aerobatics in air shows.

This authorization is limited to operations with the minimum required crew.

This authorization expires on upon the completion of the project for which the special airworthiness certificate or Special Flight Authorization was issued, expiration of the special airworthiness certificate, or 12 calendar‑months, whichever occurs first unless sooner modified, suspended, or revoked by the FAA.

Sincerely,

[AEG/FSDO/ASI POI’s signature]

Figure 5-177.  Sample FAA Form 8060‑4, Temporary Airman Certificate, With the Specific Aircraft Listed

Figure 5-177. Sample FAA Form 8060-4, Temporary Airman Certificate, With the Specific Aircraft Listed

Indicates new/changed information.

Figure 5-178.  Sample FAA Form 8710‑1 for All Makes and Models

Figure 5-178. Sample FAA Form 8710-1 for All Makes and Models

Figure 5-178.  Sample FAA Form 8710‑1 for All Makes and Models (Continued)

Figure 5-178. Sample FAA Form 8710-1 for All Makes and Models (Continued)

Figure 5-179.  Letter of Authority for Participants in Flight Standardization Board (FSB)

LETTER OF AUTHORIZATION

GENERAL

This letter of authorization (LOA) is being issued in accordance with 14 CFR part 61, § 61.31(b), and FAA Order 8900.1.

AUTHORIZATION

This LOA certifies that on [date], the following airman successfully completed the practical test prescribed by part 61, for the addition of a [make and model] type rating to his U.S. Airline Transport Pilot Certificate. The check was conducted in accordance with the ATP practical test standards (PTS). Subject to the limitations stated herein the named airman is authorized to act as pilot in command (PIC) of the [make and model].

LIMITATIONS

This LOA suffices in lieu of a [make and model] pilot type rating and must be carried, in addition to appropriate U.S. pilot certificates, ratings and medical certificate, in the airman’s personal possession at all times when exercising the privileges authorized. Carriage of passengers or cargo for hire, or similar means of revenue generating flight operations are prohibited while operating a [make and model] under the authority of this LOA.

AIRMAN AUTHORIZED

[NAME OF AIRMAN] [GRADE AND CERTIFICATE NUMBER]

[Airman’s address]

PROCEDURE

Following establishment of the [make and model] pilot type rating designation, the above‑named airman may present this LOA, a completed FAA Form 8710‑1, and current pilot certificate to the FAA [make and model] FSB Chairman, [office] AEG, whereupon he may be issued an FAA Airman Certificate, with the new pilot type rating added for the [make and model].

DURATION

This LOA remains valid for 120 calendar‑days from the date of issuance, not to exceed 30 calendar‑days after establishment of the [make and model] pilot type rating designation. This LOA supersedes any LOA previously issued to this airman.

[Make and Model] FSB Chairman

FAA [Office] AEG

Figure 5-180.  Example Logbook Endorsement to Take FAA Practical Test for Authorized Experimental Aircraft Authorization

I certify that _____________________      ____           _____________________

                               First Name                     MI                          Last Name

_________________ certificate, number ______________,

  Type of Certificate                                         Number

has received training required by FAA Order 8900.1, Volume 5, Chapter 9, Section 2, subparagraph 5‑1582B. I have determined that he/she is prepared for a FAA practical test for an Authorized Experimental Aircraft (AEA) authorization

in the _________________________________.

                               Make/Model

____________________________, CFI/AAI #, _______________________

                          Name                                               Pilot Certificate Number

Exp. _______/______

Month/Year

Figure 5-181.  Example Logbook Endorsement to Act as PIC for Solo Practice FAA Practical Test

NOTE:  This is an example of a logbook endorsement by the CFI/AAI authorizing the candidate to act as PIC for solo practice in preparation to take an FAA practical test for an Authorized Experimental Aircraft (AEA) authorization when the aircraft operating limitations issued under FAA Order 8130.2, permit solo operations based on a logbook endorsement.

I certify that _____________________         ____           _____________________

                            First Name                           MI                         Last Name

_________________ Certificate, number____________

   Type of Certificate                                       Number

has received the required training of FAA Order 8900.1, Volume 5, Chapter 9, Section 2, subparagraph 5‑1582B for the following Authorized Experimental Aircraft (AEA) ____________________.

                                                                                 Make/Model

I have determined that he/she is competent to act as pilot in command (PIC) for solo practice in preparation to take an FAA practical test for an AEA authorization. This endorsement is limited to 60 calendar‑days and limits the applicant’s area of operation to the local area with takeoffs and landings only at the applicant’s home base airport or training base of operations.

____________________________, CFI, AAI #_______________________

                        Name                                                Pilot Certificate Number

Exp. _______/______

Month/Year

Figure 5-182.  Example Statement of Training for All Makes and Models

I certify that _____________________         ____           _____________________

                             First Name                          MI                        Last Name

_________________ Certificate, number_______________,

  Type of Certificate                                          Number

who possesses “All Makes and Models of Single‑Engine and Multiengine, Piston‑Powered Authorized Aircraft” authorization has received the required training of FAA Order 8900.1, Volume 5, Chapter 9, Section 2, subparagraph 5‑1582B for the following Authorized Experimental Aircraft (AEA) ____________________.

                                                                               Make/Model

____________________________, CFI/AAI #, _______________________

                      Name                                                   Pilot Certificate Number

Exp. _______/______

Month/Year

RESERVED. Paragraphs 5‑1598 through 5‑1610.