FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
FLIGHT STANDARDIZATION BOARD
February 15, 1995
Bryan W. Carpenter - Chairman
Aircraft Evaluation Group
Fort Worth, Texas
Flight Standardization Board
CHAIRMAN _______________________ Date: 02/09/95
Bryan W. Carpenter
________________________ Date: 02/15/95
Louis C. Cusimano
Manager, General Aviation and Commercial Division
1. Purpose and Applicability ....................................5
2. Pilot "Type Rating" Requirements .............................6
3. "Master Common Requirements" (MCRs) ..........................6
4. "Master Difference Requirements" (MCDs) ......................6
5. Acceptable "Operator Difference Requirements" Tables .........6
6. FSB Specifications for Training ..............................7
7. FSB Specifications for Checking .............................10
8. FSB Specifications for Currency .............................10
9. Aircraft Regulatory Compliance Checklist ....................11
10. FSB Specifications for Devices and Simulators ...............11
11. Application of FSB Report ...................................11
12 Alternate Means of Compliance ...............................11
13. Miscellaneous ...............................................11
REVISION No. SECTION PAGE #s DATE
Original ALL ALL 02/15/95
1. PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY
1.1 The purpose of this report is to specify FAA master training,
checking, and currency requirements applicable to airmen operating
the Robinson R-22 helicopter under FAR Part 91. One of its primary
Principal Operations Inspectors in the use of applicable training
1.2 Applicability of a Flight Standardization Board is limited due
to the fact that the aircraft (R-22) is not designed for scheduled
Air Carrier operations.
1.3 The Robinson R-22 is listed in FAA Type certificate Data Sheet
H10WE and is hereafter referred to as the "R-22".
1.4 The FSB conducted numerous evaluations of the R-22 in accordance
with special detailed information guidelines and the reference
material from Advisory Circular 120-53 as applicable, to develop this
report. Certain instrument proficiency and training requirements and
systems were not evaluated by the FSB because of inapplicability to
the training profile or operational use for which the aircraft was
intended. The FSB is responsible for evaluating R-22 derivative
aircraft and all future changes to the R-22 (such as design
modifications or systems changes) when they are made to the aircraft.
The FSB then determines the associated impact on training and amends
this report accordingly.
1.5 This report also addresses certain issues regarding the
Provisions of the report include:
1.5.1 Describing training program special emphasis items.
1.5.2 Endorsement requirements
1.6 The R-22 is certificated for VFR, day and night operations
with a minimum crew of one pilot. It may be used in on-demand
operations under FAR Part 135, student training and additional rating
instruction, and corporate and private transportation under FAR
Part 91. Other possible uses include agricultural operations under
1.7 The Robinson R-22 Flight Standardization Board met in Torrance,
California, on January 8 through 20, 1995. Inspectors Bryan W.
Carpenter, William Wallace, Gilbert Riley, and Robert O'Haver were
members of the Flight Standardization Board.
1.8 This is the original FSB report relative to the Robinson R-22.
Provisions of this report are effective until amended, superseded, or
withdrawn by subsequent FSB determinations.
The term "must" is used in this report even though it is recognized
that this report and the Advisory Circular AC 120-53 on which it is
based, provides one acceptable means, but not necessarily the only
means, of compliance with FAR Part 61 Subparts C, D, E, G, and
Appendix B requirements. The term "must" acknowledges the need for
operators to fully comply with the FSB report provisions of AC 120-53
and is to be used by the operator as its means of complying with the
2 PILOT "TYPE RATING" REQUIREMENTS
2.1 The Robinson R-22 has characteristics which makes awareness of
certain aerodynamic factors mandatory. The awareness of low "G"
operations, rotor blade stall potential, energy management, and low
rotor RPM recovery techniques are critical.
2.2 The Robinson R-22 is certificated under Part 27 of the Federal
Aviation Regulations with a gross weight less than 12,500 pounds. A
type rating is not required to operate this aircraft for purposes for
which an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate is not required. The
type rating for this aircraft is "R-22" and is listed in Order
8700.1, Volume 2, Chapter 9, Fig 9-3.
3 "MASTER COMMON REQUIREMENTS" (MCRs)
3.1 This section does not apply.
4 "MASTER DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS" (MDRs)
4.1 This section does not apply.
5 ACCEPTABLE "OPERATOR DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS" (ODRs) TABLES
5.1 This section does not apply.
6 FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRAINING
6.1.1 The provisions of this section of the report apply to
programs for all airmen, experienced or otherwise. This includes
airmen beginning initial training, airmen who already hold rotorcraft
category and helicopter class ratings on their airman certificates.
and flight instructors certificated in rotorcraft-helicopters.
Certificated flight schools under FAR Part 141 and operators
conducting training under FAR Part 61 are affected. Additional
requirements may be necessary for other airmen and will be determined
by the operator's POI, the FSB, and AFS-800 as necessary.
6.1.2 There is no manufacturer-provided training program
which could be credited toward any FAR Part 135 requirements.
Nothing in this version (original) contains requirements for training
beyond that which is required by FAR Part 61 for pilot certification.
6.2.1 Any person wishing to operate a Robinson R-22 should
complete a training program designed to enhance awareness of the
hazards associated with certain characteristics of light helicopters.
Flight conducted in normal operating conditions may cause an
encounter with such hazards.
6.3 Awareness Training:
6.3.1 Awareness training can be provided through a ground
training program consisting of general subject areas in helicopter
operational procedures and aerodynamics. The subject matter should
include the development of information in the following areas:
220.127.116.11 Discussion of energy management relative
to principles of aerodynamics with references to available energy
stored as a result of altitude (potential energy) and reference to
available energy developed as a result of rotor RPM and airspeed
attained (kinetic energy).
18.104.22.168 Discussions involving the causes and
results of "mast bumping" in rotorcraft, and in particular, the R-22.
Gyroscopic principles leading to the initiation of mast bumping and
the effects of such occurrences are to be discussed.
22.214.171.124 Low rotor RPM (blade stall) discussions
to provide additional information regarding the aspect of the actual
"stall" condition developed by the blade at low rotor RPM (as opposed
to "retreating blade stall"). Aspects of recovery techniques to be
used in the event of encountering low rotor RPM, the recognition of
such circumstances, and the corrective actions to be taken to recover
RPM should be fully discussed.
126.96.36.199 Discussion of the effects on rotor RPM
due to engine failure at high manifold pressure settings, high
airspeed operations, or other critical areas of flight including the
takeoff profile. The discussion should relate to the enhanced and
rapid decay of rotor RPM due to the high drag situation developed as
a result of high angles of attack of the blade at the point of engine
failure. Where the normal reaction time available to the pilot would
meet minimum certification requirements under normal power settings,
operating with high angle of attack of the main rotor blades, may
leave less time available for recovery and correction of a low rotor
RPM condition. Such available time may be of sufficiently short
duration as to exceed the pilot's capability to respond.
188.8.131.52 The effects of reduced "G": operations on
light helicopters such as the Robinson R-22 in light of the
particular characteristics of the teetering rotor system rotor blade
system and high tail rotor configuration. When a low "G" situation
is encountered, such as an abrupt "pitchover" induced by abrupt
forward cyclic motion, or by turbulence, the main rotor disc may
become unloaded. A rolling tendency will be encountered which could
only be aggravated by the application of controls in any direction
other than that which would "load" the disk. The pilots natural
tendency to fly the aircraft back to level flight by application of
lateral cyclic or anti-torque pedal could lead to mast bumping and
subsequent rotor separation without adequate knowledge of the cause
of the roll and proper recovery actions necessary for safe
continuation of flight.
6.4 Flight Training: Abnormal and Emergency Procedures Flight
6.4.1 Emphasis should be placed on the ABNORMAL AND
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FLIGHT TRAINING identified by this FSB report
and enhanced flight training should be given in the appropriate
6.4.2 All pilots:
184.108.40.206 Pilots should receive enhanced training
in autorotation procedures and be able to demonstrate proficiency in
autorotations from controlled flight in cruise and approach
configurations. As the pilots proficiency level increases, he should
be able to demonstrate autorotations from all ranges of normal
220.127.116.11 The pilot must be entirely proficient in
the control of engine/rotor RPM without the use of the governor,
prior to conducting solo flight operations. Pilot training should
include manual manipulation of the throttle control so as to
eliminate complacency and undue reliance on the use of the RPM
18.104.22.168. Additional training is required for
pilots in the areas of low rotor RPM recognition and recovery techniques.
Low rotor RPM recovery will be initiated from all aspects of the
normal flight envelope including hover and cruise flight.
22.214.171.124 Pilots should receive training in
recovery from RPM "droop" or low rotor RPM situations during high
power settings or high altitude operations. Recognition of the
requirement for the immediate application of recovery technique is
essential because of the increased drag prevalent on the rotor system
during such operations and the reduced RPM decay time available for
126.96.36.199 Pilots must receive training in the
effect of low "G" and the proper use of the controls to effect a safe
recovery. The demonstration of such effects will be given by
instructors who have demonstrated proficiency in such maneuvers
within the limits of the normal envelope of operation. Induced roll
maneuvers shall not be permitted and recovery must be initiated at
the first sign of unintended divergence from the normal flight path.
6.4.3. Flight Instructors:
188.8.131.52 Instructors should note that
autorotation training should not be limited to hover autorotations or
autorotations from approach configurations at fixed power settings or
pre-established airspeeds. As the student's proficiency level
increases, he should be able to demonstrate autorotations from all
ranges of normal operational speeds.
184.108.40.206 Instructors providing low rotor RPM recovery
training must be proficient in and familiar with the proper
techniques for the conduct of demonstrations of such maneuvers.
Recovery techniques should not allow the student to continue with the
maneuver to the point of making additional mistakes. At the
initiation of the maneuver, if the student makes an improper recovery
or displays inadequate recovery or control technique, the instructor
should take control of the aircraft and abort the demonstration. A
second attempt at the maneuver may be made after regaining stable
flight. Any attempt to continue the maneuver after improper control
input during training or checking is unwise. Instructors will be
required to demonstrate proficiency in recovery from low rotor RPM
situations during high power settings or high altitude operations.
Recognition of the requirement for immediate application of recovery
techniques is essential due to the increased drag prevalent on the
rotor system during such operations and the reduced RPM decay time
available for recovery.
220.127.116.11 Instructors should be able to
demonstrate the effects of low "G" and must have demonstrated
proficiency in the initiation of the maneuver within the limits of
the normal envelope of operation. Instructors must be able to
demonstrate proficiency at initiating the proper recovery techniques
at the first sign of unintended divergence from the normal flight
7 FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR CHECKING
7.1.1 FAA Aviation Safety Inspectors (ASI) and Designated
Pilot Examiners (DPE) should complete the AWARENESS TRAINING, as
outlined above. Following completion of training, DPE's may receive
a statement of satisfactory completion of the AWARENESS TRAINING
which would include a recommendation for the issuance of a Letter of
Authorization. The Flight Standards District Office having
geographical responsibility for the DPE may, on the basis of the
recommendation, issue a Letter Of Authorization specifically for the
Robinson R-22 helicopter to authorize the DPE to conduct pilot
certification testing in Robinson aircraft.
7.1.2 Each Certificated Flight Instructor must have an
endorsement from a DPE or ASI that the AWARENESS training and
ABNORMAL AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FLIGHT TRAINING required by this
FSB has been successfully completed. The AWARENESS TRAINING should
be completed successfully before the CFI will be authorized to act as
pilot in command of the aircraft. The ABNORMAL AND EMERGENCY
PROCEDURES FLIGHT TRAINING must be completed and proficiency in the
maneuvers and procedures must be demonstrated to either an FAA ASI or
DPE prior to obtaining an endorsement for authorization to give
flight instruction in the Robinson R-22.
7.2 The successful completion of the AWARENESS TRAINING should be
determined by means of a written or oral examination with a passing
grade of at least 70 percent corrected to 100 percent by oral review.
7.3 The successful completion of the ABNORMAL AND EMERGENCY
PROCEDURES FLIGHT TRAINING shall be determined by the standards
established in the practical test standards appropriate to the grade
of certificate held.
8 FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR CURRENCY
8.1 All pilots who wish to act as pilot in command of a Robinson
R-22 aircraft should complete a flight review as required by FAR Part
61.56 in a Robinson R-22 Model helicopter.
8.2 To meet the currency requirements of FAR Part 61.57, to act as
pilot in command of an R-22, the currency requirement must have been
accomplished in an R-22 helicopter.
9 AIRCRAFT REGULATORY COMPLIANCE CHECKLIST
With the exception of continued airworthiness, there is no operating
rule with which the manufacturer is obligated to show compliance.
10 FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR DEVICES AND SIMULATORS
This section does not apply.
11 APPLICATION OF FSB REPORT
All relevant parts of this report are applicable to operators on the
effective date of this report.
12 ALTERNATE MEANS OF COMPLIANCE
12.1 Approval Level and Criteria:
Alternate means of compliance, other than that specified in this
report, must be approved by AFS-800. If an alternate means of
compliance is sought, operators will be required to submit a proposed
alternate means of approval that provides an equivalent level of
safety to the provisions of this FSB report. Analysis,
demonstrations, proof of concept testing, differences documentation
and/or evidence may be required.
12.2 Interim Programs
In the event of unforeseen circumstances which would not allow an
operator to comply with the provisions of this FSB report, the
operator may seek an interim program, rather than a permanent
alternate means of compliance. Financial arrangements, schedule
adjustments, and other similar reasons are not considered "unforeseen
circumstances" for the purposes of this provision.
13.1 The following recommendations of the FSB pertain to the
certification of the aircraft and suggested design changes to certain
systems as improvements deemed necessary for ensuring safe operations
of the R-22.
13.1.1 Carburetor air temperature system should
incorporate a relocated probe for accuracy of readings of real time
carburetor air temperatures. Application of carburetor heat should
be initiated at all low power settings (approaches and autorotations)
regardless of atmospheric conditions to preclude engine stoppage due
to carburetor ice and reinforce pilot training.
13.1.2 Improved rotor speed governor system for the R-22
to reduce the possibility of rotor speed decay due to pilot
13.1.3 Longitudinal and lateral dampers in parallel with
the R-22 cyclic controls to impede abrupt movement of the cyclic.
13.1.4 Low rotor RPM warning system horn should be made
more audible. Wiring through the headphone (ICS) system or audio
panel may increase pilot awareness.
13.1.5 Redesign of cyclic system to include incorporation of
dual cyclic controls as opposed to single teetering control system so
as to increase pilot accessibility at each station.
13.1.6 Modification of Rotor/Engine RPM monitoring system
(tachometer) to increase visible marking range for usable rotor RPM
range (e.g.; 50% to 116%)
13.1.7 Increase inertia of main rotor system
13.1.8 Revise FAR Part 27 to consider main rotor system
inertia in single engine helicopters.