SUBPART III -- SAFETY                               
                                                                               
          CHAPTER 441 -- REGISTRATION AND RECORDATION OF AIRCRAFT              
      Sec.                                                                     
      44101.  Operation of aircraft.                                           
      44102.  Registration requirements.                                       
      44103.  Registration of aircraft.                                        
      44104.  Registration of aircraft components and dealers'                 
              certificates of registration.                                    
      44105.  Suspension and revocation of aircraft certificates.              
      44106.  Revocation of aircraft certificates for controlled               
              substance violations.                                            
      44107.  Recordation of conveyances, leases, and security                 
              instruments.                                                     
      44108.  Validity of conveyances, leases, and security                    
              instruments.                                                     
      44109.  Reporting transfer of ownership.                                 
      44110.  Information about aircraft ownership and rights.                 
      44111.  Modifications in registration and recordation system for         
              aircraft not providing air transportation.                       
      44112.  Limitation of liability.                                         
                                                                               
      Sec. 44101. Operation of aircraft                                        
            (a) Registration Requirement. -- Except as provided in             
      subsection (b) of this section, a person may operate an aircraft         
      only when the aircraft is registered under section 44103 of this         
      title.                                                                   
            (b) Exceptions. -- A person may operate an aircraft in the         
      United States that is not registered --                                  
                (1) when authorized under section 40103(d) or 41703 of         
            this title;                                                        
                (2) when it is an aircraft of the national defense             
            forces of the United States and is identified in a way             
            satisfactory to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation          
            Administration; and                                                
                (3) for a reasonable period of time after a transfer of        
            ownership, under regulations prescribed by the                     
            Administrator.                                                     
                                                                               
      Sec. 44102. Registration requirements                                    
            (a) Eligibility. -- An aircraft may be registered under            
      section 44103 of this title only when the aircraft is --                 
                (1) not registered under the laws of a foreign country         
            and is owned by --                                                 
                    (A) a citizen of the United States;                        
                    (B) an individual citizen of a foreign country             
                lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United        
                States; or                                                     
                    (C) a corporation not a citizen of the United              
                States when the corporation is organized and doing             
                business under the laws of the United States or a              
                State, and the aircraft is based and primarily used in         
                the United States; or                                          
                (2) an aircraft of --                                          
                    (A) the United States Government; or                       
                    (B) a State, the District of Columbia, a territory         
                or possession of the United States, or a political             
                subdivision of a State, territory, or possession.              
            (b) Duty To Define Certain Term. -- In carrying out                
      subsection (a)(1)(C) of this section, the Secretary of                   
      Transportation shall define "based and primarily used in the             
      United States".                                                          
                                                                               
      Sec. 44103. Registration of aircraft                                     
            (a) General. -- (1) On application of the owner of an              
      aircraft that meets the requirements of section 44102 of this            
      title, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration          
      shall --                                                                 
                (A) register the aircraft; and                                 
                (B) issue a certificate of registration to its owner.          
            (2) The Administrator may prescribe the extent to which an         
            aircraft owned by the holder of a dealer's certificate of          
            registration issued under section 44104(2) of this title           
            also is registered under this section.                             
            (b) Controlled Substance Violations. -- (1) The                    
      Administrator may not issue an owner's certificate of                    
      registration under subsection (a)(1) of this section to a person         
      whose certificate is revoked under section 44106 of this title           
      during the 5-year period beginning on the date of the revocation,        
      except --                                                                
                (A) as provided in section 44106(e)(2) of this title;          
            or                                                                 
                (B) that the Administrator may issue the certificate to        
            the person after the one-year period beginning on the date         
            of the revocation if the Administrator decides that the            
            aircraft otherwise meets the requirements of section 44102         
            of this title and that denial of a certificate for the             
            5-year period --                                                   
                    (i) would be excessive considering the nature of           
                the offense or the act committed and the burden the            
                denial places on the person; or                                
                    (ii) would not be in the public interest.                  
            (2) A decision of the Administrator under paragraph                
      (1)(B)(i) or (ii) of this subsection is within the                       
      discretion of the Administrator.  That decision                          
      or failure to make a decision is not subject to                          
      administrative or judicial review.                                       
            (c) Certificates as Evidence. -- A certificate of                  
      registration issued under this section is --                             
                (1) conclusive evidence of the nationality of an               
            aircraft for international purposes, but not conclusive            
            evidence in a proceeding under the laws of the United              
            States; and                                                        
                (2) not evidence of ownership of an aircraft in a              
            proceeding in which ownership is or may be in issue.               
            (d) Certificates Available for Inspection. -- An operator          
      of an aircraft shall make available for inspection a certificate         
      of registration for the aircraft when requested by a United              
      States Government, State, or local law enforcement officer.              
                                                                               
      Sec. 44104. Registration of aircraft components and dealers'             
      certificates of registration                                             
            The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration           
      may prescribe regulations --                                             
                (1) in the interest of safety for registering and              
            identifying an aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance;           
            and                                                                
                (2) in the public interest for issuing, suspending, and        
            revoking a dealer's certificate of registration under this         
            chapter and for its use by a person manufacturing,                 
            distributing, or selling aircraft.                                 
                                                                               
      Sec. 44105. Suspension and revocation of aircraft certificates           
            The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration           
      may suspend or revoke a certificate of registration issued under         
      section 44103 of this title when the aircraft no longer meets the        
      requirements of section 44102 of this title.                             
      Sec. 44106. Revocation of aircraft certificates for controlled           
      substance violations                                                     
            (a) Definition. -- In this section, "controlled substance"         
      has the same meaning given that term in section 102 of the               
      Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21          
      U.S.C. 802).                                                             
            (b) Revocations. -- (1) The Administrator of the Federal           
      Aviation Administration shall issue an order revoking the                
      certificate of registration for an aircraft issued to an owner           
      under section 44103 of this title and any other certificate of           
      registration that the owner of the aircraft holds under section          
      44103, if the Administrator finds that --                                
                (A) the aircraft was used to carry out, or facilitate,         
            an activity that is punishable by death or imprisonment for        
            more than one year under a law of the United States or a           
            State related to a controlled substance (except a law              
            related to simple possession of a controlled substance);           
            and                                                                
                (B) the owner of the aircraft permitted the use of the         
            aircraft knowing that the aircraft was to be used for the          
            activity described in clause (A) of this paragraph.                
            (2) An aircraft owner that is not an individual is deemed          
      to have permitted the use of the aircraft knowing that the               
      aircraft was to be used for the activity described in                    
      paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection only if a majority of                
      the individuals who control the owner of the aircraft or                 
      who are involved in forming the major policy of the owner                
      permitted the use of the aircraft knowing that the aircraft              
      was to be used for the activity described in paragraph                   
      (1)(A).                                                                  
            (c) Advice to Holders and Opportunity To Answer. -- Before         
      the Administrator revokes a certificate under subsection (b) of          
      this section, the Administrator shall --                                 
                (1) advise the holder of the certificate of the charges        
            or reasons on which the Administrator bases the proposed           
            action; and                                                        
                (2) provide the holder of the certificate an                   
            opportunity to answer the charges and state why the                
            certificate should not be revoked.                                 
            (d) Appeals. -- (1) A person whose certificate is revoked          
      by the Administrator under subsection (b) of this section may            
      appeal the revocation order to the National Transportation Safety        
      Board.  The Board shall affirm or reverse the order after                
      providing notice and a hearing on the record.  In conducting the         
      hearing, the Board is not bound by the findings of fact of the           
      Administrator.                                                           
            (2) When a person files an appeal with the Board under this        
      subsection, the order of the Administrator revoking the                  
      certificate is stayed.  However, if the Administrator                    
      advises the Board that safety in air transportation or                   
      air commerce requires the immediate effectiveness of the                 
      order --                                                                 
                (A) the order remains effective; and                           
                (B) the Board shall dispose of the appeal not later            
            than 60 days after notification by the Administrator under         
            this paragraph.                                                    
            (3) A person substantially affected by an order of the             
      Board under this subsection may seek judicial review of the              
      order under section 46110 of this title.  The Administrator              
      shall be made a party to that judicial proceeding.                       
            (e) Acquittal. -- (1) The Administrator may not revoke, and        
      the Board may not affirm a revocation of, a certificate of               
      registration under this section on the basis of an activity              
      described in subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section if the holder          
      of the certificate is acquitted of all charges related to a              
      controlled substance in an indictment or information arising from        
      the activity.                                                            
            (2) If the Administrator has revoked a certificate of              
      registration of a person under this section because of an                
      activity described in subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section,              
      the Administrator shall reissue a certificate to the person              
      if the person --                                                         
                (A) subsequently is acquitted of all charges related to        
            a controlled substance in an indictment or information             
            arising from the activity; and                                     
                (B) otherwise meets the requirements of section 44102          
            of this title.                                                     
                                                                               
      Sec. 44107. Recordation of conveyances, leases, and security             
      instruments                                                              
            (a) Establishment of System. -- The Administrator of the           
      Federal Aviation Administration shall establish a system for             
      recording --                                                             
                (1) conveyances that affect an interest in civil               
            aircraft of the United States;                                     
                (2) leases and instruments executed for security               
            purposes, including conditional sales contracts,                   
            assignments, and amendments, that affect an interest in --         
                    (A) a specifically identified aircraft engine              
                having at least 750 rated takeoff horsepower or its            
                equivalent;                                                    
                    (B) a specifically identified aircraft propeller           
                capable of absorbing at least 750 rated takeoff shaft          
                horsepower;                                                    
                    (C) an aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance            
                maintained for installation or use in an aircraft,             
                aircraft engine, or propeller, by or for an air carrier        
                holding a certificate issued under section 44705 of            
                this title; and                                                
                    (D) spare parts maintained by or for an air carrier        
                holding a certificate issued under section 44705 of            
                this title; and                                                
                (3) releases, cancellations, discharges, and                   
            satisfactions related to a conveyance, lease, or instrument        
            recorded under clause (1) or (2) of this subsection.               
            (b) General Description Required. -- A lease or instrument         
      recorded under subsection (a)(2)(C) or (D) of this section only          
      has to describe generally the engine, propeller, appliance, or           
      spare part by type and designate its location.                           
            (c) Acknowledgment. -- Except as the Administrator                 
      otherwise may provide, a conveyance, lease, or instrument may be         
      recorded under subsection (a) of this section only after it has          
      been acknowledged before --                                              
                (1) a notary public; or                                        
                (2) another officer authorized under the laws of the           
            United States, a State, the District of Columbia, or a             
            territory or possession of the United States to acknowledge        
            deeds.                                                             
            (d) Records and Indexes. -- The Administrator shall --             
                (1) keep a record of the time and date that each               
            conveyance, lease, and instrument is filed and recorded            
            with the Administrator; and                                        
                (2) record each conveyance, lease, and instrument filed        
            with the Administrator, in the order of their receipt, and         
            index them by --                                                   
                    (A) the identifying description of the aircraft,           
                aircraft engine, or propeller, or location specified in        
                a lease or instrument recorded under subsection                
                (a)(2)(C) or (D) of this section; and                          
                    (B) the names of the parties to each conveyance,           
                lease, and instrument.                                         
                                                                               
      Sec. 44108. Validity of conveyances, leases, and security                
      instruments                                                              
            (a) Validity Before Filing. -- Until a conveyance, lease,          
      or instrument executed for security purposes that may be recorded        
      under section 44107(a)(1) or (2) of this title is filed for              
      recording, the conveyance, lease, or instrument is valid only            
      against --                                                               
                (1) the person making the conveyance, lease, or                
            instrument;                                                        
                (2) that person's heirs and devisees; and                      
                (3) a person having actual notice of the conveyance,           
            lease, or instrument.                                              
            (b) Period of Validity. -- When a conveyance, lease, or            
      instrument is recorded under section 44107 of this title, the            
      conveyance, lease, or instrument is valid from the date of filing        
      against all persons, without other recordation, except that --           
                (1) a lease or instrument recorded under section               
            44107(a)(2)(A) or (B) of this title is valid for a                 
            specifically identified engine or propeller without regard         
            to a lease or instrument previously or subsequently                
            recorded under section 44107(a)(2)(C) or (D); and                  
                (2) a lease or instrument recorded under section               
            44107(a)(2)(C) or (D) of this title is valid only for items        
            at the location designated in the lease or instrument.             
            (c) Applicable Laws. -- (1) The validity of a conveyance,          
      lease, or instrument that may be recorded under section 44107 of         
      this title is subject to the laws of the State, the District of          
      Columbia, or the territory or possession of the United States at         
      which the conveyance, lease, or instrument is delivered,                 
      regardless of the place at which the subject of the conveyance,          
      lease, or instrument is located or delivered.  If the conveyance,        
      lease, or instrument specifies the place at which delivery is            
      intended, it is presumed that the conveyance, lease, or                  
      instrument was delivered at the specified place.                         
            (2) This subsection does not take precedence over the              
      Convention on the International Recognition of Rights in Aircraft        
      (4 U.S.T. 1830).                                                         
            (d) Nonapplication. -- This section does not apply to --           
                (1) a conveyance described in section 44107(a)(1) of           
            this title that was made before August 22, 1938; or                
                (2) a lease or instrument described in section                 
            44107(a)(2) of this title that was made before June 20,            
            1948.                                                              
                                                                               
      Sec. 44109. Reporting transfer of ownership                              
            (a) Filing Notices. -- A person having an ownership                
      interest in an aircraft for which a certificate of registration          
      was issued under section 44103 of this title shall file a notice         
      with the Secretary of the Treasury that the Secretary requires by        
      regulation, not later than 15 days after a sale, conditional             
      sale, transfer, or conveyance of the interest.                           
            (b) Exemptions. -- The Secretary --                                
                (1) shall prescribe regulations that establish                 
            guidelines for exempting a person or class from subsection         
            (a) of this section; and                                           
                (2) may exempt a person or class under the regulations.        
                                                                               
      Sec. 44110. Information about aircraft ownership and rights              
            The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration           
      may provide by regulation for --                                         
                (1) endorsing information on each certificate of               
            registration issued under section 44103 of this title and          
            each certificate issued under section 44704 of this title          
            about ownership of the aircraft for which each certificate         
            is issued; and                                                     
                (2) recording transactions affecting an interest in,           
            and for other records, proceedings, and details necessary          
            to decide the rights of a party related to, a civil                
            aircraft of the United States, aircraft engine, propeller,         
            appliance, or spare part.                                          
                                                                               
      Sec. 44111. Modifications in registration and recordation system         
      for aircraft not providing air transportation                            
            (a) Application. -- This section applies only to aircraft          
      not used to provide air transportation.                                  
            (b) Authority To Make Modifications. -- The Administrator          
      of the Federal Aviation Administration shall make modifications          
      in the system for registering and recording aircraft necessary to        
      make the system more effective in serving the needs of --                
                (1) buyers and sellers of aircraft;                            
                (2) officials responsible for enforcing laws related to        
            the regulation of controlled substances (as defined in             
            section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and         
            Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802)); and                          
                (3) other users of the system.                                 
            (c) Nature of Modifications. -- Modifications made under           
      subsection (b) of this section --                                        
                (1) may include a system of titling aircraft or                
            registering all aircraft, even aircraft not operated;              
                (2) shall ensure positive, verifiable, and timely              
            identification of the true owner; and                              
                (3) shall address at least each of the following               
            deficiencies in and abuses of the existing system:                 
                    (A) the registration of aircraft to fictitious             
                persons.                                                       
                    (B) the use of false or nonexistent addresses by           
                persons registering aircraft.                                  
                    (C) the use by a person registering an aircraft of         
                a post office box or "mail drop" as a return address to        
                evade identification of the person's address.                  
                    (D) the registration of aircraft to entities               
                established to facilitate unlawful activities.                 
                    (E) the submission of names of individuals on              
                applications for registration of aircraft that are not         
                identifiable.                                                  
                    (F) the ability to make frequent legal changes in          
                the registration markings assigned to aircraft.                
                    (G) the use of false registration markings on              
                aircraft.                                                      
                    (H) the illegal use of "reserved" registration             
                markings on aircraft.                                          
                    (I) the large number of aircraft classified as             
                being in "self-reported status".                               
                    (J) the lack of a system to ensure timely and              
                adequate notice of the transfer of ownership of                
                aircraft.                                                      
                    (K) the practice of allowing temporary operation           
                and navigation of aircraft without the issuance of a           
                certificate of registration.                                   
            (d) Regulations. -- (1) The Administrator of the Federal           
      Aviation Administration shall prescribe regulations to carry out         
      this section and provide a written explanation of how the                
      regulations address each of the deficiencies and abuses described        
      in subsection (c) of this section.  In prescribing the                   
      regulations, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation                   
      Administration shall consult with the Administrator of Drug              
      Enforcement, the Commissioner of Customs, other law enforcement          
      officials of the United States Government, representatives of            
      State and local law enforcement officials, representatives of the        
      general aviation aircraft industry, representatives of users of          
      general aviation aircraft, and other interested persons.                 
            (2) Regulations prescribed under this subsection shall             
      require that --                                                          
                (A) each individual listed in an application for               
            registration of an aircraft provide with the application           
            the individual's driver's license number; and                      
                (B) each person (not an individual) listed in an               
            application for registration of an aircraft provide with           
            the application the person's taxpayer identifying number.          
                                                                               
      Sec. 44112. Limitation of liability                                      
            (a) Definitions. -- In this section --                             
                (1) "lessor" means a person leasing for at least 30            
            days a civil aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller.              
                (2) "owner" means a person that owns a civil aircraft,         
            aircraft engine, or propeller.                                     
                (3) "secured party" means a person having a security           
            interest in, or security title to, a civil aircraft,               
            aircraft engine, or propeller under a conditional sales            
            contract, equipment trust contract, chattel or corporate           
            mortgage, or similar instrument.                                   
            (b) Liability. -- A lessor, owner, or secured party is             
      liable for personal injury, death, or property loss or damage on         
      land or water only when a civil aircraft, aircraft engine, or            
      propeller is in the actual possession or control of the lessor,          
      owner, or secured party, and the personal injury, death, or              
      property loss or damage occurs because of --                             
                (1) the aircraft, engine, or propeller; or                     
                (2) the flight of, or an object falling from, the              
            aircraft, engine, or propeller.