U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Aviation Administration
Flight Standardization Board (FSB) Report
BAE SYSTEMS Jetstream 4100
James M. Eitel
Chair, Flight Standardization Board
Federal Aviation Administration
Seattle Aircraft Evaluation Group
1601 Lind Ave SW
Renton, WA 98057
REVISION RECORDREVISION NO. SECTION PAGE #s DATE
CONTENTSPART I - TRAINING, CHECKING, AND CURRENCY REQUIREMENTS SECTION PAGE
1. PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY Page 3
2. PILOT "TYPE RATING" REQUIREMENTS Page 3
3. "MASTER COMMON REQUIREMENTS" (MCRs) Page 3
4. "MASTER DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS" (MDRs) (Reserved). Page 3
5. ACCEPTABLE "OPERATOR DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS"
TABLES (Reserved) Page 4
6. FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRAINING Page 4
7. FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR CHECKING Page 8
8. FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR CURRENCY Page 8
9. AIRCRAFT COMPLIANCE CHECKLIST Page 9
10. RESERVED Page 9
11. APPLICATION OF FSB REPORT Page 9
12. ALTERNATE MEANS OF COMPLIANCE Page 9
13. MISCELLANEOUS Page 10
APPENDIX 1 - MDR TABLES
APPENDIX 2 - ACCEPTABLE ODR TABLES
APPENDIX 3 - ACCEPTABLE DIFFERENCE TRAINING PROGRAM FOR A BA-4100
MIXED FLEET (RESERVED)
APPENDIX 4 - AIRCRAFT COMPLIANCE CHECKLIST
PART II - BOARD RECORD
1. PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY1.1 This FSB report specifies FAA master training, checking, and currency requirements applicable to crews operating BA-4100 aircraft under FAR 135. The report also addresses certain issues regarding BA-4100 aircraft operating other than under Part 135 (eg. Type Rating Designation, ...).
1.2 This report includes:a) Information which is advisory in general, but may be mandatory for particular operators if the designated configurations apply, b) Describe acceptable training program and device characteristics when necessary to establish compliance with pertinent MDRs, c) Set checking and currency standards including specifications of those checks that must be administered by FAA or operators, and d) List regulatory compliance status (compliance checklist) for the BA-4100 for FARs, Advisory Circularsí, or other operational criteria for information of FAA field offices.
2. PILOT "TYPE RATING" REQUIREMENTSType Rating. In accordance with the provisions of FAR 1, 61 and 135 the pilot "Type Rating" assigned is designated "BA-4100".
3. "MASTER COMMON REQUIREMENTS" (MCRs)
3.1 Common requirements for all BA-4100s.
3.1.1 Landing Minima Categories, FAR 97.3. All BA-4100 are considered Category B aircraft for the purposes of determining "straight-in landing weather minima". For circling, the minima to be used are as specified in operation specifications for each operator.
3.1.2 Normal "Final Landing Flap Setting". The normal "final landing flap setting" is considered to be "Flaps 25" for all BA- 4100s.
3.1.3 "No Flap Approach". Training and checking applicable to BA-4100 aircraft requires demonstration of "no flap" approaches.
3.2 No other special or unique requirements common to BA-4100s are identified beyond those provided by FARs 61, 91 and 135.
4. "MASTER DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS" (MDRs) (Reserved)
5. ACCEPTABLE "OPERATOR DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS" TABLES (Reserved)
6. FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRAINING
6.1 Assumptions Regarding Previous Experience of Airmen. The provisions of Section 6 of this report apply to programs for airmen who are experienced in both FAR 135 air carrier operations and multiengine transport category turboprop aircraft. For airmen not having this experience, additional requirements may be appropriate as determined by the POI, FSB and AFS-200.
6.1.1 Pilots: Initial, Transition and Upgrade Ground and Flight Training.6.1.2 Terminology. The term "must" is used in this FSB report even though it is recognized that this report and the advisory circular AC 120-53 provide only one acceptable means, but not necessarily the only means, of compliance with FAR 135 requirements. This terminology acknowledges the need for operators to fully comply with FSB report provisions, if this method is to be applied as that operator's means of compliance with FAR 135. Operators who chose this method must comply with each applicable provision. Partial or selective application of the process or its provisions, does not constitute an acceptable means of compliance with FAR 135 under AC 120-53.
6.1.3 Minimum Acceptable Training Requirements For Integrated BA-4100 Programs. An acceptable ground training curriculum for a BA-4100 program is specified in 22.214.171.124. For BA-4100 programs already approved, reductions through provisions of 135.323(d), should not be made without coordination with the FSB. Less comprehensive programs will only be approved if equivalence can clearly be established or other special factors apply. Examples of special factors that may be considered by the FSB include such factors as allowing credit for previous applicable experience (i.e. operators implementing fleets who have crews previously qualified) or increases in the quality or effectiveness of the training process (i.e. new types of training devices).
6.1.4 Ground Training (Academics) for the BA-4126.96.36.199.1 Ground training in the following subjects for the BA- 4100 is required: a) Aircraft General Description (Interior/Exterior) b) Powerplant c) Aircraft Systems (eg. Hydraulics, Electrical, etc.) d) EFIS e) Limitations f) Performance g) Warnings and Cautions h) Normal/Abnormal Procedures
6.1.5 Flight Training for the BA-4188.8.131.52.1 Flight Training should focus on the following events or maneuvers: a) Exterior Differences b) Cockpit/Cabin Familiarization c) Systems Tests and Checks d) Flight Control Malfunctions e) Integrated Electronic Control (IEC) f) Power Management Procedures g) No Flap Landing Procedures h) Normal Procedures
184.108.40.206 Minimum Acceptable Flight Training. The underlying objective in both flight and ground training is to train to proficiency.
6.1.6 Takeoff Safety.220.127.116.11 Particular emphasis on certain takeoff safety related topics is appropriate during training. This includes emphasis on the following: a) Meaning and proper use of V1
b) Importance of prompt and correct execution of a rejected takeoff (RTO), when necessary
c) Need to minimize exposure to high speed RTOs for minor difficulties unrelated to the ability of the aircraft to continue a safe takeoffd) Proper lineup and use of available runway e) Correct accountability for clutter and/or reduced braking friction
6.1.7 Specialized Training.
18.104.22.168 Training organizations and operators should insure that all crewmembers are familiar with the provisions of Advisory Circular 00-54A (Pilot Windshear Guide), dated 11-25-88. This windshear training aid communicates key windshear information relevant to flight crews. FAR 135.345 requires procedures for recognizing, avoiding and escaping from severe weather situations, to include low-altitude windshear.22.214.171.124 TCAS installation and training is not currently mandated under Parts 91 and 135. For those operators choosing to install TCAS I/II under Part 91 or 135 operations, however, principals described by Advisory Circular 120-55C may also be applied. For those operators electing to install such equipment, crewmembers should be familiar with the requirements of AC 120-55C, and FARs 91.221 and 135.180.
6.1.8 Hazardous weather and winter operations. Proper precautions and procedures regarding hazardous weather/winter operations, which may be unique to BA-4100 aircraft should be addressed. For example, topics such as proper use of wing/tail de-ice, antiskid braking characteristics when stopping on slippery runways, use of procedures described in the windshear training aid, hazards associated with rejecting takeoffs near V1 on slippery runways, and other such topics are appropriate for emphasis in training programs.6.1.9 Training for BA-4100 "Seat Dependent" Tasks. For FAR 135 operations, proper accomplishment of certain BA-4100 tasks, procedures, or maneuvers require training of a crewmember for a particular crew position (eg. captain, first officer, check airman, etc...). Thus training programs including those programs leading to airman certification for an ATPC or type rating should recognize and address the necessary seat/position related tasks for the applicable crewmember or certification that is intended.
126.96.36.199 Some BA-4100 tasks, procedures, or maneuvers considered to have seat dependent elements, and may need to be considered and addressed under FAR 135 training programs:a) Use of nosewheel steering during taxi b) Rejected takeoffs c) Cat II/III operations d) Crosswind takeoffs and landings e) Engine inoperative takeoffs and landings f) Emergency communications g) Loss of all generators h) Emergency descent i) Operation on emergency power
6.2 Initial, Upgrade, or Transition Training.
6.2.1 Pilots: Initial, Transition and Upgrade Ground Training, FAR 135.345. Initial, transition or upgrade ground training for the BA-4100 is accomplished in accordance with FAR Subparts E, G, and H. Training program hours may be reduced as specified in Order 8400.10, but not in a manner or in areas that invalidate compliance with provisions of the MDR.6.2.2 Pilots: Initial, Transition and Upgrade Flight Training, FAR 135.347. Initial, transition or upgrade flight training for BA-4100 is accomplished in accordance with FAR Subparts E, G, and H. Training program hours may be reduced as specified in Order 8400.10, but not in a manner or in areas that invalidate compliance with provisions of the MDR.
6.2.3 Crewmember Emergency Training. Crewmember emergency training in the BA-4100 should be conducted IAW FAR 135.331 and the provisions of Order 8400.10, Volume 3, Chapter 2, Section 4.
6.3 Differences Training (Reserved).
6.4 Recurrent Training.
6.4.1 Recurrent Flight Training. Recurrent flight training requires appropriate maneuvers and procedures identified in FAR 135, Subpart H. As permitted by FAR 135.351(c), satisfactory completion of a proficiency check IAW 135.293 may be substituted for training.
6.5 Other Training.
6.5.1 Flight Attendants. Initial and transition ground training, FAR 135.349. Due to the configuration of the cabin several unique training problems will need to be addressed.
a) Normal operations: after aircraft stops, the attendant must get to the forward exit before the passengers fill the aisleb) Control the stowage of passenger's personal items c) Become familiar with the removal of the rear exit d) During nose gear failure, rear exit is eight feet above the ground
e) Training in use of the manual ON/OFF oxygen switch mounted on the rear cabin bulkhead
f) Use of emergency equipment (eg. fire extinguishers, first aid kit, oxygen bottle, crew PBE and oxygen masks)
g) Unique design of the lavatory door, i.e. when lavatory is in use, the aft flight attendant seat is unusable.
7. FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR CHECKING
7.1.1 Checking Items. Knowledge, procedures, and maneuvers specified by FAR 61 Appendix A and pertinent to multi-engine turboprop transport aircraft apply to BA-4100 aircraft.
7.1.2 Areas of emphasis. The following areas of emphasis should be addressed during checks as necessary:a) Proficiency with manual and automatic flight in normal and non-normal situations must be demonstrated. For crews not experienced with AFCS, emphasis is related to proper mode selection and use, crew coordination when performing mode or data changes, and interpretation of annunciations. For crews familiar with AFCS but not having recent experience with newer generation flight instruments, navigation, manual capture of altitudes, raw data approaches, tracking of VOR radials/NDB bearings using an RMI and other such systems or procedures may require additional practice or review in one or more of the above areas
b) EFIS (EADI/EHSI displays); proper setup, selection, and use of those displays should be demonstrated, particularly during instrument approachesc) Communication Radio Management; clear understanding and use of the communication radio panels and audio control panels should be demonstrated. This will be particularly important when flight training device (FTD) and simulator training sessions may not fully incorporate simulated ATC d) "No Flap" Approaches. Checking regarding "No Flap" Approaches for BA-4100 aircraft is conducted in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 3.1.3. "No lap" and "Hydraulic System Abnormal" approaches may be combined and should be addressed during training. e) Proper outside visual scan without prolonged fixation on cockpit displays or controls should be consistently demonstrated f) Proper speed management and control application during rotation and flare
g) When noise abatement procedures other than as specified e AC 91-53 are used, proper performance of the alternate procedures should be addressed.
7.2 Application for and issuance of Type Ratings. Airmen completing pertinent FAR 61 Appendix A requirements in a BA-4100 in accordance with FSB requirements described in this report, may apply to FAA for the appropriate BA-4100 type rating endorsement. Upon completion of required tests, and submission of an application (FAA Form 8710-1), authorized FAA inspectors or designees may issue the necessary pilot certification with type rating.
7.3 Proficiency checks are administered as designated in FARs 61.58 and 135.297 for the BA-4100. These checks must be administered by an authorized check airman or operationally qualified FAA Safety Inspector. Satisfactory completion of a proficiency check may be substituted for recurrent flight training IAW FAR 135.351(c).
8. FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR CURRENCY
8.1 Currency (Recency of Experience) - FAR 135.247.
8.1.2 Use of the term "Segment" as applied to currency. For the purposes of this FSB report, a segment consists of the following flight phases or maneuvers: Preflight, Start, Takeoff, Climb, Cruise, Descent, Approach, Landing and Shutdown. Credit for a segment requires that a crewmember serve in an appropriate cockpit crew position during the necessary flight phases or maneuvers, but does not require the crewmember to physically control the aircraft or autopilot during those maneuvers. For example, both pilots may take credit for a segment even though only one actually controls the aircraft during the takeoff and landing. Pilots may not take credit for a segment by observation from a jumpseat.
9. AIRCRAFT COMPLIANCE CHECKLIST
9.1 Compliance Checklist. Compliance checklists are provided as an aid to FAA Certificate Holding District Offices (CHDOs) to identify those specific rules or policies for which compliance has already been demonstrated to the FAA for a particular type,
variant, or variant group. The checklist also notes rules or policies which remain to be demonstrated to CHDOs by operators. Not all rules or policies or variants are necessarily addressed. It remains the responsibility of a Certificate Holding District Office to review compliance with pertinent rules or policies not already satisfactorily addressed in the compliance checklist, prior to FAR 135 approval of an operator for use of the BA-4100.
9.2 Discussion of Specific Compliance Checklist Items.
9.2.1 BA-4100 Observer Seat. The observer seat on the BA-4100 as evaluated, satisfies the requirement of FAR 135.75.
10. FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR DEVICES AND SIMULATORS (Reserved)
11. APPLICATION OF FSB REPORT
11.1 Operators of BA-4100 aircraft. Relevant parts of this report, (i.e., Type Rating Designation, training and checking, etc) are effective when this report is approved by the FAA.
12. ALTERNATE MEANS OF COMPLIANCE
12.1 Approval Level and Approval Criteria. Alternate means of compliance to differences requirements of FAR 135 Subparts G and H for mixed fleet operations, other than as specified in provisions of this report, must be approved by AFS-200. If alternate compliance is sought, operators must show that the proposed alternate means provided an equivalent level of safety to the provisions of AC 120-53 and this FSB report. Analysis, demonstrations, proof of concept testing, differences documentation or other evidence may be required.
12.2 Equivalent Safety. In the event alternate compliance is sought, training program length, simulator approvals and device approvals may be significantly limited and reporting requirements may be increased to ensure equivalent safety. FAA will generally not consider relief through alternate compliance unless sufficient lead time has been planned by an operator to allow for any necessary testing and evaluation.
12.3 Interim Programs. In the event of clearly unforeseen circumstances in which it is not possible for an operator to comply with MDR provisions, the operator may seek an interim program rather than a permanent alternate compliance method. Financial arrangements, scheduling adjustments and other such reasons are not considered "unforeseen circumstances" for the purposes of this provision.
13. MISCELLANEOUS (Reserved)
MASTER DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS
SAMPLE ODR TABLES
ACCEPTABLE DIFFERENCE TRAINING PROGRAM FOR
A BA-4100 MIXED FLEET
BA-4100 AIRCRAFT COMPLIANCE CHECKLIST
DATE: January 24, 1993 This checklist applies to the BA-4100 aircraft. Compliance with the following Federal Aviation Regulations and FAA policies has been established where possible as indicated, based on an examination of production test aircraft No. 4 (G-JMAC at Prestwick, Scotland). Items that are identified as "CHDO" need to be evaluated by Principal Inspectors at the Certificate Holding District Office prior to the BA-4100 being used in FAR 135 revenue service. Items marked "complies" have either been found to directly comply with the applicable rule, or the necessary data or procedures are available to permit assessment of compliance of a BA-4100 for a particular operation (eg. as for takeoff obstacle clearance assessment pertinent to FAR 135.379). Items marked NA are not applicable to the BA-4100 aircraft.
91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual, Type design complies. Marking, and placard requirements.
91.21 Portable electronic devices. CHDO
91.117 Aircraft speed. Type design complies.
91.203 Civil aircraft: Certifications Type design complies, CHDO
Required.except (a)(2) and (b)
91.205 Powered civil aircraft with Type design complies.
standard category U.S. airworthiness
certificates; instruments and
91.207 Emergency locator transmitters. Type design complies.
91.209 Aircraft lights. Type design complies.
91.211 Supplemental Oxygen. Type design complies.
91.213 Inoperative instruments and Type design complies MMEL available
91.215 ATC Transponder and altitude Type design complies.
reporting equipment and use.
91.217 Data correspondence between Type design complies.
Automatically reported pressure
altitude data and the pilot's altitude
reference.91.219 Altitude alerting system or Type design complies. device; turbojet powered civil airplanes. 91.221 TCAS CHDO 91.409 Inspections. CHDO 91.411 Altimeter system and altitude CHDO reporting equipment tests and inspections. 91.413 ATC transponder tests and CHDO inspections. 91.415 Changes to aircraft inspection CHDO programs. 91.503 Flying equipment and operating Type design complies. information. CHDO 91.507 Survival equipment for over- Type design met requirements water operations for (a). 91.511 Radio equipment for overwater Type design complies, Operations. CHDO 91.513 Emergency equipment. CHDO 91.517 Smoking and safety belt signs. Type design complies. 91.519 Passenger briefing. CHDO 91.521 Shoulder harness. Type design complies. 91.523 Carry-on-baggage. Type design complies. 91.525 Carriage of cargo. Type design complies. 91.527 Operating in icing conditions. Type design met re-quirements for (b) and (c). 91.603 Aural speed warning device. Type design complies. 91.605 Transport category civil Weight, balance, and airplane weight limitations.
performance information is available for compliance. CHDO91.607 Emergency exits for airplane Type design complies. carrying passengers for hire. 91.609 Flight recorders and cockpit Type design complies. voice recorders. FAR 125 125.75 Airplane Flight Manual. Type design AFM complies. CHDO 125.93 Airplane limitations. Type design complies. CHDO 125.183 Carriage of cargo in Type design complies. passenger compartments. 125.185 Carriage of cargo in Type design complies. cargo compartments. 125.187 Landing gear: aural warning Type design complies. device. 125.189 Demonstration of emergency Type design complies. evacuation procedures. 125.203 Radio and navigational Type design complies. equipment. 125.205 Equipment requirements: Type design complies. Airplanes under IFR. 125.206 Pitot heat indication Type design complies. systems. 125.207 Emergency equipment Type design complies. requirements. 125.209 Emergency equipment: extended CHDO overwater operations. 125.211 Seat and safety belts. Type design complies. 125.213 Miscellaneous equipment. Type design complies. 125.215 Operating information required. CHDO 125.217 Passenger Information. Type design complies. 125.219 Oxygen for medical use by Type design complies. passengers. 125.221 Icing conditions: operating Type design meets re- limitations. quirements for (b) and (c). 125.223 Airborne weather radar Type design complies. equipment requirements. 125.224 TCAS CHDO 125.225 Flight recorders. Type design complies. 125.227 Cockpit voice recorder. Type design complies. 125.249 Maintenance manual CHDO requirements. 125.269 Flight attendants. Type design complies. CHDO 125.327 Briefing of passengers CHDO before flight. 125.329 Minimum altitudes for use Compliance based on of autopilot. AFM procedures and limitations. CHDO FAR 135 135.73 Forward observer's seat. Type design met requirements of (b). 135.83 Operating information required. CHDO 135.87 Carriage of cargo including Type design complies. carry-on baggage. CHDO 135.89 Pilot requirements: use of Type design complies. oxygen. CHDO 135.93 Autopilot: minimum altitudes Compliance based on for use. AFM limitations and procedures. CHDO 135.117 Briefing of passengers before CHDO flight. 135.143 General requirements. Type design complies. 135.147 Dual controls required. Type design complies. 135.149 Equipment requirements: general. Type design complies. 135.150 Public address and crewmember Type design complies. interphone system. 135.151 Cockpit voice recorders. Type design complies. 135.152 Flight recorders. Type design complies. 135.155 Fire extinguisher: passenger Type design complies. carrying aircraft. 135.157 Oxygen equipment requirements. Type design complies. CHDO 135.158 Pitot heat indication systems. Type design complies. 135.159 Equipment requirements: Carrying Type design complies. passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top conditions. 135.161 Radio and navigational equipment: Type design complies. Carrying passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top. 135.163 Equipment requirements: Aircraft Type design complies. carrying passengers under IFR. 135.165 Radio and navigational equipment: CHDO Extended over water operations. 135.167 Emergency equipment: Extended CHDO over water operations. 135.169 Additional airworthiness Type design complies. requirements. 135.170 Materials for compartment CHDO interiors. 135.171 Shoulder harness installation Type design complies. at flight crewmember stations. 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection Type design complies. equipment requirements. 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment Type design complies. requirements. 135.177 Emergency equipment requirements CHDO for aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers. 135.180 Traffic alert and collision N/A, CHDO avoidance system. 135.181 Performance requirements: CHDO, reference AFM. aircraft operated over-the- top or in IFR conditions. 135.183 Performance requirements: CHDO, reference AFM. land aircraft operated over water. 135.227 Icing conditions: operating Type design complies. limitations. 135.363 General. CHDO 135.379 Large transport category CHDO, reference AFM. airplanes: turbine engine powered: takeoff limitations. 135.381 Large transport category CHDO, reference AFM. airplanes: enroute limitations: one engine inoperative. 135.385 Large transport category CHDO, reference AFM. airplanes: turbine engine powered: landing limitations: destination airports. 135.387 Large transport category CHDO, reference AFM. airplanes: turbine engine powered: landing limitations: alternate airports.