by:  AFS-120                                                       
                 LIVESTOCK - CARs 4b.260, 4b.382 and 4b.383; FARs              
                 25.561, 25.787, 25.855 and 25.857                             
      1.  PURPOSE.  This order outlines FAA criteria applicable to the         
      carriage of livestock in all certificated airplanes engaged in           
      cargo operations and describes special provisions necessary in           
      connection with such shipments.                                          
      2.  DISTRIBUTION.  This order is distributed to the branch levels        
      in all Flight Standards offices in Washington, regions, and              
      Aeronautical Center; to all General Aviation, Air Carrier,               
      Engineering and Manufacturing, and Flight Standards District             
      Offices; and to all International, International Aviation, and           
      Aeronautical Quality Assurance Field Offices.                            
      3.  CANCELLATION.  Order 8110.29 dated July 25, 1977, is                 
      4.  BACKGROUND.                                                          
          a.  In general, CAR 4b and FAR 25 do not contain specific            
      rules for the carriage of livestock.  However, the rules                 
      pertinent to design of cargo compartments apply for all types of         
      cargo, including livestock.                                              
          b.  Due to the uniqueness of transporting such cargo, an             
      early need for guidance was foreseen; and FAA Order 8000.20,             
      regarding same, was issued October 19, 1970.  This order                 
      contained the guidelines for early design and was inadvertently          
      cancelled April 30, 1975.  Since that time, questions have been          
      raised by some regions regarding such previously defined factors         
      as vertical restraint and cargo compartment flammability.                
      Therefore, further explanatory information is necessary.                 
          c.  Previous approvals not commensurate with this order will         
      not be accepted as precedent.  Therefore, the procedures in              
      paragraph 4 below apply to any airplane that is altered to               
      provide for hauling livestock, such as cattle and horses,                
      regardless of its certification basis.                                   
      5.  PROCEDURE.                                                           
          a.  The cargo compartments should meet the airworthiness             
      criteria of CAR 4b.359 or FAR 25.787, including means to prevent         
      contents (livestock) from shifting under specified flight and            
      ground load conditions.  The compartments should meet the                
      criteria of CAR 4b.382, or FAR 25.855, and should be classified          
      as Class "B" or "E" in accordance with CAR 4b.383 and FAR 25.857.        
          b.  Where vertical restraint is not provided in the livestock        
      loading installation, it will be necessary to determine that its         
      lack would not cause hazards to the airplane, its structure, or          
      equipment, during negative "g" conditions expected under normal          
      operations.  Maneuvering loads less than 0 "g" need not be               
      considered.  A combination of comprehensive gust analysis,               
      assessment of affected structure and appropriate operating               
      restrictions have been found adequate bases of approval for a            
      number of designs which have not included vertical restraint.            
          c.  For design of rearward and sideward restraints, a load           
      factor no less than 1.5g should be used.                                 
          d.  It must be shown that provisions are made to protect             
      aircraft occupants from injury by the cargo during a minor crash         
      landing in accordance with CAR 4b.260 or FAR 25.561.  For                
      airplanes certificated under the provisions of CAR 4b, in effect         
      prior to March 5, 1952, the forward crash load factor is 6g              
      instead of 9g.  For airplanes certified by other parts prior to          
      1952, including Aeronautics Bulletin No. 7-A, at least a 6g              
      forward load factor should be used.                                      
          e.  Means, such as dividers, pens or containers, should be           
      provided to ensure livestock movement will have minimal effect on        
      aircraft cg.  In all cases, the cg should remain within certified        
          f.  Cargo compartment floor loading should be checked to             
      determine that it is within the limitations specified for the            
      airplane.  Protective means should be provided where necessary to        
      prevent local damage to floor structure and fuselage sides from          
      hooves and horns.                                                        
          g.  Provision must be made for containment and disposal of           
      livestock excreta to prevent contamination and corrosion of              
      airplane systems, equipment and structure.  Maintenance                  
      inspectors should be particularly aware of any deleterious               
      effects from contamination and corrosion.                                
          h.  The Department of Agriculture has emphasized the                 
      importance of providing adequate ventilation for livestock,              
      particularly during loading and unloading, and during fuel and           
      maintenance stops.  The operator should therefore provide                
      appropriate procedures and instructions to obtain the desired            
          i.  Provision must be made for the effects of high humidity          
      on aircraft systems and structure, cockpit environment and               
      welfare of cattle.  The operator should provide adequate                 
      procedures and instructions to assure the desired humidity is            
          j.  United States Department of Agriculture Animal Health            
      Division representatives are available at most airport ports of          
      embarkation and will provide assistance and consultation when            
      requested regarding environmental conditions necessary to ensure         
      animal health during shipments.  In addition, the following              
      publication is available:  "Transport Livestock Overseas by Air,"        
      Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, ARS 52-         
      38, August 1970.                                                         
          k.  When provision for carriage of livestock involves a major        
      repair or alteration, the data approval should be handled in             
      accordance with Maintenance Certification Procedures Order               
      8310.4A, Chapter 2, Sections 1, 3 and 4; Air Carrier                     
      Airworthiness Inspectors Handbook, Order 8320.12, Chapter 6,             
      Sections 1, 2 and 3; and Order 8110.10C, FAA Approvals of Major          
      Modifications.  Prior to September 23, 1977, livestock restraint         
      systems should be approved in accordance with either:  (1) a             
      Supplemental Type Certificate (STC); (2) FAA Form 337 with               
      concurrence of respective FAA Engineering and Manufacturing              
      Regional Office or; (3) an Air Carrier Engineering Authorization         
      (E.A./E.O., etc.) which has been approved by the assigned                
      Principal Airworthiness Inspector.  After September 23, 1977,            
      approval must be in accordance with STC only.                            
      6.  DISCUSSION.  Two accidents have occurred in which cargo              
      airplanes were engaged in carriage of livestock.  Although not           
      related to probable cause, investigation of these accidents has          
      prompted a reappraisal of existing cargo guidance standards              
      relevant to such cargo installation.                                     
      /s/ J. A. FERRARESE                                                      
          Acting Director                                                      
          Flight Standards Service