U.S. Department of Transportation

Federal Aviation Administration

Washington, D.C.

 

Flight Standardization Board (FSB) Report

 

 

Revision: ORIGINAL

Date: 01/23/2015

 

 

 

 

AgustaWestland S.p.A

AW189

(R00004RD)

 

 

 

 

Donald H. Wood Jr.(Chip)

Chair, Flight Standardization Board

 

 

Federal Aviation Administration

Fort Worth Aircraft Evaluation Group

2601 Meacham Blvd.

Fort Worth, Texas 76137-4298

 

 

 

 

 

Telephone:

817-222-5270

FAX:

817-222-5295

 

 


 

RECORD OF REVISIONS

 

Revision Number

Section

Pages Affected

Date

Original

All

All

01/23/2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HIGHLIGHTS OF CHANGE

 

Revision Original:       All Sections. This is the original FSB report.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

CONTENTS

 

                                                                                                                                                                          Page

 

COVER PAGE………………………………………………………………………………

1

 

RECORD OF REVISIONS………………………………………………………………….

2

 

HIGHLIGHTS OF CHANGE……………………………………………………………….

2

 

CONTENTS………………………………………………………………………………....

3

1.

PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY………………………………………………………...

4

2.

PILOT TYPE RATING REQUIREMENTS……………………………………………..…

6

3.

MASTER DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS (MDRs)………………………………….…

7

4.

ACCEPTABLE OPERATOR DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS (ODR) TABLES………

8

5.

FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRAINING…………………………………………………

8

6.

FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR CHECKING………………………………………………..

12

7.

FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR RECENCY OF EXPERIENCE…………………………….

12

8.

AIRCRAFT REGULATORY COMPLIANCE CHECKLIST……………………………...

12

9.

ADDITIONAL FSB FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS………………………….

13

10.

FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR DEVICES AND SIMULATORS…………………………..

13

11.

APPLICATION OF FSB REPORT…………………………………………………………

14

12.

ALTERNATE MEANS OF COMPLIANCE……………………………………………….

14

13.

 

MISCELLANEOUS RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………..

14

 

APPENDIX 1.

FLIGHT TRAINING PIC/SIC AW189…………………………....………….

15

APPENDIX 2.

SAMPLE ACCEPTABLE TRAINING PROGRAM………..………………..

19

APPENDIX 3.

REGULATORY COMPLIANCE CHECKLIST……………………..………

25

APPENDIX 4.

ODR TABLE……………………………………………………………….....

26

APPENDIX 5.

MASTER DIFFERENCES REQUIREMENTS TABLE……………………..

27


 

1. PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY

 

1.1.  This report specifies master training, checking, and currency requirements applicable to crews operating the AgustaWestland Helicopter AW189 helicopter under 14 CFR parts 61, 91, 133, 135, and 142.

 

Note: All regulatory references within this report are found in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) unless otherwise indicated.

 

The Flight Standardization Board (FSB) was convened as part of the validation of the AgustaWestland S.p.A AW189 aircraft undertaken in July thru August 2014. The FSB evaluated operating characteristics and techniques to propose training, checking, and currency requirements applicable to the AW189 helicopter EASA certificated and FAA validated in accordance with part 29, with a maximum certificated takeoff weight of 18,260 pounds. A separate pilot type rating is required for the AW189 aircraft, which is designated, AW189.

 

Provisions of this report are:

 

1.2. This report addresses the AgustaWestland S.p.A, AW189 listed in the FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) as R00004RD.

 

1.3. Determinations made in this report are based on the evaluations of the specific AW189 aircraft equipped in a given configuration and in accordance with current regulations and guidance. Modifications and upgrades made to the models described herein, or introduction of new related aircraft, may require amendment of the findings in this report. The FSB reserves responsibility and authority to re-evaluate and modify sections of this report based on new or revised Advisory Circular (AC) material, the applicable (14 CFR), aircraft operating experience, or the testing of new or modified aircraft under the provisions of Advisory Circular AC 120-53B, Guidance for Conducting and Use of Flight Standardization Board Evaluations”. This is the original FSB report relative to the model AW189 aircraft. Provisions of this Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report are effective until amended, superseded, or withdrawn by subsequent revisions to this report.

 

1.4 The guidelines in this report apply to: operations inspectors, principal operations inspectors (POI), Training Center Program Managers (TCPM), and Aircrew Program Managers (APM). This report also applies to part 135 Air Carrier Check Airmen and Instructors, Airline Transport Pilots instructing in air transportation service, certificated flight instructors, aircrew program designees, Training Center Evaluators (TCE), and part 61, 91, 135, 141 and 142 training providers.

 

1.5. Terminology. The term “must” is used in this FSB report and even though it is recognized that this report provides one acceptable means, but not necessarily the only means of compliance with 14 CFR parts 61, 91, 125, 133, and 135 requirements. This terminology acknowledges the need for operators to fully comply with this FSB report, when applicable, if AC 120-53 is to be used by the operator as the means of complying with parts 61, 91, 133, and 135 requirements.

 

1.6. This report includes:

 

·        Minimum requirements for approval by FAA field offices,

·        General advisory information, which may be approved for that operator (e.g., footnotes, etc.).

 

1.7. Relevant acronyms and documents are defined as follows:

 

AC

Advisory Circular

AC 120-53B

AC Guidance for Conducting and Use of Flight Standardization Board

ACO

Aircraft Certification Office

ACPS

Aircraft Caution Panel System

ADC

Air Data Computer

ADS

Automatic Dependent Surveillance

AEG

Aircraft Evaluation Group

AEO

All Engines Operating

AFCAU

Automatic Flight Control Auxiliary Unit

AFCS

Automatic Flight Control System

AFCSS

Automatic Flight Control System Strip

AHARS

Attitude and Heading Reference System

AMC

Aircraft Management Computer

ANP

Actual Navigation Performance

AP

Autopilot

APM

Aircrew Program Manager

AQP

Advanced Qualification Program

ASR

Approved Surveillance Radar

AVC

Active Vibration Control System

CDP

Critical Decision Point

CHDO

Certificate Holding District Office

CFR

Code of Federal Regulations

CFIT

Controlled Flight Into Terrain

CNS

Communications, Navigation and Surveillance

CPDLC

Computer Pilot Data Link Communications

CPI

Collective Pitch Indicator

CRM

Crew Resource Management

CWP

Central Warning Panel

DTD

Data Transfer Device

DAFCS

Digital Automatic Flight Control System

EASA

European Aviation Safety Agency

EEC

Emergency Evacuation Crewmember

EFB

Electronic Flight Bag

EGPWS

Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System

EID

Electronic Instrument Display

FAA

Federal Aviation Administration

FANS

Future Air Navigation Systems

FCP

Flight Control Panel

FGS

Flight Guidance System

FLIR

Forward-Looking Infrared Imaging System

FMS

Flight Management System

FND

Flight Navigation Display

FMS/NAV

Flight Management System/Navigation Mode

FSB

Flight Standardization Board

FSTD

Flight Simulation Training Device

FTD

Flight Training Device

GA

Go Around

GBN

Ground Based Navigation

GFS

Graphic Flight Simulator

HMU

Hydro Mechanical Unit

HUMS

Health Usage Monitoring System

IFR

Instrument Flight Rules

ILS

Instrument Landing System

ISIS

Integrated Standby Instrument System

ITT

Inlet Turbine Temperature

LOC

Localizer

MAP

Missed Approach Point

MGB LMS

Main Gear Box Lubrication Monitoring System

MDR

Master Differences Requirements

MCDU

Multi-Function Control Display Unit

MLS

Microwave Landing System

MMEL

Master Minimum Equipment List

NDB

Non-Directional Beacon

NSP

National Simulator Program

OEI

One Engine Inoperative

ODR

Operator Differences Requirements

OpSpecs

Operations Specifications

PAR

Precision Approach Radar

PFD

Primary Flight Display

PIC

Pilot In Command

POI

Principal Operations Inspector

PTS

Practical Test Standards

RA

Radar Altimeter

RCU

Reconfiguration Control Unit

RFM

Rotorcraft Flight Manual

RFMS

Rotorcraft Flight Manual Supplement

RIP

Rotor Ice Protection

RNP

Required Navigational Performance

RNAV

Area Navigation

SAS

Stability Augmentation System

SDF/LDA

Simplified Directional Facility/Localizer-Type Directional Aid

SIC

Second In Command

SIM

Simulator

SIU

Sensor Interface Unit

TAWS

Terrain Alert and Warning System

TCAS

Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System

TCDS

Type Certificate Data Sheet

TCE

Training Center Evaluator

TCPM

Training Center Program Manager

TRQ

Torque

VMS

Vehicle Management System

VNAV

Vertical Navigation

VOR

Very High Frequency Omnirange

WCP

Warning and Caution Panel

WOW

Weight on Wheels

WX

Weather Radar

14 CFR

Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations

8900.1

Aviation Safety Inspectors Handbook (FSIMS)

8900.2

General Aviation Airman Designee Handbook

FAA-S-

8081-20

 

Airline Transport Pilot Practical Test Standards for Helicopters.

 

2. PILOT TYPE RATING REQUIREMENTS

 

2.1. In accordance with the provisions of part 61, FAA Order 8900.1, Aviation Safety Inspectors Handbook, and AC 120-53, The FSB, with concurrence of the manufacturer, determined that the type rating for the model AgustaWestland S.p.A AW189 model helicopter is designated as AW189.

 

2.1.1. Current FAA policy for type ratings is based on the certified takeoff gross weight of 12,500 pounds or more, defined as a large aircraft.

 

2.1.2. The FSB has identified Level E training, checking, and currency for the AgustaWestland S.p.A AW189. The FSB recommends implementation of a single standard for training, checking, and currency for the AgustaWestland S.p.A AW189 aircraft. Implementation of a single standard of training, checking, and currency to AgustaWestland S.p.A AW189 operations, including part 91 operations, is necessary to achieve safety and comply with the requirements of this report. The Board determined the AgustaWestland S.p.A AW189 met AC 120-53 criteria for Level E Training in a Flight Simulation Training Device. Level E training can be accomplished with the use of a simulator qualified as level C or D consistent with FAA criteria. Level E training accomplished in an aircraft should be modified for safety reasons where the maneuvers can result in a high degree of risk.

 

2.2 The Second-In-Command Pilot Type Rating, AW189 SIC PRIVILEGES ONLY, may be issued in accordance with § 61.55.

 

3. MASTER DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS (MDR)

 

3.1. Master Difference Requirements. (Reserved)

 

4. ACCEPATABLE OPERATOR DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS (ODR) TABLES

 

4.1. Reserved.

 

5. FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRAINING

 

5.1. Assumptions Regarding an Airmen’s Previous Experience. The provisions of this section apply to programs for airmen who have experience in part 91, or 135 operations of multi-engine, turbine rotorcraft equipped with integrated autopilot flight management systems, and integrated avionics displays. For airmen not having this experience, additional requirements may be appropriate as determined by the POI, FSB, and/or AFS-200. Training must include the subjects and maneuvers listed in the Areas of Special Emphasis of this report (5.5.4.) All training and checking must be conducted in accordance with RFM recommended procedures and maneuvers. No credit is provided for training received in AgustaWestland S.p.A AW139.

 

5.2. Level E training for Pilot in Command, and Second in Command is required. Simulator task credit may be given in accordance with Airline Transport Pilot, Commercial Pilot Helicopter, or Instrument Rating for Helicopter as appropriate. (See Appendix 1)

 

5.3. Second-In-Command Training Tasks. A Flight Crew member who serves as SIC, must accomplish certain tasks, procedures or maneuvers for the SIC crew position. Training programs should address all training elements of §§ 61.55 and 135.345, in accordance with FAA Order 8900.1, Volume 3, Chapter 19.

 

5.4. Future Air Navigation Systems (FANS) RNP/ANP/CNS/CPDLC/ADS. Flight Crews operating aircraft equipped with FANS software should receive appropriate instruction in its general operational functions, appropriate uses for areas of operation, routes, or procedures to be flown. General training should address Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) functions covered by FANS, RNP, and ANP. In addition, sufficient training in the use of data link communication and Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) to ensure adequate knowledge, skill, and proficiency for flight crews to operate the above system(s) in typical daily operations that requiring their use should be provided.

 

5.5. Pilots Initial, Transition and Upgrade Training Type Rating

 

5.5.1. Pilots Initial, Transition and Upgrade Ground Training: Initial, transition, or upgrade ground training for the helicopter is accomplished as specified by the §§ 91.1065, and 135.345. No unique provisions or requirements are specified. Training program hours may be reduced as specified in part 135. There are no specified training program hours for Transition Ground Training. Specific design features of the helicopter, combined with the various types of operations to be conducted, should be considered when approving helicopter Transition Ground Training.

 

5.5.2 Pilots Initial, Transition and Upgrade Flight Training: Initial, transition, or upgrade flight training for the model AgustaWestland S.p.A AW189 designated as the AW189 type rating is accomplished as specified by § 135.347. In accordance with the following conditions, and at the discretion of Principal Operations Inspectors, and Training Center Program Managers, having airmen certification responsibility for the following helicopter type rating designation AW139 model helicopter may not allow training credit for applicants holding an AW139 type rating at this time. However training must have been conducted in the model AW189 and completed in an Initial or Recurrent course within the previous 24 months.

 

5.5.3 Flight Crewmember Emergency Training: Crewmember training in emergency equipment and evacuation procedures is required. Evacuation procedures training must include passenger briefing requirements to comply with RFM Limitations.

 

5.5.4 Areas of Emphasis: The following areas of emphasis must be addressed during ground and flight training:

 

·        Central Warning Panel (CWP) discipline and messaging function are critical because of the large amount of information available through the CWP and the need of the flight crew to use it without being excessively distracted.

·        Vehicle Monitoring System Messages are depicted on the two central VMS displays. The upper display depicts TRQ, N1, TOT limits for each engine and the main rotor transmission in both AEO and OEI operations. The lower display depicts temperatures and pressures of the helicopters engines, transmission, hydraulic, and fuel systems.

·        Flight and Navigation Displays (FND’s). Altitude, airspeed, and vertical speed are presented on vertical scale analog format. Additionally the collective pitch indicator (CPI) is displayed on the left of outboard FND’s. Pilots need to be able to understand the information presented on these displays. Pilots transitioning from traditional round dial basic “T” instruments may require additional training and instrument scan practice to gain proficiency in manually flying by reference to the FND. Recognition of reversionary modes and display failures and appropriate corrective action to be taken must be addressed.

·        Full Authority Digital Fuel Control (FADEC). An operational understanding of the FADEC, its relationship to the collective pitch indicator, and the power indicating modes in AEO and OEI operations is required, for both training mode and actual OEI operations.

·        Collective Pitch Indicator (CPI) displays blade angle from 6 to 19 degrees with engine and transmission parameters in a relative scale indicating a percent of available power. The CPI cannot be used as a Q, ITT, or Ng gage. The CPI indicator displays multiple limitations during AEO and OEI operations. The pilot must be proficient in the interpretation of this instrument.

·        Cyclic and Collective control grip switches. There are eleven switches on the cyclic control, and twelve switches on the collective. These switches control multiple aircraft systems including the AFCS Trim Release, Flight Director, Auto Pilot, Engine bleed valve controls, Hover, and Go-Around commands. Proficiency in the use of these switches is essential.

·        Flight Control Panel using pushbuttons with integral light bars. Pilots should have an understanding of the switch position and system configuration as it relates to whether the light bar is illuminated or not. This understanding is required for both normal and abnormal system operation.

·        Flight Guidance System including the Autopilot. An understanding of the various lateral and vertical modes and the ability to select and arm the modes during different phases of flight is essential. Integrated use of the Autopilot and Flight Management System is critical.

·        All the combinations FMS and Ground Based navigation information must be understood to safely and reliably operate the aircraft during instrument approaches, including the use of vertical navigation functions.

·        Rockwell Collins FMS integrated flight management system. Programing of navigational information must be understood to safely and reliably operate the aircraft during instrument approaches, including the use of vertical navigation functions.

·        Knowledge of emergency procedure for dual engine failure during cruise. At cruise power settings, and relatively high angles of attack in the main rotor blades a sudden loss of power in both engines can produce rapid main rotor (Nr) decay. This can result in excessive coning, destabilization of the rotor system, and subsequent loss of control. This condition is possible in all multiengine helicopters and historically has resulted in catastrophic hull loss.

Knowledge of aircraft performance determination should be emphasized.

 

5.5.5. Training for Seat Dependent Tasks: RFM minimum flight crew is specified as: Two pilots IFR. For two pilot operations the PIC may occupy either seat.

 

5.5.6. Second-In-Command Crew Training: SIC crew training is accomplished as specified.

Section 135.329 Training programs, should address tasks stipulated in FSB Specifications for Training; Areas of Emphasis (5.5.4.)

 

5.5.7. Differences Training as specified in the pertinent 14 CFR.

 

5.5.8. Recurrent Ground Training Fleets with Different Engine Types: Mixed-flying of helicopter fleets with different engine types (e.g. helicopter fleet with model/manufactures engines) requires additional training.

 

5.5.9. Recurrent Flight Training Fleets with Different Engine Types: Mixed-flying of helicopter fleets with different engine types (e.g. helicopter fleet with different model/manufactures engines) requires additional training.

 

5.6. Operating Experience

 

5.6.1. Operating Experience Pertinent to Each Flight Crewmember: Operating experience must be obtained while serving in a primary crew position.

 

5.6.2. Separate Operating Experience for Single Fleet Operations: Operating experience for the helicopter will be accomplished in the AW189.

 

5.6.3. Operating experience for Mixed Fleet Flying Operations: Operating experience for the helicopter will be accomplished in each make/model/series helicopter.

 

5.7. Instrument Approaches

 

5.7.1. Operators should assure that flight crews are familiar with appropriate use of the FGS and FMS, including modes to be used, for the types of instrument approaches to be flown, when using FMS NAV mode in lieu of or in conjunction with NDB, VOR, localizer, or back course localizer procedures. This emphasis is also appropriate for aircraft that do not have certain navigation system sensors, such as ADF, installed.

 

5.7.2. Sections 135.293(a), (8), (b), and 135.297, specify Pilot in command competency and instrument proficiency checking requirements. At minimum the AgustaWestland S.p.A AW189 require a training program which addresses the following automated systems and displays:

 

6. FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR CHECKING

 

6.1. Checking Items: All checking requirements of §§ 61.58, 61.63, 61.157, and 135.293 will be administered in accordance with the Airline Transport Pilot and Aircraft Type Rating Practical Test Standards.

 

6.2. Areas of Emphasis: The following areas of emphasis should be addressed during checks as necessary:

 

·        Proficiency with manual and automatic flight must be demonstrated.

·        Proper selection and use of MFD displays, raw data, and Flight Guidance System modes should be demonstrated, particularly during instrument approaches.

·        Demonstration of FMS navigation proficiency in approaches, departures, and arrivals.

·        OEI Training Switch and appropriate management during simulated OEI conditions.

·        Proper outside visual scan without prolonged fixation on FMS operation should be demonstrated, and failure of component(s) of the MFD and FMS should be addressed.

·        Awareness of pitch trim actuator saturation and aircraft control consequences, and recovery procedures.

·        CRM and CFIT procedures.

 

 

6.3. All flight checks required by § 135.293(b), must be level E accomplished in an AW189 helicopter, or level C or D full motion simulator according to instructions in the appropriate practical test standards, FAA-S-8081-E Instrument Rating, 8081-16A Commercial Pilot, and 8081-20 Airline Transport Pilot. Additionally checking is supplemented with guidance in FAA Handbook 8900.1, Volume 5, Chapter 2, and FAA Order 8900.2.

 

7. FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR RECENCY OF EXPERIENCE

 

7.1. The FSB has found no additional “Recency of Experience” requirements for the AW189, other than those already specified in part 61, and 135. No legacy variants for the models AW189 were evaluated, therefore all checks required by parts 61, 91, or 135 must be accomplished in the specific make, model, and aircraft.

 

8. AIRCRAFT REGULATORY COMPLIANCE CHECKLIST

 

8.1. Compliance Checklist.

 

Compliance checklists are provided as an aid to FAA Certificate Holding District Offices (CHDO) in identifying those specific rules or policies for which compliance has already been demonstrated to the FAA for aircraft having a particular aircraft type certificate.

 

8.2 Discussion of Specific Compliance Checklist Items

 

8.2.1 Emergency Evacuation Demonstration § 135.331. An additional full scale evacuation is not necessary for aircraft configurations consistent with previously approved tests. Passenger capacity less than or equal to the demonstrated capacity may be authorized. Evacuation Demonstration procedures and passenger information used for the test should be used by operators unless another full scale evacuation is conducted to validate alternative procedures

 

8.2.2 Ditching Demonstration and compliance with § 29.801 has not been demonstrated. Operators must comply with § 135.331(b)(3) (iii).

 

8.2.3 Forward Observer Seat. Available crew, and forward passenger seats, were evaluated and found suitable for conducting enroute inspections per § 135.75(b). The front row passenger seats have been demonstrated suitable with the standard passenger seat / seatbelt, and a splitter cord for audio. Audio jacks may be installed at the forward seat to provide for enroute inspection.

 

8.2.4 Proving Tests to satisfy § 135.145 have not been conducted and should be conducted in accordance with FAA Order 8900.1.

 

8.2.5 Validation Tests to satisfy § 135.145(d) have not been conducted and should be conducted in accordance with FAA Order 8900.1.

 

8.2.6 Cockpit Checklist: The Manufacturer’s Pilot Checklist is acceptable for compliance with § 135.83(b) for cockpit checklist procedures.

 

8.2.7 Electronic Flight Bag

 

            Electronic Checklists

Printed Pilot Checklist remains required for compliance with § 135.83(b). The Electronic Pilot Checklist was not installed with the software of the flight test aircraft. The Electronic Pilot Checklist may be acceptable for use after updated software is installed, provided the aircraft operator ensures the Electronic Pilot Checklist procedures remain current for the aircraft.

 

9. ADDITIONAL FSB FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

9.1. Instructors, Check Airman, and Examiners: For the purpose of checking, FAA Aviation Safety Inspectors, Designated Pilot Examiners, Training Center Evaluators and Check Airmen must be PIC qualified in the AW189. Examiners and Check Airmen should have 100 hours PIC in the AW189 and maintain currency in accordance with this report.

 

10. FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR DEVICES AND SIMULATORS

 

10.1. Part 60: Flight Simulation Training Device Initial and Continuing Qualification and Use, outlines specifications for helicopter simulator and flight training devices. The EASA approved full motion Level C Simulator, was used in the evaluation of the models AW189 helicopter. Currently FAA approval is pending for a level D full motion simulator. The devices can be used to complete some of the required training tasks for the AW189 type rating.

 

10.2. FTD/GFS: There was no approved level 4 thru level 7 Flight Training Devices, or ground/graphic based procedural simulator (GFS) at the time of the FSB. Any Flight Simulation Training Device (FSTD) (Level C, D,) must be equivalent to what operational in the aircraft. Proficient pilot use of the Rockwell Collins (FMS) is critical to operation of the avionics system.

 

10.3. Device Approval: Requests for device approval should be made to the POI. The POI may approve these devices for that operator if their characteristics clearly meet the established FAA criteria and have been approved by the National Simulator Program (NSP) Office. NSP approval of the simulator was pending during the FSB activities.

 

11. APPLICATION OF FSB REPORT

 

11.1. All AW189 operators are subject to the provisions of this report. This report becomes effective when given final approval by the FAA. All training, checking, and currency for the AW189 aircraft, must be conducted in accordance with all provisions of this report. All training programs must incorporate the latest FAA Approved RFM Procedures, RFM Checklists, and the manufacturer’s recommendations for training maneuvers.

 

12. ALTERNATE MEANS OF COMPLIANCE

 

12.1. Alternate Means of Compliance to the requirements of this report must be approved by the FSB. If alternate means of compliance is sought, operators must show that the proposed alternate means provides an equivalent level of safety to the provisions of AC 120-53 (as amended) and this FSB report. Analysis, demonstrations, proof of concept testing, differences documentation, or other evidence may be required.

 

12.2. Equivalent Level of Safety: Significant restrictions may apply in the event alternate means of compliance is sought, and the reporting requirements may be increased to ensure equivalent safety. FAA will generally not consider relief through alternate means of compliance unless sufficient lead-time has been planned by an operator to allow for any necessary testing and evaluation.

 

12.3. Interim Programs: In the event of clearly unforeseen circumstances, in which it is not possible for an operator to comply with provisions of this report, the operator may seek an interim program approval rather than a permanent alternate means of compliance method. Financial arrangements, scheduling adjustments, and other such reasons are not considered, “unforeseen circumstances”, for the purposes of this provision. The FSB Chairman must approve interim program approvals.

 

13.  MISCELLANEOUS RECOMMENDATIONS

 

13.1. The AW189 enjoys the benefit of a significant upgrade of integrated systems, management and presentation. Although the presentation and integration of the integrated cockpit is clean and well done, it is apparent that familiarization and expertise with the AW189 systems and their use, is critical to safe operation of aircraft.

 


 

APPENDIX 1

Flight Training PIC/SIC Flight Training AW189 Helicopter

Maneuvers and Procedures Tables

 

The events, which must be accomplished during flight training, are listed in the maneuvers and procedures tables in this section. These tables also contain the acceptable flight training equipment (training devices, simulators, or aircraft), which may be used for any training event. An “X” indicates that the specified FTD or SIM has been qualified for that event without further consideration or approval. An “A” indicates that a lower level device or simulator may be used for procedural training if that device has the necessary systems representations and functions for training on the event. These systems representations and functions exceed the basic requirements for that level device or simulator; therefore, an “A” indicates that the device or simulator must be evaluated and approved for each particular event. Any maneuver or procedure permitted in a specific level of FTD or SIM may also be conducted in a higher level of FTD, SIM, or the aircraft itself (provided the event can safely be accomplished in the aircraft). Certain training events within the tables are preceded with a box ([ ]). If the operator is authorized (or required) to conduct these maneuvers by Operations Specifications (OpSpecs) (for example, a circling approach), P.O.I. should check the appropriate box to indicate these events must be included in the training curriculum. Certain optional training events indicated by a pound sign (#) in the maneuvers and the regulations or OpSpecs does not specifically require procedures tables. Many of these optional training events, however, are often included in an operator’s flight training curriculums and should be conducted in a properly qualified device or simulator. FAA policy requires detailed descriptions (or pictorial displays) of the training events marked with the letter (M) (see FAA Order 8900.1, Volume 3, Chapter. 19, Section 6, paragraph 3-1233).

 

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

REMARK

FTD LEVEL

SIM LEVEL

A

C

F

T

4

5

6

7

B

C

D

 

PREPARATION

 

 

Visual Inspection

 

X

X

X

X

 

 

X

A

NOTE: For training conducted solely under part 61 visual inspection must be performed in an aircraft.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Before Taxi Procedures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Performance Limitations

 

A

A

A

A

 

 

A

X

SURFACE OPERATION

Starting

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Rotor Engagement

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Rotor Engagement on Water SEA

Not Used

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

Taxiing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Water Taxiing SEA

Not Used

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

Lift-to-Hover IGE/OGE (M)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Hover Turns IGE/OGE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Sideward/Rearward Hovering

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Slope Operations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Liftoff

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Taxiing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X


 

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

REMARK

FTD LEVEL

SIM LEVEL

A

C

F

T

4

5

6

7

B

C

D

 

TAKEOFF

Normal (M)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Instrument

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Obstacle Clearance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Running (High Altitude)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Category “A” (M)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Category “A” (M) With Powerplant Failure Before CDP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Category “A” (M) With Powerplant Failure After CDP CLIMB

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Rejected Takeoff (M)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

CLIMB

Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Best Rate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Best Angle

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

EN ROUTE

Medium-Banked Turns

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Powerplant Shutdown and Restart

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Low Speed Characteristics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

High Speed Handling Characteristics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

DESCENT

Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Maximum Rate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Autorotative Glide

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X


 

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

REMARK

FTD LEVEL

SIM LEVEL

A

C

F

T

4

5

6

7

B

C

D

 

APPROACHES

VFR Procedures Normal (M)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Obstacle Clearance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

High Altitude

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Elevated Landing Site

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

With Degraded Control Augmentation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Balked Landing (M)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

IFR Precision

Approaches (M)

ILS/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

ILS/One-Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

[ ] MLS/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

[ ] MLS/One-Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

[ ] PAR/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

[ ] PAR/One-Engine Inoperative #

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

IFR Non-precision Approaches (M)

NDB/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

VOR/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

[ ] LOC Backcourse Procedures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

[ ] SDF/LDA Procedures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

[ ] ASR Procedures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

[ ] RNAV Procedures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

[ ] LORAN C Procedures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

[ ] Circling Approach (M)

(Simulator must be qualified for training/checking on the circling maneuver)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Missing Approaches (M)

From Precision Approach

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

From Non-precision Approach

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

NOTE: At least one MAP must be a complete approved procedure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

With Powerplant Failure

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X


 

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

REMARK

FTD LEVEL

SIM LEVEL

A

C

F

T

4

5

6

7

B

C

D

 

LANDINGS

Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Emergency landing on water

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

NOTE : Emergency landing on water is required only for an operator engaged in water operations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[ ] Category “A”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

[ ] Category “A” With Powerplant Failure after LDP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Crosswind

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

From Precision Instrument Approach

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

From a Precision Approach With at Least 50 percent Power Deficiency

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

With Degraded Control Arguments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

AFTER LANDING

Taxi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Parking #

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Stopping the Rotors

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Emergency Evacuation #

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

UNPREPARED SITE OPERATIONS

Confined Areas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Pinnacles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Ridgelines

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Water Sites SEA

Not Used

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

OTHER FLIGHT PROCEDURES DURING ANY AIRBORNE PHASE

Holding

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Ice Accumulation on Airframe #

Not Used

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Air Hazard Avoidance #

Not Used

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

Windshear/Microburst #

Not Used

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

 


 

APPENDIX 2

Sample Training Program AW189

 

CURRICULUM SEGMENT OUTLINE

 

As part of an approved training program, an operator may use many methods when conducting helicopter ground training, including classroom instruction, pictures, videotape, ground-training devices, computer-based instruction, and static helicopter training.

 

The ground training curriculum segment outline is comprised of the following subject areas: General Operational Subjects, Aircraft Systems, and Systems Integration.

 

General Operational Subjects

 

The portion of ground training referred to as “General Operational Subjects” includes instruction in:

 

A.    Weight and Balance

B.    Performance

C.    Flight Planning

D.    Approved Rotorcraft Flight Manual/Rotorcraft Operating Manual (As Appropriate)

E.    Crew Resource Management (CRM)

 

Aircraft Systems

 

The training modules presented in the aircraft systems subject area consists of a breakdown of the various systems of the AW189. These modules may be taught in any sequence, however all modules must be covered.

 

A.    Aircraft General

B.     Lighting

C.    Master Warning System/Caution Advisory Module

D.    Electrical

E.     Fuel

F.     Powerplant

G.    Ice and Rain Protection

H.    Fire Protection

I.       Powertrain

J.      Main Rotor

K.    Tail Rotor

L.      Hydraulics

M.    Landing Gear and Brakes

N.     Flight Controls

O.    Integrated Automatic Flight Control System

P.     Avionics Rockwell Collins Flight Management System

Q.    Environmental

R.      Rotor Ice Protection (If Equipped)

S.      Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS)

T.      Kits and Accessories

U.      System Review, Examination, and Critique

 

Systems Integration

 

The training modules presented in the Systems Integration subject area provides the pilots/crews with instruction on aircraft systems interrelationships with respect to normal, malfunctions, and emergency procedures. Pilots will be introduced to, and will have exercises in, the elements of Crew Resource Management as part of the integration process, including but not limited to such elements as: Situational Awareness, the Error Chain, Synergy, Crew Concept, Workload Assessment, and Time Management. Pilots will become familiar with the cockpit layout, checklists, maneuvers, and procedures. Lessons are normally conducted in a cockpit procedures mockup, Graphic Flight Simulator (GFS), cockpit procedures trainer, flight training device, or full flight simulator.

 

A.    Systems Integration Module No. 1- Aircraft Checklists/Normal Procedures/Rockwell Collins FMS Cockpit/CRM

B.    Systems Integration Module No. 2 - Normal Procedures/Rockwell/Collins FMS Cockpit

C.    Systems Integration Module No. 3 - Normal Procedures/Abnormal Procedures/Emergency Procedures

D.    Systems Integration Module No. 4 - Normal Procedures/Abnormal Procedures/Emergency Procedures

E.    Systems Integration Module No. 5 - Normal Procedures/Abnormal Procedures/Emergency Procedures

 

TRAINING MODULE OUTLINES

 

General Operational Subjects Modules

 

A.    Weight and Balance Module

1.        General Principles and Methods of Weight and Balance Determination

2.        Operations

3.        Limitations

B.    Performance Module

1.        Use of Charts, Tables, Tabulated Data, and Other Related Material

2.        Performance Problems, Normal, Abnormal, and Emergency Conditions

3.        Performance Limiting Factors such as Ambient Temperature, Runway Contamination, etc.

C.    Flight Planning Module

1.        Flight Planning Charts, Such as Fuel Consumption Charts

2.        Operations

3.        Limitations

D.    Approved Rotorcraft Flight Manual/Rotorcraft Operating Manual Module (As Appropriate)

1.        Applicability and Description of the RFM

2.        Normal, Abnormal, and Emergency Procedures Sections

3.        Limitations Section

4.        Maneuvers and Procedures Section

5.        General Performance Section

6.        Systems Description

7.        Appendices, Bulletins and Supplements

E.    Crew Resource Management (CRM) Module

1.        Situational Awareness and the Error Chain

2.        Stress

3.        Communications

4.        Synergy and Crew Concept

5.        Workload Management

6.        Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM)

7.        Advanced/Automated Cockpit Technologies

 

Systems Modules

 

A.    Aircraft General Module

1.    General

a.      Aircraft Contents of RFM

b.      Training Manuals

c.       Equipment and Furnishings

d.      Emergency Equipment

2.    Structures

3.    Operating Limitations

4.    Instrument Markings

a.     Engines

b.    Miscellaneous Cockpit Instruments

5.    Aircraft Walk Around

a.    Use Appropriate Visual, ACPS or Available Aircraft

B.    Lighting Module

1.    General

2.    Operations

3.    Limitations

4.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedure

C.    Master Warning / Caution Advisory System Module

1.    General

2.    Operations

3.    Limitations

4.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

D.    Electrical Module

1.    General

a.    System Description

b.    AC Power

c.    DC Power

d.    Annunciators

2.    Operations

3.    Limitations

4.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

5.    Operations

6.    Limitations

7.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

E.    Powerplant Module

1.    General

a.    System Description

b.    Controls and Components

c.    Indicators/Indications

d.    Annunciators

2.    Operations

3.    Limitations

4.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

F.    Ice and Rain Protection Module

1.    General

2.    Operations

3.    Limitations

4.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

G.    Fire Protection Module

1.    Engine Fire Detection

a.    General

b.    Operations

2.    Engine Fire Extinguishing

a.    General

b.    Operations

c.    Limitations

d.    Abnormal and Emergency Operations

3.    Portable Fire Extinguisher

a.    Location

b.    Preflight

H.    Powertrain Module

1.    General

a.    System Description

b.    Controls and Components

c.    Annunciators

2.    Operations

3.    Limitations

4.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

I.      Main Rotor Module

1.    General

a.    System Description

b.    Controls and Components

2.    Operations

3.    Limitations

4.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

5.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

J.      Tail Rotor Module

1.    General

a.    System Description

b.    Controls and Components

2.    Operations

3.    Limitations

4.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

K.    Hydraulics Module

1.    General

2.    Operations

3.    Limitations

4.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

L.    Landing Gear and Brakes Module

1.    General

a.    Landing Gear

b.    Brakes

c.    Annunciators

d.    Servicing

2.    Operations

3.    Limitations

4.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

M.   Flight Controls Module

1.    General

a.    System Description

b.    Controls and Components

c.    Indicators/Indications

d.    Annunciators

2.    Operations

3.    Limitations

4.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

N.    Digital Automatic Flight Control System (DAFCS) Module

1.    General

a.    System Description

b.    Controls and Components

c.    Annunciators

d.    Servicing

2.    Operations

3.    Limitations

4.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

O.    Avionics Module

1.    Rockwell/Collins FMS

2.    Multi-Functional Displays (MFD)

3.    Primary Flight Displays (PFD)

4.    General

a.    System Description

b.    Controls and Components

c.    Annunciators

d.    Servicing

5.    Operations/Limitations

6.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

P.     Environmental Module

1.    General

a.    System Description

b.    Controls and Components

c.    Annunciators

d.    Servicing

2.    Operations

3.    Limitations

4.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

5.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

Q.    Health Usage Monitoring System

1.    General

2.    Operations

3.    Limitations

4.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

R.    Kits and Accessories Module (Floats/Rescue Hoist/Cargo Hook - as equipped)

1.    General

a.    System Description

b.    Controls and Components

c.    Annunciators

d.    Servicing

2.    Operations

3.    Limitations

4.    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

S.    Systems Review, Examination and Critique Module

1.    Written Examination with a Passing Grade of 80%, corrected to 100%.

 

APPENDIX 3

 

Aircraft Compliance Checklist

 

 

Reserved.   The AW189 manufacturer provided an extensive regulatory compliance checklist for the AW189 model aircraft. This document is stored with the Board Record of the Flight Standardization Board Report. Contact the Fort Worth Aircraft Evaluation Group for more information.”


APPENDIX 4

ODR TABLE

 

(Reserved)

 

Type Rating

AW139

From Helicopter Model

 

AW139

 

 

 

To Helicopter

Model

 

AW189

 

 

 

Not Used

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operator Differences Requirements

 

Definitions used in the ODR Tables:

X   = Flight Manual/Pilot’s Operating Handbook and/or FM Supplement

AI   = Aided Instruction

CBT   = Computer Based Training

ICBT   = Interactive Computer Based Training

FTD   = Flight Training Device (Level 1 to 7)

FBS   = Fixed Base Simulator (Level 5 to 7)

FFS   = Full Flight Simulator (Level A, B, C, D)

 

 

Note: Only the system AW189 is listed.

 

SAMPLE DIFFERENCES TABLE

 

  DIFFERENCE AIRCRAFT: AW139

 

 

  BASE AIRCRAFT: AW189

COMPLIANCE METHOD

TRAINING

CHKG/CURR

DESIGN

REMARKS

FLT

CHAR

PROC

CHNG

LVL

A

LVL

B

LVL

C

LVL

D

CHK

CURR

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A