Volume 6 SURVEILLANCE
chapter 2 PART
Section 8 Safety Assurance System: Cabin En Route (Random) Inspections
A. Program Tracking and Reporting Subsystem (PTRS).
For Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part
125, use PTRS activity codes 1625, 3630, and 5630 (Cabin Safety: pending).
B. Safety Assurance System (SAS). For 14 CFR
135, use SAS Automation. This section is related to SAS Elements 5.2.1 (OP),
Crewmember Duties/Cabin Procedures; 5.2.2 (OP), Carry-on Baggage Program; 5.2.3
(OP), Exit Seating Program; and 5.2.4 (OP), Passenger Handling.
OBJECTIVE. This section provides guidance for conducting a cabin en route
inspection to ensure that a certificate holder’s cabin safety procedures adhere
to 14 CFR and safe operating practices. For purposes of this section, “aviation
safety inspector” (ASI) includes cabin safety inspector (CSI).
GENERAL. Cabin en route inspections provide the Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) with information concerning flight attendant (F/A) training programs,
certificate holder procedures, and the condition and maintenance of aircraft
emergency equipment and furnishings.
A. Inspector Qualifications.
Since ASIs do not receive system training on all aircraft, it is important that
inspectors become familiar with the certificate holder procedures and equipment
before performing the inspection.
2) The FAA does not permit an inspector to
provide on-the-job training (OJT) to another inspector concerning the conduct
of en route inspections on the same flight. Therefore, each inspector must
be familiar with the cabin en route inspection procedures before performing
this task and must be authorized through his or her unit supervisor.
3) Inspectors possess various degrees and
types of expertise and experience. When additional information or guidance is
needed, the inspector should coordinate with personnel experienced in that particular
B. Inspector Conduct.
In performing this job task, the actions of the inspectors are subject to the
close scrutiny of airline employees and the general flying public. The inspector
must be alert for leading questions from crewmembers and passengers regarding
destinations, technical information, and other certificate holders.
2) Inspectors involved in cabin en route
inspections will not enter the cockpit during the flight, unless requested by
the captain or another crewmember, or unless emergency circumstances indicate
that it would be the proper course of action.
Inspectors must comply with all regulatory requirements and approved certificate
6-346 CABIN EN ROUTE INSPECTION AREAS. Three
general areas have been identified for inspectors to observe and evaluate during
cabin en route inspections. Each area should be considered to be of equal importance.
The three inspection areas are as follows:
A. Cabin (Interior). The interior inspection
area applies to the airworthiness of the aircraft cabin and the condition and
availability of aircraft cabin emergency equipment and furnishings. Table 6-4,
Cabin En Route Interior Inspection Reference Chart, lists these items and when
they should be inspected. Although these items are not all inclusive, they represent
the types of aircraft items that should be evaluated during the inspection.
B. Crewmember. The crewmember inspection area
applies to F/As who perform assigned safety duties during the flight. Inspectors
should evaluate such items as crewmember knowledge, ability, and proficiency
by directly observing F/As performing their assigned safety duties and functions.
NOTE: F/A trainees who are receiving operating experience
should not be evaluated on the same basis as the fully qualified crewmembers.
C. Flight Conduct. The flight conduct inspection
area relates to the specific phases of the flight that can be observed during
the cabin en route inspection. This includes a wide range of items, including
F/A and flightcrew member coordination of the performance of duties. These types
of areas can often be observed before beginning a flight, at en route stops,
or at the termination of a flight.
6-347 INITIATION AND PLANNING.
Initiation. This task is normally scheduled as part of the National Flight
Standards Work Program or as a part of SAS. Additional inspections can be initiated
by national, regional, or district office special requirements.
Inspectors conducting cabin en route inspections should make arrangements for
the inspection as far in advance of the flight as possible. Inspectors who have
not provided the certificate holder with the appropriate advance notice should
not insist on a seat if the flight is full. Certificate holders should not attempt
to displace the inspector in favor of a passenger when notification has been
provided to a part
135 certificate holder. However, bumping a revenue passenger should only
be done when there is no acceptable, alternative means of accomplishing the
inspection. Inspectors are expected to exercise sound judgment in these matters.
Inspectors will not occupy the F/A jump seats. Only qualified crewmembers, as
determined by the certificate holder, are authorized to occupy these seats.
Inspectors conducting a cabin en route inspection on a part
121 certificate holder or a part 125
operator must never displace a revenue passenger.
2) When it is necessary to board a flight
at an intermediate stop, the inspector will make every effort to advise the
pilot in command (PIC), before boarding the flight, that a cabin en route inspection
will be conducted.
The inspector must conform to the certificate holder’s approved carry-on baggage
program. If there is any concern that the inspector’s carry-on baggage will
exceed certificate holder limitations, the baggage should be checked. The inspector’s
identification, FAA Form 110A, Aviation Safety Inspector Credentials, and FAA
Form 8430-13, Request for Access to Aircraft, is adequate documentation
for the certificate holder to check the baggage.
6-348 FAA FORM 8430-13, REQUEST FOR ACCESS TO
AIRCRAFT. The inspector to whom FAA Form 8430-13 is issued is personally
responsible for its proper use and safekeeping, to include the following:
on the inside cover every request issued, canceled, or otherwise voided;
it to the issuing office when the inspector transfers, retires, or has no further
use for this book;
the cover containing the Record of Requests Issued and the yellow copies to
the issuing office when all requests have been used; and
reporting to the issuing office the full set of circumstances concerning any
loss of requests.
6-349 PERFORMING THE CABIN EN ROUTE INSPECTION.
The attention of the F/As must not be diverted from assigned duties, including
passenger boarding, deplaning, and in-flight service. Surveillance of F/A awareness
and the following of safety-related procedures should continue during the flight.
A. Interior Inspection.
1) This inspection should be performed without
disturbing the boarding or deplaning of the passengers. Any discrepancies noted
should be brought immediately to the attention of the lead F/A or the PIC.
2) Crewmembers should initially be briefed
to continue their assigned duties as if the inspector were not present. The
inspector should then request that a crewmember provide an F/A manual and be
available for a discussion relating to the crewmember’s duties, at the crewmember’s
Some certificate holders require F/As to accomplish a preflight inspection of
at least some of the emergency and safety equipment in the cabin. In such a
case, the inspector should observe the F/A inspecting the equipment and then
perform an additional inspection of selected equipment.
An inspector can determine whether the certificate holder requires an F/A to
conduct preflight by examining the F/A manual.
When an F/A preflight equipment inspection is not required by the certificate
holder or has already been performed, the inspector should inspect the equipment.
If there is not enough time to inspect the emergency equipment before the flight,
the inspector may choose to inspect it after the flight.
5) Inspectors should avoid impeding the flow
of passenger traffic or in any way interfering with crewmembers conducting their
respective duties. Since passengers are naturally curious about an inspector’s
activities, it is recommended that reasonable passenger inquiries be answered
in a brief, factual, and courteous manner.
B. In-Flight Monitoring. This phase of the
inspection includes the activities associated with boarding, predeparture, in-flight,
and landing. During this part of the inspection, the inspector will have the
opportunity to do the following:
certificate holder procedures;
adherence to company policy, FAA regulations, and safe operating practices;
Required F/As. When regulations require F/As for the operation of a flight,
the number of F/As required is based on the number of passenger seats and/or
the emergency evacuation demonstration. The number of required F/As for each
make, model and series (M/M/S) aircraft used by the certificate holder is listed
in the operations specifications (OpSpecs).
There must always be a full complement of F/As at originating and terminating
points when passengers are on board. Part
121 operations only, at intermediate stops, may reduce the number of required
F/As by dividing the number of F/As by two and rounding down. Regulations permit
a certificate holder to substitute personnel, qualified in emergency evacuation
procedures for that specific aircraft, at intermediate stops. Substitute personnel
must be easily identified.
Additional, non-required F/As may be used by the certificate holder.
6-350 DEFERRED MAINTENANCE.
Minimum Equipment List (MEL)-Deferred Maintenance. The certificate holder’s
approved MEL allows the certificate holder to continue a flight or series of
flights with certain inoperative equipment. The continued operation must meet
the requirements of the MEL deferral classification and the requirements for
the equipment loss.
B. Other Deferred Maintenance.
Certificate holders frequently use a system to monitor items that have previously
been inspected and found to be within serviceable limits. These items are still
Airworthy yet warrant repair at a later time or when items no longer meet serviceable
limits. This method of deferral may require repetitive inspections to ensure
the continuing airworthiness of the items. Examples of items that are commonly
deferred in this manner are overhead storage bins, seatbelts, and interim Airworthy
Passenger convenience item deferrals that are not safety- or airworthiness-related
should be handled per the guidelines of the certificate holder’s program. This
may include a cabin log.
COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS. This task requires coordination with the principal
inspectors (PI) assigned to the certificate holder and may involve the Regional
Office (RO), the certificate-holding district office (CHDO), and FAA Security.
6-352 REFERENCES, FORMS, AND JOB AIDS.
A. References (current editions):
121-24, Passenger Safety Information Briefing and Briefing Cards.
FAA guidance material.
B. FAA Forms:
Form 110A, Aviation Safety Inspector Credentials.
Form 8430-13, Request for Access to Aircraft.
C. Job Aids:
6-20, Air Carrier Cabin En Route Inspection Job Aid.
6-4, Cabin En Route Interior Inspection Reference Chart.
Data Collection Tools (DCT):
(OP), Crewmember Duties/Cabin Procedures.
(OP), Carry-on Baggage Program.
(OP), Exit Seating Program.
(OP), Passenger Handling.
Initiate the Cabin En Route Inspection. The inspector should initiate
the cabin en route inspection according to the district office work program
or as required by SAS automation.
B. Prepare for the Inspection. The inspector
should prepare for the inspection by doing the following:
the certificate holder to reserve the cockpit jump seat.
Complete FAA Form 8430-13 in duplicate. The white copy is presented to the certificate
holder, and the yellow copy is kept for FAA records.
C. Coordinate With the Certificate Holder.
The inspector should coordinate with the certificate holder at least 1 hour
prior to the flight. While coordinating, the inspector should do the following:
Identify himself or herself to the certificate holder representative, and state
that he or she is performing a cabin en route inspection on a specific flight.
Present FAA credentials, FAA Form 110A, and a completed FAA Form 8430-13 to
the certificate holder representative.
3) Obtain applicable certificate holder boarding
authorization per the airline procedures.
4) Request access to the aircraft as soon
as practical (for example, after passengers have deplaned) to meet the flight
and cabin crews and perform the interior predeparture inspection, as time permits.
5) If aircraft access is denied, the following
steps should be taken by the inspector:
Apprise the certificate holder representative of the regulation authorizing
inspector access to aircraft.
b) Request to see the appropriate supervisor if the
representative still refuses access.
Make it very clear to the certificate holder that the denial of access contradicts
regulations and that enforcement action may be initiated.
d) Report the occurrence to the immediate supervisor
upon return to the district office if access was not granted.
D. Coordinate With the Crew. Before boarding
the aircraft or performing any inspection, the inspector should coordinate with
the crew as follows:
1) Identify himself or herself to the captain
and to the lead F/A as an FAA inspector.
2) State the purpose of the inspection.
E. Perform the Interior Inspection. The inspector
should inspect the following, as applicable:
1) Cabin placarding, markings, and signs (for
example, exits, no-smoking signs, and emergency equipment) to ensure marking
legibility and the correct location.
2) Fire extinguishers for the following:
verify the quantity and location; and
ensure that they are properly serviced, tagged, and stowed.
3) Portable oxygen bottles for the following:
verify the quantity and location;
ensure that they are properly serviced, tagged, and stowed; and
determine the condition of the mask, tubing, and connectors.
NOTE: There is no requirement that the mask/hose
must be connected to the first aid oxygen bottles.
4) Protective Breathing Equipment (PBE) for
correct location, proper number of units, and proper stowage.
5) First aid kits and emergency medical kits
for correct number, location, and stowage.
NOTE: The FAA does not require first aid and medical
kits to be sealed.
6) Megaphones for correct number, location,
general condition, and proper stowage.
7) Overwater equipment as applicable.
8) Passenger briefing cards, to ensure the
a) That they are available for each passenger.
b) That they are appropriate to the aircraft.
c) That they contain the required information, to
include the following:
exit location and operation;
use and location;
device use and location;
pictorials for extended overwater operations, including ditching exits, life
preservers, and life raft or slide raft in-flight location; and
NOTE: In part
135 operations, additional information concerning safety equipment may also
be included, as required.
9) Passenger seats, to ensure the following:
a reclined seat does not block emergency exits;
the seat cushions are intact;
the tray table latching mechanisms are operable;
the self-contained and removable ashtrays are in serviceable condition and are
available when smoking is authorized;
each seat has a complete restraint system; and
seatbelts are operational and not frayed or twisted.
10) Passenger oxygen service units to ensure
that they are closed and latched, without any extended red service indicators
11) F/A station, to ensure the following:
the seat retraction/restraint system is operational and is properly secured;
the seatbelts are operational and not frayed or twisted;
the seat cushions are intact;
the seat headrest is in the correct position;
the public address (PA) system and interphone are operable; and
aircraft-installed flashlight holders are indeed installed.
NOTE: Flashlights are not required to be in the holders;
however, when they are, they must be charged and operable.
12) Galleys, to ensure that the following
items are operable:
latching mechanisms (primary and secondary),
13) Galleys, to ensure the following:
the hot liquid restraint system is operable;
the circuit breakers and water shut-off valves are accessible and properly identified;
the cover and lining of trash receptacles fit properly;
the non-skid floor is serviceable;
the girt bar is clean and serviceable;
the stationary cart tie-downs (mushrooms) are clean;
the galley carts are in serviceable condition and properly stowed; and
if applicable, the lower lobe galley emergency cabin floor exits are passable
and not covered by carpeting.
14) Galley personnel lift (if applicable)
to ensure that it does not move up or down with the doors open and that the
activation switches operate properly.
15) Lavatories, to ensure the following:
the placards are present and that the smoke alarm and ashtrays are present and
the trash receptacle cover and lining fit properly;
the automatic fire extinguisher system is serviceable; and
compartments, to ensure that the weight restriction placards are displayed,
the restraints and secondary latching mechanisms are operable, and the compartments
comply with stowage requirements for accessibility to emergency equipment.
16) Crew baggage, to ensure that it is properly
17) Emergency lighting system, to ensure that
all emergency lighting, including the floor proximity escape path system, is
in serviceable condition (for example, no light covers should be cracked or
18) Availability of cockpit key to each crewmember.
F. Predeparture. The inspector should perform
the following during predeparture:
1) Ensure that each F/A has an operable flashlight
readily available and has the appropriate, up-to-date parts of a manual accessible
when performing assigned duties.
Ensure that any discrepancies noted during predeparture are addressed per the
certificate holder’s manual.
3) Ensure that the required number of F/As
4) Observe the F/As and ground personnel coordinating
and supervising the boarding of passengers and properly stowing carry-on baggage.
NOTE: Ensure that the passenger-loading door is not
closed until a required crewmember verifies that each piece of carry-on baggage
is properly stowed. Proper stowage includes ensuring that the overhead bins
are closed. Items that cannot be stowed must be processed as checked baggage.
5) Ensure that items such as carry-on baggage
and galley supplies do not cover or in any way interfere with aircraft emergency
equipment in the overhead compartments.
6) Ensure that a required crewmember verifies
that passengers seated at the emergency exit seats meet the regulatory requirements.
At some time prior to takeoff, the F/A must brief the passengers seated in the
emergency exit seats on the selection criteria and their willingness and ability
to perform the functions, according to the certificate holder’s approved program.
7) Ensure that all passengers are seated prior
to any ground movements.
8) Ensure that the F/As have sufficient time
to take their assigned positions and to secure their restraint systems after
giving the passenger briefing.
9) Ensure that the F/A predeparture briefing
is audible to all passengers and covers the following subjects:
a) Smoking. When, where, and under what conditions
smoking is prohibited, including a statement that federal law prohibits tampering
with, disabling, or destroying any smoke detector in an airplane lavatory.
b) Exit Locations. The preferred method is to physically
point out exits.
c) Seatbelt Use. Instructions on how to fasten, unfasten,
and adjust seatbelts.
d) Flotation Devices. Instructions on the location
and use of required individual flotation devices.
e) Oxygen Use. Instructions on the location of and
a demonstration on the use of the oxygen mask. For parts
135 operations, this briefing item must only be conducted when the flight
will exceed 12,000 feet mean sea level (MSL). When this occurs, the briefing
must be given prior to takeoff. For part 121 operations, the briefing must be
given prior to exceeding 25,000 feet MSL.
f) Extended Overwater Operations. Instructions on
the location, donning, and use of life preservers, life rafts (or slide rafts),
and other means of flotation, including a demonstration of the methods of donning
and inflating a life preserver.
NOTE: The method of donning and inflating infant
life preservers is usually substantially different from the method used for
an adult life preserver.
g) Special Passenger Briefings (when applicable).
For persons who are handicapped or warrant some other special kind of attention,
and for the individuals assisting them.
135 certificate holders must include in their general briefing the location
of survival equipment, when applicable, and the location and use of fire extinguishers.
G. Movement on the Surface. During movement
on the surface, the inspector should do the following:
1) Ensure that all F/As remain seated during
the taxi unless performing safety-related functions. Safety-related activities
can include the following:
2) Ensure that each exit is closed and locked
with the girt bars properly attached (if applicable).
3) Ensure that the following items or activities
are accomplished prior to takeoff:
a) All stowage compartments are properly secured
b) The galley is prepared as follows:
items are secured, and
serving carts are properly restrained.
The cockpit door is closed in accordance with the certificate holder’s manual.
d) Passenger seatbelts are secured.
e) Any unoccupied F/A seat restraints are properly
secured for takeoff.
f) Any other equipment is properly stowed and secured.
4) Ensure that crewmembers observe the sterile
H. In-Flight Operations. During in-flight
operations, the inspector should do the following:
1) Monitor the crewmembers’ performance during
in-flight operations to ensure the following:
a) That during takeoff, each F/A remains seated with
restraint systems properly fastened.
b) That after takeoff, before or immediately after
the seatbelt illumination is shut off, an announcement is made that passengers
should keep their seatbelts fastened, even when the seatbelt sign is turned
c) That, if the flight is to be a smoking flight,
an announcement is made that smoking is only permitted in specific rows and
prohibited in the aisles and lavatories when the no-smoking sign is turned off.
2) Ensure that the following are accomplished,
a) Passenger compliance with seatbelt and no-smoking
b) Effective crew coordination for flightcrew and
cabin crewmember communications—routine and/or emergency.
c) Turbulent air procedures are followed, including
the proper restraint of serving carts, galley equipment, and compliance with
instructions from the cockpit and coordination with flightcrew members.
d) Crewmember handling of the passengers, to include
passengers (not serving alcoholic beverages to them),
or disruptive passengers,
or ill passengers, and
requiring special attention.
3) Ensure that crewmembers, during the approach
and landing phases of flight, prepare the cabin for arrival by performing at
least the following actions:
a) Ensuring that carry-on baggage is stowed and that
all seat backs and tray tables are upright and stowed, respectively.
b) Removing all food, beverages, and galley service
items from each passenger seat location.
c) Ensuring that all stowage compartments are latched
d) Ensuring that the galley is prepared as follows:
items are secured, and
serving carts are properly restrained.
Ensuring that the cockpit door is closed and locked in accordance with the certificate
f) Verifying that passenger seatbelts and shoulder
harnesses, if installed, are secured.
g) Properly stowing and securing any other equipment.
4) Ensure that crewmembers observe sterile
5) Ensure that crewmembers are seated in assigned
seats before landing, with appropriate restraint systems fastened.
I. Flight Arrival. During flight arrival,
the inspector should do the following:
1) Ensure that after landing, the F/As prepare
the aircraft for arrival by performing the following duties:
the captain has turned off the seatbelt sign, ensuring that passengers remain
in their seats with seatbelts fastened; and
arrival at the gate and after the seatbelt sign has been turned off, preparing
the exits for deplaning.
NOTE: The girt bar must stay engaged during movement
on the surface.
2) Ensure that the appropriate complement
of FAs remains on board the aircraft at en route stops (when passengers remain
on board the aircraft to proceed to another destination).
3) Debrief the captain and lead F/A of any
procedural problems or discrepancies/malfunctions noted during the flight.
6-354 TASK OUTCOMES.
Complete the PTRS Record. For part
B. Document the Task. For parts
135, use SAS automation and guidance. For part
125, the inspector should file all supporting paperwork in the certificate
holder’s office file.
C. Complete the Task. Completion of this task
can result in any of the following:
Investigative Reports (EIR), as necessary, or
requirement for a followup inspection for a particular discrepancy.
6-355 FUTURE ACTIVITIES.
if deficiencies are noted during surveillance, schedule a followup inspection.
135, follow SAS automation and guidance.
6-356 SEAT BACK BREAK-OVER.
A. Purpose. This paragraph contains information
regarding seat back break-over.
B. Background. It has come to our attention
that some inspectors may be delaying departure of aircraft used in air carrier
operations due to seat backs not having a 25-pound break-over force when checked
at the centerline of the top of the seat during surveillance.
1) The inspectors cite a memorandum initiated
by the Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate (ANM-100), Subject: Minimum Break-over
Force Required for Seat Backs of Passenger Seats Installed on Transport Airplanes
on June 24, 1983, as the guidance for the seat back inspection. This guidance
was issued to the Aircraft Certification Office (ACO) engineers and inspectors
having initial seat certification responsibility.
2) Additionally, there are some inspectors
who may not be aware that there are seats that are not required to have a break-over
and are manufactured locked in the upright position. These seats are based on
a minimum performance standard stated by Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C39b.
3) To meet the requirements of 14 CFR part
25.785(j), industry seat manufacturers determined that a minimum break-over
force of 25 pounds is acceptable when seat backs are breaking forward from the
erect position with the force applied at the top of seat back on the centerline
of the seat.
4) Consequently, the definition of the following
question is asked: What is the adequate minimum break-over force acceptable
for seat backs to meet the requirements of §
C. Action. The following standards are to
be used by all ASIs in order to determine an acceptable resistance force for
seat break-over: During aircraft surveillance, an inspector discovers no break-over
force for an individual seat or a number of seats. Report this to a responsible
person for the air carrier to ensure that the approved maintenance procedures
for this situation are followed. For uncertainties regarding seat certification,
check with the air carrier’s principal maintenance inspector (PMI) regarding
approval of these types of seats. Findings should be reported to PMIs by using
PMIs should review their certificate holder’s Continuous Airworthiness Maintenance
Program (CAMP) to ensure that the proper break-over force is listed in the maintenance
program. This should be done by reviewing the seat manufacturer’s specifications.
The PMI should also ensure the certificate holder has a method of checking seat
break-over during a maintenance cycle.
Flight departures must not be delayed if/when an inspector discovers
no break-over force for an individual seat or number of seats.
Cabin En Route Inspection Job Aid for Part
Table 6-4. Cabin En Route Interior Inspection Reference
RESERVED. Paragraphs 6-357 through 6-371.