CHAPTER 445 -- FACILITIES, PERSONNEL, AND RESEARCH                
      Sec.                                                                     
      44501.  Plans and policy.                                                
      44502.  General facilities and personnel authority.                      
      44503.  Reducing nonessential expenditures.                              
      44504.  Improved aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and             
              appliances.                                                      
      44505.  Systems, procedures, facilities, and devices.                    
      44506.  Air traffic controllers.                                         
      44507.  Civil aeromedical research.                                      
      44508.  Research advisory committee.                                     
      44509.  Demonstration projects.                                          
      44510.  Airway science curriculum grants.                                
      44511.  Aviation research grants.                                        
      44512.  Catastrophic failure prevention research grants.                 
      44513.  Regional centers of air transportation excellence.               
      44514.  Flight service stations.                                         
      44515.  Advanced training facilities for maintenance technicians         
              for air carrier aircraft.                                        
                                                                               
      Sec. 44501. Plans and policy                                             
            (a) Long Range Plans and Policy Requirements. -- The               
      Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall make          
      long range plans and policy for the orderly development and use          
      of the navigable airspace, and the orderly development and               
      location of air navigation facilities, that will best meet               
      the needs of, and serve the interests of, civil aeronautics and          
      the national defense, except for needs of the armed forces that          
      are peculiar to air warfare and primarily of military concern.           
            (b) Airway Capital Investment Plan. -- The Administrator of        
      the Federal Aviation Administration shall review, revise, and            
      publish a national airways system plan, known as the Airway              
      Capital Investment Plan, before the beginning of each fiscal             
      year.  The plan shall set forth --                                       
                (1) for a 10-year period, the research, engineering,           
            and development programs and the facilities and equipment          
            that the Administrator considers necessary for a system of         
            airways, air traffic services, and navigation aids that            
            will --                                                            
                    (A) meet the forecasted needs of civil aeronautics;        
                    (B) meet the requirements that the Secretary of            
                Defense establishes for the support of the national            
                defense; and                                                   
                    (C) provide the highest degree of safety in air            
                commerce;                                                      
                (2) for the first and 2d years of the plan, detailed           
            annual estimates of --                                             
                    (A) the number, type, location, and cost of                
                acquiring, operating, and maintaining required                 
                facilities and services;                                       
                    (B) the cost of research, engineering, and                 
                development required to improve safety, system                 
                capacity, and efficiency; and                                  
                    (C) personnel levels required for the activities           
                described in subclauses (A) and (B) of this clause;            
                (3) for the 3d, 4th, and 5th years of the plan,                
            estimates of the total cost of each major program for the          
            3-year period, and additional major research programs,             
            acquisition of systems and facilities, and changes in              
            personnel levels that may be required to meet long range           
            objectives and that may have significant impact on future          
            funding requirements; and                                          
                (4) a 10-year investment plan that considers long range        
            objectives that the Administrator considers necessary to --        
                    (A) ensure that safety is given the highest                
                priority in providing for a safe and efficient airway          
                system; and                                                    
                    (B) meet the current and projected growth of               
                aviation and the requirements of interstate commerce,          
                the United States Postal Service, and the national             
                defense.                                                       
            (c) National Aviation Research Plan. -- (1) The                    
      Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall               
      prepare and publish annually a national aviation research plan           
      and submit the plan to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and           
      Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Science, Space,        
      and Technology of the House of Representatives.  The plan shall          
      be submitted not later than the date of submission of the                
      President's budget to Congress.                                          
            (2)(A) The plan shall describe, for a 15-year period, the          
      research, engineering, and development that the Administrator of         
      the Federal Aviation Administration considers necessary --               
                (i) to ensure the continued capacity, safety, and              
            efficiency of aviation in the United States, considering           
            emerging technologies and forecasted needs of civil                
            aeronautics; and                                                   
                (ii) to provide the highest degree of safety in air            
            travel.                                                            
            (B) The plan shall cover all research conducted under              
      sections 40119, 44504, 44505, 44507, 44511-44513, and 44912 of           
      this title and shall identify complementary and coordinated              
      research efforts that the Administrator of the National                  
      Aeronautics and Space Administration conducts with amounts               
      specifically appropriated to the Administration.  For projects           
      for which the Administrator of the Federal Aviation                      
      Administration anticipates requesting an appropriation, the plan         
      shall include --                                                         
                (i) for the first 2 years of the plan, detailed annual         
            estimates of the schedule, cost, and work-force levels for         
            each research project, including a description of the scope        
            and content of each major contract, grant, or interagency          
            agreement;                                                         
                (ii) for the 3d, 4th, and 5th years of the plan,               
            estimates of the total cost of each major project and any          
            additional major research projects that may be required to         
            meet long-term objectives and that may have significant            
            impact on future appropriations requirements;                      
                (iii) for the 6th and subsequent years of the plan, the        
            long-term objectives the Administrator of the Federal              
            Aviation Administration considers necessary to ensure that         
            aviation safety will be given the highest priority; and            
                (iv) details of a program to disseminate to the private        
            sector the results of aviation research conducted by the           
            Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration,              
            including any new technologies developed.                          
            (3) Subject to section 40119(b) of this title and                  
      regulations prescribed under section 40119(b), the Administrator         
      of the Federal Aviation Administration shall submit to the               
      committees named in paragraph (1) of this subsection an annual           
      report on the accomplishments of the research completed during           
      the prior fiscal year.  The report shall be submitted with the           
      plan required under paragraph (1) and be organized to allow              
      comparison with the plan in effect for the prior fiscal year.            
                                                                               
      Sec. 44502. General facilities and personnel authority                   
            (a) General Authority. -- (1) The Administrator of the             
      Federal Aviation Administration may --                                   
                (A) acquire, establish, improve, operate, and maintain         
            air navigation facilities; and                                     
                (B) provide facilities and personnel to regulate and           
            protect air traffic.                                               
            (2) The cost of site preparation work associated with              
      acquiring, establishing, or improving an air navigation facility         
      under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection shall be charged to            
      amounts available for that purpose appropriated under section            
      48101(a) of this title.  The Secretary of Transportation may make        
      an agreement with an airport owner or sponsor (as defined in             
      section 47102 of this title) so that the owner or sponsor will           
      provide the work and be paid or reimbursed by the Secretary from         
      the appropriated amounts.                                                
            (3) The Secretary of Transportation may authorize a                
      department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States              
      Government to carry out any duty or power under this subsection          
      with the consent of the head of the department, agency, or               
      instrumentality.                                                         
            (b) Certification of Necessity. -- Except for Government           
      money expended under this part or for a military purpose, money          
      may be expended to acquire, establish, construct, operate,               
      repair, alter, or maintain an air navigation facility only if the        
      Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration certifies in        
      writing that the facility is reasonably necessary for use in air         
      commerce or for the national defense.  An interested person may          
      apply for a certificate for a facility to be acquired,                   
      established, constructed, operated, repaired, altered, or                
      maintained by or for the person.                                         
            (c) Ensuring Conformity With Plans and Policies. -- (1) To         
      ensure that conformity with plans and policies for, and                  
      allocation of, airspace by the Administrator of the Federal              
      Aviation Administration under section 40103(b)(1) of this title,         
      a military airport, military landing area, or missile or rocket          
      site may be acquired, established, or constructed, or a runway           
      may be altered substantially, only if the Administrator of the           
      Federal Aviation Administration is given reasonable prior notice         
      so that the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration         
      may advise the appropriate committees of Congress and interested         
      departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government on        
      the effect of the acquisition, establishment, construction, or           
      alteration on the use of airspace by aircraft.  A disagreement           
      between the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration         
      and the Secretary of Defense or the Administrator of the                 
      National Aeronautics and Space Administration may be appealed to         
      the President for a final decision.                                      
            (2) To ensure conformity, an airport or landing area not           
      involving the expenditure of Government money may be established         
      or constructed, or a runway may be altered substantially, only if        
      the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration is given        
      reasonable prior notice so that the Administrator may provide            
      advice on the effects of the establishment, construction, or             
      alteration on the use of airspace by aircraft.                           
            (d) Public Use and Emergency Assistance. -- (1) The head of        
      a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government having        
      jurisdiction over an air navigation facility owned or operated by        
      the Government may provide, under regulations the head of the            
      department, agency, or instrumentality prescribes, for public use        
      of the facility.                                                         
            (2) The head of a department, agency, or instrumentality of        
      the Government having jurisdiction over an airport or emergency          
      landing field owned or operated by the Government may provide,           
      under regulations the head of the department, agency, or                 
      instrumentality prescribes, for assistance, and the sale of fuel,        
      oil, equipment, and supplies, to an aircraft, but only when              
      necessary, because of an emergency, to allow the aircraft to             
      continue to the nearest airport operated by private enterprise.          
      The head of the department, agency, or instrumentality shall             
      provide for the assistance and sale at the prevailing local fair         
      market value as determined by the head of the department, agency,        
      or instrumentality.  An amount that the head decides is equal to         
      the cost of the assistance provided and the fuel, oil, equipment,        
      and supplies sold shall be credited to the appropriation from            
      which the cost was paid.  The balance shall be credited to               
      miscellaneous receipts.                                                  
            (e) Consent of Congress. -- Congress consents to a State           
      making an agreement, not in conflict with a law of the United            
      States, with another State to develop or operate an airport              
      facility.                                                                
            (f) Transfers of Instrument Landing Systems. -- An airport         
      may transfer, without consideration, to the Administrator of the         
      Federal Aviation Administration an instrument landing system (and        
      associated approach lighting equipment and runway visual range           
      equipment) that conforms to performance specifications of the            
      Administrator if a Government airport aid program, airport               
      development aid program, or airport improvement project grant was        
      used to assist in purchasing the system.  The Administrator shall        
      accept the system and operate and maintain it under criteria of          
      the Administrator.                                                       
                                                                               
      Sec. 44503. Reducing nonessential expenditures                           
            The Secretary of Transportation shall attempt to reduce the        
      capital, operating, maintenance, and administrative costs of the         
      national airport and airway system to the maximum extent                 
      practicable consistent with the highest degree of aviation               
      safety.  At least annually, the Secretary shall consult with and         
      consider the recommendations of users of the system on ways to           
      reduce nonessential expenditures of the United States Government         
      for aviation.  The Secretary shall give particular attention to a        
      recommendation that may reduce, with no adverse effect on safety,        
      future personnel requirements and costs to the Government                
      required to be recovered from user charges.                              
                                                                               
      Sec. 44504. Improved aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and         
      appliances                                                               
            (a) Developmental Work and Service Testing. -- The                 
      Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may conduct         
      or supervise developmental work and service testing to improve           
      aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances.                  
            (b) Research. -- The Administrator shall conduct or                
      supervise research --                                                    
                (1) to develop technologies and analyze information to         
            predict the effects of aircraft design, maintenance,               
            testing, wear, and fatigue on the life of aircraft and air         
            safety;                                                            
                (2) to develop methods of analyzing and improving              
            aircraft maintenance technology and practices, including           
            nondestructive evaluation of aircraft structures;                  
                (3) to assess the fire and smoke resistance of aircraft        
            material;                                                          
                (4) to develop improved fire and smoke resistant               
            material for aircraft interiors;                                   
                (5) to develop and improve fire and smoke containment          
            systems for inflight aircraft fires;                               
                (6) to develop advanced aircraft fuels with low                
            flammability and technologies that will contain aircraft           
            fuels to minimize post-crash fire hazards; and                     
                (7) to develop technologies and methods to assess the          
            risk of and prevent defects, failures, and malfunctions of         
            products, parts, processes, and articles manufactured for          
            use in aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and                 
            appliances that could result in a catastrophic failure of          
            an aircraft.                                                       
            (c) Authority To Buy Items Offering Special Advantages. --         
      In carrying out this section, the Administrator, by negotiation          
      or otherwise, may buy or exchange experimental aircraft, aircraft        
      engines, propellers, and appliances that the Administrator               
      decides may offer special advantages to aeronautics.                     
                                                                               
      Sec. 44505. Systems, procedures, facilities, and devices                 
            (a) General Requirements. -- (1) The Administrator of the          
      Federal Aviation Administration shall --                                 
                (A) develop, alter, test, and evaluate systems,                
            procedures, facilities, and devices, and define their              
            performance characteristics, to meet the needs for safe and        
            efficient navigation and traffic control of civil and              
            military aviation, except for needs of the armed forces            
            that are peculiar to air warfare and primarily of military         
            concern; and                                                       
                (B) select systems, procedures, facilities, and devices        
            that will best serve those needs and promote maximum               
            coordination of air traffic control and air defense                
            systems.                                                           
            (2) The Administrator may make contracts to carry out this         
      subsection without regard to section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31.        
            (3) When a substantial question exists under paragraph (1)         
      of this subsection about whether a matter is of primary concern          
      to the armed forces, the Administrator shall decide whether the          
      Administrator or the Secretary of the appropriate military               
      department has responsibility.  The Administrator shall be given         
      technical information related to each research and development           
      project of the armed forces that potentially applies to, or              
      potentially conflicts with, the common system to ensure that             
      potential application to the common system is considered properly        
      and that potential conflicts with the system are eliminated.             
            (b) Research on Human Factors and Simulation Models. -- The        
      Administrator shall conduct or supervise research --                     
                (1) to develop a better understanding of the                   
            relationship between human factors and aviation accidents          
            and between human factors and air safety;                          
                (2) to enhance air traffic controller, mechanic, and           
            flight crew performance;                                           
                (3) to develop a human-factor analysis of the hazards          
            associated with new technologies to be used by air traffic         
            controllers, mechanics, and flight crews;                          
                (4) to identify innovative and effective corrective            
            measures for human errors that adversely affect air safety;        
            and                                                                
                (5) to develop dynamic simulation models of the air            
            traffic control system and airport design and operating            
            procedures that will provide analytical technology --              
                    (A) to predict airport and air traffic control             
                safety and capacity problems;                                  
                    (B) to evaluate planned research projects; and             
                    (C) to test proposed revisions in airport and air          
                traffic control operations programs.                           
            (c) Research on Developing and Maintaining a Safe and              
      Efficient System. --                                                     
      The Administrator shall conduct or supervise research on --              
                (1) airspace and airport planning and design;                  
                (2) airport capacity enhancement techniques;                   
                (3) human performance in the air transportation                
            environment;                                                       
                (4) aviation safety and security;                              
                (5) the supply of trained air transportation personnel,        
            including pilots and mechanics; and                                
                (6) other aviation issues related to developing and            
            maintaining a safe and efficient air transportation system.        
                                                                               
      Sec. 44506. Air traffic controllers                                      
            (a) Research on Effect of Automation on Performance. -- To         
      develop the means necessary to establish appropriate selection           
      criteria and training methodologies for the next generation of           
      air traffic controllers, the Administrator of the Federal                
      Aviation Administration shall conduct research to study the              
      effect of automation on the performance of the next generation           
      of air traffic controllers and the air traffic control system.           
      The research shall include investigating --                              
                (1) methods for improving and accelerating future air          
            traffic controller training through the application of             
            advanced training techniques, including the use of                 
            simulation technology;                                             
                (2) the role of automation in the air traffic control          
            system and its physical and psychological effects on air           
            traffic controllers;                                               
                (3) the attributes and aptitudes needed to function            
            well in a highly automated air traffic control system and          
            the development of appropriate testing methods for                 
            identifying individuals with those attributes and                  
            aptitudes;                                                         
                (4) innovative methods for training potential air              
            traffic controllers to enhance the benefits of automation          
            and maximize the effectiveness of the air traffic control          
            system; and                                                        
                (5) new technologies and procedures for exploiting             
            automated communication systems, including Mode S                  
            Transponders, to improve information transfers between air         
            traffic controllers and aircraft pilots.                           
            (b) Research on Human Factor Aspects of Automation. -- The         
      Administrators of the Federal Aviation Administration and                
      National Aeronautics and Space Administration may make an                
      agreement for the use of the National Aeronautics and Space              
      Administration's unique human factor facilities and expertise in         
      conducting research activities to study the human factor aspects         
      of the highly automated environment for the next generation of           
      air traffic controllers.  The research activities shall include          
      investigating --                                                         
                (1) human perceptual capabilities and the effect of            
            computer-aided decision making on the workload and                 
            performance of air traffic controllers;                            
                (2) information management techniques for advanced air         
            traffic control display systems; and                               
                (3) air traffic controller workload and performance            
            measures, including the development of predictive models.          
            (c) Collegiate Training Initiative. -- (1) The                     
      Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may maintain        
      the Collegiate Training Initiative program by making new                 
      agreements and continuing existing agreements with institutions          
      of higher education (as defined by the Administrator) under              
      which the institutions prepare students for the position of air          
      traffic controller with the Department of Transportation (as             
      defined in section 2109 of title 5).  The Administrator may              
      establish standards for the entry of institutions into the               
      program and for their continued participation.                           
            (2)(A) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation                   
      Administration may appoint an individual who has successfully            
      completed a course of training in a program described in                 
      paragraph (1) of this subsection to the position of air traffic          
      controller noncompetitively in the excepted service (as defined          
      in section 2103 of title 5).  An individual appointed under this         
      paragraph serves at the pleasure of the Administrator, subject to        
      section 7511 of title 5.  However, an appointment under this             
      paragraph may be converted from one in the excepted service to a         
      career conditional or career appointment in the competitive civil        
      service (as defined in section 2102 of title 5) when the                 
      individual achieves full performance level air traffic controller        
      status, as decided by the Administrator.                                 
            (B) The authority under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph         
      to make appointments in the excepted service expires on October          
      6, 1997, except that the Administrator of the Federal Aviation           
      Administration may extend the authority for one or more                  
      successive one-year periods.                                             
            (d) Staffing Report. -- The Administrator of the Federal           
      Aviation Administration shall submit annually to the Committee on        
      Public Works and Transportation of the House of Representatives          
      and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the        
      Senate a report containing --                                            
                (1) the staffing standards used to determine the number        
            of air traffic controllers needed to operate the air               
            traffic control system of the United States;                       
                (2) a 3-year projection of the number of controllers           
            needed to be employed to operate the system to meet the            
            standards; and                                                     
                (3) a detailed plan for employing the controllers,             
            including projected budget requests.                               
                                                                               
      Sec. 44507. Civil aeromedical research                                   
            The Civil Aeromedical Institute established by section             
      106(j) of this title may --                                              
                (1) conduct civil aeromedical research, including              
            research related to --                                             
                    (A) the protection and survival of aircraft                
                occupants;                                                     
                    (B) medical accident investigation and airman              
                medical certification;                                         
                    (C) toxicology and the effects of drugs on human           
                performance;                                                   
                    (D) the impact of disease and disability on human          
                performance;                                                   
                    (E) vision and its relationship to human                   
                performance and equipment design;                              
                    (F) human factors of flight crews, air traffic             
                controllers, mechanics, inspectors, airway facility            
                technicians, and other individuals involved in                 
                operating and maintaining aircraft and air traffic             
                control equipment; and                                         
                    (G) agency work force optimization, including              
                training, equipment design, reduction of errors, and           
                identification of candidate tasks for automation;              
                (2) make comments to the Administrator of the Federal          
            Aviation Administration on human factors aspects of                
            proposed air safety regulations;                                   
                (3) make comments to the Administrator on human factors        
            aspects of proposed training programs, equipment                   
            requirements, standards, and procedures for aviation               
            personnel;                                                         
                (4) advise, assist, and represent the Federal Aviation         
            Administration in the human factors aspects of joint               
            projects between the Administration and the National               
            Aeronautics and Space Administration, other departments,           
            agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States               
            Government, industry, and governments of foreign countries;        
            and                                                                
                (5) provide medical consultation services to the               
            Administrator about medical certification of airmen.               
                                                                               
      Sec. 44508. Research advisory committee                                  
            (a) Establishment and Duties. -- (1) There is a research           
      advisory committee in the Federal Aviation Administration.  The          
      committee shall --                                                       
                (A) provide advice and recommendations to the                  
            Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration about         
            needs, objectives, plans, approaches, content, and                 
            accomplishments of the aviation research program                   
            carried out under sections 40119, 44504, 44505, 44507,             
            44511-44513, and 44912 of this title;                              
                (B) assist in ensuring that the research is coordinated        
            with similar research being conducted outside the                  
            Administration; and                                                
                (C) review the operations of the regional centers of           
            air transportation excellence established under section            
            44513 of this title.                                               
            (2) The Administrator may establish subordinate committees         
      to provide advice on specific areas of research conducted under          
      sections 40119, 44504, 44505, 44507, 44511-44513, and 44912 of           
      this title.                                                              
            (b) Members, Chairman, Pay, and Expenses. -- (1) The               
      committee is composed of not more than 30 members appointed by           
      the Administrator from among individuals who are not employees of        
      the Administration and who are specially qualified to serve on           
      the committee because of their education, training, or                   
      experience.  In appointing members of the committee, the                 
      Administrator shall ensure that the regional centers of air              
      transportation excellence, universities, corporations,                   
      associations, consumers, and other departments, agencies, and            
      instrumentalities of the United States Government are                    
      represented.                                                             
            (2) The Administrator shall designate the chairman of the          
      committee.                                                               
            (3) A member of the committee serves without pay.  However,        
      the Administrator may allow a member, when attending meetings of         
      the committee or a subordinate committee, expenses as authorized         
      under section 5703 of title 5.                                           
            (c) Support Staff, Information, and Services. -- The               
      Administrator shall provide support staff for the committee.  On         
      request of the committee, the Administrator shall provide                
      information, administrative services, and supplies that the              
      Administrator considers necessary for the committee to carry out         
      its duties and powers.                                                   
            (d) Nonapplication. -- Section 14 of the Federal Advisory          
      Committee Act (5 App. U.S.C.) does not apply to the committee.           
            (e) Use and Limitation of Amounts. -- (1) Not more than .1         
      percent of the amounts made available to conduct research under          
      sections 40119, 44504, 44505, 44507, 44511-44513, and 44912 of           
      this title may be used by the Administrator to carry out this            
      section.                                                                 
            (2) A limitation on amounts available for obligation by or         
      for the committee does not apply to amounts made available to            
      carry out this section.                                                  
                                                                               
      Sec. 44509. Demonstration projects                                       
            The Secretary of Transportation may carry out under this           
      chapter demonstration projects that the Secretary considers              
      necessary for research and development activities under this             
      chapter.                                                                 
      Sec. 44510. Airway science curriculum grants                             
            (a) General Authority. -- The Administrator of the Federal         
      Aviation Administration may make competitive grant agreements            
      with institutions of higher education having airway science              
      curricula for the United States Government's share of the                
      allowable direct costs of the following categories of items to           
      the extent that the items are in support of airway science               
      curricula:                                                               
                (1) the construction, purchase, or lease with an option        
            to purchase, of buildings and associated facilities.               
                (2) instructional material and equipment.                      
            (b) Cost Guidelines. -- The Administrator shall establish          
      guidelines to determine the direct costs allowable under a grant         
      to be made under this section.  The Government's share of the            
      allowable cost of a project assisted by a grant under this               
      section may not be more than 65 percent.                                 
                                                                               
      Sec. 44511. Aviation research grants                                     
            (a) General Authority. -- The Administrator of the Federal         
      Aviation Administration may make grants to institutions of higher        
      education and nonprofit research organizations to conduct                
      aviation research in areas the Administrator considers necessary         
      for the long-term growth of civil aviation.                              
            (b) Applications. -- An institution of higher education or         
      nonprofit research organization interested in receiving a grant          
      under this section may submit an application to the                      
      Administrator.  The application must be in the form and contain          
      the information the Administrator requires.                              
            (c) Solicitation, Review, and Evaluation Process. -- The           
      Administrator shall establish a solicitation, review, and                
      evaluation process that ensures --                                       
                (1) providing grants under this section for proposals          
            having adequate merit and relevancy to the mission of the          
            Administration;                                                    
                (2) a fair geographical distribution of grants under           
            this section; and                                                  
                (3) the inclusion of historically black institutions of        
            higher education and other minority nonprofit research             
            organizations for grant consideration under this section.          
            (d) Records. -- Each person receiving a grant under this           
      section shall maintain records that the Administrator requires as        
      being necessary to facilitate an effective audit and evaluation          
      of the use of money provided under the grant.                            
            (e) Annual Report. -- The Administrator shall submit an            
      annual report to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology         
      of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce,           
      Science, and Transportation of the Senate on carrying out this           
      section.                                                                 
                                                                               
      Sec. 44512. Catastrophic failure prevention research grants              
            (a) General Authority. -- The Administrator of the Federal         
      Aviation Administration may make grants to institutions of higher        
      education and nonprofit research organizations --                        
                (1) to conduct aviation research related to the                
            development of technologies and methods to assess the risk         
            of, and prevent, defects, failures, and malfunctions of            
            products, parts, processes, and articles manufactured for          
            use in aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and                 
            appliances that could result in a catastrophic failure of          
            an aircraft; and                                                   
                (2) to establish centers of excellence for continuing          
            the research.                                                      
            (b) Solicitation, Application, Review, and Evaluation              
      Process. -- The Administrator shall establish a solicitation,            
      application, review, and evaluation process that ensures                 
      providing grants under this section for proposals having adequate        
      merit and relevancy to the research described in subsection (a)          
      of this section.                                                         
                                                                               
      Sec. 44513. Regional centers of air transportation excellence            
            (a) General Authority. -- The Administrator of the Federal         
      Aviation Administration may make grants to institutions of higher        
      education to establish and operate regional centers of air               
      transportation excellence.  The locations shall be distributed in        
      a geographically fair way.                                               
            (b) Responsibilities. -- (1) The responsibilities of each          
      center established under this section shall include --                   
                (A) conducting research on --                                  
                    (i) airspace and airport planning and design;              
                    (ii) airport capacity enhancement techniques;              
                    (iii) human performance in the air transportation          
                environment;                                                   
                    (iv) aviation safety and security;                         
                    (v) the supply of trained air transportation               
                personnel, including pilots and mechanics; and                 
                    (vi) other aviation issues related to developing           
                and maintaining a safe and efficient air transportation        
                system; and                                                    
                (B) interpreting, publishing, and disseminating the            
            results of the research.                                           
            (2) In conducting research described in paragraph (1)(A) of        
      this subsection, each center may make contracts with nonprofit           
      research organizations and other appropriate persons.                    
            (c) Applications. -- An institution of higher education            
      interested in receiving a grant under this section may submit an         
      application to the Administrator.  The application must be in the        
      form and contain the information that the Administrator requires         
      by regulation.                                                           
            (d) Selection Criteria. -- The Administrator shall select          
      recipients of grants under this section on the basis of the              
      following criteria:                                                      
                (1) the extent to which the needs of the State in which        
            the applicant is located are representative of the needs of        
            the region for improved air transportation services and            
            facilities.                                                        
                (2) the demonstrated research and extension resources          
            available to the applicant to carry out this section.              
                (3) the ability of the applicant to provide leadership         
            in making national and regional contributions to the               
            solution of both long-range and immediate air                      
            transportation problems.                                           
                (4) the extent to which the applicant has an                   
            established air transportation program.                            
                (5) the demonstrated ability of the applicant to               
            disseminate results of air transportation research and             
            educational programs through a statewide or regionwide             
            continuing education program.                                      
                (6) the projects the applicant proposes to carry out           
            under the grant.                                                   
            (e) Expenditure Agreements. -- A grant may be made under           
      this section in a fiscal year only if the recipient makes an             
      agreement with the Administrator that the Administrator requires         
      to ensure that the recipient will maintain its total expenditures        
      from all other sources for establishing and operating the center         
      and related research activities at a level at least equal to the         
      average level of those expenditures in the 2 fiscal years of the         
      recipient occurring immediately before November 5, 1990.                 
            (f) Government's Share of Costs. -- The United States              
      Government's share of a grant under this section is 50 percent of        
      the costs of establishing and operating the center and related           
      research activities that the grant recipient carries out.                
            (g) Allocating Amounts. -- The Administrator shall allocate        
      amounts made available to carry out this section in a                    
      geographically fair way.                                                 
                                                                               
      Sec. 44514. Flight service stations                                      
            (a) Hours of Operation. -- (1) The Secretary of                    
      Transportation may close, or reduce the hours of operation of, a         
      flight service station in an area only  if the service provided          
      in the area after the closing or during the hours the station is         
      not in operation is provided by an automated flight service              
      station with at least model 1 equipment.                                 
            (2) The Secretary shall reopen a flight service station            
      closed after March 24, 1987, but before July 15, 1987, as soon as        
      practicable if the service in the area in which the station is           
      located has not been provided since the closing by an automatic          
      flight service station with at least model 1 equipment.  The             
      hours of operation for the reopened station shall be the same as         
      were the hours of operation for the station on March 25, 1987.           
      After reopening the station, the Secretary may close, or reduce          
      the hours of operation of, the station only as provided in               
      paragraph (1) of this subsection.                                        
            (b) Manned Auxiliary Stations. -- The Secretary and the            
      Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall               
      establish a system of manned auxiliary flight service stations.          
      The manned auxiliary flight service stations shall supplement the        
      services of the planned consolidation to 61 automated flight             
      service stations under the flight service station modernization          
      program.  A manned auxiliary flight service station shall be             
      located in an area of unique weather or operational conditions           
      that are critical to the safety of flight.                               
                                                                               
      Sec. 44515. Advanced training facilities for maintenance                 
      technicians for air carrier aircraft                                     
            (a) General Authority. -- The Administrator of the Federal         
      Aviation Administration may make grants to not more than 4               
      vocational technical educational institutions to acquire or              
      construct facilities to be used for the advanced training of             
      maintenance technicians for air carrier aircraft.                        
            (b) Eligibility. -- The Administrator may make a grant             
      under this section to a vocational technical educational                 
      institution only if the institution has a training curriculum            
      that prepares aircraft maintenance technicians who hold airframe         
      and power plant certificates under subpart D of part 65 of title         
      14, Code of Federal Regulations, to maintain, without direct             
      supervision, air carrier aircraft.                                       
            (c) Limitation. -- A vocational technical educational              
      institution may not receive more than a total of $5,000,000 in           
      grants under this section.