U.S. Department of Transportation

Federal Aviation Administration

Washington, D.C.

 

Flight Standardization Board (FSB) Report

 

 

Revision: ORIGINAL

Date: 11/13/2013

 

 

 

 

Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation

S-76D

(H1NE)

 

 

 

 

Steven M. Sorich

Chair, Flight Standardization Board

 

 

Federal Aviation Administration

Fort Worth Aircraft Evaluation Group

2601 Meacham Blvd.

Fort Worth, Texas  76137-4298

 

 

 

 

 

Telephone:

817-222-5270

FAX:

817-222-5295

 

 


 

 

RECORD OF REVISIONS

 

Revision Number

Section

Pages Affected

Date

Original

All

All

11/13/2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HIGHLIGHTS OF CHANGE

 

Revision Original:       All Sections.  This is the original FSB report.


 

CONTENTS

 

                                                                                                                                                              Page

 

COVER PAGE………………………………………………………………………………

1

 

RECORD OF REVISIONS………………………………………………………………….

2

 

HIGHLIGHTS OF CHANGE……………………………………………………………….

2

 

CONTENTS………………………………………………………………………………....

3

1.

PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY………………………………………………………...

4

2.

PILOT TYPE RATING REQUIREMENTS……………………………………………..…

6

3.

MASTER DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS (MDRs)………………………………….…

7

4.

ACCEPTABLE OPERATOR DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS (ODR) TABLES………

7

5.

FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRAINING…………………………………………………

7

6.

FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR CHECKING………………………………………………..

10

7.

FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR RECENCY OF EXPERIENCE…………………………….

10

8.

AIRCRAFT REGULATORY COMPLIANCE CHECKLIST……………………………...

10

9.

ADDITIONAL FSB FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS………………………….

11

10.

FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR DEVICES AND SIMULATORS…………………………..

11

11.

APPLICATION OF FSB REPORT…………………………………………………………

12

12.

ALTERNATE MEANS OF COMPLIANCE……………………………………………….

12

13.

 

MISCELLANEOUS RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………..

12

 

APPENDIX 1.

Flight Training PIC/SIC Flight Training S-76D Helicopter…………………..

14

APPENDIX 2.

Master Difference Requirements (MDR) Table (Reserved)…………………..

18

APPENDIX 3.

Operator Difference Requirements (ODR) (Reserved)……………………….

19

APPENDIX 4.

Sample of an Acceptable Training Program…………………………………..

20

APPENDIX 5.

Aircraft Compliance Checklist (Reserved)……………………………………

27

 


1.  PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY

1.1.  This Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report specifies master training, checking, and currency requirements applicable to crews operating Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation S-76D helicopters under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, 133, and 135.

The FSB was convened as part the certification of the S-76D aircraft undertaken in March 2013.  The Board evaluated operating characteristics and techniques to propose training, checking, and currency requirements applicable to the S-76D helicopter certificated in accordance with 14 CFR part 29, and a certificated gross takeoff weight less than 12,500 pounds.  Statutorily, a pilot type rating is not required.

Provisions of this report are:

·                Determination of Pilot Type Rating.

1.2.  This report addresses the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation helicopter Model S-76D, listed in the FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) H1NE.  This model was added to the existing TCDS which contains the legacy models S-76A, S-76B, and S-76C.  The provisions of this FSB report are effective until amended, superseded, or withdrawn by subsequent revisions.

1.3.  This report makes determinations based on the evaluations of specific S-76D aircraft equipped in a given configuration and in accordance with current regulations and guidance.  Modifications and upgrades made to the models described herein, or introduction of new related aircraft, may require amendment of the findings in this report.  The FSB reserves the responsibility and authority to re-evaluate and modify sections of this report based on new or revised Advisory Circular (AC) material, the applicable 14 CFR, aircraft operating experience, or the testing of new or modified aircraft under the provisions of AC 120-53, Guidance for Conduction and Use of Flight Standardization Board Evaluations, and the Common Procedures Document for Conduction of Operational Evaluation Boards.  The FSB was conducted in West Palm Beach, Florida, between March 11, and March 28, 2013.  Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG) Aviation Safety Inspectors (ASI), Steven M. Sorich and Donald H. Wood Jr. served as members of the FAA FSB.  This is the original FSB report relative to the S-76D.  Provisions of this report are effective until amended, superseded, or withdrawn by subsequent FSB determinations.

1.4.  The guidelines in this report determine minimum requirements for approval by FAA applicable to: ASIs, Principal Operations Inspectors (POI), Training Center Program Managers (TCPMs), Aircrew Program Managers (APMs), 14 CFR part 135 Air Carrier Check Airmen, Instructors, Airline Transport Pilots instructing in air transportation service, Certificated Flight Instructors, Aircrew Program Designees, and Training Center Evaluators.

1.5.  Terminology.  The term "must" is used in this FSB report and even though it is recognized that this report provides one acceptable means, but not necessarily the only means of compliance with 14 CFR part 91, 125, 133, 135 requirements.  This terminology acknowledges the need for operators to fully comply with this FSB report, when applicable, if AC 120-53 is to be used by the operator as the means of complying with 14 CFR part 91, 133, and 135 requirements.

1.6.  This report includes:

·                Minimum requirements for approval by FAA field offices; and

·                General advisory information which may be approved for that operator (e.g. footnotes, etc.).

1.7.  Relevant acronyms and documents are defined as follows:

AC

Advisory Circular

ACO

Aircraft Certification Office

ADS

Automatic Dependent Surveillance

AEG

Aircraft Evaluation Group

AEO

All Engines Operating

ANP

Actual Navigation Performance

AP

Autopilot

APM

Aircrew Program Manager

AQP

ASI

ATP

Advanced Qualification Program

Aviation Safety Inspector

Airline Transport Pilot

CCD

Cursor Control Device

CHDO

Certificate Holding District Office

14 CFR

Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations

CNS

Communication, Navigation, Surveillance

CPDLC

Controller Pilot Data Link Communications

DC

Display Controller

DAFCS

Digital Automatic Flight Control System

EEC

Emergency Evacuation Crewmember

EFB

Electronic Flight Bag

EGPWS

Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System

EICAS

Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System

FAA

Federal Aviation Administration

FADEC

Full Authority Digital Electronic Control

FANS

FD

Future Air Navigation Systems

Flight Director

FGS

Flight Guidance System

FMA

Flight Mode Annunciator

FMS

Flight Management System

FSB

Flight Standardization Board

FSTD

Flight Simulation Training Device

FTD

Flight Training Device

IAD

Integrated Avionics Display

MMEL

Master Minimum Equipment List

MCDU

Multi-Function Control Display Units

MDR

Master Differences Requirements

ND

Navigation Display

OEI

One Engine Inoperative

ODR

Operator Differences Requirement

PFD

PIC

Primary Flight Display

Pilot in Command

POI

Principal Operations Inspector

QRH

Quick Reference Handbook

RCP

Reconfiguration Control Panel

RFM

Rotorcraft Flight Manual

RFMS

Rotorcraft Flight Manual Supplement

RNP

Required Navigational Performance

SIC

Second In Command

TCAS

Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System

TCDS

Type Certificate Data Sheet

TCE

Training Center Evaluator

TCPM

Training Center Program Manager

VNAV

Vertical Navigation

WCA

Warning and Caution Advisory

WOW

Weight on Wheels

8900.1

Flight Standards Information Management System (FSIMS)

8900.2

General Aviation Airman Designee Handbook

AC120-53

Guidance for Conduction and Use of Flight Standardization Board Evaluations

2.  PILOT TYPE RATING REQUIREMENTS

2.1.  In accordance with the provisions of 14 CFR part 61, FAA Order 8900.1, Flight Standards Information Management System (FSIMS), and AC 120-53, a new pilot type rating is not required for the S-76D helicopter.

2.1.1.  Current FAA policy for type ratings is based solely on the certified takeoff gross weight of the aircraft.  There has not been a type rating requirement for the legacy S-76A, S-76B, and S-76C model helicopters, primarily as a result of not exceeding the weight criteria of over 12,500 pounds.  However, the legacy, and certainly S-76D architecture, system complexity, and depth of pilot knowledge and understanding due to avionics and digital flight control system integration have significantly increased.  The required level of expertise (Transport/Airline Transport Pilot (ATP)) and complexity between an S-92A and an S-76D is imperceptible.   The complexity of flight control systems, integrated avionics, autopilot, and navigational systems in this aircraft are equivalent to that of a transport type rated aircraft.

2.1.2.  The FSB ha s identified Level E training, checking and currency for the S-76D aircraft.  The FSB recomm e nds im ple m entation of a single standard for training, checking and currency for the S-76D.  Regulatory changes to type rating requirem ents or special regulatory m eas ures are needed for aircraft of this complexity level.  I m plem entation of a single standard of training, checking, and currency to all S-76D operations, including 14 CFR part 91 operations, is necessary to achieve safety and co mply with th e require m ents of this report.  The Board determ ined the S-76D met AC 120-53 cr iteria for Level E Training in a Full Function Simulator (see Appendix 1).  Level E training can only be accomplished with the use of a simulator qualified as level C or D consistent with FAA criteria.  Level E training accomplished in an aircraft should be modified for safety reasons where the maneuvers can result in a high degree of risk.

2.2.  Second-In-Command (SIC) Pilot Type Rating.  In accordance with the provisions of the pertinent 14 CFR § 61.55,  FAA Order 8900.1 and AC 120-53, a SIC pilot type rating is not assigned and the designated Limitation for “SIC Privileges Only” is not specified because there is no current statutory 14 CFR requirement for a single type rating with a takeoff gross weight of less than 12,500 pounds.

3.  MASTER DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS (MDR)

3.1.  Master Difference Requirements (MDR) are not applicable.  Legacy aircraft S-76A, S-76B, and S-76C were not evaluated prior to, or during the FSB for S-76D.

4.  ACCEPATABLE OPERATOR DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS (ODR) TABLES

4.1.  Reserved

5.  FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRAINING

5.1.  Assumptions Regarding an Airman’s Previous Experience.  The provisions of this section apply to programs for airmen who have experience in 14 CFR part 135 operations of multi-engine, turbine rotorcraft equipped with integrated autopilot flight management systems (FMS), and integrated avionics displays (IAD) .  For airmen not having this experience, additional requirements may be appropriate as determined by the POI, FSB, and/or FAA Air Transportation Division (AFS-200).  Training must include the subjects and maneuvers listed in the Areas of Special Emphasis of this report (paragraph 5.5.4.)  No credit is given for aircraft training received in other aircraft.  All training and checking must be conducted in accordance with RFM recommended procedures and maneuvers.

5.2.  Level E training for Pilot in Command (PIC) and SIC is required.  Simulator task credit may be given in accordance with ATP, Commercial Pilot Helicopter, or Instrument Rating for Helicopter, as appropriate (see Appendix 1).

5.3.  SIC Training Tasks.  A flight crewmember who serves as SIC, must accomplish certain tasks, procedures or maneuvers for the SIC crew position.  Training programs should address all training elements of 14 CFR §§ 61.55 and 135.345, in accordance with FAA Order 8900.1, Volume 3, Chapter 19.

5.4.  Future Air Navigation Systems (FANS) RNP/ANP/CNS/CPDLC/ADS.  Flight Crews operating aircraft equipped with FANS software should receive appropriate instruction in its general operational functions, appropriate uses for areas of operation, routes, or procedures to be flown.  General training should address Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) functions covered by FANS, RNP, and ANP.  In addition, sufficient training in the use of data link communication and Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) to ensure adequate knowledge, skill, and proficiency for flight crews to operate the above system(s) in typical daily operations (requiring their use) should be provided.

5.5.  Pilots Initial, Transition and Upgrade Training.

5.5.1.  Pilots Initial, Transition and Upgrade Ground Training:  Initial, transition, or upgrade ground training for the helicopter is accomplished as specified by the 14 CFR §§ 91.1065, and 135.345.  No unique provisions or requirements are specified.  Training program hours may be reduced as specified in the 14 CFR part 135.  There are no specified training program hours for transition ground training.  Specific design features of the helicopter, combined with the various types of operations to be conducted, should be considered when approving helicopter transition ground training.

5.5.2.  Pilots Initial, Transition and Upgrade Flight Training:  Initial, transition, or upgrade flight training for the helicopter is accomplished as specified by the 14 CFR § 135.347  No unique provisions or requirements are specified. 

5.5.3  Flight Crewmember Emergency Training:  Crewmember training in emergency equipment and evacuation procedures is required.  Evacuation procedures training must include passenger briefing requirements to comply with RFM limitations.

5.5.4  Areas of Emphasis:  The following areas of emphasis must be addressed during ground and flight training:

·                Warning and Caution Advisory (WCA) discipline and messaging function are critical because of the large amount of information available through the WCA and the need of the flight crew to use it without being excessively distracted.

·                WCA Messages are depicted on the primary flight displays (PFDs), and multi-function displays (MFDs).  Altitude and airspeed are presented on vertical scale instruments in digital format.  Pilots need to be able to understand the information presented on these displays.  Pilots transitioning from traditional round dial basic "T" instruments may require additional training and instrument scan practice to gain proficiency in manually flying by reference to the PFD. Recognition of reversionary modes and display failures and appropriate corrective action to be taken must be addressed.

·                Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC).  An operational understanding of the FADEC, and its relationship to Power Limit Indicator (PLI) , and the power limiting modes in all engines operative (AEO) and one engine operative (OEI) operations is required

·                The Power Limit Indicator (PLI) displays engine and transmission parameters and limitations in a relative scale indicating a percent of available power either as Torque (Q), Inter Turbine Temperature (ITT), or Gas Generator Speed (Ng).  The PLI cannot be used as a Q, ITT, or Ng gage.  The PLI indicator displays multiple functions during AEO and OEI operations. The pilot must be proficient in the interpretation of this instrument.

·                Cyclic and Collective control grip switches.  There are nine switches on the cyclic control, and seven switches on the collective.  These control multiple aircraft systems including the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) Trim Release, Flight Director (FD), Auto Pilot (AP), and Go-Around commands.  Proficiency in the use of these switches is essential.

·                Autopilot control panels using pushbuttons with integral light bars.  Pilots should have an understanding of the switch position and system configuration as it relates to whether the light bar is illuminated or not.  This understanding is required for both normal and abnormal system operation.

·                Flight Guidance System including the AP and FD.  An understanding of the various lateral and vertical modes and the ability to select and arm the modes during different phases of flight is essential.  Integrated use of the AP and Flight Management System (FMS) is critical. With any collective FD mode engaged and coupled, the AFCS provides a PLI in both AEO and OEI operations.

Note: The navigational/autopilot software installed in the simulator at the time of this FSB would not allow the AP system to couple to the NAV system and all approaches courses were flown with the autopilot in HDG mode. The software in the prototype aircraft allowed for full four axis NAV autopilot coupling.  FAA approval of the NAV enabled autopilot software in the production aircraft was pending at the time of the FSB evaluation.

·                All the combinations FMS and ground-based navigation information must be understood to safely and reliably operate the aircraft during instrument approaches, including the use of vertical navigation (VNAV) functions.

·                Knowledge of emergency procedure for dual engine failure during cruise.  At cruise power settings, and relatively high angles of attack in the main rotor blades a sudden loss of power in both engines can produce rapid main rotor (Nr) decay.  This can result in excessive coning and subsequent loss of control.  This condition is possible in all multiengine helicopters and historically has resulted in hull loss.

5.5.5.  Training for Seat Dependent Tasks:  RFM minimum flight crew is specified as: One pilot seated in the right seat (Day visual flight rules (VFR)). Two pilots (Night VFR and instrument flight rules (IFR)). For two pilot operations, the PIC may occupy either seat. RFM procedures are that the "pilot" occupies the right cockpit seat and the “copilot” occupies the left cockpit seat.

5.5.6.  SIC Crew Training:  SIC crew training is accomplished as specified. 

14 CFR § 135.329 training programs should address tasks stipulated in FSB Specifications for Training; Areas of Emphasis (paragraph 5.5.4.).

5.5.7.  Differences Training as specified in the pertinent 14 CFR.

5.5.8.  Recurrent Ground Training Fleets with Different Engine Types:  Mixed-flying of helicopter fleets with different engine types (e.g. helicopter fleet with  model/manufactures engines) requires additional training.

5.5.9.  Recurrent Flight Training Fleets with Different Engine Types:  Mixed-flying of helicopter fleets with different engine types (e.g. helicopter fleet with different model/manufactures engines) requires additional training.

5.6.  Operating Experience

5.6.1.  Operating Experience Pertinent to Each Flight Crewmember:  Operating experience must be obtained while serving in a primary crew position.

5.6.2.  Separate Operating Experience for Single Fleet Operations:  Operating experience for the helicopter will be accomplished in the S-76D.

5.6.3.  Operating experience for Mixed Fleet Flying Operations:  Operating experience for the helicopter will be accomplished in each make/model/series helicopter.

5.7.  Instrument Approaches

5.7.1.  Operators should assure that flight crews are familiar with appropriate use of the flight guidance system (FGS) and FMS, including modes to be used, for the types of instrument approaches to be flown, when using FMS NAV mode in lieu of or in conjunction with NDB, VOR, localizer, or back course localizer procedures. This emphasis is also appropriate for aircraft that do not have certain navigation system sensors, such as ADF, installed.

5.7.2.  Sections 135.293(a)(8),(b), and 135.297 specify PIC competency and instrument proficiency checking requirements.  At a minimum, Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation S-76D requires a training program which addresses the following automated systems and displays:

·                All primary flight and navigation instrumentation.

6.  FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR CHECKING

6.1.  Checking Items:  Pertinent knowledge, procedures, and maneuvers specified by 14 CFR part 61 and the appropriate FAA Practical Test Standards (PTS).

6.2.  Areas of Emphasis:  The following areas of emphasis should be addressed during checks as necessary:

·                Proficiency with manual and automatic flight must be demonstrated.

·                Proper selection and use of PFD/MFD displays, raw data, flight director, and Flight Guidance System modes should be demonstrated, particularly during instrument approaches.

·                Demonstration of FMS navigation proficiency in approaches, departures, and arrivals.

·                Proper outside visual scan without prolonged fixation on FMS operation should be demonstrated, and failure of component(s) of the FMS should be addressed.

·                CRM and CFIT procedures.

6.3.  All flight checks required by 14 CFR § 135.293(b), must be level E accomplished in an S-76D helicopter, or level C or D, full motion simulator according to instructions in the appropriate practical test standards, FAA-S-8081-E Instrument Rating, 8081-16A Commercial Pilot, and 8081-20 Airline Transport Pilot.  Additionally checking is supplemented with guidance in FAA Orders 8900.1, Volume 5, Chapter 2,  and 8900.2.

7.  FSB SP ECIFICAT IONS FOR RECENCY OF EXPERIENCE

7.1.  The FSB ha s found no addition al “Recency of Experience”  requirem ents for the S-76D, other than those already specified in 14 CFR part 61, and 135.  No legacy variants for the S-76D were evaluated; therefore all checks required by 14 CFR part 135 must be accomplished in the specific make, model, and series aircraft.

8. AIRCRAFT REGULATORY COMPLIANCE CHECKLIST

8.1.  Compliance Checklist – Reserved (Appendix 4)

Compliance checklists are provided as an aid to FAA Certificate Holding District Offices (CHDO) in identifying those specific rules or policies for which compliance has already been demonstrated to the FAA for aircraft having a particular aircraft type certificate.  The S-76A, B, and C legacy aircraft were certified in 1976 and no FSB activities were performed on these aircraft.  The S-76D is listed on the same type data certificate as the legacy models which were previously found compliant.  The manufacturer has not currently responded to an updated listing of the appropriate 14 CFR part 91 and 135 sections.

8.2  Discussion of Specific Compliance Checklist Items

8.2.1  Emergency Evacuation Demonstration (14 CFR § 135.331).  An additional full scale evacuation is not necessary for aircraft configurations consistent with previously approved tests.  Passenger capacity less than or equal to the demonstrated capacity may be authorized.  Evacuation demonstration procedures and passenger information used for the test should be used by operators unless another full scale evacuation is conducted to validate alternative procedures.

8.2.2  Ditching demonstration and compliance with 14 CFR § 29.801 has not been demonstrated.  Operators must comply with 14 CFR § 135.331(3)(iii).

8.2.3  Forward Observer Seat.  Available crew, and forward passenger seats, were evaluated and found suitable for conducting enroute inspections per 14 CFR § 135.75(b).  The front row passenger seats have been demonstrated suitable with the standard passenger seat/seatbelt, and a splitter cord for audio.  Audio jacks may be installed at the forward seat to provide for enroute inspection.

8.2.4  Proving Tests to satisfy 14 CFR § 135.145 have not been conducted and should be conducted in accordance with FAA Order 8900.1.

8.2.5  Validation Tests to satisfy 14 CFR § 135.145(d) have not been conducted and should be conducted in accordance with FAA Order 8900.1.

8.2.6  Cockpit Checklist:  The Manufacturer’s Pilot Checklist is acceptable for compliance with 14 CFR § 135.83(b) for cockpit checklist procedures. 

8.2.7  Electronic Flight Bag

      Electronic Checklists (Thales Top Deck Avionics)

A printed pilot checklist remains required for compliance with 14 CFR § 135.83(b).  The Electronic Pilot Checklist was not installed with the software of the flight test aircraft.  The Electronic Pilot Checklist may be acceptable for use after updated software is installed, provided the aircraft operator ensures the Electronic Pilot Checklist procedures remain current for the aircraft.

9.  ADDITIONAL FSB FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

9.1.  Instructors, Check Airman, and Examiners:  For the purpose of checking, FAA ASIs, Designated Pilot Examiners, Training Center Evaluators and Check Airmen must be PIC qualified in the S-76D.

Examiners and Check Airmen should have 100 hours PIC in the S-76D and maintain currency in accordance with this report.

10.  FSB SPECIFICATIONS FOR DEVICES AND SIMULATORS

10.1.  14 CFR Part 60:  Flight Simulation Training Device (FSTD) Initial and Continuing Qualification and Use, outlines specifications for helicopter simulator and FTDs.  A full motion Level D Simulator, operated by Flight Safety International, was used in the evaluation of the S-76D.  The simulator was found to replicate the configuration of the flight test aircraft with some differences in placarding, and the level of software installed in the flight management system.  POI’s should direct their attention to the level of software installed in the simulator and any differences in what numbered version software that is currently installed in the aircraft.  At the time of the FSB, the National Simulator Program (NSP) approval of the Level D simulator was pending.  However, the NSP later certified the simulator as a level C,  pending level D,  after the completion of the FSB.

10.2.  FTD/Ground/Graphic Based Procedural Simulator (GFS):  There was no approved level 4 thru level 7 FTDs, or ground/graphic based procedural simulator (GFS) at the time of the FSB.  The one flight simulator is the only device available for procedures and avionics training Any FSTD (Level C, D, or E training) must incorporate a cursor control device (CCD) with form, fit, and function, equivalent to the CCDs used in the aircraft.  Proficient pilot use of the CCD is critical to operation of the Thales Top Deck avionics system.

10.3.  Device Approval:  Requests for device approval should be made to the POI.  The POI may approve these devices for that operator if their characteristics clearly meet the established FAA criteria and have been approved by the NSP Office.  NSP approval of the simulator was pending during the FSB activities.

11.  APPLICATION OF FSB REPORT

11.1.  All S-76D operators are subject to the provisions of this report:  This report becomes effective when given final approval by the FAA.  All training, checking, and currency for the S-76D aircraft, must be conducted in accordance with all provisions of this report.  All training programs must incorporate the latest FAA-approved RFM procedures, RFM Checklists, and the manufacturer’s recommendations for training maneuvers.

12.  ALTERNATE MEANS OF COMPLIANCE

12.1.  Alternate Means of Compliance to the requirements of this report must be approved by the FSB.  If alternate means of compliance is sought, operators must show that the proposed alternate means provides an equivalent level of safety to the provisions of AC 120-53 (as amended) and this FSB report.  Analysis, demonstrations, proof of concept testing, differences documentation, or other evidence may be required.

12.2.  Equivalent Level of Safety:  Significant restrictions may apply in the event alternate means of compliance is sought, and the reporting requirements may be increased to ensure equivalent safety.  FAA will generally not consider relief through alternate means of compliance unless sufficient lead-time has been planned by an operator to allow for any necessary testing and evaluation.

12.3.  Interim Programs:  In the event of clearly unforeseen circumstances, in which it is not possible for an operator to comply with provisions of this report, the operator may seek an interim program approval rather than a permanent alternate means of compliance method.  Financial arrangements, scheduling adjustments, and other such reasons are not considered “unforeseen circumstances” for the purposes of this provision.  Interim program approvals must be approved by the FSB Chair.

13.  MISCELLANEOUS RECOMMENDATIONS

13.1.  The S-76D enjoys the benefit of a significant upgrade of integrated systems, management and presentation with the Thales Top Deck cockpit.  Although the presentation and integration of the integrated cockpit is clean and well done, it is apparent that familiarization and expertise with the Thales Top Deck system and use is critical to safe operation of the aircraft.  Great improvement to situational awareness is evident in many cases if proper use is made of the new Top Deck capabilities.  Improper handling of this technology can lead to unsafe situations because the array of information is vast.  Furthermore, aircraft capability at the present time (March 2013) is still rapidly maturing.  A phased FSB is probably appropriate to address the rapid growth that will be seen by the time the S-76D fleet is fielded.  For example, single pilot IFR capability is sought but prohibited at this initial stage of certification.

13.2.  Electronic Approach Charts:  Terminal Approach Charts (TAP) software was added to Thales Top Deck avionics system.  Chart use is menu driven on the MFD using respective CCD.  Cursor control of electronic charts is workload intensive due to cursor positioning for selections, panning, and formatting display, for the charts.  Crew coordination is necessary to organize MFD information to simultaneously display electronic charts and navigation display information.

13.3.  An FAA requirement should be established for specific training on the S-76D for the Thales Top Deck Integrated Avionics Subsystem for this aircraft.  Not because it is so complex, but rather that mismanagement could have unsafe consequences.  Legacy S-76 models have grown in complexity and have not had a review in decades, and have probably escaped any such conclusion due to the lack of an integrated vendor.  Therefore, while the integrated aspect of the S-76D is remarkable, it carries with it responsibility to assign quality familiarization with its use.  Any vendor Initial checkout, Transition, and Recurrent course training must cover this training component at an absolute minimum.

Note: The S-76D RFM has 16 multi-step emergency procedures that are ‘underlined’ as requiring memorization per the training sole source vendor Flight Safety International.  The Sikorsky S-92A, taught by the same vendor, has only one underlined emergency procedure.  This is not a statement or judgment of right or wrong or better or worse certification, just historical information that might support the level of complexity inferred and required in this non type-rated platform.  The S-92A is a dual piloted aircraft with the PIC required to hold a single aircraft type rating, essentially different from the S-76 series only in its certificated takeoff gross weight.  This may further support the point for some FAA mandated training on the non-typed single pilot S-76D, especially with regard to expected workload.  The massive effort to integrate the S-76D glass cockpit is a great improvement in capabilities, but it does come at a trade-off of more inherent knowledge to employ and manage the expanded resource, especially for a non-type rated single pilot.

13.4.  Options Pending Approval:  Additional options and capability are emerging: Automated power assurance Cat A capability, OEI training mode, similar legacy float & hoist capabilities, envelope expansions to include gross weight (+175 lbs)/altitude/temperature, expansion of navigation abilities which are currently very limited (no coupled NAV features) only due to signal issues which will certainly be worked out and resolved soon, SAR and Rig Approach features, Digital Map usage, Jepp charts, numerous Wx Rdr, EGPWS, TCAS overlays and reconfiguration possibilities and electronic Emergency and Normal Procedures checklists.


 

APPENDIX 1

Flight Training PIC/SIC Flight Training S-76D Helicopter

Maneuvers and Procedures Tables

 

The events which must be accomplished during flight training are listed in the maneuvers and procedures tables in this section.  These tables also contain the acceptable flight training equipment (training devices, simulators, or aircraft) which may be used for any training event.  An “X” indicates that the specified FTD or SIM has been qualified for that event without further consideration or approval.  An “A” indicates that a lower level device or simulator may be used for procedural training if that device has the necessary systems representations and functions for training on the event.  These systems representations and functions exceed the basic requirements for that level device or simulator; therefore, an “A” indicates that the device or simulator must be evaluated and approved for each particular event.  Any maneuver or procedure permitted in a specific level of FTD or SIM may also be conducted in a higher level of FTD, SIM, or the aircraft itself (provided the event can safely be accomplished in the aircraft).  Certain training events within the tables are preceded with a box ([ ]).  If the operator is authorized (or required) to conduct these maneuvers by Operations Specifications (OpSpecs) (for example, a circling approach), a POI should check the appropriate box to indicate these events must be included in the training curriculum.  Certain optional training events indicated by a pound sign (#) in the maneuvers and procedures tables are not specifically required by the regulations or OpSpecs.  Many of these optional training events, however, are often included in an operator’s flight training curriculums and should be conducted in a properly qualified device or simulator.  FAA policy requires detailed descriptions (or pictorial displays) of the training events marked with the letter (M) (see FAA Order 8900.1, Volume 3, Chapter. 19, Section 6, paragraph 3-1233).

 

 

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

REMARK

FTD LEVEL

SIM LEVEL

ACFT

4

5

6

7

B

C

D

 

PREPARATION

Visual Inspection

 

A

A

A

A

A

A

X

X

Before Taxi Procedures

 

 

 

 

 

A

A

X

X

Performance Limitations

 

A

A

A

A

A

A

X

X

SURFACE OPERATION

Starting

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Rotor Engagement

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Rotor Engagement on Water SEA

Not Used

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

Taxiing

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Water Taxiing SEA

Not Used

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

Lift-to-Hover IGE/OGE (M)

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Hover Turns IGE/OGE

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Sideward/Rearward Hovering

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Slope Operations

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Liftoff

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Taxiing

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X


 

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

REMARK

FTD LEVEL

SIM LEVEL

ACFT

4

5

6

7

B

C

D

 

TAKEOFF

Normal (M)

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Instrument

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Obstacle Clearance

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Running (High Altitude)

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Category “A” (M)

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Category “A” (M)  With Powerplant Failure Before CDP

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Category “A” (M)  With Powerplant Failure After CDP CLIMB

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Rejected Takeoff (M)

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

CLIMB

Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Best Rate

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Best Angle

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

EN ROUTE

Medium-Banked Turns

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Powerplant Shutdown and Restart

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Low Speed Characteristics

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

High Speed Handling Characteristics

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

DESCENT

Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Maximum Rate

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Autorotative Glide

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X


 

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

REMARK

FTD LEVEL

SIM LEVEL

ACFT

4

5

6

7

B

C

D

 

APPROACHES

VFR Procedures Normal (M)  

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Obstacle Clearance

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

High Altitude

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Elevated Landing Site

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

With Degraded Control Augmentation

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Balked Landing (M)

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

IFR Precision

Approaches (M)

ILS/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

ILS/One-Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

[ ] MLS/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

[ ] MLS/One-Engine Inoperative

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

[ ] PAR/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

[ ] PAR/One-Engine Inoperative #

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

IFR Non-precision Approaches (M)

NDB/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

VOR/Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

[ ] LOC Backcourse Procedures

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

[ ] SDF/LDA Procedures

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

[ ] ASR Procedures

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

[ ] RNAV Procedures

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

[ ] LORAN C Procedures

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

[ ] Circling Approach (M)

(Simulator must be qualified for training/checking on the circling maneuver)

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Missing Approaches (M)

From Precision Approach

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

From Non-precision Approach

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

NOTE: At least one MAP must be a complete approved procedure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

With Powerplant Failure

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X


 

FLIGHT PHASE

TRAINING EVENT

REMARK

FTD LEVEL

SIM LEVEL

ACFT

4

5

6

7

B

C

D

XXX

LANDINGS

Normal

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Normal-to-the-water SEA

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

[ ] Category “A”

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

[ ] Category “A” With Powerplant Failure after LDP

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Crosswind

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

From Precision Instrument Approach

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

From a Precision Approach With at Least 50 percent Power Deficiency

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

With Degraded Control Arguments

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

AFTER LANDING

Taxi

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Parking #

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Stopping the Rotors

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Emergency Evacuation #

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

UNPREPARED SITE OPERATIONS

Confined Areas

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Pinnacles

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Ridgelines

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Water Sites SEA

Not Used

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

OTHER FLIGHT PROCEDURES DURING ANY AIRBORNE PHASE

Holding

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Ice Accumulation on Airframe #

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Air Hazard Avoidance #

 

 

 

 

 

 

A

X

X

Windshear/Microburst #

Not Used

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

 


 

 

APPENDIX 2

Master Difference Requirements (MDR) Table

 

 

Reserved.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

APPENDIX 3

Operator Difference Requirements (ODR)

 

 

Reserved.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

APPENDIX 4

Sample Training Program S-76D

 

 

CURRICULUM SEGMENT OUTLINE

As part of an approved training program, an operator may use many methods when conducting helicopter ground training, including classroom instruction, pictures, videotape, ground-training devices, computer-based instruction, and static helicopter training.

The ground training curriculum segment outline is comprised of the following subject areas: General Operational Subjects, Aircraft Systems, and Systems Integration.

General Operational Subjects

The portion of ground training referred to as "General Operational Subjects" includes instruction in:

A.      Weight and Balance

B.        Performance

C.        Flight Planning

D.      Approved Rotorcraft Flight Manual/Rotorcraft Operating Manual (As Appropriate)

E.        Crew Resource Management (CRM)

Aircraft Systems

The training modules presented in the aircraft systems subject area consists of a breakdown of the various systems of the S-76D.  These modules may be taught in any sequence, however all modules must be covered.

A.      Aircraft General

B.        Lighting

C.        Master Warning System/Caution Advisory Module

D.      Electrical

E.        Fuel

F.          Powerplant

G.      Ice and Rain Protection

H.      Fire Protection

I.            Powertrain

J.            Main Rotor

K.      Active Vibration Control System

L.        Tail Rotor

M.    Hydraulics

N.      Landing Gear and Brakes

O.      Flight Controls

P.          Digital Automatic Flight Control System (DAFCS)

Q.      Avionics (Thales “Top Deck”)

R.        Environmental

S.          Rotor Ice Protection (If Equipped)

T.          Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS)

U.      Kits and Accessories

V.      System Review, Examination, and Critique

 

Systems Integration

The training modules presented in the Systems Integration subject area provides the pilots/crews with instruction on aircraft systems interrelationships with respect to normal, malfunctions, and emergency procedures.  Pilots will be introduced to, and will have exercises in, the elements of Crew Resource Management as part of the integration process, including but not limited to such elements as:  Situational Awareness, the Error Chain, Synergy, Crew Concept, Workload Assessment, and Time Management.  Pilots will become familiar with the cockpit layout, checklists, maneuvers, and procedures.  Lessons are normally conducted in a cockpit procedures mockup, Graphic Flight Simulator (GFS), cockpit procedures trainer, flight training device, or full flight simulator.

A.      Systems Integration Module No. 1- Aircraft Checklists/Normal Procedures/Thales “TopDeck” Cockpit/CRM

B.        Systems Integration Module No. 2 - Normal Procedures/Thales “Top Deck” Cockpit

C.        Systems Integration Module No. 3 - Normal Procedures/Abnormal Procedures/Emergency Procedures

D.      Systems Integration Module No. 4 - Normal Procedures/Abnormal Procedures/Emergency Procedures

E.        Systems Integration Module No. 5 - Normal Procedures/Abnormal Procedures/Emergency Procedures

 

TRAINING MODULE OUTLINES

 

General Operational Subjects Modules

A.      Weight and Balance Module

1.                General Principles and Methods of Weight and Balance Determination

2.                Operations

3.                Limitations

B.        Performance Module

1.                Use of Charts, Tables, Tabulated Data, and Other Related Material

2.                Performance Problems, Normal, Abnormal, and Emergency Conditions

3.                Performance Limiting Factors such as Ambient Temperature, Runway Contamination, etc.

C.        Flight Planning Module

1.                Flight Planning Charts, Such as Fuel Consumption Charts

2.                Operations

3.                Limitations

D.      Approved Rotorcraft Flight Manual/Rotorcraft Operating Manual Module (As Appropriate)

1.                Applicability and Description of the RFM

2.                Normal, Abnormal, and Emergency Procedures Sections

3.                Limitations Section

4.                Maneuvers and Procedures Section

5.                General Performance Section

6.                Systems Description

7.                Appendices, Bulletins and Supplements

E.        Crew Resource Management (CRM) Module

1.                Situational Awareness and the Error Chain

2.                Stress

3.                Communications

4.                Synergy and Crew Concept

5.                Workload Management

6.                Decision Making

7.                Advanced/Automated Cockpit)

Systems Modules

A.      Aircraft General Module

1.        General

a.            Aircraft Contents of RFM

b.            Training Manuals

c.            Equipment and Furnishings

d.          Emergency Equipment

2.        Structures

3.        Operating Limitations

4.        Instrument Markings

a.        Engines

b.        Miscellaneous Cockpit Instruments

5.        Aircraft Walk Around

a.        Use Appropriate Visual, ACPS or Available Aircraft

B.        Lighting Module

1.        General

2.        Operations

3.        Limitations

4.        Abnormal and Emergency Procedure

C.        Master Warning / Caution Advisory System Module

1.        General

2.        Operations

3.        Limitations

4.        Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

D.      Electrical Module

1.        General

a.            System Description

b.            AC Power

c.            DC Power

d.          Annunciators

2.          Operations

3.          Limitations

4.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

5.          Operations

6.          Limitations

7.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

E.        Powerplant Module

1.          General

a.            System Description

b.          Controls and Components

c.            Indicators/Indications

d.          Annunciators

2.          Operations

3.          Limitations

4.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

F.          Ice and Rain Protection Module

1.          General

2.          Operations

3.          Limitations

4.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

G.      Fire Protection Module

1.          Engine Fire Detection

a.            General

b.          Operations

2.          Engine Fire Extinguishing

a.            General

b.          Operations

c.            Limitations

d.          Abnormal and Emergency Operations

3.          Portable Fire Extinguisher

a.            Location

b.          Preflight

H.      Powertrain Module

1.          General

a.            System Description

b.          Controls and Components

c.            Annunciators

2.          Operations

3.          Limitations

4.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

I.            Main Rotor Module

1.          General

a.            System Description

b.          Controls and Components

2.          Operations

3.          Limitations

4.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

J.            Active Vibration Control (AVC) System

1.          General

a.            System Description

b.          Controls and Components

2.          Operations

3.          Limitations

4.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

K.      Tail Rotor Module

1.          General

a.            System Description

b.          Controls and Components

2.          Operations

3.          Limitations

4.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

L.        Hydraulics Module

1.          General

2.          Operations

3.          Limitations

4.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

M.    Landing Gear and Brakes Module

1.          General

a.            Landing Gear

b.          Brakes

c.            Annunciators

d.          Servicing

2.          Operations

3.          Limitations

4.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

N.      Flight Controls Module

1.          General

a.            System Description

b.          Controls and Components

c.            Indicators/Indications

d.          Annunciators

2.          Operations

3.          Limitations

4.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

O.      Digital Automatic Flight Control System (DAFCS) Module

1.          General

a.            System Description

b.          Controls and Components

c.            Annunciators

d.          Servicing

2.          Operations

3.          Limitations

4.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

P.          Avionics Module

1.          Thales Top Deck System

2.          Multi-Functional Display (MFD)

3.          Primary Flight Display (PFD)

4.          General

a.            System Description

b.          Controls and Components

c.            Annunciators

d.          Servicing

5.          Operations

6.          Limitations

7.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

Q.      Environmental Module

1.          General

a.            System Description

b.          Controls and Components

c.            Annunciators

d.          Servicing

2.          Operations

3.          Limitations

4.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

R.        Rotor Ice Protection (If Equipped)

1.          General

a.            System Description

b.          Controls and Components

c.            Annunciators

d.          Servicing

2.          Operations

3.          Limitations

4.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

S.          Health Usage Monitoring System

1.          General

2.          Operations

3.          Limitations

4.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

T.          Kits and Accessories Module (Floats/Rescue Hoist/Cargo Hook - as equipped)

1.          General

a.            System Description

b.          Controls and Components

c.            Annunciators

d.          Servicing

2.          Operations

3.          Limitations

4.          Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

U.      Systems Review, Examination and Critique Module

1.          Written Examination with a Passing Grade of 80%, corrected to 100%.

 


 

APPENDIX 5

Aircraft Compliance Checklist

 

 

Reserved.   The S-76A, B, and C legacy aircraft were certified in 1976 and were found compliant at that time.  See paragraph 8.1 of this report.