CHAPTER 447 -- SAFETY REGULATION                         
      Sec.                                                                     
      44701.  General requirements.                                            
      44702.  Issuance of certificates.                                        
      44703.  Airman certificates.                                             
      44704.  Type certificates, production certificates, and                  
              airworthiness certificates.                                      
      44705.  Air carrier operating certificates.                              
      44706.  Airport operating certificates.                                  
      44707.  Examining and rating air agencies.                               
      44708.  Inspecting and rating air navigation facilities.                 
      44709.  Amendments, modifications, suspensions, and revocations          
              of certificates.                                                 
      44710.  Revocations of airman certificates for controlled                
              substance violations.                                            
      44711.  Prohibitions and exemption.                                      
      44712.  Emergency locator transmitters.                                  
      44713.  Inspection and maintenance.                                      
      44714.  Aviation fuel standards.                                         
      44715.  Controlling aircraft noise and sonic boom.                       
      44716.  Collision avoidance systems.                                     
      44717.  Aging aircraft.                                                  
      44718.  Structures interfering with air commerce.                        
      44719.  Standards for navigational aids.                                 
      44720.  Meteorological services.                                         
      44721.  Aeronautical maps and charts.                                    
      44722.  Aircraft operations in winter conditions.                        
      44723.  Annual report.                                                   
                                                                               
      Sec. 44701. General requirements                                         
            (a) Promoting Safety. -- The Administrator of the Federal          
      Aviation Administration shall promote safe flight of civil               
      aircraft in air commerce by prescribing --                               
                (1) minimum standards required in the interest of              
            safety for appliances and for the design, material,                
            construction, quality of work, and performance of aircraft,        
            aircraft engines, and propellers;                                  
                (2) regulations and minimum standards in the interest          
            of safety for --                                                   
                    (A) inspecting, servicing, and overhauling                 
                aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances;        
                    (B) equipment and facilities for, and the timing           
                and manner of, the inspecting, servicing, and                  
                overhauling; and                                               
                    (C) a qualified private person, instead of an              
                officer or employee of the Administration, to examine          
                and report on the inspecting, servicing, and                   
                overhauling;                                                   
                (3) regulations required in the interest of safety for         
            the reserve supply of aircraft, aircraft engines,                  
            propellers, appliances, and aircraft fuel and oil,                 
            including the reserve supply of fuel and oil carried in            
            flight;                                                            
                (4) regulations in the interest of safety for the              
            maximum hours or periods of service of airmen and other            
            employees of air carriers; and                                     
                (5) regulations and minimum standards for other                
            practices, methods, and procedure the Administrator finds          
            necessary for safety in air commerce and national security.        
            (b) Prescribing Minimum Safety Standards. -- The                   
      Administrator may prescribe minimum safety standards for --              
                (1) an air carrier to whom a certificate is issued             
            under section 44705 of this title; and                             
                (2) operating an airport serving any passenger                 
            operation of air carrier aircraft designed for at least 31         
            passenger seats.                                                   
            (c) Reducing and Eliminating Accidents. -- The                     
      Administrator shall carry out this chapter in a way that best            
      tends to reduce or eliminate the possibility or recurrence of            
      accidents in air transportation.  However, the Administrator is          
      not required to give preference either to air transportation or          
      to other air commerce in carrying out this chapter.                      
            (d) Considerations and Classification of Regulations and           
      Standards. -- When prescribing a regulation or standard under            
      subsection (a) or (b) of this section or section 44702-44716 of          
      this title, the Administrator shall --                                   
                (1) consider --                                                
                    (A) the duty of an air carrier to provide service          
                with the highest possible degree of safety in the              
                public interest; and                                           
                    (B) differences between air transportation and             
                other air commerce; and                                        
                (2) classify a regulation or standard appropriate to           
            the differences between air transportation and other air           
            commerce.                                                          
            (e) Exemptions. -- The Administrator may grant an exemption        
      from a requirement of a regulation prescribed under subsection           
      (a) or (b) of this section or section 44702-44716 of this title          
      if the Administrator finds the exemption is in the public                
      interest.                                                                
                                                                               
      Sec. 44702. Issuance of certificates                                     
            (a) General Authority and Applications. -- The                     
      Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may issue           
      airman certificates, type certificates, production certificates,         
      airworthiness certificates, air carrier operating certificates,          
      airport operating certificates, air agency certificates, and             
      air navigation facility certificates under this chapter.  An             
      application for a certificate must --                                    
                (1) be under oath when the Administrator requires; and         
                (2) be in the form, contain information, and be filed          
            and served in the way the Administrator prescribes.                
            (b) Considerations. -- When issuing a certificate under            
      this chapter, the Administrator shall --                                 
                (1) consider --                                                
                    (A) the duty of an air carrier to provide service          
                with the highest possible degree of safety in the              
                public interest; and                                           
                    (B) differences between air transportation and             
                other air commerce; and                                        
                (2) classify a certificate according to the differences        
            between air transportation and other air commerce.                 
            (c) Prior Certification. -- The Administrator may authorize        
      an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance for which a        
      certificate has been issued authorizing the use of the aircraft,         
      aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance in air transportation to        
      be used in air commerce without another certificate being issued.        
            (d) Delegation. -- (1) Subject to regulations, supervision,        
      and review the Administrator may prescribe, the Administrator may        
      delegate to a qualified private person, or to an employee under          
      the supervision of that person, a matter related to --                   
                (A) the examination, testing, and inspection necessary         
            to issue a certificate under this chapter; and                     
                (B) issuing the certificate.                                   
            (2) The Administrator may rescind a delegation under this          
      subsection at any time for any reason the Administrator considers        
      appropriate.                                                             
            (3) A person affected by an action of a private person             
      under this subsection may apply for reconsideration of the action        
      by the Administrator.  On the Administrator's own initiative, the        
      Administrator may reconsider the action of a private person at           
      any time.  If the Administrator decides on reconsideration that          
      the action is unreasonable or unwarranted, the Administrator             
      shall change, modify, or reverse the action.  If the                     
      Administrator decides the action is warranted, the Administrator         
      shall affirm the action.                                                 
                                                                               
      Sec. 44703. Airman certificates                                          
            (a) General. -- The Administrator of the Federal Aviation          
      Administration shall issue an airman certificate to an individual        
      when the Administrator finds, after investigation, that the              
      individual is qualified for, and physically able to perform the          
      duties related to, the position to be authorized by the                  
      certificate.                                                             
            (b) Contents. -- (1) An airman certificate shall --                
                (A) be numbered and recorded by the Administrator of           
            the Federal Aviation Administration;                               
                (B) contain the name, address, and description of the          
            individual to whom the certificate is issued;                      
                (C) contain terms the Administrator decides are                
            necessary to ensure safety in air commerce, including terms        
            on the duration of the certificate, periodic or special            
            examinations, and tests of physical fitness;                       
                (D) specify the capacity in which the holder of the            
            certificate may serve as an airman with respect to an              
            aircraft; and                                                      
                (E) designate the class the certificate covers.                
            (2) A certificate issued to a pilot serving in scheduled           
      air transportation shall have the designation "airline transport         
      pilot" of the appropriate class.                                         
            (c) Appeals. -- (1) An individual whose application for the        
      issuance or renewal of an airman certificate has been denied may         
      appeal the denial to the National Transportation Safety Board,           
      except if the individual holds a certificate that --                     
                (A) is suspended at the time of denial; or                     
                (B) was revoked within one year from the date of the           
            denial.                                                            
            (2) The Board shall conduct a hearing on the appeal at a           
      place convenient to the place of residence or employment of the          
      applicant.  The Board is not bound by findings of fact of the            
      Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration but is bound        
      by all validly adopted interpretations of laws and regulations           
      the Administrator carries out unless the Board finds an                  
      interpretation is arbitrary, capricious, or otherwise not                
      according to law.  At the end of the hearing, the Board shall            
      decide whether the individual meets the applicable regulations           
      and standards.  The Administrator is bound by that decision.             
            (d) Restrictions and Prohibitions. -- The Administrator of         
      the Federal Aviation Administration may --                               
                (1) restrict or prohibit issuing an airman certificate         
            to an alien; or                                                    
                (2) make issuing the certificate to an alien dependent         
            on a reciprocal agreement with the government of a foreign         
            country.                                                           
            (e) Controlled Substance Violations. -- The Administrator          
      of the Federal Aviation Administration may not issue an airman           
      certificate to an individual whose certificate is revoked under          
      section 44710 of this title except --                                    
                (1) when the Administrator decides that issuing the            
            certificate will facilitate law enforcement efforts; and           
                (2) as provided in section 44710(e)(2) of this title.          
            (f) Modifications in System. -- (1) The Administrator of           
      the Federal Aviation Administration shall make modifications in          
      the system for issuing airman certificates necessary to make the         
      system more effective in serving the needs of pilots and                 
      officials responsible for enforcing laws related to the                  
      regulation of controlled substances (as defined in section 102 of        
      the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970          
      (21 U.S.C. 802)).  The modifications shall ensure positive and           
      verifiable identification of each individual applying for or             
      holding a certificate and shall address at least each of the             
      following deficiencies in, and abuses of, the existing system:           
                (A) the use of fictitious names and addresses by               
            applicants for those certificates.                                 
                (B) the use of stolen or fraudulent identification in          
            applying for those certificates.                                   
                (C) the use by an applicant of a post office box or            
            "mail drop" as a return address to evade identification of         
            the applicant's address.                                           
                (D) the use of counterfeit and stolen airman                   
            certificates by pilots.                                            
                (E) the absence of information about physical                  
            characteristics of holders of those certificates.                  
            (2) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation                      
      Administration shall prescribe regulations to carry out paragraph        
      (1) of this subsection and provide a written explanation of how          
      the regulations address each of the deficiencies and abuses              
      described in paragraph (1).  In prescribing the regulations, the         
      Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall               
      consult with the Administrator of Drug Enforcement, the                  
      Commissioner of Customs, other law enforcement officials of the          
      United States Government, representatives of State and local law         
      enforcement officials, representatives of the general aviation           
      aircraft industry, representatives of users of general aviation          
      aircraft, and other interested persons.                                  
                                                                               
      Sec. 44704. Type certificates, production certificates, and              
      airworthiness certificates                                               
            (a) Type Certificates. -- (1) The Administrator of the             
      Federal Aviation Administration shall issue a type certificate           
      for an aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller, or for an                
      appliance specified under paragraph (2)(A) of this subsection            
      when the Administrator finds that the aircraft, aircraft                 
      engine, propeller, or appliance is properly designed and                 
      manufactured, performs properly, and meets the regulations and           
      minimum standards prescribed under section 44701(a) of this              
      title.  On receiving an application for a type certificate, the          
      Administrator shall investigate the application and may conduct a        
      hearing.  The Administrator shall make, or require the applicant         
      to make, tests the Administrator considers necessary in the              
      interest of safety.                                                      
            (2) The Administrator may --                                       
                (A) specify in regulations those appliances that               
            reasonably require a type certificate in the interest of           
            safety;                                                            
                (B) include in a type certificate terms required in the        
            interest of safety; and                                            
                (C) record on the certificate a numerical specification        
            of the essential factors related to the performance of the         
            aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller for which the              
            certificate is issued.                                             
            (b) Production Certificates. -- The Administrator shall            
      issue a production certificate authorizing the production of a           
      duplicate of an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or                 
      appliance for which a type certificate has been issued when the          
      Administrator finds the duplicate will conform to the                    
      certificate.  On receiving an application, the Administrator             
      shall inspect, and may require testing of, a duplicate to ensure         
      that it conforms to the requirements of the certificate.  The            
      Administrator may include in a production certificate terms              
      required in the interest of safety.                                      
            (c) Airworthiness Certificates. -- (1) The registered owner        
      of an aircraft may apply to the Administrator for an                     
      airworthiness certificate for the aircraft.  The Administrator           
      shall issue an airworthiness certificate when the Administrator          
      finds that the aircraft conforms to its type certificate and,            
      after inspection, is in condition for safe operation.  The               
      Administrator shall register each airworthiness certificate and          
      may include appropriate information in the certificate.  The             
      certificate number or other individual designation the                   
      Administrator requires shall be displayed on the aircraft.               
      The Administrator may include in an airworthiness certificate            
      terms required in the interest of safety.                                
            (2) A person applying for the issuance or renewal of an            
      airworthiness certificate for an aircraft for which ownership has        
      not been recorded under section 44107 or 44110 of this title must        
      submit with the application information related to the ownership         
      of the aircraft the Administrator decides is necessary to                
      identify each person having a property interest in the aircraft          
      and the kind and extent of the interest.                                 
                                                                               
      Sec. 44705. Air carrier operating certificates                           
            The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration           
      shall issue an air carrier operating certificate to a person             
      desiring to operate as an air carrier when the Administrator             
      finds, after investigation, that the person properly and                 
      adequately is equipped and able to operate safely under this             
      part and regulations and standards prescribed under this part.           
      An air carrier operating certificate shall--                             
                (1) contain terms necessary to ensure safety in air            
            transportation; and                                                
                (2) specify the places to and from which, and the              
            airways of the United States over which, a person may              
            operate as an air carrier.                                         
                                                                               
      Sec. 44706. Airport operating certificates                               
            (a) General. -- The Administrator of the Federal Aviation          
      Administration shall issue an airport operating certificate to a         
      person desiring to operate an airport --                                 
                (1) that serves an air carrier operating aircraft              
            designed for at least 31 passenger seats;                          
                (2) that the Administrator requires to have a                  
            certificate; and                                                   
                (3) when the Administrator finds, after investigation,         
            that the person properly and adequately is equipped and            
            able to operate safely under this part and regulations and         
            standards prescribed under this part.                              
            (b) Terms. -- An airport operating certificate issued under        
      this section shall contain terms necessary to ensure safety in           
      air transportation.  Unless the Administrator decides that it is         
      not in the public interest, the terms shall include conditions           
      related to --                                                            
                (1) operating and maintaining adequate safety                  
            equipment, including firefighting and rescue equipment             
            capable of rapid access to any part of the airport used for        
            landing, takeoff, or surface maneuvering of an                     
            aircraft; and                                                      
                (2) friction treatment for primary and secondary               
            runways that the Secretary of Transportation decides is            
            necessary.                                                         
            (c) Exemptions. -- The Administrator may exempt from the           
      requirements of this section, related to firefighting and rescue         
      equipment, an operator of an airport described in subsection (a)         
      of this section having less than .25 percent of the total number         
      of passenger boardings each year at all airports described in            
      subsection (a) when the Administrator decides that the                   
      requirements are or would be unreasonably costly, burdensome, or         
      impractical.                                                             
                                                                               
      Sec. 44707. Examining and rating air agencies                            
            The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration           
      may examine and rate the following air agencies:                         
                (1) civilian schools giving instruction in flying or           
            repairing, altering, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft            
            engines, propellers, and appliances, on the adequacy of            
            instruction, the suitability and airworthiness of                  
            equipment, and the competency of instructors.                      
                (2) repair stations and shops that repair, alter, and          
            maintain aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and               
            appliances, on the adequacy and suitability of the                 
            equipment, facilities, and materials for, and                      
            methods of, repair and overhaul, and the competency of the         
            individuals doing the work or giving instruction in the            
            work.                                                              
                (3) other air agencies the Administrator decides are           
            necessary in the public interest.                                  
                                                                               
      Sec. 44708. Inspecting and rating air navigation facilities              
            The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration           
      may inspect, classify, and rate an air navigation facility               
      available for the use of civil aircraft on the suitability of the        
      facility for that use.                                                   
                                                                               
      Sec. 44709. Amendments, modifications, suspensions, and                  
      revocations of certificates                                              
            (a) Reinspection and Reexamination. -- The Administrator of        
      the Federal Aviation Administration may reinspect at any time a          
      civil aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, air               
      navigation facility, or air agency, or reexamine an airman               
      holding a certificate issued under section 44703 of this title.          
            (b) Actions of the Administrator. -- The Administrator may         
      issue an order amending, modifying, suspending, or revoking --           
                (1) any part of a certificate issued under this chapter        
            if --                                                              
                    (A) the Administrator decides after conducting a           
                reinspection, reexamination, or other investigation            
                that safety in air commerce or air transportation and          
                the public interest require that action; or                    
                    (B) the holder of the certificate has violated an          
                aircraft noise or sonic boom standard or regulation            
                prescribed under section 44715(a) of this title; and           
                (2) an airman certificate when the holder of the               
                certificate is convicted of violating section 13(a) of         
                the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C.                   
                742j-1(a)).                                                    
            (c) Advice to Certificate Holders and Opportunity To               
      Answer. -- Before acting under subsection (b) of this section,           
      the Administrator shall advise the holder of the certificate of          
      the charges or other reasons on which the Administrator relies           
      for the proposed action.  Except in an emergency, the                    
      Administrator shall provide the holder an opportunity to answer          
      the charges and be heard why the certificate should not be               
      amended, modified, suspended, or revoked.                                
            (d) Appeals. -- (1) A person adversely affected by an order        
      of the Administrator under this section may appeal the order to          
      the National Transportation Safety Board.  After notice and an           
      opportunity for a hearing, the Board may amend, modify, or               
      reverse the order when the Board finds --                                
                (A) if the order was issued under subsection (b)(1)(A)         
            of this section, that safety in air commerce or air                
            transportation and the public interest do not require              
            affirmation of the order; or                                       
                (B) if the order was issued under subsection (b)(1)(B)         
            of this section --                                                 
                    (i) that control or abatement of aircraft noise or         
                sonic boom and the public health and welfare do not            
                require affirmation of the order; or                           
                    (ii) the order, as it is related to a violation of         
                aircraft noise or sonic boom standards and regulations,        
                is not consistent with safety in air commerce or air           
                transportation.                                                
            (2) The Board may modify a suspension or revocation of a           
      certificate to imposition of a civil penalty.                            
            (3) When conducting a hearing under this subsection, the           
      Board is not bound by findings of fact of the Administrator but          
      is bound by all validly adopted interpretations of laws and              
      regulations the Administrator carries out and of written agency          
      policy guidance available to the public related to sanctions to          
      be imposed under this section unless the Board finds an                  
      interpretation is arbitrary, capricious, or otherwise not                
      according to law.                                                        
            (e) Effectiveness of Orders Pending Appeal. -- When a              
      person files an appeal with the Board under subsection (d) of the        
      section, the order of the Administrator is stayed.  However, if          
      the Administrator advises the Board that an emergency exists and         
      safety in air commerce or air transportation requires the order          
      to be effective immediately --                                           
                (1) the order is effective; and                                
                (2) the Board shall make a final disposition of the            
            appeal not later than 60 days after the Administrator so           
            advises the Board.                                                 
            (f) Judicial Review. -- A person substantially affected by         
      an order of the Board under this section, or the Administrator           
      when the Administrator decides that an order of the Board under          
      this section will have a significant adverse impact on carrying          
      out this part, may obtain judicial review of the order under             
      section 46110 of this title.  The Administrator shall be made a          
      party to the judicial review proceedings.  Findings of fact of           
      the Board are conclusive if supported by substantial evidence.           
                                                                               
      Sec. 44710. Revocations of airman certificates for controlled            
      substance violations                                                     
            (a) Definition. -- In this section, "controlled substance"         
      has the same meaning given that term in section 102 of the               
      Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21          
      U.S.C. 802).                                                             
            (b) Revocation. -- (1) The Administrator of the Federal            
      Aviation Administration shall issue an order revoking an airman          
      certificate issued an individual under section 44703 of this             
      title after the individual is convicted, under a law of the              
      United States or a State related to a controlled substance               
      (except a law related to simple possession of a controlled               
      substance), of an offense punishable by death or imprisonment for        
      more than one year if the Administrator finds that --                    
                (A) an aircraft was used to commit, or facilitate the          
            commission of, the offense; and                                    
                (B) the individual served as an airman, or was on the          
            aircraft, in connection with committing, or facilitating           
            the commission of, the offense.                                    
            (2) The Administrator shall issue an order revoking an             
      airman certificate issued an individual under section 44703 of           
      this title if the Administrator finds that --                            
                (A) the individual knowingly carried out an activity           
            punishable, under a law of the United States or a State            
            related to a controlled substance (except a law related to         
            simple possession of a controlled substance), by death or          
            imprisonment for more than one year;                               
                (B) an aircraft was used to carry out or facilitate the        
            activity; and                                                      
                (C) the individual served as an airman, or was on the          
            aircraft, in connection with carrying out, or facilitating         
            the carrying out of, the activity.                                 
            (3) The Administrator has no authority under paragraph (1)         
      of this subsection to review whether an airman violated a law of         
      the United States or a State related to a controlled substance.          
            (c) Advice to Holders and Opportunity To Answer. -- Before         
      the Administrator revokes a certificate under subsection (b) of          
      this section, the Administrator must --                                  
                (1) advise the holder of the certificate of the charges        
            or reasons on which the Administrator relies for the               
            proposed revocation; and                                           
                (2) provide the holder of the certificate an                   
            opportunity to answer the charges and be heard why the             
            certificate should not be revoked.                                 
            (d) Appeals. -- (1) An individual whose certificate is             
      revoked by the Administrator under subsection (b) of this section        
      may appeal the revocation order to the National Transportation           
      Safety Board.  The Board shall affirm or reverse the order after         
      providing notice and an opportunity for a hearing on the record.         
      When conducting the hearing, the Board is not bound by findings          
      of fact of the Administrator but shall be bound by all validly           
      adopted interpretations of laws and regulations the Administrator        
      carries out and of written agency policy guidance available to           
      the public related to sanctions to be imposed under this section         
      unless the Board finds an interpretation is arbitrary,                   
      capricious, or otherwise not according to law.                           
            (2) When an individual files an appeal with the Board under        
      this subsection, the order of the Administrator revoking the             
      certificate is stayed.  However, if the Administrator advises the        
      Board that safety in air transportation or air commerce requires         
      the immediate effectiveness of the order --                              
                (A) the order remains effective; and                           
                (B) the Board shall make a final disposition of the            
            appeal not later than 60 days after the Administrator so           
            advises the Board.                                                 
            (3) An individual substantially affected by an order of the        
      Board under this subsection, or the Administrator when the               
      Administrator decides that an order of the Board will have a             
      significant adverse effect on carrying out this part, may obtain         
      judicial review of the order under section 46110 of this title.          
      The Administrator shall be made a party to the judicial review           
      proceedings.  Findings of fact of the Board are conclusive if            
      supported by substantial evidence.                                       
            (e) Acquittal. -- (1) The Administrator may not revoke, and        
      the Board may not affirm a revocation of, an airman certificate          
      under subsection (b)(2) of this section on the basis of an               
      activity described in subsection (b)(2)(A) if the holder of the          
      certificate is acquitted of all charges related to a controlled          
      substance in an indictment or information arising from the               
      activity.                                                                
            (2) If the Administrator has revoked an airman certificate         
      under this section because of an activity described in subsection        
      (b)(2)(A) of this section, the Administrator shall reissue a             
      certificate to the individual if --                                      
                (A) the individual otherwise satisfies the requirements        
            for a certificate under section 44703 of this title; and           
                (B)(i) the individual subsequently is acquitted of all         
            charges related to a controlled substance in an indictment         
            or information arising from the activity; or (ii) the              
            conviction on which a revocation under subsection (b)(1) of        
            this section is based is reversed.                                 
            (f) Waivers. -- The Administrator may waive the requirement        
      of subsection (b) of this section that an airman certificate of          
      an individual be revoked if --                                           
                (1) a law enforcement official of the United States            
            Government or of a State requests a waiver; and                    
                (2) the Administrator decides that the waiver will             
            facilitate law enforcement efforts.                                
                                                                               
      Sec. 44711. Prohibitions and exemption                                   
            (a) Prohibitions. -- A person may not --                           
                (1) operate a civil aircraft in air commerce without an        
            airworthiness certificate in effect or in violation of a           
            term of the certificate;                                           
                (2) serve in any capacity as an airman with respect to         
            a civil aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance         
            used, or intended for use, in air commerce --                      
                    (A) without an airman certificate authorizing the          
                airman to serve in the capacity for which the                  
                certificate was issued; or                                     
                    (B) in violation of a term of the certificate or a         
                regulation prescribed or order issued under section            
                44701(a) or (b) or 44702- 44716 of this title;                 
                (3) employ for service related to civil aircraft used          
            in air commerce an airman who does not have an airman              
            certificate authorizing the airman to serve in the                 
            capacity for which the airman is employed;                         
                (4) operate as an air carrier without an air carrier           
            operating certificate or in violation of a term of the             
            certificate;                                                       
                (5) operate aircraft in air commerce in violation of a         
            regulation prescribed or certificate issued under                  
            section 44701(a) or (b) or 44702- 44716 of this title;             
                (6) operate a seaplane or other aircraft of United             
            States registry on the high seas in violation of a                 
            regulation under section 3 of the International                    
            Navigational Rules Act of 1977 (33 U.S.C. 1602);                   
                (7) violate a term of an air agency or production              
            certificate or a regulation prescribed or order issued             
            under section 44701(a) or (b) or 44702-44716 of this title         
            related to the holder of the certificate;                          
                (8) operate an airport without an airport operating            
            certificate required under section 44706 of this title or          
            in violation of a term of the certificate; or                      
                (9) manufacture, deliver, sell, or offer for sale any          
            aviation fuel or additive in violation of a regulation             
            prescribed under section 44714 of this title.                      
            (b) Exemption. -- On terms the Administrator of the Federal        
      Aviation Administration prescribes as being in the public                
      interest, the Administrator may exempt a foreign aircraft and            
      airmen serving on the aircraft from subsection (a) of this               
      section.  However, an exemption from observing air traffic               
      regulations may not be granted.                                          
                                                                               
      Sec. 44712. Emergency locator transmitters                               
            (a) Installation. -- An emergency locator transmitter must         
      be installed on a fixed-wing powered civil aircraft for use in           
      air commerce.                                                            
            (b) Nonapplication. -- Subsection (a) of this section does         
      not apply to --                                                          
                (1) turbojet-powered aircraft;                                 
                (2) aircraft when used in scheduled flights by                 
            scheduled air carriers holding certificates issued by the          
            Secretary of Transportation under subpart II of this part;         
                (3) aircraft when used in training operations conducted        
            entirely within a 50 mile radius of the airport from which         
            the training operations begin;                                     
                (4) aircraft when used in flight operations related to         
            design and testing, the manufacture, preparation, and              
            delivery of the aircraft, or the aerial application of a           
            substance for an agricultural purpose;                             
                (5) aircraft holding certificates from the                     
            Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration for           
            research and development;                                          
                (6) aircraft when used for showing compliance with             
            regulations, crew training, exhibition, air racing, or             
            market surveys; and                                                
                (7) aircraft equipped to carry only one individual.            
            (c) Removal. -- The Administrator shall prescribe                  
      regulations specifying the conditions under which an aircraft            
      subject to subsection (a) of this section may operate when its           
      emergency locator transmitter has been removed for inspection,           
      repair, alteration, or replacement.                                      
                                                                               
      Sec. 44713. Inspection and maintenance                                   
            (a) General Equipment Requirements. -- An air carrier shall        
      make, or cause to be made, any inspection, repair, or maintenance        
      of equipment used in air transportation as required by this part         
      or regulations prescribed or orders issued by the Administrator          
      of the Federal Aviation Administration under this part.  A person        
      operating, inspecting, repairing, or maintaining the equipment           
      shall comply with those requirements, regulations, and orders.           
            (b) Duties of Inspectors. -- The Administrator of the              
      Federal Aviation Administration shall employ inspectors who shall        
      --                                                                       
                (1) inspect aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and        
            appliances designed for use in air transportation, during          
            manufacture and when in use by an air carrier in air               
            transportation, to enable the Administrator to decide              
            whether the aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, or             
            appliances are in safe condition and maintained properly;          
            and                                                                
                (2) advise and cooperate with the air carrier during           
            that inspection and maintenance.                                   
            (c) Unsafe Aircraft, Engines, Propellers, and                      
      Appliances. -- When an inspector decides that an aircraft,               
      aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance is not in condition for         
      safe operation, the inspector shall notify the air carrier in the        
      form and way prescribed by the Administrator of the Federal              
      Aviation Administration.  For 5 days after the carrier is                
      notified, the aircraft, engine, propeller, or appliance may not          
      be used in air transportation or in a way that endangers air             
      transportation unless the Administrator or the inspector decides         
      the aircraft, engine, propeller, or appliance is in condition for        
      safe operation.                                                          
            (d) Modifications in System. -- (1) The Administrator of           
      the Federal Aviation Administration shall make modifications in          
      the system for processing forms for major repairs or alterations         
      to fuel tanks and fuel systems of aircraft not used to provide           
      air transportation that are necessary to make the system more            
      effective in serving the needs of users of the system, including         
      officials responsible for enforcing laws related to the                  
      regulation of controlled substances (as defined in section 102 of        
      the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970          
      (21 U.S.C. 802)).  The modifications shall address at least each         
      of the following deficiencies in, and abuses of, the existing            
      system:                                                                  
                (A) the lack of a special identification feature to            
            allow the forms to be distinguished easily from other major        
            repair and alteration forms.                                       
                (B) the excessive period of time required to receive           
            the forms at the Airmen and Aircraft Registry of the               
            Administration.                                                    
                (C) the backlog of forms waiting for processing at the         
            Registry.                                                          
                (D) the lack of ready access by law enforcement                
            officials to information contained on the forms.                   
            (2) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation                      
      Administration shall prescribe regulations to carry out paragraph        
      (1) of this subsection and provide a written explanation of how          
      the regulations address each of the deficiencies and abuses              
      described in paragraph (1).  In prescribing the regulations, the         
      Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall               
      consult with the Administrator of Drug Enforcement, the                  
      Commissioner of Customs, other law enforcement officials of the          
      United States Government, representatives of State and local law         
      enforcement officials, representatives of the general aviation           
      aircraft industry, representatives of users of general aviation          
      aircraft, and other interested persons.                                  
                                                                               
      Sec. 44714. Aviation fuel standards                                      
            The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration           
      shall prescribe --                                                       
                (1) standards for the composition or chemical or               
            physical properties of an aircraft fuel or fuel additive to        
            control or eliminate aircraft emissions the Administrator          
            of the Environmental Protection Agency decides under               
            section 231 of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7571) endanger         
            the public health or welfare; and                                  
                (2) regulations providing for carrying out and                 
            enforcing those standards.                                         
                                                                               
      Sec. 44715. Controlling aircraft noise and sonic boom                    
            (a) Standards and Regulations. -- (1) To relieve and               
      protect the public health and welfare from aircraft noise and            
      sonic boom, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation                    
      Administration shall prescribe --                                        
                (A) standards to measure aircraft noise and sonic boom;        
            and                                                                
                (B) regulations to control and abate aircraft noise and        
            sonic boom.                                                        
            (2) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation                      
      Administration may prescribe standards and regulations under this        
      subsection only after consulting with the Administrator of the           
      Environmental Protection Agency.  The standards and regulations          
      shall be applied when issuing, amending, modifying, suspending,          
      or revoking a certificate authorized under this chapter.                 
            (3) An original type certificate may be issued under               
      section 44704(a) of this title for an aircraft for which                 
      substantial noise abatement can be  achieved only after the              
      Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration prescribes          
      standards and regulations under this section that apply to that          
      aircraft.                                                                
            (b) Considerations and Consultation. -- When prescribing a         
      standard or regulation under this section, the Administrator of          
      the Federal Aviation Administration shall --                             
                (1) consider relevant information related to aircraft          
            noise and sonic boom;                                              
                (2) consult with appropriate departments, agencies, and        
            instrumentalities of the United States Government and State        
            and interstate authorities;                                        
                (3) consider whether the standard or regulation is             
            consistent with the highest degree of safety in air                
            transportation or air commerce in the public interest;             
                (4) consider whether the standard or regulation is             
            economically reasonable, technologically practicable, and          
            appropriate for the applicable aircraft, aircraft engine,          
            appliance, or certificate; and                                     
                (5) consider the extent to which the standard or               
            regulation will carry out the purposes of this section.            
            (c) Proposed Regulations of Administrator of Environmental         
      Protection Agency. -- The Administrator of the Environmental             
      Protection Agency shall submit to the Administrator of the               
      Federal Aviation Administration proposed regulations to control          
      and abate aircraft noise and sonic boom (including control and           
      abatement through the use of the authority of the Administrator          
      of the Federal Aviation Administration) that the Administrator of        
      the Environmental Protection Agency considers necessary to               
      protect the public health and welfare.  The Administrator of the         
      Federal Aviation Administration shall consider those proposed            
      regulations and shall publish them in a notice of proposed               
      regulations not later than 30 days after they are received.  Not         
      later than 60 days after publication, the Administrator of the           
      Federal Aviation Administration shall begin a hearing at which           
      interested persons are given an opportunity for oral and written         
      presentations.  Not later than 90 days after the hearing is              
      completed and after consulting with the Administrator of the             
      Environmental Protection Agency, the Administrator of the Federal        
      Aviation Administration shall --                                         
                (1) prescribe regulations as provided by this                  
            section --                                                         
                    (A) substantially the same as the proposed                 
                regulations submitted by the Administrator of the              
                Environmental Protection Agency; or                            
                    (B) that amend the proposed regulations; or                
                (2) publish in the Federal Register --                         
                    (A) a notice that no regulation is being prescribed        
                in response to the proposed regulations of the                 
                Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency;          
                    (B) a detailed analysis of, and response to, all           
                information the Administrator of the Environmental             
                Protection Agency submitted with the proposed                  
                regulations; and                                               
                    (C) a detailed explanation of why no regulation is         
                being prescribed.                                              
            (d) Consultation and Reports. -- (1) If the Administrator          
      of the Environmental Protection Agency believes that the action          
      of the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration under        
      subsection (c)(1)(B) or (2) of this section does not protect the         
      public health and welfare from aircraft noise or sonic boom,             
      consistent with the considerations in subsection (b) of this             
      section, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency        
      shall consult with the Administrator of the Federal Aviation             
      Administration and may request a report on the advisability of           
      prescribing the regulation as originally proposed.  The request,         
      including a detailed statement of the information on which the           
      request is based, shall be published in the Federal Register.            
            (2) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation                      
      Administration shall report to the Administrator of the                  
      Environmental Protection Agency within the time, if any,                 
      specified in the request.  However, the time specified must be at        
      least 90 days after the date of the request. The report shall --         
                (A) be accompanied by a detailed statement of the              
            findings of the Administrator of the Federal Aviation              
            Administration and the reasons for the findings;                   
                (B) identify any statement related to an action under          
            subsection (c) of this section filed under section                 
            102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969         
            (42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C));                                            
                (C) specify whether and where that statement is                
            available for public inspection; and                               
                (D) be published in the Federal Register unless the            
            request proposes specific action by the Administrator of           
            the Federal Aviation Administration and the report                 
            indicates that action will be taken.                               
            (e) Supplemental Reports. -- The Administrator of the              
      Environmental Protection Agency may request the Administrator of         
      the Federal Aviation Administration to file a supplemental report        
      if the report under subsection (d) of this section indicates that        
      the proposed regulations under subsection (c) of this section,           
      for which a statement under section 102(2)(C) of the Act (42             
      U.S.C. 4332(2)(C)) is not required, should not be prescribed.            
      The supplemental report shall be published in the Federal                
      Register within the time the Administrator of the Environmental          
      Protection Agency specifies.  However, the time specified must be        
      at least 90 days after the date of the request.  The supplemental        
      report shall contain a comparison of the environmental effects,          
      including those that cannot be avoided, of the action of the             
      Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the             
      proposed regulations of the Administrator of the Environmental           
      Protection Agency.                                                       
            (f) Exemptions. -- An exemption from a standard or                 
      regulation prescribed under this section may be granted only if,         
      before granting the exemption, the Administrator of the Federal          
      Aviation Administration consults with the Administrator of the           
      Environmental Protection Agency.  However, if the Administrator          
      of the Federal Aviation Administration finds that safety in air          
      transportation or air commerce requires an exemption before the          
      Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency can be              
      consulted, the exemption may be granted.  The Administrator of           
      the Federal Aviation Administration shall consult with the               
      Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency as soon             
      as practicable after the exemption is granted.                           
                                                                               
      Sec. 44716. Collision avoidance systems                                  
            (a) Development and Certification. -- The Administrator of         
      the Federal Aviation Administration shall --                             
                (1) complete the development of the collision avoidance        
            system known as TCAS-II so that TCAS-II can operate under          
            visual and instrument flight rules and can be upgraded to          
            the performance standards applicable to the collision              
            avoidance system known as TCAS-III;                                
                (2) develop and carry out a schedule for developing and        
            certifying TCAS-II that will result in certification not           
            later than June 30, 1989; and                                      
                (3) submit to Congress monthly reports on the progress         
            being made in developing and certifying TCAS-II.                   
            (b) Installation and Operation. -- The Administrator shall         
      require by regulation that, not later than 30 months after the           
      date certification is made under subsection (a)(2) of this               
      section, TCAS-II be installed and operated on each civil aircraft        
      that has a maximum passenger capacity of at least 31 seats and is        
      used to provide air transportation of passengers, including              
      intrastate air transportation of passengers.  The Administrator          
      may extend the deadline in this subsection for not more than 2           
      years if the Administrator finds the extension is necessary to           
      promote --                                                               
                (1) a safe and orderly transition to the operation of a        
            fleet of civil aircraft described in this subsection               
            equipped with TCAS-II; or                                          
                (2) other safety objectives.                                   
            (c) Operational Evaluation. -- Not later than December 30,         
      1990, the Administrator shall establish a one-year program to            
      collect and assess safety and operational information from civil         
      aircraft equipped with TCAS-II for the operational evaluation of         
      TCAS-II.  The Administrator shall encourage foreign air carriers         
      that operate civil aircraft equipped with TCAS-II to participate         
      in the program.                                                          
            (d) Amending Schedule for Windshear Equipment. -- The              
      Administrator shall consider the feasibility and desirability of         
      amending the schedule for installing airborne low-altitude               
      windshear equipment to make the schedule compatible with the             
      schedule for installing TCAS-II.                                         
            (e) Deadline for Development and Certification. -- (1) The         
      Administrator shall complete developing and certifying TCAS-III          
      as soon as possible.                                                     
            (2) Necessary amounts may be appropriated from the Airport         
      and Airway Trust Fund established under section 9502 of the              
      Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 9502) to carry out this         
      subsection.                                                              
            (f) Installing and Using Transponders. -- The Administrator        
      shall prescribe regulations requiring that, not later than               
      December 30, 1990, operating transponders with automatic altitude        
      reporting capability be installed and used for aircraft operating        
      in designated terminal airspace where radar service is provided          
      for separation of aircraft.  The Administrator may provide               
      for access to that airspace (except terminal control areas and           
      airport radar service areas) by nonequipped aircraft if the              
      Administrator finds the access will not interfere with the normal        
      traffic flow.                                                            
                                                                               
      Sec. 44717. Aging aircraft                                               
            (a) Inspections and Reviews. -- The Administrator of the           
      Federal Aviation Administration shall prescribe regulations that         
      ensure the continuing airworthiness of aging aircraft.  The              
      regulations prescribed under subsection (a) of this section --           
                (1) at least shall require the Administrator to make           
            inspections, and review the maintenance and other records,         
            of each aircraft an air carrier uses to provide air                
            transportation that the Administrator decides may be               
            necessary to enable the Administrator to decide whether the        
            aircraft is in safe condition and maintained properly for          
            operation in air transportation;                                   
                (2) at least shall require an air carrier to                   
            demonstrate to the Administrator, as part of the                   
            inspection, that maintenance of the aircraft's                     
            age-sensitive parts and components has been adequate and           
            timely enough to ensure the highest degree of safety;              
                (3) shall require the air carrier to make available to         
            the Administrator the aircraft and any records about the           
            aircraft that the Administrator requires to carry out a            
            review; and                                                        
                (4) shall establish procedures to be followed in               
            carrying out an inspection.                                        
            (b) When and How Inspections and Reviews Shall Be Carried          
      Out. -- (1) Inspections and reviews required under subsection            
      (a)(1) of this section shall be carried out as part of each heavy        
      maintenance check of the aircraft conducted after the 14th year          
      in which the aircraft has been in service.                               
            (2) Inspections under subsection (a)(1) of this section            
      shall be carried out as provided under section 44701(a)(2)(B) and        
      (C) of this title.                                                       
            (c) Aircraft Maintenance Safety Programs. -- The                   
      Administrator shall establish --                                         
                (1) a program to verify that air carriers are                  
            maintaining their aircraft according to maintenance                
            programs approved by the Administrator;                            
                (2) a program --                                               
                    (A) to provide inspectors and engineers of the             
                Administration with training necessary to conduct              
                auditing inspections of aircraft operated by air               
                carriers for corrosion and metal fatigue; and                  
                    (B) to enhance participation of those inspectors           
                and engineers in those inspections; and                        
                (3) a program to ensure that air carriers demonstrate          
      to the Administrator their commitment and technical competence to        
      ensure the airworthiness of aircraft that the carriers operate.          
            (d) Foreign Air Transportation. -- (1) The Administrator           
      shall take all possible steps to encourage governments of foreign        
      countries and relevant international organizations to develop            
      standards and requirements for inspections and reviews that --           
                (A) will ensure the continuing airworthiness of aging          
            aircraft used by foreign air carriers to provide foreign           
            air transportation to and from the United States; and              
                (B) will provide passengers of those foreign air               
            carriers with the same level of safety that will be                
            provided passengers of air carriers by carrying out this           
            section.                                                           
            (2) Not later than September 30, 1994, the Administrator           
      shall report to Congress on carrying out this subsection.                
                                                                               
      Sec. 44718. Structures interfering with air commerce                     
            (a) Notice. -- By regulation or by order when necessary,           
      the Secretary of Transportation shall require a person to give           
      adequate public notice, in the form and way the Secretary                
      prescribes, of the construction, alteration, establishment, or           
      expansion, or the proposed construction, alteration,                     
      establishment, or expansion, of a structure or sanitary landfill         
      when the notice will promote --                                          
                (1) safety in air commerce; and                                
                (2) the efficient use and preservation of the navigable        
            airspace and of airport traffic capacity at public-use             
            airports.                                                          
            (b) Studies. -- (1) Under regulations prescribed by the            
      Secretary, if the Secretary decides that constructing or altering        
      a structure may result in an obstruction of the navigable                
      airspace or an interference with air navigation facilities and           
      equipment or the navigable airspace, the Secretary shall conduct         
      an aeronautical study to decide the extent of any adverse impact         
      on the safe and efficient use of the airspace, facilities, or            
      equipment.  In conducting the study, the Secretary shall consider        
      factors relevant to the efficient and effective use of the               
      navigable airspace, including --                                         
                (A) the impact on arrival, departure, and en route             
            procedures for aircraft operating under visual flight              
            rules;                                                             
                (B) the impact on arrival, departure, and en route             
            procedures for aircraft operating under instrument flight          
            rules;                                                             
                (C) the impact on existing public-use airports and             
            aeronautical facilities;                                           
                (D) the impact on planned public-use airports and              
            aeronautical facilities; and                                       
                (E) the cumulative impact resulting from the proposed          
            construction or alteration of a structure when combined            
            with the impact of other existing or proposed structures.          
            (2) On completing the study, the Secretary shall issue a           
      report disclosing completely the extent of the adverse impact on         
      the safe and efficient use of the navigable airspace that the            
      Secretary finds will result from constructing or altering the            
      structure.                                                               
            (c) Broadcast Applications and Tower Studies. -- In                
      carrying out laws related to a broadcast application and                 
      conducting an aeronautical study related to broadcast towers, the        
      Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the             
      Federal Communications Commission shall take action necessary to         
      coordinate efficiently --                                                
                (1) the receipt and consideration of, and action on,           
            the application; and                                               
                (2) the completion of any associated aeronautical              
            study.                                                             
                                                                               
      Sec. 44719. Standards for navigational aids                              
            The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations        
      on standards for installing navigational aids, including airport         
      control towers.  For each type of facility, the regulations shall        
      consider at a minimum traffic density (number of aircraft                
      operations without consideration of aircraft size), terrain and          
      other obstacles to navigation, weather characteristics,                  
      passengers served, and potential aircraft operating efficiencies.        
                                                                               
      Sec. 44720. Meteorological services                                      
            (a) Recommendations. -- The Administrator of the Federal           
      Aviation Administration shall make recommendations to the                
      Secretary of Commerce on providing meteorological services               
      necessary for the safe and efficient movement of aircraft in air         
      commerce. In providing the services, the Secretary shall                 
      cooperate with the Administrator and give complete consideration         
      to those recommendations.                                                
            (b) Promoting Safety and Efficiency. -- To promote safety          
      and efficiency in air navigation to the highest possible degree,         
      the Secretary shall --                                                   
                (1) observe, measure, investigate, and study                   
            atmospheric phenomena, and maintain meteorological stations        
            and offices, that are necessary or best suited for finding         
            out in advance information about probable weather                  
            conditions;                                                        
                (2) provide reports to the Administrator to persons            
            engaged in civil aeronautics that are designated by the            
            Administrator and to other persons designated by the               
            Secretary in a way and with a frequency that best will             
            result in safety in, and facilitating, air navigation;             
                (3) cooperate with persons engaged in air commerce in          
            meteorological services, maintain reciprocal arrangements          
            with those persons in carrying out this clause, and collect        
            and distribute weather reports available from aircraft in          
            flight;                                                            
                (4) maintain and coordinate international exchanges of         
            meteorological information required for the safety and             
            efficiency of air navigation;                                      
                (5) in cooperation with other departments, agencies,           
            and instrumentalities of the United States Government,             
            meteorological services of foreign countries, and persons          
            engaged in air commerce, participate in developing an              
            international basic meteorological reporting network,              
            including the establishment, operation, and maintenance of         
            reporting stations on the high seas, in polar regions, and         
            in foreign countries;                                              
                (6) coordinate meteorological requirements in the              
            United States to maintain standard observations, to promote        
            efficient use of facilities, and to avoid duplication of           
            services unless the duplication tends to promote the safety        
            and efficiency of air navigation; and                              
                (7) promote and develop meteorological science and             
            foster and support research projects in meteorology through        
            the use of private and governmental research facilities and        
            provide for publishing the results of the projects unless          
            publication would not be in the public interest.                   
                                                                               
      Sec. 44721. Aeronautical maps and charts                                 
            (a) Publication. -- (1) The Administrator of the Federal           
      Aviation Administration may arrange for the publication of               
      aeronautical maps and charts necessary for the safe and efficient        
      movement of aircraft in air navigation, using the facilities and         
      assistance of departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the        
      United States Government as far as practicable.                          
            (2) In carrying out paragraph (1) of this subsection, the          
      Administrator shall update and arrange for the publication of            
      clearly defined routes for navigating through a complex terminal         
      airspace area and to and from an airport located in such an area,        
      if the Administrator decides that publication of the routes would        
      promote safety in air navigation.  The routes shall be developed         
      in consultation with pilots and other users of affected airports         
      and shall be for the optional use of pilots operating under              
      visual flight rules.                                                     
            (b) Indemnification. -- The Government shall make an               
      agreement to indemnify any person that publishes a map or chart          
      for use in aeronautics from any part of a claim arising out of           
      the depiction by the person on the map or chart of a defective or        
      deficient flight procedure or airway if the flight procedure             
      or airway was --                                                         
                (1) prescribed by the Administrator;                           
                (2) depicted accurately on the map or chart; and               
                (3) not obviously defective or deficient.                      
                                                                               
      Sec. 44722. Aircraft operations in winter conditions                     
            The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration           
      shall prescribe regulations requiring procedures to improve              
      safety of aircraft operations during winter conditions.  In              
      deciding on the procedures to be required, the Administrator             
      shall consider at least aircraft and air traffic control                 
      modifications, the availability of different types of deicing            
      fluids (considering their efficacy and environmental                     
      limitations), the types of deicing equipment available, and the          
      feasibility and desirability of establishing timeframes within           
      which deicing must occur under certain types of inclement                
      weather.                                                                 
                                                                               
      Sec. 44723. Annual report                                                
            Not later than January 1 of each year, the Secretary of            
      Transportation shall submit to Congress a comprehensive report on        
      the safety enforcement activities of the Federal Aviation                
      Administration during the fiscal year ending the prior September         
      30th.  The report shall include --                                       
                (1) a comparison of end-of-year staffing levels by             
            operations, maintenance, and avionics inspector categories         
            to staffing goals and a statement on how staffing standards        
            were applied to make allocations between air carrier and           
            general aviation operations, maintenance, and avionics             
            inspectors;                                                        
                (2) schedules showing the range of inspector experience        
            by various inspector work force categories, and the number         
            of inspectors in each of the categories who are considered         
            fully qualified;                                                   
                (3) schedules showing the number and percentage of             
            inspectors who have received mandatory training by                 
            individual course, and the number of inspectors by work            
            force categories, who have received all mandatory                  
            training;                                                          
                (4) a description of the criteria used to set annual           
            work programs, an explanation of how these criteria differ         
            from criteria used in the prior fiscal year and how the            
            annual work programs ensure compliance with appropriate            
            regulations and safe operating practices;                          
                (5) a comparison of actual inspections performed during        
            the fiscal year to the annual work programs by field               
            location and, for any field location completing less than          
            80 percent of its planned number of inspections, an                
            explanation of why annual work program plans were not              
            met;                                                               
                (6) a statement of the adequacy of Administration              
            internal management controls available to ensure that field        
            managers comply with Administration policies and                   
            procedures, including those on inspector                           
            priorities, district office coordination, minimum                  
            inspection standards, and inspection followup;                     
                (7) the status of efforts made by the Administration to        
            update inspector guidance documents and regulations to             
            include technological, management, and structural changes          
            taking place in the aviation industry, including a listing         
            of the backlog of all proposed regulatory amendments;              
                (8) a list of the specific operational measures of             
            effectiveness used to evaluate --                                  
                    (A) the progress in meeting program objectives;            
                    (B) the quality of program delivery; and                   
                    (C) the nature of emerging safety problems;                
                (9) a schedule showing the number of civil penalty             
            cases closed during the 2 prior fiscal years, including the        
            total initial and final penalties imposed, the total number        
            of dollars collected, the range of dollar amounts                  
            collected, the average case processing time, and the range         
            of case processing time;                                           
                (10) a schedule showing the number of enforcement              
            actions taken (except civil penalties) during the 2 prior          
            fiscal years, including the total number of violations             
            cited, and the number of cited violation cases closed by           
            certificate suspensions, certificate revocations, warnings,        
            and no action taken; and                                           
                (11) schedules showing the safety record of the                
            aviation industry during the fiscal year for air carriers          
            and general aviation, including --                                 
                    (A) the number of inspections performed when               
                deficiencies were identified compared with inspections         
                when no deficiencies were found;                               
                    (B) the frequency of safety deficiencies for each          
                air carrier; and                                               
                    (C) an analysis based on data of the general status        
                of air carrier and general aviation compliance with            
                aviation regulations.