FAA-H-8083-9        
                                                                               
      U.S. Department                                                          
      of Transportation                                                        
                                                                               
      Federal Aviation                                                         
      Administration                                                           
                                                                               
                                                                               
                       AVIATION INSTRUCTOR'S HANDBOOK                          
                                                                               
                                    1999                                       
                                                                               
                      U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION                        
                       FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION                         
                          Flight Standards Service                             
                                                                               
                                   PREFACE                                     
                                                                               
      The Aviation Instructor's Handbook is designed for ground                
      instructors, flight instructors, and aviation maintenance                
      instructors.  It is developed by the Flight Standards Service,           
      Airman Testing Standards Branch in cooperation with aviation             
      educators and industry.  This handbook provides the foundation           
      for beginning instructors to understand and apply the                    
      fundamentals of instructing.  This handbook also provides                
      aviation instructors with up-to-date information on learning and         
      teaching, and how to relate this information to the task of              
      conveying aeronautical knowledge and skills to students.                 
      Experienced aviation instructors also may find the new and               
      updated information useful for improving their effectiveness in          
      training activities.                                                     
                                                                               
      Chapters 1 through 5 concentrate on learning theory and the              
      teaching process, emphasizing the characteristics of human               
      behavior and the importance of communication.  Chapters 6 and 7          
      provide valuable tools for critiquing and evaluating student             
      performance and enhancing instructional presentations with               
      teaching aids and new training technologies.  Chapter 8 defines          
      instructor responsibilities and emphasizes ways that instructors         
      can develop and portray a professional image to their students.          
      Chapter 9 contains useful information that can be applied when           
      teaching in the aircraft, and also provides comprehensive                
      treatment for teaching aeronautical decision making (ADM) and            
      judgment.  Chapters 10 and 11 provide valuable information for           
      planning instructional activity and continuing professional              
      development.  Occasionally, the word "must" or similar language          
      is used where the desired action is deemed critical.  The use of         
      such language is not intended to add to, interpret, or relieve a         
      duty imposed by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations              
      (14 CFR).                                                                
                                                                               
      This handbook supersedes AC 60-14, Aviation Instructor's                 
      Handbook, dated 1977; AC 61-101, Presolo Written Test, dated             
      1989; and AC 61-115, Positive Exchange of Flight Controls, date          
      1995.  It can be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents,         
      U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC                    
      20402-9325, or from U.S. Government Bookstores located in major          
      cities throughout the United States.                                     
                                                                               
      The current Flight Standards Service airman training and testing         
      material and subject matter knowledge codes for all instructor           
      certificates and ratings can be obtained from the Regulatory             
      Support Division, AFS-600, home page on the Internet.                    
                                                                               
      The Regulatory Support Division's Internet address is:                   
      http://www.mmac.jccbi.gov/afs/afs600                                     
                                                                               
      Comments regarding this handbook should be sent to U.S.                  
      Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration,           
      Airman Testing Standards Branch, AFS-630, P.O. Box 25082,                
      Oklahoma City, OK 73125.                                                 
                                                                               
      AC 00-2, Advisory Circular Checklist, transmits the current              
      status of FAA advisory circulars and other flight information and        
      publications.  This checklist is free of charge and may be               
      obtained by sending a request to U.S. Department of                      
      Transportation, Subsequent Distribution Office, SVC-121.23,              
      Ardmore East Business Center, 3341 Q 75th Avenue, Landover, MD           
      20785.  The checklist is also available on the Internet at               
      http://www.faa.gov/abc/ac-chklst/actoc.htm                               
                                                                               
                                  CONTENTS                                     
                                                                               
      Chapter 1 - The Learning Process                                         
                                                                               
          Learning Theory .......................................  1-1         
            Behaviorism .........................................  1-1         
            Cognitive Theory ....................................  1-1         
            Combined Approach ...................................  1-2         
          Definition of Learning ................................  1-2         
          Characteristics of Learning ...........................  1-2         
            Learning is Purposeful ..............................  1-2         
            Learning is a Result of Experience ..................  1-3         
            Learning is Multifaceted ............................  1-3         
            Learning is an Active Process .......................  1-3         
            Learning Styles .....................................  1-3         
          Principles of Learning ................................  1-5         
            Readiness ...........................................  1-5         
            Exercise ............................................  1-5         
            Effect ..............................................  1-5         
            Primacy .............................................  1-5         
            Intensity ...........................................  1-5         
            Recency .............................................  1-5         
            How People Learn ....................................  1-5         
            Perceptions .........................................  1-6         
              Factors Which Affect Perception ...................  1-6         
              Physical Organism .................................  1-6         
              Basic Need ........................................  1-6         
              Goals and Values ..................................  1-6         
              Self Concept ......................................  1-6         
              Time and Opportunity ..............................  1-7         
              Element of Threat .................................  1-7         
              Insight ...........................................  1-7         
              Motivation ........................................  1-8         
          Levels of Learning ....................................  1-9         
            Domains of Learning ................................. 1-10         
              Cognitive Domain .................................. 1-10         
              Affective Domain .................................. 1-10         
              Psychomotor Domain ................................ 1-10         
            Practical Application of Learning Objectives ........ 1-11         
          Learning Physical Skills .............................. 1-11         
            Physical Skills Involve More Than Muscles ........... 1-12         
              Desire to Learn ................................... 1-12         
              Patterns to Follow ................................ 1-12         
              Perform the Skill ................................. 1-12         
              Knowledge of Results .............................. 1-12         
              Progress Follows a Pattern ........................ 1-12         
              Duration and Organization of Lesson ............... 1-13         
              Evaluation Versus Critique ........................ 1-13         
              Application of Skill .............................. 1-13         
          Memory ................................................ 1-13         
            Sensory Register .................................... 1-13         
            Working or Short-Term Memory ........................ 1-13         
            Long-Term Memory .................................... 1-14         
            Theories of Forgetting .............................. 1-15         
              Disuse ............................................ 1-15         
              Interference ...................................... 1-15         
              Repression ........................................ 1-15         
            Retention of Learning ............................... 1-15         
              Praise Stimulates Remembering ..................... 1-15         
              Recall is Promoted by Association ................. 1-15         
              Favorable Attitudes Aid Retention ................. 1-15         
              Learning with All Our Senses is Most Effective .... 1-15         
              Meaningful Repetition Aids Recall ................. 1-15         
          Transfer of Learning .................................. 1-16         
            Habit Formation ..................................... 1-16         
                                                                               
      Chapter 2 - Human Behavior                                               
                                                                               
          Control of Human Behavior .............................  2-1         
          Human Needs ...........................................  2-2         
            Physical ............................................  2-2         
            Safety ..............................................  2-2         
            Social ..............................................  2-2         
            Ego .................................................  2-2         
            Self-Fulfillment ....................................  2-3         
          Defense Mechanisms ....................................  2-3         
            Compensation ........................................  2-3         
            Projection ..........................................  2-3         
            Rationalization .....................................  2-3         
            Denial of Reality ...................................  2-3         
            Reaction Formation ..................................  2-3         
            Flight ..............................................  2-3         
            Aggression ..........................................  2-4         
            Resignation .........................................  2-4         
          The Flight Instructor as a Practical Psychologist .....  2-4         
            Anxiety .............................................  2-4         
            Normal Reactions to Stress ..........................  2-5         
            Abnormal Reactions to Stress ........................  2-5         
            Flight Instructor Actions Regarding Seriously                      
              Abnormal Students .................................  2-5         
                                                                               
      Chapter 3 - Effective Communication                                      
                                                                               
          Basic Elements ........................................  3-1         
            Source ..............................................  3-1         
            Symbols .............................................  3-2         
            Receiver ............................................  3-2         
          Barriers to Effective Communication ...................  3-3         
            Lack of Common Experience ...........................  3-3         
            Confusion Between the Symbol and the Symbolized                    
              Object ............................................  3-4         
            Overuse of Abstractions .............................  3-4         
            Interference ........................................  3-5         
          Developing Communication Skills .......................  3-5         
            Role Playing ........................................  3-5         
            Instructional Communication .........................  3-5         
              Listening .........................................  3-6         
              Questioning .......................................  3-7         
          Instructional Enhancement .............................  3-7         
      Chapter 4 - The Teaching Process                                         
                                                                               
          Preparation ...........................................  4-1         
            Performance-Based Objectives ........................  4-1         
              Description of the Skill or Behavior ..............  4-2         
              Conditions ........................................  4-2         
              Criteria ..........................................  4-2         
              Other Uses of Performance-Based Objectives ........  4-3         
          Presentation ..........................................  4-3         
          Application ...........................................  4-3         
          Review and Evaluation .................................  4-4         
                                                                               
      Chapter 5 - Teaching Methods                                             
                                                                               
          Organizing Material ...................................  5-1         
            Introduction ........................................  5-2         
              Attention .........................................  5-2         
              Motivation ........................................  5-2         
              Overview ..........................................  5-2         
            Development .........................................  5-2         
              Past to Present ...................................  5-2         
              Simple to Complex .................................  5-2         
              Known to Unknown ..................................  5-2         
              Most Frequently Used to Least Frequently Used .....  5-3         
            Conclusion ..........................................  5-3         
          Lecture Method ........................................  5-3         
            Teaching Lecture ....................................  5-3         
              Preparing the Teaching Lecture ....................  5-3         
              Suitable Language .................................  5-4         
              Types of Delivery .................................  5-4         
              Use of Notes ......................................  5-5         
            Formal Versus Informal Lectures .....................  5-5         
            Advantages and Disadvantages of the Lecture .........  5-5         
          Cooperative or Group Learning Method ..................  5-6         
            Conditions and Controls .............................  5-6         
              Heterogeneous Groups ..............................  5-6         
              Clear, Complete Directions and Instructions .......  5-6         
              All Students in the Group Must Buy Into the                      
                Targeted Objectives .............................  5-6         
              Positive Interdependence ..........................  5-6         
              Opportunity for Success ...........................  5-6         
              Access to Must-Learn Information ..................  5-7         
              Sufficient Time for Learning ......................  5-7         
              Positive Social Interaction Behaviors and Attitudes  5-7         
              Individual Accountability .........................  5-7         
              Recognition and Rewards for Group Success .........  5-7         
              Debrief on Group Efforts ..........................  5-7         
          Guided Discussion Method ..............................  5-7         
            Use of Questions in a Guided Discussion .............  5-7         
            Planning a Guided Discussion ........................  5-8         
            Student Preparation for a Guided Discussion .........  5-9         
            Guiding a Discussion - Instructor Technique .........  5-9         
              Introduction ......................................  5-9         
              Discussion ........................................  5-9         
              Conclusion ........................................  5-9         
          Demonstration-Performance Method ...................... 5-10         
            Explanation Phase ................................... 5-10         
            Demonstration Phase ................................. 5-10         
            Student Performance and Instructor Supervision Phases 5-10         
            Evaluation Phase .................................... 5-10         
          Computer-Based Training Method ........................ 5-10         
                                                                               
      Chapter 6 - Critique and Evaluation                                      
          The Instructor as a Critic ............................  6-1         
            Purpose of a Critique ...............................  6-1         
            Characteristics of an Effective Critique ............  6-2         
              Objective .........................................  6-2         
              Flexible ..........................................  6-2         
              Acceptable ........................................  6-2         
              Comprehensive .....................................  6-2         
              Constructive ......................................  6-2         
              Organized .........................................  6-3         
              Thoughtful ........................................  6-3         
              Specific ..........................................  6-3         
            Methods of Critique .................................  6-3         
              Instructor/Student Critique .......................  6-3         
              Student-Led Critique ..............................  6-3         
              Small Group Critique ..............................  6-3         
              Individual Student Critique by Another Student ....  6-3         
              Self-Critique .....................................  6-3         
              Written Critique ..................................  6-4         
            Ground Rules for Critiquing .........................  6-4         
          Evaluation ............................................  6-4         
            Oral Quizzes ........................................  6-4         
              Characteristics of Effective Questions ............  6-5         
              Types of Questions to Avoid .......................  6-5         
              Answering Questions from Students .................  6-5         
            Written Tests .......................................  6-6         
              Characteristics of a Good Test ....................  6-6         
            Test Development ....................................  6-7         
              Determine Level-of-Learning Objectives ............  6-8         
              List Indicators/Samples of Desired Behavior .......  6-8         
              Establish Criterion Objectives ....................  6-8         
              Develop Criterion-Referenced Test Items ...........  6-8         
            Written Test Items ..................................  6-9         
              Supply Type .......................................  6-9         
              Selection Type ....................................  6-9         
                True-False ......................................  6-9         
                Multiple-Choice ................................. 6-10         
                Stems ........................................... 6-11         
                Alternatives .................................... 6-12         
                Matching ........................................ 6-12         
              Developing a Test Item Bank ....................... 6-12         
              Principles to Follow .............................. 6-13         
              Presolo Knowledge Tests ........................... 6-13         
            Performance Tests ................................... 6-14         
                                                                               
      Chapter 7 - Instructional Aids and Training Technologies                 
                                                                               
          Instructional Aid Theory ..............................  7-1         
          Reasons for Use of Instructional Aids .................  7-2         
          Guidelines for Use of Instructional Aids ..............  7-2         
          Types of Instructional Aids ...........................  7-3         
            Chalks or Marker Board ..............................  7-3         
            Supplemental Print Material .........................  7-4         
            Enhanced Training Material ..........................  7-5         
            Projected Material ..................................  7-5         
            Video ...............................................  7-6         
              Passive Video .....................................  7-6         
              Interactive Video .................................  7-7         
              Computer-Based Multimedia .........................  7-7         
            Models, Mock-Ups, and Cut-Aways .....................  7-9         
          Test Preparation Material .............................  7-9         
          Future Developments ...................................  7-9         
                                                                               
      Chapter 8 - Instructor Responsibilities and Professionalism              
          Aviation Instructor Responsibilities ..................  8-1         
            Helping Students Learn ..............................  8-1         
            Providing Adequate Instruction ......................  8-2         
            Standards of Performance ............................  8-3         
            Emphasizing the Positive ............................  8-3         
          Flight Instructor Responsibilities ....................  8-4         
            Evaluation of Student Piloting Ability ..............  8-4         
            Pilot Supervision ...................................  8-5         
            Practical Test Recommendations ......................  8-5         
            Flight Instructor Endorsements ......................  8-6         
              FAA Form 8710-1 ...................................  8-6         
            Additional Training and Endorsements ................  8-6         
              Flight Reviews ....................................  8-6         
              Instrument Proficiency Checks .....................  8-9         
              Aircraft Checkouts/Transitions ....................  8-9         
            Pilot Proficiency ...................................  8-9         
          Professionalism ....................................... 8-10         
            Sincerity ........................................... 8-10         
            Acceptance of the Student ........................... 8-11         
            Personal Appearance and Habits ...................... 8-11         
            Demeanor ............................................ 8-11         
            Safety Practices and Accident Prevention ............ 8-11         
            Proper Language ..................................... 8-12         
            Self-Improvement .................................... 8-12         
            Minimizing Student Frustrations ..................... 8-12         
            Additional Responsibilities ......................... 8-13         
                                                                               
      Chapter 9 - Techniques of Flight Instruction                             
                                                                               
          The Telling-and-Doing Technique .......................  9-1         
            Instructor Tells - Instructor Does ..................  9-1         
            Student Tells - Instructor Does .....................  9-2         
            Student Tells - Student Does ........................  9-2         
            Student Does - Instructor Evaluates .................  9-3         
          Integrated Flight Instruction .........................  9-3         
            Development of Habit Patterns .......................  9-3         
            Accuracy of Flight Control ..........................  9-4         
            Operating Efficiency ................................  9-4         
            Procedures ..........................................  9-4         
            Precautions .........................................  9-4         
            Flight Instructor Qualifications ....................  9-5         
          Obstacles to Learning During Flight Instruction .......  9-5         
            Unfair Treatment ....................................  9-5         
            Impatience ..........................................  9-5         
            Worry or Lack of Interest ...........................  9-5         
            Physical Discomfort, Illness, and Fatigue ...........  9-6         
            Apathy Due to Inadequate Instruction ................  9-6         
            Anxiety .............................................  9-7         
          Positive Exchange of Flight Controls ..................  9-7         
            Background ..........................................  9-7         
            Procedures ..........................................  9-7         
          Use of Distractions ...................................  9-8         
          Aeronautical Decision Making ..........................  9-8         
            Origins of ADM Training .............................  9-9         
            The Decision-Making Process ......................... 9-10         
              Defining the Problem .............................. 9-10         
              Choosing a Course of Action ....................... 9-11         
              Implementing the Decision and Evaluating the                     
                Outcome ......................................... 9-11         
              Risk Management ................................... 9-11         
              Assessing Risk .................................... 9-12         
          Factors Affecting Decision Making ..................... 9-13         
            Pilot Self-Assessment ............................... 9-13         
              Recognizing Hazardous Attitudes ................... 9-13         
              Stress Management ................................. 9-14         
            Use of Resources .................................... 9-15         
              Internal Resources ................................ 9-15         
              External Resources ................................ 9-16         
            Workload Management ................................. 9-16         
            Situational Awareness ............................... 9-17         
              Obstacles to Maintaining Situational Awareness .... 9-17         
          Operational Pitfalls .................................. 9-17         
          Evaluating Student Decision Making .................... 9-18         
                                                                               
      Chapter 10 - Planning Instructional Activity                             
                                                                               
          Course of Training .................................... 10-1         
            Objectives and Standards ............................ 10-1         
          Blocks of Learning .................................... 10-2         
          Training Syllabus ..................................... 10-3         
            Syllabus Format and Content ......................... 10-3         
              How to Use a Training Syllabus .................... 10-4         
          Lesson Plans .......................................... 10-5         
            Purpose of the Lesson Plan .......................... 10-5         
            Characteristics of a Well-Planned Lesson ............ 10-6         
            How to Use a Lesson Plan Properly ................... 10-6         
            Lesson Plan Formats ................................. 10-7         
                                                                               
      Chapter 11 - Professional Development                                    
                                                                               
          Growth and Development ................................ 11-1         
            The Instructor as a Safety Advocate ................. 11-1         
              Aviation Safety Counselors ........................ 11-1         
            Continuing Education ................................ 11-2         
              Government ........................................ 11-2         
              Educational/Training Institutions ................. 11-2         
              Commercial Organizations .......................... 11-3         
              Industry Organizations ............................ 11-3         
          Sources of Material ................................... 11-3         
            Printed Material .................................... 11-4         
            Electronic Sources .................................. 11-4         
                                                                               
      Appendix A - Sample Test Items ............................  A-1         
                                                                               
      Appendix B - Instructor Endorsements ......................  B-1         
                                                                               
      References ................................................  R-1         
                                                                               
      Glossary ..................................................  G-1         
                                                                               
      Index .....................................................  I-1         
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                  Chapter 1                                    
                                                                               
                            THE LEARNING PROCESS                               
                                                                               
      To learn is to acquire knowledge or skill.  Learning also may            
      involve a change in attitude or behavior.  Children learn to             
      identify objects at an early age; teenagers may learn to improve         
      study habits; and adults can learn to solve complex problems.            
      Pilots and aviation maintenance technicians (AMTs) need to               
      acquire the higher levels of knowledge and skill, including the          
      ability to exercise judgment and solve problems.  The challenge          
      for the aviation instructor is to understand how people learn,           
      and more importantly, to be able to apply that knowledge to the          
      learning environment.  This handbook is designed as a basic guide        
      to educational psychology.  This chapter addresses that branch of        
      psychology directly concerned with how people learn.                     
                                                                               
      LEARNING THEORY                                                          
                                                                               
      Learning theory may be described as a body of principles                 
      advocated by psychologists and educators to explain how people           
      acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes.  Various branches of           
      learning theory are used in formal training programs to improve          
      and accelerate the learning process.  Key concepts such as               
      desired learning outcomes, objectives of the training, and depth         
      of training also apply.  When properly integrated, learning              
      principles, derived from theories, can be useful to aviation             
      instructors and developers of instructional programs for both            
      pilots and maintenance technicians.                                      
                                                                               
      Over the years, many theories have attempted to explain how              
      people learn.  Even though psychologists and educators are not in        
      complete agreement, most do agree that learning may be explained         
      by a combination of two basic approaches - behaviorism and the           
      cognitive theories.                                                      
                                                                               
      BEHAVIORISM                                                              
                                                                               
      Behaviorists believe that animals, including humans, learn in            
      about the same way.  Behaviorism stresses the importance of              
      having a particular form of behavior reinforced by someone, other        
      than the student, to shape or control what is learned.  In               
      aviation training, the instructor provides the reinforcement.            
      Frequent, positive reinforcement and rewards accelerate learning.        
      This theory provides the instructor with ways to manipulate              
      students with stimuli, induce the desired behavior or response,          
      and reinforce the behavior with appropriate rewards.  In general,        
      the behaviorist theory emphasizes positive reinforcement rather          
      than no reinforcement or punishment.                                     
                                                                               
      Other features of behaviorism are considerably more complex than         
      this simple explanation.  Instructors who need more details              
      should refer to psychology texts for a better understanding of           
      behaviorism.  As an instructor, it is important to keep in mind          
      that behaviorism is still widely used today, because controlling         
      learning experiences helps direct students toward specific               
      learning outcomes.                                                       
                                                                               
      COGNITIVE THEORY                                                         
                                                                               
      Much of the recent psychological thinking and experimentation in         
      education includes some facets of the cognitive theory.  This is         
      true in basic as well as more advanced training programs.  Unlike        
      behaviorism, the cognitive theory focuses on what is going on            
      inside the student's mind.  Learning is not just a change in             
      behavior; it is a change in the way a student thinks,                    
      understands, or feels.                                                   
                                                                               
      There are several branches of cognitive theory.  Two of the major        
      theories may broadly be classified as the information processing         
      model and the social interaction model.  The first says that the         
      student's brain has internal structures which select and process         
      incoming material, store and retrieve it, use it to produce              
      behavior, and receive and process feedback on the results.  This         
      involves a number of cognitive processes, including executive            
      functions of recognizing expectancies, planning and monitoring           
      performance, encoding and chunking information, and producing            
      internal and external responses.                                         
                                                                               
      The social interaction theories gained prominence in the 1980s.          
      They stress that learning and subsequent changes in behavior take        
      place as a result of interaction between the student and the             
      environment.  Behavior is modeled either by people or                    
      symbolically.  Cultural influences, peer pressure, group                 
      dynamics, and film and television are some of the significant            
      factors.  Thus, the social environment to which the student is           
      exposed demonstrates or models behaviors, and the student                
      cognitively processes the observed behaviors and consequences.           
      The cognitive processes include attention, retention, motor              
      responses, and motivation.  Techniques for learning include              
      direct modeling and verbal instruction.  Behavior, personal              
      factors, and environmental events all work together to produce           
      learning.                                                                
                                                                               
      Both models of the cognitive theory have common principles.  For         
      example, they both acknowledge the importance of reinforcing             
      behavior and measuring changes.  Positive reinforcement is               
      important, particularly with cognitive concepts such as knowledge        
      and understanding.  The need to evaluate and measure behavior            
      remains because it is the only way to get a clue about what the          
      student understands.  Evaluation is often limited to the kinds of        
      knowledge or behavior that can be measured by a paper-and-pencil         
      exam or a performance test.  Although psychologists agree that           
      there often are errors in evaluation, some means of measuring            
      student knowledge, performance, and behavior is necessary.               
                                                                               
      COMBINED APPROACH                                                        
                                                                               
      Both the behavioristic and the cognitive approaches are useful           
      learning theories.  A reasonable way to plan, manage, and conduct        
      aviation training is to include the best features of each major          
      theory.  This provides a way to measure behavioral outcomes and          
      promote cognitive learning.  The combined approach is not simple,        
      but neither is learning.                                                 
                                                                               
      DEFINITION OF LEARNING                                                   
                                                                               
      The ability to learn is one of the most outstanding human                
      characteristics.  Learning occurs continuously throughout a              
      person's lifetime.  To define learning, it is necessary to               
      analyze what happens to the individual.  For example, an                 
      individual's way of perceiving, thinking, feeling, and doing may         
      change as a result of a learning experience.  Thus, learning can         
      be defined as a change in behavior as a result of experience.            
      This can be physical and overt, or it may involve complex                
      intellectual or attitudinal changes which affect behavior in more        
      subtle ways.  In spite of numerous theories and contrasting              
      views, psychologists generally agree on many common                      
      characteristics of learning.                                             
                                                                               
      CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING                                              
                                                                               
      Aviation instructors need a good understanding of the general            
      characteristics of learning in order to apply them in a learning         
      situation.  If learning is a change in behavior as a result of           
      experience, then instruction must include a careful and                  
      systematic creation of those experiences that promote learning.          
      This process can be quite complex because, among other things, an        
      individual's background strongly influences the way that person          
      learns.  To be effective, the learning situation also should be          
      purposeful, based on experience, multifaceted, and involve an            
      active process.  Figure 1-1a                                            
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                       Figure 1-1.  Effective learning                         
                   shares several common characteristics.                      
                                                                               
                         CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING                           
                                                                               
                          .  Purposeful                                        
                            .  Result of Experience                            
                              .  Multifaceted                                  
                               .  Active Process                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      LEARNING IS PURPOSEFUL                                                   
                                                                               
      Each student sees a learning situation from a different                  
      viewpoint.  Each student is a unique individual whose past               
      experiences affect readiness to learn and understanding of the           
      requirements involved.  For example, an instructor may give two          
      aviation maintenance students the assignment of learning certain         
      inspection procedures.  One student may learn quickly and be able        
      to competently present the assigned material.  The combination of        
      an aviation background and future goals may enable that student          
      to realize the need and value of learning the procedures.  A             
      second student's goal may only be to comply with the instructor's        
      assignment, and may result in only minimum preparation.  The             
      responses differ because each student acts in accordance with            
      what he or she sees in the situation.                                    
                                                                               
      Most people have fairly definite ideas about what they want to do        
      and achieve.  Their goals sometimes are short term, involving a          
      matter of days or weeks.  On the other hand, their goals may be          
      carefully planned for a career or a lifetime.  Each student has          
      specific intentions and goals.  Some may be shared by other              
      students.  Students learn from any activity that tends to further        
      their goals.  Their individual needs and attitudes may determine         
      what they learn as much as what the instructor is trying to get          
      them to learn.  In the process of learning, the student's goals          
      are of paramount significance.  To be effective, aviation                
      instructors need to find ways to relate new learning to the              
      student's goals.                                                         
                                                                               
      LEARNING IS A RESULT OF EXPERIENCE                                       
                                                                               
      Since learning is an individual process, the instructor cannot do        
      it for the student.  The student can learn only from personal            
      experiences; therefore, learning and knowledge cannot exist apart        
      from a person.  A person's knowledge is a result of experience,          
      and no two people have had identical experiences.  Even when             
      observing the same event, two people react differently; they             
      learn different things from it, according to the manner in which         
      the situation affects their individual needs.  Previous                  
      experience conditions a person to respond to some things and to          
      ignore others.                                                           
                                                                               
      All learning is by experience, but learning takes place in               
      different forms and in varying degrees of richness and depth.            
      For instance, some experiences involve the whole person while            
      others may be based only on hearing and memory.  Aviation                
      instructors are faced with the problem of providing learning             
      experiences that are meaningful, varied, and appropriate.  As an         
      example, students can learn to say a list of words through               
      repeated drill, or they can learn to recite certain principles of        
      flight by rote.  However, they can make them meaningful only if          
      they understand them well enough to apply them correctly to real         
      situations.  If an experience challenges the students, requires          
      involvement with feelings, thoughts, memory of past experiences,         
      and physical activity, it is more effective than a learning              
      experience in which all the students have to do is commit                
      something to memory.                                                     
                                                                               
      It seems clear enough that the learning of a physical skill              
      requires actual experience in performing that skill.  Student            
      pilots learn to fly aircraft only if their experiences include           
      flying them; student aviation maintenance technicians learn to           
      overhaul powerplants only by actually performing that task.              
      Mental habits are also learned through practice.  If students are        
      to use sound judgment and develop decision-making skills, they           
      need learning experiences that involve knowledge of general              
      principles and require the use of judgment in solving realistic          
      problems.                                                                
                                                                               
      LEARNING IS MULTIFACETED                                                 
                                                                               
      If instructors see their objective as being only to train their          
      students' memory and muscles, they are underestimating the               
      potential of the teaching situation.  Students may learn much            
      more than expected if they fully exercise their minds and                
      feelings.  The fact that these items were not included in the            
      instructor's plan does not prevent them from influencing the             
      learning situation.                                                      
                                                                               
      Psychologists sometimes classify learning by types, such as              
      verbal, conceptual, perceptual, motor, problem solving, and              
      emotional.  Other classifications refer to intellectual skills,          
      cognitive strategies, and attitudinal changes, along with                
      descriptive terms like surface or deep learning.  However useful         
      these divisions may be, they are somewhat artificial.  For               
      example, a class learning to apply the scientific method of              
      problem solving may learn the method by trying to solve real             
      problems.  But in doing so, the class also engages in verbal             
      learning and sensory perception at the same time.  Each student          
      approaches the task with preconceived ideas and feelings, and for        
      many students, these ideas change as a result of experience.             
      Therefore, the learning process may include verbal elements,             
      conceptual elements, perceptual elements, emotional elements, and        
      problem solving elements all taking place at once.  This aspect          
      of learning will become more evident later in this handbook when         
      lesson planning is discussed.                                            
                                                                               
      Learning is multifaceted in still another way.  While learning           
      the subject at hand, students may be learning other things as            
      well.  They may be developing attitudes about aviation - good or         
      bad - depending on what they experience.  Under a skillful               
      instructor, they may learn self-reliance.  The list is seemingly         
      endless.  This type of learning is sometimes referred to as              
      incidental, but it may have a great impact on the total                  
      development of the student.                                              
                                                                               
      LEARNING IS AN ACTIVE PROCESS                                            
                                                                               
      Students do not soak up knowledge like a sponge absorbs water.           
      The instructor cannot assume that students remember something            
      just because they were in the classroom, shop, or airplane when          
      the instructor presented the material.  Neither can the                  
      instructor assume that the students can apply what they know             
      because they can quote the correct answer verbatim.  For students        
      to learn, they need to react and respond, perhaps outwardly,             
      perhaps only inwardly, emotionally, or intellectually.  But if           
      learning is a process of changing behavior, clearly that process         
      must be an active one.                                                   
                                                                               
      LEARNING STYLES                                                          
                                                                               
      Although characteristics of learning and learning styles are             
      related, there are distinctions between the two.  Learning style         
      is a concept that can play an important role in improving                
      instruction and student success.  It is concerned with student           
      preferences and orientation at several levels.  For example, a           
      student's information processing technique, personality, social          
      interaction tendencies, and the instructional methods used are           
      all significant factors which apply to how individual students           
      learn.  In addition, today's culturally diverse society,                 
      including international students, must be considered.  The key           
      point is that all students are different, and training programs          
      should be sensitive to the differences.                                  
                                                                               
      Some students are fast learners and others have difficulties;            
      and, as already mentioned, motivation, experience, and previous          
      training affect learning style.  Any number of adjectives may be         
      used to describe learning styles.  Some common examples include:         
                                                                               
           .  Right/left brain                                                 
           .  Holistic/serialist                                               
           .  Dependent/independent                                            
           .  Reflective/impulsive                                             
                                                                               
      Theories abound concerning right- or left-brain dominance.  In           
      general, those with right-brain dominance are characterized as           
      being spatially oriented, creative, intuitive, and emotional.            
      Those with left-brain dominance are more verbal, analytical, and         
      objective.  However, the separate hemispheres of the brain do not        
      function independently.  For example, the right hemisphere may           
      recognize a face, while the left associates a name to go with the        
      face.  The term dominance is probably misleading when applied to         
      brain hemipheres; specialization would be a more appropriate             
      word.                                                                    
                                                                               
      Learning style differences certainly depend on how students              
      process information.  Some rely heavily on visual references             
      while others depend more on auditory presentations.  For example,        
      visual students learn readily through reading and graphic                
      displays, and auditory students have more success if they hear           
      the subject matter described.  Another difference is that some           
      learn more easily when an idea is presented in a mathematical            
      equation, while others may prefer a verbal explanation of the            
      same idea.  In addition, where hands-on activities are involved,         
      students also learn by feel.  This is sometimes called                   
      kinesthetic learning.                                                    
                                                                               
      Information processing theories contain several other useful             
      classifications.  As an example, in the holistic/serialist               
      theory, the holist strategy is a top-down concept where students         
      have a big picture, global perspective.  The students seek               
      overall comprehension, especially through the use of analogies.          
      In contrast, the serialist student focuses more narrowly and             
      needs well-defined, sequential steps where the overall picture is        
      developed slowly, thoroughly, and logically.  This is a bottom-          
      up strategy.                                                             
                                                                               
      Two additional information processing classifications describe           
      deep-elaborative and the shallow-reiterative learners.  Testing          
      practices which demand comprehension, rather than regurgitation          
      of facts, obviously encourage students to adopt a deep-                  
      elaborative learning style.  Detailed information on testing             
      procedures, as well as curriculum design and instructor                  
      techniques, is included later in this handbook.                          
                                                                               
      As indicated, personality also affects how students learn.               
      Dependent students require a lot of guidance, direction, and             
      external stimulation.  These students tend to focus on the               
      instructor.  The more independent students require only a minimum        
      amount of guidance and external stimulation.  They are not overly        
      concerned with how the lesson is presented.                              
                                                                               
      Students with a reflective-type personality may be described as          
      tentative.  They tend to be uncertain in problem-solving                 
      exercises.  The opposite applies to impulsive students.                  
      Typically, they dive right in with enthusiasm and are prone to           
      make quick, and sometimes faulty, decisions.                             
                                                                               
      The social interaction concept contains further classifications          
      of student learning styles.  Like most of the other information          
      on learning styles, these classifications are derived from               
      research on tendencies of undergraduate students.                        
                                                                               
      Some generalizations about these classifications indicate that           
      compliant students are typically task oriented, and anxious-             
      dependent students usually score lower than others on                    
      standardized tests.  Discouraged students often have depressed           
      feelings about the future, and independent students tend to be           
      older, intelligent, secure, and comfortable with the academic            
      environment.  Attention seekers have a strong social orientation         
      and are frequently involved in joking, showing off, and bragging.        
      In contrast, silent students usually are characterized by                
      helplessness, vulnerability, and other disconcerting                     
      behaviorisms.                                                            
                                                                               
      Other studies identify more categories that are easily                   
      recognized.  Among these are collaborative, sharing students who         
      enjoy working with others, and competitive students who are grade        
      conscious and feel they must do better than their peers.                 
      Participant students normally have a desire to learn and enjoy           
      attending class, and avoidant students do not take part in class         
      activities and have little interest in learning.                         
                                                                               
      The existing learning environment also influences learning style.        
      In real life, most students find it necessary to adapt to a              
      traditional style learning environment provided by a school,             
      university, or other educational/training establishment.  Thus,          
      the student's learning style may or may not be compatible.               
                                                                               
      Instructors who can recognize student learning style differences         
      and associated problems will be much more effective than those           
      who do not understand this concept.  Also, these instructors will        
      be prepared to develop appropriate lesson plans and provide              
      guidance, counseling, or other advisory services, as required.           
                                                                               
      PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING                                                   
                                                                               
      Over the years, educational psychologists have identified several        
      principles which seem generally applicable to the learning               
      process.  They provide additional insight into what makes people         
      learn most effectively.                                                  
                                                                               
      READINESS                                                                
                                                                               
      Individuals learn best when they are ready to learn, and they do         
      not learn well if they see no reason for learning.  Getting              
      students ready to learn is usually the instructor's                      
      responsibility.  If students have a strong purpose, a clear              
      objective, and a definite reason for learning something, they            
      make more progress than if they lack motivation.  Readiness              
      implies a degree of single-mindedness and eagerness.  When               
      students are ready to learn, they meet the instructor at least           
      halfway, and this simplifies the instructor's job.                       
                                                                               
      Under certain circumstances, the instructor can do little, if            
      anything, to inspire in students a readiness to learn.  If               
      outside responsibilities, interests, or worries weight too               
      heavily on their minds, if their schedules are overcrowded, or if        
      their personal problems seem insoluble, students may have little         
      interest in learning.                                                    
                                                                               
      EXERCISE                                                                 
                                                                               
      The principle of exercise states that those things most often            
      repeated are best remembered.  It is the basis of drill and              
      practice.  The human memory is fallible.  The mind can rarely            
      retain, evaluate, and apply new concepts or practices after a            
      single exposure.  Students do not learn to weld during one shop          
      period or to perform crosswind landings during one instructional         
      flight.  They learn by applying what they have been told and             
      shown.  Every time practice occurs, learning continues.  The             
      instructor must provide opportunities for students to practice           
      and, at the same time, make sure that this process is directed           
      toward a goal.                                                           
      EFFECT                                                                   
                                                                               
      The principle of effect is based on the emotional reaction of the        
      student.  It states that learning is strengthened when                   
      accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling, and that                
      learning is weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling.         
      Experiences that produce feelings of defeat, frustration, anger,         
      confusion, or futility are unpleasant for the student.  If, for          
      example, an instructor attempts to teach landings during the             
      first flight, the student is likely to feel inferior and be              
      frustrated.                                                              
                                                                               
      Instructors should be cautious.  Impressing students with the            
      difficulty of an aircraft maintenance problem, flight maneuver,          
      or flight crew duty can make the teaching task difficult.                
      Usually it is better to tell students that a problem or maneuver,        
      although difficult, is within their capability to understand or          
      perform.  Whatever the learning situation, it should contain             
      elements that affect the students positively and give them a             
      feeling of satisfaction.                                                 
                                                                               
      PRIMACY                                                                  
                                                                               
      Primacy, the state of being first, often creates a strong, almost        
      unshakable, impression.  For the instructor, this means that what        
      is taught must be right the first time.  For the student, it             
      means that learning must be right.  Unteaching is more difficult         
      than teaching.  If, for example, a maintenance student learns a          
      faulty riveting technique, the instructor will have a difficult          
      task correcting bad habits and reteaching correct ones.  Every           
      student should be started right.  The first experience should be         
      positive, functional, and lay the foundation for all that is to          
      follow.                                                                  
                                                                               
      INTENSITY                                                                
                                                                               
      A vivid, dramatic, or exciting learning experience teaches more          
      than a routine or boring experience.  A student is likely to gain        
      greater understanding of slow flight and stalls by performing            
      them rather than merely reading about them.  The principle of            
      intensity implies that a student will learn more from the real           
      thing than from a substitute.  In contrast to flight instruction         
      and shop instruction, the classroom imposes limitations on the           
      amount of realism that can be brought into teaching.  The                
      aviation instructor should use imagination in approaching reality        
      as closely as possible.  Today, classroom instruction can benefit        
      from a wide variety of instructional aids to improve realism,            
      motivate learning, and challenge students.  Chapter 7,                   
      Instructional Aids and Training Technologies, explores the wide          
      range of teaching tools available for classroom use.                     
                                                                               
      RECENCY                                                                  
                                                                               
      The principle of recency states that things most recently learned        
      are best remembered.  Conversely, the further a student is               
      removed time-wise from a new fact or understanding, the more             
      difficult it is to remember.  It is easy, for example, for a             
      student to recall a torque value used a few minutes earlier, but         
      it is usually impossible to remember an unfamiliar one used a            
      week earlier.  Instructors recognize the principle of recency            
      when they carefully plan a summary for a ground school lesson, a         
      shop period, or a postflight critique.  The instructor repeats,          
      restates, or reemphasizes important points at the end of a lesson        
      to help the student remember them.  The principle of recency             
      often determines the sequence of lectures within a course of             
      instruction.                                                             
                                                                               
      HOW PEOPLE LEARN                                                         
                                                                               
      Initially, all learning comes from perceptions which are directed        
      to the brain by one or more of the five senses:  sight, hearing,         
      touch, smell, and taste.  Psychologists have also found that             
      learning occurs most rapidly when information is received through        
      more than one sense.  Figure 1-2a                                       
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
              Figure 1-2.  Most learning occurs through sight,                 
                  but the combination of sight and hearing                     
              accounts for about 88 percent of all perceptions.                
                                                                               
                   ------------------------------------------------            
                /  ]                                               ]           
               ]  _]___________________________________            ]           
               ]/  ]                               75% ]           ]           
         Sight ]___]___________________________________]           ]           
               ]   ]                                               ]           
               ]  _]_______________                                ]           
       Hearing ]/  ]           13% ]                               ]           
               ]___]_______________]                               ]           
               ]   ]                                               ]           
               ]  _]__________                                     ]           
         Touch ]/  ]       6% ]                                    ]           
               ]___]__________]                                    ]           
               ]   ]                                               ]           
         Smell ]  _]_______                                        ]           
               ]/  ]    3% ]                                       ]           
               ]___]_______]                                       ]           
               ]   ]                                               ]           
               ]  _]_______                                        ]           
         Taste ]/  ]    3% ]                                       ]           
               ]___]_______]                                       ]           
               ]                                                   ]           
               ]  _________________________________________________]           
               ]/_________________________________________________/            
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      PERCEPTIONS                                                              
                                                                               
      Perceiving involves more than the reception of stimuli from the          
      five senses.  Perceptions result when a person gives meaning to          
      sensations.  People base their actions on the way they believe           
      things to be.  The experienced aviation maintenance technician,          
      for example, perceives an engine malfunction quite differently           
      than does an inexperienced student.                                      
                                                                               
      Real meaning comes only from within a person, even though the            
      perceptions which evoke these meanings result from external              
      stimuli.  The meanings which are derived from perceptions are            
      influenced not only by the individual's experience, but also by          
      many other factors.  Knowledge of the factors which affect the           
      perceptual process is very important to the aviation instructor          
      because perceptions are the basis of all learning.                       
                                                                               
      FACTORS WHICH AFFECT PERCEPTION                                          
                                                                               
      There are several factors that affect an individual's ability to         
      perceive.  Some are internal to each person and some are                 
      external.                                                                
                                                                               
           .  Physical organism                                                
           .  Basic need                                                       
           .  Goals and values                                                 
           .  Self-concept                                                     
           .  Time and opportunity                                             
           .  Element of threat                                                
                                                                               
      Physical Organism                                                        
                                                                               
      The physical organism provides individuals with the perceptual           
      apparatus for sensing the world around them.  Pilots, for                
      example, must be able to see, hear, feel, and respond adequately         
      while they are in the air.  A person whose perceptual apparatus          
      distorts reality is denied the right to fly at the time of the           
      first medical examination.                                               
                                                                               
      Basic Need                                                               
                                                                               
      A person's basic need is to maintain and enhance the organized           
      self.  The self is a person's past, present, and future combined;        
      it is both physical and psychological.  A person's most                  
      fundamental, pressing need is to preserve and perpetuate the             
      self.  All perceptions are affected by this need.                        
                                                                               
      Just as the food one eats and the air one breathes become part of        
      the physical self, so do the sights one sees and the sounds one          
      hears become part of the psychological self.  Psychologically, we        
      are what we perceive.  A person has physical barriers which keep         
      out those things that would be damaging to the physical being,           
      such as blinking at an arc weld or flinching from a hot iron.            
      Likewise, a person has perceptual barriers that block those              
      sights, sounds, and feelings which pose a psychological threat.          
                                                                               
      Helping people learn requires finding ways to aid them in                
      developing better perceptions in spite of their defense                  
      mechanisms.  Since a person's basic need is to maintain and              
      enhance the self, the instructor must recognize that anything            
      that is asked of the student which may be interpreted by the             
      student as imperiling the self will be resisted or denied.  To           
      teach effectively, it is necessary to work with this life force.         
                                                                               
      Goals and Values                                                         
                                                                               
      Perceptions depend on one's goals and values.  Every experience          
      and sensation which is funneled into one's central nervous system        
      is colored by the individual's own beliefs and value structures.         
      Spectators at a ball game may see an infraction or foul                  
      differently dependingly on which team they support.  The precise         
      kinds of commitments and philosophical outlooks which the student        
      holds are important for the instructor to know, since this               
      knowledge will assist in predicting how the student will                 
      interpret experiences and instructions.                                  
                                                                               
      Goals are also a product of one's value structure.  Those things         
      which are more highly valued and cherished are pursued; those            
      which are accorded less value and importance are not sought              
      after.                                                                   
                                                                               
      Self-Concept                                                             
                                                                               
      Self-concept is a powerful determinant in learning.  A student's         
      self-image, described in such terms as confident and insecure,           
      has a great influence on the total perceptual process.  If a             
      student's experiences tend to support a favorable self-image, the        
      student tends to remain receptive to subsequent experiences.  If         
      a student has negative experiences which tend to contradict              
      self-concept, there is a tendency to reject additional training.         
                                                                               
      A negative self-concept inhibits the perceptual processes by             
      introducing psychological barriers which tend to keep the student        
      from perceiving.  They may also inhibit the ability to properly          
      implement that which is perceived.  That is, self-concept affects        
      the ability to actually perform or do things unfavorable.                
      Students who view themselves positively, on the other hand, are          
      less defensive and more receptive to new experiences,                    
      instructions, and demonstrations.                                        
                                                                               
      Time and Opportunity                                                     
                                                                               
      It takes time and opportunity to perceive.  Learning some things         
      depends on other perceptions which have preceded these learnings,        
      and on the availability of time to sense and relate these new            
      things to the earlier perceptions.  Thus, sequence and time are          
      necessary.                                                               
                                                                               
      A student could probably stall an airplane on the first attempt,         
      regardless of previous experience.  Stalls cannot really be              
      learned, however, unless some experience in normal flight has            
      been acquired.  Even with such experience, time and practice are         
      needed to relate the new sensations and experiences associated           
      with stalls in order to develop a perception of the stall.  In           
      general, lengthening an experience and increasing its frequency          
      are the most obvious ways to speed up learning, although this is         
      not always effective.  Many factors, in addition to the length           
      and frequency of training periods, affect the rate of learning.          
      The effectiveness of the use of a properly planned training              
      syllabus is proportional to the consideration it gives to the            
      time and opportunity factor in perception.                               
                                                                               
      Element of Threat                                                        
                                                                               
      The element of threat does not promote effective learning.  In           
      fact, fear adversely affects perception by narrowing the                 
      perceptual field.  Confronted with threat, students tend to limit        
      their attention to the threatening object or condition.  The             
      field of vision is reduced, for example, when an individual is           
      frightened and all the perceptual faculties are focused on the           
      thing that has generated fear.                                           
                                                                               
      Flight instruction provides many clear examples of this.  During         
      the initial practice of steep turns, a student pilot may focus           
      attention on the altimeter and completely disregard outside              
      visual references.  Anything an instructor does that is                  
      interpreted as threatening makes the student less able to accept         
      the experience the instructor is trying to provide.  It adversely        
      affects all the student's physical, emotional, and mental                
      faculties.                                                               
                                                                               
      Learning is a psychological process, not necessarily a logical           
      one.  Trying to frighten a student through threats of                    
      unsatisfactory reports or reprisals may seem logical, but is not         
      effective psychologically.  The effective instructor can organize        
      teaching to fit the psychological needs of the student.  If a            
      situation seems overwhelming, the student feels unable to handle         
      all of the factors involved, and a threat exists.  So long as the        
      student feels capable of coping with a situation, each new               
      experience is viewed as a challenge.                                     
                                                                               
      A good instructor realizes that behavior is directly influenced          
      by the way a student perceives, and perception is affected by all        
      of these factors.  Therefore, it is important for the instructor         
      to facilitate the learning process by avoiding any actions which         
      may inhibit or prevent the attainment of teaching goals.                 
      Teaching is consistently effective only when those factors which         
      influence perceptions are recognized and taken into account.             
                                                                               
      INSIGHT                                                                  
                                                                               
      Insight involves the grouping of perceptions into meaningful             
      wholes.  Creating insight is one of the instructor's major               
      responsibilities.  To ensure that this does occur, it is                 
      essential to keep each student constantly receptive to new               
      experiences and to help the student realize the way each piece           
      relates to all other pieces of the total pattern of the task to          
      be learned.                                                              
                                                                               
      As an example, during straight-and-level flight in an airplane           
      with a fixed-pitch propeller, the RPM will increase when the             
      throttle is opened and decrease when it is closed.  On the other         
      hand, RPM changes can also result from changes in airplane pitch         
      attitude without changes in power setting.  Obviously, engine            
      speed, power setting, airspeed, and airplane attitude are all            
      related.                                                                 
                                                                               
      True learning requires an understanding of how each of these             
      factors may affect all of the others and, at the same time,              
      knowledge of how a change in any one of them may affect all of           
      the others.  This mental relating and grouping of associated             
      perceptions is called insight.                                           
                                                                               
      Insight will almost always occur eventually, whether or not              
      instruction is provided.  For this reason, it is possible for a          
      person to become an electrician by trial and error, just as one          
      may become a lawyer by reading law.  Instruction, however, speeds        
      this learning process by teaching the relationship of perceptions        
      as they occur, thus promoting the development of the student's           
      insight.                                                                 
                                                                               
      As perceptions increase in number and are assembled by the               
      student into larger blocks of learning, they develop insight.  As        
      a result, learning becomes more meaningful and more permanent.           
      Forgetting is less of a problem when there are more anchor points        
      for tying insights together.  It is a major responsibility of the        
      instructor to organize demonstrations and explanations, and to           
      direct practice, so that the student has better opportunities to         
      understand the interrelationship of the many kinds of experiences        
      that have been perceived.  Pointing out the relationships as they        
      occur, providing a secure and nonthreatening environment in which        
      to learn, and helping the student acquire and maintain a                 
      favorable self-concept are key steps in fostering the development        
      of insight.                                                              
                                                                               
      MOTIVATION                                                               
                                                                               
      Motivation is probably the dominant force which governs the              
      student's progress and ability to learn.  Motivation may be              
      negative or positive, tangible or intangible, subtle and                 
      difficult to identify, or it may be obvious.                             
                                                                               
      Negative motivation may engender fear, and be perceived by the           
      student as a threat.  While negative motivation may be useful in         
      certain situations, characteristically it is not as effective in         
      promoting efficient learning as positive motivation.                     
                                                                               
      Positive motivation is provided by the promise or achievement of         
      rewards.  These rewards may be personal or social; they may              
      involve financial gain, satisfaction of the self-concept, or             
      public recognition.  Motivation which can be used to advantage by        
      the instructor includes the desire for personal gain, the desire         
      for personal comfort or security, the desire for group approval,         
      and the achievement of a favorable self-image.                           
                                                                               
      The desire for personal gain, either the acquisition of                  
      possessions or status, is a basic motivational factor for all            
      human endeavor.  An individual may be motivated to dig a ditch or        
      to design a supersonic airplane solely by the desire for                 
      financial gain.                                                          
                                                                               
      Students are like typical employees in wanting a tangible return         
      for their efforts.  For motivation to be effective, students must        
      believe that their efforts will be suitably rewarded.  These             
      rewards must be constantly apparent to the student during                
      instruction, whether they are to be financial, self-esteem, or           
      public recognition.                                                      
                                                                               
      Lessons often have objectives which are not obvious at first.            
      Although these lessons will pay dividends during later                   
      instruction, the student may not appreciate this fact.  It is            
      important for the instructor to make the student aware of those          
      applications which are not immediately apparent.  Likewise, the          
      devotion of too much time and effort to drill and practice on            
      operations which do not directly contribute to competent                 
      performance should be avoided.                                           
                                                                               
      The desire for personal comfort and security is a form of                
      motivation which instructors often forget.  All students want            
      secure, pleasant conditions and a safe environment.  If they             
      recognize that what they are learning may promote these                  
      objectives, their attention is easier to attract and hold.               
      Insecure and unpleasant training situations inhibit learning.            
                                                                               
      Everyone wants to avoid pain and injury.  Students normally are          
      eager to learn operations or procedures which help prevent injury        
      or loss of life.  This is especially true when the student knows         
      that the ability to make timely decisions, or to act correctly in        
      an emergency, is based on sound principles.                              
                                                                               
      The attractive features of the activity to be learned also can be        
      a strong motivational factor.  Students are anxious to learn             
      skills which may be used to their advantage.  If they understand         
      that each task will be useful in preparing for future activities,        
      they will be more willing to pursue it.                                  
                                                                               
      Another strong motivating force is group approval.  Every person         
      wants the approval of peers and superiors.  Interest can be              
      stimulated and maintained by building on this natural desire.            
      Most students enjoy the feeling of belonging to a group and are          
      interested in accomplishment which will give them prestige among         
      their fellow students.                                                   
                                                                               
      Every person seeks to establish a favorable self-image.  In              
      certain instances, this self-image may be submerged in feelings          
      of insecurity or despondency.  Fortunately, most people engaged          
      in a task believe that success is possible under the right               
      combination of circumstances and good fortune.  This belief can          
      be a powerful motivating force for students.  An instructor can          
      effectively foster this motivation by the introduction of                
      perceptions which are solidly based on previously learned factual        
      information that is easily recognized by the student.  Each              
      additional block of learning should help formulate insight which         
      contributes to the ultimate training goals.  This promotes               
      student confidence in the overall training program and, at the           
      same time, helps the student develop a favorable self-image.  As         
      this confirmation progresses and confidence increases, advances          
      will be more rapid and motivation will be strengthened.                  
                                                                               
      Positive motivation is essential to true learning.  Negative             
      motivation in the form of reproofs or threats should be avoided          
      with all but the most overconfident and impulsive students.              
      Slumps in learning are often due to declining motivation.                
      Motivation does not remain at a uniformly high level.  It may be         
      affected by outside influences, such as physical or mental               
      disturbances or inadequate instruction.  The instructor should           
      strive to maintain motivation at the highest possible level.  In         
      addition, the instructor should be alert to detect and counter           
      any lapses in motivation.                                                
                                                                               
      LEVELS OF LEARNING                                                       
                                                                               
      Levels of learning may be classified in any number of ways.  Four        
      basic levels have traditionally been included in aviation                
      instructor training.  The lowest level is the ability to repeat          
      something which one has been taught, without understanding or            
      being able to apply what has been learned.  This is referred to          
      as rote learning.  Progressively higher levels of learning are           
      understanding what has been taught, achieving the skill for              
      application of what has been learned, and correlation of what has        
      been learned with other things previously learned or subsequently        
      encountered.  Figure 1-3a                                               
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                    Figure 1-3.  Learning is progressive                       
                     and occurs at several basic levels.                       
                                                                               
           BASIC LEVELS OF LEARNING                                            
                                                                               
               Rote:  The ability to repeat something back which was           
           learned, but not understood.                                        
                                                                               
               Understanding:  To comprehend or grasp the nature or            
           meaning of something.                                               
                                                                               
               Application:  The act of putting something to use that          
           has been learned and understood.                                    
                                                                               
               Correlation:  Associating what has been learned,                
           understood, and applied with previous or subsequent                 
           learning.                                                           
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      For example, a flight instructor may explain to a beginning              
      student the procedure for entering a level, left turn.  The              
      procedure may include several steps such as:  (1) visually clear         
      the area, (2) add a slight amount of power to maintain airspeed,         
      (3) apply aileron control pressure to the left, (4) add                  
      sufficient rudder pressure in the direction of the turn to avoid         
      slipping and skidding, and (5) increase back pressure to maintain        
      altitude.  A student who can verbally repeat this instruction has        
      learned the procedure by rote.  This will not be very useful to          
      the student if there is never an opportunity to make a turn in           
      flight, or if the student has no knowledge of the function of            
      airplane controls.                                                       
                                                                               
      With proper instruction on the effect and use of the flight              
      controls, and experience in controlling the airplane during              
      straight-and-level flight, the student can consolidate these old         
      and new perceptions into an insight on how to make a turn.  At           
      this point, the student has developed an understanding of the            
      procedure for turning the airplane in flight.  This understanding        
      is basic to effective learning, but may not necessarily enable           
      the student to make a correct turn on the first attempt.                 
                                                                               
      When the student understands the procedure for entering a turn,          
      has had turns demonstrated, and has practiced turn entries until         
      consistency has been achieved, the student has developed the             
      skill to apply what has been learned.  This is a major level of          
      learning, and one at which the instructor is too often willing to        
      stop.  Discontinuing instruction on turn entries at this point           
      and directing subsequent instruction exclusively to other                
      elements of piloting performance is characteristic of piecemeal          
      instruction, which is usually inefficient.  It violates the              
      building block concept of instruction by failing to apply what           
      has been learned to future learning tasks.  The building block           
      concept will be covered later in more detail.                            
                                                                               
      The correlation level of learning, which should be the objective         
      of aviation instruction, is that level at which the student              
      becomes able to associate an element which has been learned with         
      other segments or blocks of learning.  The other segments may be         
      items or skills previously learned, or new learning tasks to be          
      undertaken in the future.  The student who has achieved this             
      level of learning in turn entries, for example, has developed the        
      ability to correlate the elements of turn entries with the               
      performance of chandelles and lazy eights.                               
                                                                               
      DOMAINS OF LEARNING                                                      
                                                                               
      Besides the four basic levels of learning, educational                   
      psychologists have developed several additional levels.  These           
      classifications consider what is to be learned.  Is it knowledge         
      only, a change in attitude, a physical skill, or a combination of        
      knowledge and skill?  One of the more useful categorizations of          
      learning objectives includes three domains:  cognitive domain            
      (knowledge), affective domain (attitudes, beliefs, and values),          
      and psychomotor domain (physical skills).  Each of the domains           
      has a hierarchy of educational objectives.                               
                                                                               
      The listing of the hierarchy of objectives is often called a             
      taxonomy.  A taxonomy of educational objectives is a systematic          
      classification scheme for sorting learning outcomes into the             
      three broad categories (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor)           
      and ranking the desired outcomes in a developmental hierarchy            
      from least complex to most complex.                                      
                                                                               
      COGNITIVE DOMAIN                                                         
                                                                               
      The cognitive domain, described by Dr. Benjamin Bloom, is one of         
      the best known educational domains.  It contains additional              
      levels of knowledge and understanding and is commonly referred to        
      as Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives.  Figure 1-4a             
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                    Figure 1-4.  Dr. Bloom's hierarchical                      
                taxonomy for the cognitive domain (knowledge)                  
                 includes six educational objective levels.                    
                                                                               
      EDUCATIONAL         MENTAL                                               
       OBJECTIVE          ACTIVITY                                             
         LEVEL                                                                 
                                                                               
      Evaluation          Exercise of Learned Judgment                         
                                                                               
      Synthesis           Create New Relationships                             
                                                                               
      Analysis            Determine Relationships                              
                                                                               
      Application         Use of Generalizations in Specific Instances         
                                                                               
      Comprehension       Translate, Interpret, and Extrapolate                
                                                                               
      Knowledge           Recall and Recognition                               
                                                                               
                              COGNITIVE DOMAIN                                 
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      In aviation, educational objectives in the cognitive domain refer        
      to knowledge which might be gained as the result of attending a          
      ground school, reading about aircraft systems, listening to a            
      preflight briefing, reviewing meteorological reports, or taking          
      part in computer-based training.  The highest educational                
      objective level in this domain may also be illustrated by                
      learning to correctly evaluate a flight maneuver, repair an              
      airplane engine, or review a training syllabus for depth and             
      completeness of training.                                                
      AFFECTIVE DOMAIN                                                         
                                                                               
      The affective domain may be the least understood, and in many            
      ways, the most important of the learning domains.  A similar             
      system for specifying attitudinal objectives has been developed          
      by D. R. Krathwohl.  Like the Bloom taxonomy, Krathwohl's                
      hierarchy attempts to arrange these objectives in an order of            
      difficulty.  Figure 1-5a                                                
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
            Figure 1-5.  D. R. Krathwohl's hierarchical taxonomy               
             for the affective domain (attitudes, beliefs, and                 
             values) contains five educational objective levels.               
                                                                               
      EDUCATIONAL         STATE OF MIND                                        
       OBJECTIVE                                                               
         LEVEL                                                                 
                                                                               
      Characterization    Incorporates Value into Life                         
                                                                               
      Organization        Rearrangement of Value System                        
                                                                               
      Valuing             Acceptance                                           
                                                                               
      Responding          Reacts Voluntarily or Complies                       
                                                                               
      Receiving           Willingness to Pay Attention                         
                                                                               
                              AFFECTIVE DOMAIN                                 
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Since the affective domain is concerned with a student's                 
      attitudes, personal beliefs, and values, measuring educational           
      objectives in this domain is not easy.  For example, how is a            
      positive attitude toward safety evaluated?  Observable safety-           
      related behavior indicates a positive attitude, but this is not          
      like a simple pass/fail test that can be used to evaluate                
      cognitive educational objective levels.  Although a number of            
      techniques are available for evaluation of achievement in the            
      affective domain, most rely on indirect inferences.                      
                                                                               
      PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN                                                       
                                                                               
      There are several taxonomies which deal with the psychomotor             
      domain (physical skills), but none are as popularly recognized as        
      the Bloom and Krathwohl taxonomies.  However, the taxonomy               
      developed by E. J. Simpson also is generally acceptable.                 
      Figure 1-6a                                                             
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
             Figure 1-6.  E. J. Simpson's hierarchical taxonomy                
                for the psychomotor domain (physical skills)                   
               consists of seven educational objective levels.                 
                                                                               
      EDUCATIONAL              SKILL LEVEL                                     
       OBJECTIVE                                                               
         LEVEL                                                                 
                                                                               
      Origination              New Movement Patterns/Creativity                
                                                                               
      Adaptation               Modifies for Special Problems                   
                                                                               
      Complex Overt Response   Skillful Performance of Complex Acts            
      Mechanism                Performs Simple Acts Well                       
                                                                               
      Guided Response          Performs as Demonstrated                        
                                                                               
      Set                      Relates Cues/Knows                              
                                                                               
      Perception               Awareness of Sensory Stimulus                   
                                                                               
                             PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN                                
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Psychomotor or physical skills always have been important in             
      aviation.  Typical activities involving these skills include             
      learning to fly a precision instrument approach procedure,               
      programming a GPS receiver, or using sophisticated maintenance           
      equipment.  As physical tasks and equipment become more complex,         
      the requirement for integration of cognitive and physical skills         
      increases.                                                               
                                                                               
      PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES                             
                                                                               
      The additional levels of learning definitely apply to aviation           
      flight and maintenance training.  A comparatively high level of          
      knowledge and skill is required.  The student also needs to have         
      a well-developed, positive attitude.  Thus, all three domains of         
      learning, cognitive, affective, and psychomotor, are pertinent.          
                                                                               
      These additional levels of learning are the basis of the                 
      knowledge, attitude, and skill learning objectives commonly used         
      in advanced qualification programs for airline training.  They           
      also can be tied to the practical test standards to show the             
      level of knowledge or skill required for a particular task.  A           
      list of action verbs for the three domains shows appropriate             
      behavioral objectives at each level.  Figure 1-7a                       
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
            Figure 1-7.  A listing such as the one shown here is               
           useful for development of almost any training program.              
                                                                               
            __________________________________________________________         
           ]    OBJECTIVE LEVEL   ]    ACTION VERBS FOR EACH LEVEL    ]        
        ___]______________________]___________________________________]        
       ]   ]\____________________/]\_________________________________/]        
       ]   ] ] Evaluation       ] ] ] assess, evaluate, interpret,  ] ]        
       ] N ] ]                  ] ] ] judge, rate, score, or write  ] ]        
       ] I ] ]                  ] ] ]                               ] ]        
       ] A ] ] Synthesis        ] ] ] compile, compose, design,     ] ]        
       ] M ] ]                  ] ] ] reconstruct, or formulate     ] ]        
       ] O ] ]                  ] ] ]                               ] ]        
       ] D ] ] Analysis         ] ] ] compare, discriminate,        ] ]        
       ]   ] ]                  ] ] ] distinguish, or separate      ] ]        
       ] E ] ]                  ] ] ]                               ] ]        
       ] V ] ] Application      ] ] ] compute, demonstrate, employ, ] ]        
       ] I ] ]                  ] ] ] operate, or solve             ] ]        
       ] T ] ]                  ] ] ]                               ] ]        
       ] I ] ] Comprehension    ] ] ] convert, explain, locate,     ] ]        
       ] N ] ]                  ] ] ] report, restate, or select    ] ]        
       ] G ] ]                  ] ] ]                               ] ]        
       ] O ] ] Knowledge        ] ] ] describe, identify, name,     ] ]        
       ] C ] ]                  ] ] ] point to, recognize, or recall] ]        
       ]   ] ]__________________] ] ]_______________________________] ]        
       ]___]/____________________\]/_________________________________\]        
       ]   ]  __________________ /]\ _______________________________ /]        
       ] N ] ] Characterization ] ] ] assess, delegate, practice,   ] ]        
       ] I ] ]                  ] ] ] influence, revise, and        ] ]        
       ] A ] ]                  ] ] ] maintain                      ] ]        
       ] M ] ]                  ] ] ]                               ] ]        
       ] O ] ] Organization     ] ] ] accept responsibility, adhere,] ]        
       ] D ] ]                  ] ] ] defend, and formulate         ] ]        
       ]   ] ]                  ] ] ]                               ] ]        
       ] E ] ] Valuing          ] ] ] appreciate, follow, join,     ] ]        
       ] V ] ]                  ] ] ] justify, show concern, or     ] ]        
       ] I ] ]                  ] ] ] share                         ] ]        
       ] T ] ]                  ] ] ]                               ] ]        
       ] C ] ] Responding       ] ] ] conform, greet, help, perform,] ]        
       ] E ] ]                  ] ] ] recite, or write              ] ]        
       ] F ] ]                  ] ] ]                               ] ]        
       ] F ] ] Receiving        ] ] ] ask, choose, give, locate,    ] ]        
       ] A ] ]                  ] ] ] select, rely, or use          ] ]        
       ]   ] ]__________________] ] ]_______________________________] ]        
       ]___]/____________________\]/ ________________________________\]        
       ]   ]  __________________ /]\]_______________________________ /]        
       ]   ] ] Origination      ] ] ] combine, compose, construct,  ] ]        
       ]   ] ]                  ] ] ] design, or originate          ] ]        
       ] N ] ]                  ] ] ]                               ] ]        
       ] I ] ] Adaptation       ] ] ] adapt, alter, change,         ] ]        
       ] A ] ]                  ] ] ] rearrange, reorganize, or     ] ]        
       ] M ] ]                  ] ] ] revise                        ] ]        
       ] O ] ]                  ] ] ]                               ] ]        
       ] D ] ] Complex Overt    ] ] ] same as below except more     ] ]        
       ]   ] ] Response         ] ] ] highly coordinated            ] ]        
       ] R ] ]                  ] ] ]                               ] ]        
       ] O ] ] Mechanism        ] ] ] same as below except with     ] ]        
       ] T ] ]                  ] ] ] greater proficiency           ] ]        
       ] O ] ]                  ] ] ]                               ] ]        
       ] M ] ] Guided Response  ] ] ] assemble, build, calibrate,   ] ]        
       ] O ] ]                  ] ] ] fix, grind, or mend           ] ]        
       ] H ] ]                  ] ] ]                               ] ]        
       ] C ] ] Set              ] ] ] begin, move, react, respond,  ] ]        
       ] Y ] ]                  ] ] ] start, or select              ] ]        
       ] S ] ]                  ] ] ]                               ] ]        
       ] P ] ] Perception       ] ] ] choose, detect, identify,     ] ]        
       ]   ] ]                  ] ] ] isolate, or compare           ] ]        
       ]   ] ]__________________] ] ]_______________________________] ]        
       ]___]/____________________\]/_________________________________\]        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Instructors who are familiar with curricula development will             
      recognize that the action verbs are examples of performance-             
      based objectives.  Expanded coverage of the concept of                   
      performance-based objectives is included in Chapter 4 of this            
      handbook.                                                                
                                                                               
      LEARNING PHYSICAL SKILLS                                                 
                                                                               
      Even though the process of learning is profound, the main                
      objective or purpose of most instruction typically is teaching a         
      concept, a generalization, an attitude, or a skill.  The process         
      of learning a psychomotor or physical skill is much the same, in         
      many ways, as cognitive learning.  To provide a real illustration        
      of physical skill learning, try the following exercise:                  
                                                                               
      On a separate sheet of paper, write the word "learning" 15 times         
      with your left hand or with your right hand, if you are left             
      handed.  Try to improve the speed and quality of your writing as         
      you go along.                                                            
                                                                               
      PHYSICAL SKILLS INVOLVE MORE THAN MUSCLES                                
                                                                               
      The above exercise contains a practical example of the                   
      multifaceted character of learning.  It should be obvious that,          
      while a muscular sequence was being learned, other things were           
      happening as well.  The perception changed as the sequence became        
      easier.  Concepts of how to perform the skill were developed and         
      attitudes were changed.                                                  
                                                                               
      DESIRE TO LEARN                                                          
                                                                               
      Thinking back over their past experiences in learning to perform         
      certain skills, students might be surprised at how much more             
      readily they learned those skills that appealed to their own             
      needs (principle of readiness).  Shorter initial learning time           
      and more rapid progress in improving the skill normally occurred.        
      Conversely, where the desire to learn or improve was missing,            
      little progress was made.  A person may read dozens of books a           
      year, but the reading rate will not increase unless there is a           
      deliberate intent to increase it.  In the preceding learning             
      exercise, it is unlikely that any improvement occurred unless            
      there was a clear intention to improve.  To improve, one must not        
      only recognize mistakes, but also make an effort to correct them.        
      The person who lacks the desire to improve is not likely to make         
      the effort and consequently will continue to practice errors.            
      The skillful instructor relates the lesson objective to the              
      student's intentions and needs and, in so doing, builds on the           
      student's natural enthusiasm.                                            
                                                                               
      PATTERNS TO FOLLOW                                                       
                                                                               
      Logically, the point has been emphasized that the best way to            
      prepare the student to perform a task is to provide a clear,             
      step-by-step example.  Having a model to follow permits students         
      to get a clear picture of each step in the sequence so they              
      understand what is required and how to do it.  In flight or              
      maintenance training, the instructor provides the demonstration,         
      emphasizing the steps and techniques.  During classroom                  
      instruction, an outside expert may be used, either in person or          
      in a video presentation.  In any case, students need to have a           
      clear impression of what they are to do.                                 
                                                                               
      PERFORM THE SKILL                                                        
                                                                               
      After experiencing writing a word with the wrong hand, consider          
      how difficult it would be to tell someone else how to do it.             
      Even demonstrating how to do it would not result in that person          
      learning the skill.  Obviously, practice is necessary.  The              
      student needs coordination between muscles and visual and tactile        
      senses.  Learning to perform various aircraft maintenance skills         
      or flight maneuvers requires this sort of practice.  There is            
      another benefit of practice.  As the student gains proficiency in        
      a skill, verbal instructions mean more.  Whereas a long, detailed        
      explanation is confusing before the student begins performing,           
      specific comments are more meaningful and useful after the skill         
      has been partially mastered.                                             
                                                                               
      KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS                                                     
                                                                               
      In learning some simple skills, students can discover their own          
      errors quite easily.  In other cases, such as learning complex           
      aircraft maintenance skills, flight maneuvers, or flight crew            
      duties, mistakes are not always apparent.  A student may know            
      that something is wrong, but not know how to correct it.  In any         
      case, the instructor provides a helpful and often critical               
      function in making certain that the students are aware of their          
      progress.  It is perhaps as important for students to know when          
      they are right as when they are wrong.  They should be told as           
      soon after the performance as possible, and should not be allowed        
      to practice mistakes.  It is more difficult to unlearn a mistake,        
      and then learn it correctly, than to learn correctly in the first        
      place.  One way to make students aware of their progress is to           
      repeat a demonstration or example and to show them the standards         
      their performance must ultimately meet.                                  
                                                                               
      PROGRESS FOLLOWS A PATTERN                                               
                                                                               
      The experience of learning to write a word with the wrong hand           
      probably confirmed what has been consistently demonstrated in            
      laboratory experiments on skill learning.  The first trials are          
      slow, and coordination is lacking.  Mistakes are frequent, but           
      each trial provides clues for improvement in subsequent trials.          
      The student modifies different aspects of the skill such as how          
      to hold the pencil, or how to execute finger and hand movement.          
                                                                               
      Graphs of the progress of skill learning, such as the one shown          
      below, usually follow the same pattern.  There is rapid                  
      improvement in the early stages, then the curve levels off and           
      may stay level for a significant period of time.  Further                
      improvement may seem unlikely.  This is a typical learning               
      plateau.  Figure 1-8a                                                   
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
           Figure 1-8.  Students will more than likely experience              
             a learning plateau at some point in their training.               
      s                                                                        
      e       ________________________________________________________         
      c   70 ]                                                        ]        
      n      ]                                        --------------- ]        
      a      ]                                      /                 ]        
      m      ]                                    /                   ]        
      r      ]                                  /                     ]        
      o   60 ]               Plateau          /                       ]        
      f      ]                ---------------                         ]        
      r      ]              /                                         ]        
      e      ]            /                                           ]        
      P      ]          /                                             ]        
          50 ]        /                                               ]        
      t      ]      /                                                 ]        
      c      ]    /                                                   ]        
      e      ]                                                        ]        
      r      ]                                                        ]        
      r   40 ]                                                        ]        
      o      ]                                                        ]        
      C      ]                                                        ]        
             ]                                                        ]        
      f      ]                                                        ]        
      o    0 ]________________________________________________________]        
              0      1      2      3      4      5      6      7      8        
      t                                                                        
      n                                                                        
      e                         PERIODS OF PRACTICE                            
      c                                                                        
      r                                                                        
      e                                                                        
      P                                                                        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      A learning plateau may signify any number of conditions.  For            
      example, the student may have reached capability limits, may be          
      consolidating levels of skill, interest may have waned, or the           
      student may need a more efficient method for increasing progress.        
      Keep in mind that the apparent lack of increasing proficiency            
      does not necessarily mean that learning has ceased.  The point is        
      that, in learning motor skills, a leveling off process, or a             
      plateau, is normal and should be expected after an initial period        
      of rapid improvement.  The instructor should prepare the student         
      for this situation to avert discouragement.  If the student is           
      aware of this learning plateau, frustration may be minimized.            
                                                                               
      DURATION AND ORGANIZATION OF LESSON                                      
                                                                               
      In planning for student performance, a primary consideration is          
      the length of time devoted to practice.  A beginning student             
      reaches a point where additional practice is not only                    
      unproductive, but may even be harmful.  When this point is               
      reached, errors increase, and motivation declines.  As a student         
      gains experience, longer periods of practice are profitable.             
                                                                               
      Another consideration is the problem of whether to divide the            
      practice period.  Perhaps even the related instruction should be         
      broken down into segments, or it may be advantageous to plan one         
      continuous, integrated sequence.  The answer depends on the              
      nature of the skill.  Some skills are composed of closely related        
      steps, each dependent on the preceding one.  Learning to pack a          
      parachute is a good example.  Other skills are composed of               
      related subgroups of skills.  Learning to overhaul an aircraft           
      engine is a good example.                                                
                                                                               
      EVALUATION VERSUS CRITIQUE                                               
      If an instructor were to evaluate the fifteenth writing of the           
      word "learning," only limited help could be given toward further         
      improvement.  The instructor could judge whether the written word        
      was legible and evaluate it against some criterion or standard,          
      or perhaps even assign it a grade of some sort.  None of these           
      actions would be particularly useful to the beginning student.           
      However, the student could profit by having someone watch the            
      performance and critique constructively to help eliminate errors.        
                                                                               
      In the initial stages, practical suggestions are more valuable to        
      the student than a grade.  Early evaluation is usually teacher           
      oriented.  It provides a check on teaching effectiveness, can be         
      used to predict eventual student learning proficiency, and can           
      help the teacher locate special problem areas.  The observations         
      on which the evaluations are based also can identify the                 
      student's strengths and weaknesses, a prerequisite for making            
      constructive criticism.                                                  
                                                                               
      APPLICATION OF SKILL                                                     
                                                                               
      The final and critical question is, Can the student use what has         
      been learned?  It is not uncommon to find that students devote           
      weeks and months in school learning new abilities, and then fail         
      to apply these abilities on the job.  To solve this problem, two         
      conditions must be present.  First, the student must learn the           
      skill so well that it becomes easy, even habitual; and second,           
      the student must recognize the types of situations where it is           
      appropriate to use the skill.  This second condition involves the        
      question of transfer of learning, which is briefly discussed             
      later in this chapter.                                                   
                                                                               
      MEMORY                                                                   
                                                                               
      Memory is an integral part of the learning process.  Although            
      there are several theories on how the memory works, a widely             
      accepted view is the multi-stage concept which states that memory        
      includes three parts:  sensory, working or short-term, and               
      long-term systems.  As shown in figure 1-9 on the following page,        
      the total system operates somewhat like an advanced computer that        
      accepts input (stimuli) from an external source, contains a              
      processing apparatus, a storage capability, and an output                
      function.                                                                
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
               Figure 1-9.  INFORMATION PROCESSING WITHIN THE                  
               SENSORY REGISTER, WORKING OR SHORT-TERM MEMORY,                 
                AND LONG-TERM MEMORY INCLUDES COMPLEX CODING,                  
                   SORTING, STORING, AND RECALL FUNCTIONS.                     
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      SENSORY REGISTER                                                         
                                                                               
      The sensory register receives input from the environment and             
      quickly processes it accordingly to the individual's preconceived        
      concept of what is important.  However, other factors can                
      influence the reception of information by the sensory system.            
      For example, if the input is dramatic and impacts more than one          
      of the five senses, that information is more likely to make an           
      impression.  The sensory register processes inputs or stimuli            
      from the environment within seconds, discards what is considered         
      extraneous, and processes what is determined by the individual to        
      be relevant.  This is a selective process where the sensory              
      register is set to recognize certain stimuli and immediately             
      transmit them to the working memory for action.  The process is          
      called precoding.  An example is sensory precoding to recognize a        
      fire alarm.  No matter what is happening at the time, when the           
      sensory register detects a fire alarm, the working memory is             
      immediately made aware of the alarm and preset responses begin to        
      take place.                                                              
                                                                               
      WORKING OR SHORT-TERM MEMORY                                             
                                                                               
      Within seconds the relevant information is passed to the working         
      or short-term memory where it may temporarily remain or rapidly          
      fade, depending on the individual's priorities.  Several common          
      steps help retention in the short-term memory.  These include            
      rehearsal or repetition of the information and sorting or                
      categorization into systematic chunks.  The sorting process is           
      usually called coding or chunking.  A key limitation of the              
      working memory is that it takes 5 - 10 seconds to properly code          
      information.  If the coding process is interrupted, that                 
      information is lost after about 20 seconds.                              
                                                                               
      The working or short-term memory is not only time limited, it            
      also has limited capacity, usually about seven bits or chunks of         
      information.  A seven-digit telephone number is an example.  As          
      indicated, the time limitation may be overcome by rehearsal.             
      This means learning the information by a rote memorization               
      process.  Of course, rote memorization is subject to                     
      imperfections in both the duration of recall and in its accuracy.        
      The coding process is more useful in a learning situation.  In           
      addition, the coding process may involve recoding to adjust the          
      information to individual experiences.  This is when actual              
      learning begins to take place.  Therefore, recoding may be               
      described as a process of relating incoming information to               
      concepts or knowledge already in memory.                                 
                                                                               
      Methods of coding vary with subject matter, but typically they           
      include some type of association.  Use of rhymes or mnemonics is         
      common.  An example of a useful mnemonic is the memory aid for           
      one of the magnetic compass errors.  The letters "ANDS" indicate:        
                                                                               
                               Accelerate                                      
                               North                                           
                               Decelerate                                      
                               South                                           
                                                                               
      Variations of the coding process are practically endless.  They          
      may consist of the use of acronyms, the chronology of events,            
      images, semantics, or an individually developed structure based          
      on past experiences.  Developing a local strategy for coding             
      information is a significant step in the learning process.               
                                                                               
      In this brief discussion of memory, it may appear that sensory           
      memory is distinct and separate from working or short-term               
      memory.  This is not the case.  In fact, all of the memory               
      systems are intimately related.  Many of the functions of working        
      or short-term memory are nearly identical to long-term memory            
      functions.                                                               
                                                                               
      LONG-TERM MEMORY                                                         
                                                                               
      What then is distinctive about the long-term memory?  This is            
      where information is stored for future use.  For the stored              
      information to be useful, some special effort must have been             
      expended during the coding process in working or short-term              
      memory.  The coding should have provided meaning and connections         
      between old and new information.  If initial coding is not               
      properly accomplished, recall will be distorted and it may be            
      impossible.  The more effective the coding process, the easier           
      the recall.  However, it should be noted that the long-term              
      memory is a reconstruction, not a pure recall of information or          
      events.  It also is subject to limitations, such as time, biases,        
      and, in many cases, personal inaccuracies.  This is why two              
      people who view the same event will often have totally different         
      recollections.                                                           
                                                                               
      Memory also applies to psychomotor skills.  For example, with            
      practice, a tennis player may be able to serve a tennis ball at a        
      higher rate of speed and with accuracy.                                  
                                                                               
      This may be accomplished with very little thought.  For a pilot,         
      the ability to instinctively perform certain maneuvers or other          
      tasks which require manual dexterity and precision provides              
      obvious benefits.  For example, it allows the pilot more time to         
      concentrate on other essential duties such as navigation,                
      communications with air traffic control facilities, and visual           
      scanning for other aircraft.                                             
                                                                               
      As implied, one of the major responsibilities of the instructor          
      is to help students use their memories effectively.  Strategies          
      designed to aid students in retention and recall of information          
      from the long-term memory are included later in this chapter.  At        
      the same time, an associated phenomenon, forgetting, cannot be           
      ignored.                                                                 
                                                                               
      THEORIES OF FORGETTING                                                   
                                                                               
      A consideration of why people forget may point the way to help           
      them remember.  Several theories account for forgetting,                 
      including disuse, interference, and repression.                          
                                                                               
      DISUSE                                                                   
                                                                               
      The theory of disuse suggests that a person forgets those things         
      which are not used.  The high school or college graduate is              
      saddened by the lack of factual data retained several years after        
      graduation.  Since the things which are remembered are those used        
      on the job, a person concludes that forgetting is the result of          
      disuse.  But the explanation is not quite so simple.                     
      Experimental studies show, for example, that a hypnotized person         
      can describe specific details of an event which normally is              
      beyond recall.  Apparently the memory is there, locked in the            
      recesses of the mind.  The difficulty is summoning it up to              
      consciousness.                                                           
                                                                               
      INTERFERENCE                                                             
                                                                               
      The basis of the interference theory is that people forget               
      something because a certain experience has overshadowed it, or           
      that the learning of similar things has intervened.  This theory         
      might explain how the range of experiences after graduation from         
      school causes a person to forget or to lose knowledge.  In other         
      words, new events displace many things that had been learned.            
      From experiments, at least two conclusions about interference may        
      be drawn.  First, similar material seems to interfere with memory        
      more than dissimilar material; and second, material not well             
      learned suffers most from interference.                                  
                                                                               
      REPRESSION                                                               
      Freudian psychology advances the view that some forgetting is            
      repression due to the submersion of ideas into the subconscious          
      mind.  Material that is unpleasant or produces anxiety may be            
      treated this way by the individual, but not intentionally.  It is        
      subconscious and protective.  The repression theory does not             
      appear to account for much forgetfulness of the kind discussed in        
      this chapter, but it does tend to explain some cases.                    
                                                                               
      RETENTION OF LEARNING                                                    
                                                                               
      Each of the theories implies that when a person forgets                  
      something, it is not actually lost.  Rather, it is simply                
      unavailable for recall.  The instructor's problem is how to make         
      certain that the student's learning is readily available for             
      recall.  The following suggestions can help.                             
                                                                               
      Teach thoroughly and with meaning.  Material thoroughly learned          
      is highly resistant to forgetting.  This is suggested by                 
      experimental studies and it also was pointed out in the sections         
      on skill learning.  Meaningful learning builds patterns of               
      relationship in the student's consciousness.  In contrast, rote          
      learning is superficial and is not easily retained.  Meaningful          
      learning goes deep because it involves principles and concepts           
      anchored in the student's own experiences.  The following                
      discussion emphasizes five principles which are generally                
      accepted as having a direct application to remembering.                  
                                                                               
      PRAISE STIMULATES REMEMBERING                                            
                                                                               
      Responses which give a pleasurable return tend to be repeated.           
      Absence of praise or recognition tends to discourage, and any            
      form of negativism in the acceptance of a response tends to make         
      its recall less likely.                                                  
                                                                               
      RECALL IS PROMOTED BY ASSOCIATION                                        
                                                                               
      As discussed earlier, each bit of information or action which is         
      associated with something to be learned tends to facilitate its          
      later recall by the student.  Unique or disassociated facts tend         
      to be forgotten unless they are of special interest or                   
      application.                                                             
                                                                               
      FAVORABLE ATTITUDES AID RETENTION                                        
                                                                               
      People learn and remember only what they wish to know.  Without          
      motivation there is little chance for recall.  The most effective        
      motivation is based on positive or rewarding objectives.                 
                                                                               
      LEARNING WITH ALL OUR SENSES IS MOST EFFECTIVE                           
                                                                               
      Although we generally receive what we learn through the eyes and         
      ears, other senses also contribute to most perceptions.  When            
      several senses respond together, a fuller understanding and              
      greater chance of recall is achieved.                                    
                                                                               
      MEANINGFUL REPETITION AIDS RECALL                                        
                                                                               
      Each repetition gives the student an opportunity to gain a               
      clearer and more accurate perception of the subject to be                
      learned, but mere repetition does not guarantee retention.               
      Practice provides an opportunity for learning, but does not cause        
      it.  Further, some research indicates that three or four                 
      repetitions provide the maximum effect, after which the rate of          
      learning and probability of retention fall off rapidly.                  
                                                                               
      Along with these five principles, there is a considerable amount         
      of additional literature on retention of learning during a               
      typical academic lesson.  After the first 10 - 15 minutes, the           
      rate of retention drops significantly until about the last 5 - 10        
      minutes when students wake up again.  Students passively                 
      listening to a lecture have roughly a five percent retention rate        
      over a 24-hour period, but students actively engaged in the              
      learning process have a much higher retention.  This clearly             
      reiterates the point that active learning is superior to just            
      listening.                                                               
                                                                               
      TRANSFER OF LEARNING                                                     
                                                                               
      During a learning experience, the student may be aided by things         
      learned previously.  On the other hand, it is sometimes apparent         
      that previous learning interferes with the current learning task.        
      Consider the learning of two skills.  If the learning of skill A         
      helps to learn skill B, positive transfer occurs.  If learning           
      skill A hinders the learning of skill B, negative transfer               
      occurs.  For example, the practice of slow flight (skill A) helps        
      the student learn short-field landings (skill B).  However,              
      practice in making a landing approach in an airplane (skill A)           
      may hinder learning to make an approach in a helicopter                  
      (skill B).  It should be noted that the learning of skill B may          
      affect the retention or proficiency of skill A, either positively        
      or negatively.  While these processes may help substantiate the          
      interference theory of forgetting, they are still concerned with         
      the transfer of learning.                                                
                                                                               
      It seems clear that some degree of transfer is involved in all           
      learning.  This is true because, except for certain inherent             
      responses, all new learning is based upon previously learned             
      experience.  People interpret new things in terms of what they           
      already know.                                                            
                                                                               
      Many aspects of teaching profit by this type of transfer.  It may        
      explain why students of apparently equal ability have differing          
      success in certain areas.  Negative transfer may hinder the              
      learning of some; positive transfer may help others.  This points        
      to a need to know a student's past experience and what has               
      already been learned.  In lesson and syllabus development,               
      instructors should plan for transfer by organizing course                
      materials and individual lesson materials in a meaningful                
      sequence.  Each phase should help the student learn what is to           
      follow.                                                                  
                                                                               
      The cause of transfer and exactly how it occurs is difficult to          
      determine, but no one disputes the fact that transfer does occur.        
      The significance of this ability for the instructor is that the          
      students can be helped to achieve it.  The following suggestions         
      are representative of what educational psychologists believe             
      should be done.                                                          
                                                                               
      .    Plan for transfer as a primary objective.  As in all areas          
           of teaching, the chance for success is increased if the             
           teacher deliberately plans to achieve it.                           
                                                                               
      .    Make certain that the students understand that what is              
           learned can be applied to other situations.  Prepare them to        
           seek other applications.                                            
                                                                               
      .    Maintain high-order learning standards.  Overlearning may           
           even be appropriate.  The more thoroughly the students              
           understand the material, the more likely they are to see its        
           relationship to new situations.  Avoid unnecessary rote             
           learning, since it does not foster transfer.                        
                                                                               
      .    Provide meaningful learning experiences that build students'        
           confidence in their ability to transfer learning.  This             
           suggests activities that challenge them to exercise their           
           imagination and ingenuity in applying their knowledge and           
           skills.                                                             
                                                                               
      .    Use instructional material that helps form valid concepts           
           and generalizations.  Use materials that make relationships         
           clear.                                                              
                                                                               
      HABIT FORMATION                                                          
                                                                               
      The formation of correct habit patterns from the beginning of any        
      learning process is essential to further learning and for correct        
      performance after the completion of training.  Remember, primacy         
      is one of the fundamental principles of learning.  Therefore, it         
      is the instructor's responsibility to insist on correct                  
      techniques and procedures from the outset of training to provide         
      proper habit patterns.  It is much easier to foster proper habits        
      from the beginning of training than to correct faulty ones later.        
                                                                               
      Due to the high level of knowledge and skill required in aviation        
      for both pilots and maintenance technicians, training                    
      traditionally has followed a building block concept.  This means         
      new learning and habit patterns are based on a solid foundation          
      of experience and/or old learning.  Everything from intricate            
      cognitive processes to simple motor skills depends on what the           
      student already knows and how that knowledge can be applied in           
      the present.  As knowledge and skill increase, there is an               
      expanding base upon which to build for the future.                       
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                  CHAPTER 2                                    
                                                                               
                               HUMAN BEHAVIOR                                  
                                                                               
      As indicated in Chapter 1, learning is a change of behavior              
      resulting from experience.  To successfully accomplish the task          
      of helping to bring about this change, the instructor must know          
      why people act the way they do.  A knowledge of basic human needs        
      and defense mechanisms is essential for organizing student               
      activities and promoting a productive learning experience.               
                                                                               
      CONTROL OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR                                                
                                                                               
      The relationship between the instructor and the students has a           
      profound impact on how much the students learn.  To students, the        
      instructor usually is a symbol of authority.  Students expect the        
      instructor to exercise certain controls, and they tend to                
      recognize and submit to authority as a valid means of control.           
      The instructor's challenge is to know what controls are best for         
      the existing circumstances.  The instructor should create an             
      atmosphere that enables and encourages students to help                  
      themselves.                                                              
                                                                               
      Every student works toward a goal of some kind.  It may be               
      success itself; it may simply be a grade or other form of                
      personal recognition.  The successful instructor directs and             
      controls the behavior of the students and guides them toward a           
      goal.  This is a part of the process of directing the students'          
      actions to modify their behavior.  Without the instructor's              
      active intervention, the students may become passive and perhaps         
      resistant to learning.  The controls the instructor exercises -          
      how much, how far, to what degree - should be based on more than         
      trial and error.                                                         
                                                                               
      Some interesting generalizations have been made about motivation         
      and human nature.  While these assumptions are typically applied         
      to industrial management, they have implications for the aviation        
      instructor as well.                                                      
                                                                               
      .    The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as         
           natural as play and rest.  The average person does not              
           inherently dislike work.  Depending on conditions, work may         
           be a source of satisfaction and, if so, it will be performed        
           voluntarily.  On the other hand, when work is a form of             
           punishment, it will be avoided, if possible.                        
                                                                               
      .    Most people will exercise self-direction and self-control in        
           the pursuit of goals to which they are committed.                   
                                                                               
      .    Commitment to goals relates directly to the reward                  
           associated with their achievement, the most significant of          
           which is probably the satisfaction of ego.                          
                                                                               
      .    Under proper conditions, the average person learns, not only        
           to accept, but also to seek responsibility.  Shirking               
           responsibility and lack of ambition are not inherent in             
           human nature.  They are usually the consequences of                 
           experience.                                                         
                                                                               
      .    The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of                
           imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of           
           common problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the         
           population.                                                         
                                                                               
      .    Under the conditions of modern life, the intellectual               
           potentialities of the average person are only partially             
           used.                                                               
                                                                               
      An instructor who accepts these assumptions should recognize the         
      student's vast, untapped potential.  At the same time, ingenuity         
      must be used in discovering how to realize the potentialities of         
      the student.  The responsibility rests squarely on the                   
      instructor's shoulders.  If the student is perceived as lazy,            
      indifferent, unresponsive, uncooperative, and antagonistic, these        
      basic assumptions imply that the instructor's methods of control         
      are at fault.  The raw material is there, in most cases, and the         
      shaping and directing of it lie in the hands of those who have           
      the responsibility of controlling it.                                    
                                                                               
      How to mold a solid, healthy, productive relationship with               
      students depends, of course, on the instructor's knowledge of            
      students as human beings and of the needs, drives, and desires           
      they continually try to satisfy in one way or another.  Some of          
      their needs and drives are discussed in the following paragraphs.        
                                                                               
      HUMAN NEEDS                                                              
                                                                               
      The instructor should always be aware of the fact that students          
      are human beings.  The needs of students, and of all mankind,            
      have been studied by psychologists and categorized in a number of        
      ways.  In 1938, a U.S. psychologist, Henry A. Murray, published a        
      catalog of human motives, which he called needs.  These needs            
      were described as being either primary (biological, innate) or           
      secondary (learned, acquired); they were seen as a force related         
      to behavior and goals.  Among the motives that Murray discussed          
      were what he identified as needs for achievement, affiliation,           
      power, dependence, and succor (the need to be taken care of), as         
      well as many others.  During the 1950s, Abraham Maslow organized         
      human needs into levels of importance.  They originally were             
      called a hierarchy of human motives, but are now commonly                
      referred to as a hierarchy of human needs.  Figure 2-1a                 
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
               Figure 2-1.  MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS                  
                IS FREQUENTLY DEPICTED AS A PYRAMID WITH THE                   
              LOWER-LEVEL NEEDS AT THE BOTTOM AND PROGRESSIVELY                
           HIGHER-LEVEL NEEDS ABOVE EACH OTHER IN ASCENDING ORDER.             
                              SELF-FULFILLMENT                                 
                                     EGO                                       
                                   SOCIAL                                      
                                   SAFETY                                      
                                  PHYSICAL                                     
                                                                               
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      In the intervening years since the 1950s, several other theories         
      on human needs have been published, but psychologists have not           
      adopted any particular one.  Meanwhile, Maslow's hierarchical            
      categorization remains a popular and acceptable concept.                 
                                                                               
      PHYSICAL                                                                 
                                                                               
      At the bottom of the pyramid is the broadest, most basic                 
      category, the physical needs.  Each person is first concerned            
      with a need for food, rest, and protection from the elements.            
      Until these needs are satisfied, a person cannot concentrate             
      fully on learning, self-expression, or any other tasks.                  
      Instructors should monitor their students to make sure that their        
      basic physical needs have been met.  A hungry or tired student           
      may not be able to perform as expected.  Once a need is                  
      satisfied, it no longer provides motivation.  Thus, the person           
      strives to satisfy the needs of the next higher level.                   
                                                                               
      SAFETY                                                                   
                                                                               
      The safety needs are protection against danger, threats,                 
      deprivation, and are labeled by some as the security needs.              
      Regardless of the label, however, they are real, and student             
      behavior is influenced by them.  This is especially true in              
      flight training and aviation maintenance where safety is a major         
      concern.                                                                 
                                                                               
      SOCIAL                                                                   
                                                                               
      When individuals are physically comfortable and do not feel              
      threatened, they seek to satisfy their social needs.  These are          
      to belong, to associate, and to give and receive friendship and          
      love.  An example of the social need might apply to the spouse of        
      a professional pilot.  In this case, the need to be included in          
      conversation and other pilot-related activities could induce the         
      spouse to learn how to fly.  Since students are usually out of           
      their normal surroundings during flight training, their need for         
      association and belonging will be more pronounced.  Instructors          
      should make every effort to help new students feel at ease and to        
      reinforce their decision to pursue aviation.                             
                                                                               
      EGO                                                                      
                                                                               
      The egoistic needs usually have a strong influence on the                
      instructor-student relationship.  These needs consist of at least        
      two types:  those that relate to one's self-esteem, such as              
      self-confidence, independence, achievement, competence, and              
      knowledge; and the needs that relate to one's reputation, such as        
      status, recognition, appreciation, and respect of associates.            
      The egoistic need may be the main reason for a student's interest        
      in aviation training.                                                    
                                                                               
      SELF-FULFILLMENT                                                         
                                                                               
      At the apex of the hierarchy of human needs is self-fulfillment.         
      This includes realizing one's own potential for continued                
      development, and for being creative in the broadest sense of that        
      term.  Maslow included various cognitive and aesthetic goals in          
      this highest level.  Self-fulfillment for a student should offer         
      the greatest challenge to the instructor.  Aiding another in             
      realizing self-fulfillment is perhaps the most rewarding                 
      accomplishment for an instructor.                                        
                                                                               
      In summary, instructors should strive to help students satisfy           
      their human needs in a manner that will create a healthy learning        
      environment.  In this type of environment, students experience           
      fewer frustrations and, therefore, can devote more attention to          
      their studies.  Fulfillment of needs can be a powerful motivation        
      in complex learning situations.                                          
                                                                               
      DEFENSE MECHANISMS                                                       
      The concept of defense mechanisms was introduced by Freud in the         
      1890s.  In general, defense mechanisms are subconscious, almost          
      automatic, ego-protecting reactions to unpleasant situations.            
      People use these defenses to soften feelings of failure, to              
      alleviate feelings of guilt, and to protect their sense of               
      personal worth or adequacy.  Originally, Freud described a               
      mechanism which is now commonly called repression.  Since then,          
      other defense mechanisms have gradually been added.  In some             
      cases, more than one name has been attached to a particular type         
      of defense mechanism.  In addition, it is not always easy to             
      differentiate between defenses which are closely related.  Thus,         
      some confusion often occurs in identifying the different types.          
      Figure 2-2a                                                             
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                     Figure 2-2.  Several common defense                       
                 mechanisms may apply to aviation students.                    
                                                                               
                             DEFENSE MECHANISMS                                
                                                                               
                .  Compensation                                                
                  .  Projection                                                
                    .  Rationalization                                         
                      .  Denial of Reality                                     
                        .  Reaction Formation                                  
                           .  Flight                                           
                             .  Aggression                                     
                               .  Resignation                                  
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      COMPENSATION                                                             
      With compensation, students often attempt to disguise the                
      presence of a weak or undesirable quality by emphasizing a more          
      positive one.  They also may try to reduce tension by accepting          
      and developing a less preferred but more attainable objective            
      instead of a more preferred but less attainable objective.               
      Students who regard themselves as unattractive may develop               
      exceptionally winning personalities to compensate.  Students may         
      say they would rather spend their evenings studying aircraft             
      systems than anything else, but, in fact, they would rather be           
      doing almost anything except aircraft systems study.                     
                                                                               
      PROJECTION                                                               
                                                                               
      With projection, students relegate the blame for their own               
      shortcomings, mistakes, and transgressions to others or attribute        
      their motives, desires, characteristics, and impulses to others.         
      The athlete who fails to make the team may feel sure the coach           
      was unfair, or the tennis player who examines the racket after a         
      missed shot is projecting blame.  When students say, "Everybody          
      will cheat on an exam if given the chance," they are projecting.         
                                                                               
      RATIONALIZATION                                                          
                                                                               
      If students cannot accept the real reasons for their behavior,           
      they may rationalize.  This device permits them to substitute            
      excuses for reasons; moreover, they can make those excuses               
      plausible and acceptable to themselves.  Rationalization is a            
      subconscious technique for justifying actions that otherwise             
      would be unacceptable.  When true rationalization takes place,           
      individuals sincerely believe in their excuses.  The excuses seem        
      real and justifiable to the individual.                                  
      DENIAL OF REALITY                                                        
                                                                               
      Occasionally students may ignore or refuse to acknowledge                
      disagreeable realities.  They may turn away from unpleasant              
      sights, refuse to discuss unpopular topics, or reject criticism.         
                                                                               
      REACTION FORMATION                                                       
                                                                               
      Sometimes individuals protect themselves from dangerous desires          
      by not only repressing them, but actually developing conscious           
      attitudes and behavior patterns that are just the opposite.  A           
      student may develop a who-cares-how-other-people-feel attitude to        
      cover up feelings of loneliness and a hunger for acceptance.             
                                                                               
      FLIGHT                                                                   
                                                                               
      Students often escape from frustrating situations by taking              
      flight, physical or mental.  To take flight physically, students         
      may develop symptoms or ailments that give them satisfactory             
      excuses for removing themselves from frustration.  More frequent         
      than physical flights are mental flights, or daydreaming.  Mental        
      flight provides a simple and satisfying escape from problems.  If        
      students get sufficient satisfaction from daydreaming, they may          
      stop trying to achieve their goals altogether.  When carried to          
      extremes, the world of fantasy and the world of reality can              
      become so confused that the dreamer cannot distinguish one from          
      the other.  This mechanism, when carried to the extreme, is              
      referred to as fantasy.                                                  
                                                                               
      AGGRESSION                                                               
                                                                               
      Everyone gets angry occasionally.  Anger is a normal, universal          
      human emotion.  Angry people may shout, swear, slam a door, or           
      give in to the heat of emotions in a number of ways.  They become        
      aggressive against something or somebody.  After a cooling-off           
      period, they may see their actions as childish.  In a classroom,         
      shop, or airplane, such extreme behavior is relatively                   
      infrequent, partly because students are taught to repress their          
      emotions in the interest of safety.  Because of safety concerns          
      or social strictures, student aggressiveness may be expressed in         
      subtle ways.  They may ask irrelevant questions, refuse to               
      participate in the activities of the class, or disrupt activities        
      within their own group.  If students cannot deal directly with           
      the cause of their frustration, they may vent their                      
      aggressiveness on a neutral object or person not related to the          
      problem.                                                                 
                                                                               
      RESIGNATION                                                              
                                                                               
      Students also may become so frustrated that they lose interest           
      and give up.  They may no longer believe it profitable or even           
      possible to go on, and as a result, they accept defeat.  The most        
      obvious and apparent cause for this form of resignation takes            
      place when, after completing an early phase of a course without          
      grasping the fundamentals, a student becomes bewildered and lost         
      in the more advanced phases.  From that point on, learning is            
      negligible although the student may go through the motions of            
      participating.                                                           
                                                                               
      More information on these and other defense mechanisms, such as          
      fantasy, repression, displacement, emotional insulation,                 
      regression, and introjection, can be obtained from a good                
      psychology text.  Instructors should recognize that most defense         
      mechanisms fall within the realm of normal behavior and serve a          
      useful purpose.  However, in some cases, they may be associated          
      with a potentially serious mental health problem.  Since defense         
      mechanisms involve some degree of self-deception and distortion          
      of reality, they do not solve problems; they alleviate symptoms,         
      not causes.  Moreover, because defense mechanisms operate on a           
      subconscious level, they are not subject to normal conscious             
      checks and controls.  Once an individual realizes there is a             
      conscious reliance on one of these devices, behavior ceases to be        
      a subconscious adjustment mechanism and becomes, instead, an             
      ineffective way of satisfying a need.                                    
                                                                               
      It may be difficult for an instructor to identify excessive              
      reliance on defense mechanisms by a student, but a personal              
      crisis or other stressful event is usually the cause.  For               
      example, a death in the family, a divorce, or even a failing             
      grade on an important test may trigger harmful defensive                 
      reactions.  Physical symptoms such as a change in personality,           
      angry outbursts, depression, or a general lack of interest may           
      point to a problem.  Drug or alcohol abuse also may become               
      apparent.  Less obvious indications may include social                   
      withdrawal, preoccupation with certain ideas, or an inability to         
      concentrate.                                                             
                                                                               
      Some people seem to have the proper attitude and skills necessary        
      to cope with a crisis while others do not.  An instructor needs          
      to be familiar with typical defense mechanisms and have some             
      knowledge of related behavioral problems.  A perceptive                  
      instructor can help by using common sense and talking over the           
      problem with the student.  The main objective should be to               
      restore motivation and self-confidence.  It should be noted that         
      the human psyche is fragile and could be damaged by inept                
      measures.  Therefore, in severe cases involving the possibility          
      of deep psychological problems, timely and skillful help is              
      needed.  In this event, the instructor should recommend that the         
      student use the services of a professional counselor.                    
                                                                               
      THE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR AS A PRACTICAL PSYCHOLOGIST                        
                                                                               
      While it is obviously impossible for every flight instructor to          
      be an accomplished psychologist, there are a number of additional        
      considerations which will assist in learning to analyze students         
      before and during each lesson.  As already implied, flight               
      instructors must also be able to evaluate student personality to         
      effectively develop and use techniques appropriate for                   
      instruction.                                                             
                                                                               
      ANXIETY                                                                  
                                                                               
      Anxiety is probably the most significant psychological factor            
      affecting flight instruction.  This is true because flying is a          
      potentially threatening experience for persons who are not               
      accustomed to being off the ground.  The fear of falling is              
      universal in human beings.  Anxiety also is a factor in                  
      maintenance training because lives may depend on consistently            
      doing it right the first time.  The following paragraphs are             
      primarily concerned with flight instruction and student                  
      reactions.                                                               
                                                                               
      Anxiety is described by Webster as "a state of mental uneasiness         
      arising from fear ..."  It results from the fear of anything,            
      real or imagined, which threatens the person who experiences it,         
      and may have a potent effect on actions and the ability to learn         
      from perceptions.                                                        
      The responses to anxiety vary extensively.  They range from a            
      hesitancy to act to the impulse to do something even if it's             
      wrong.  Some people affected by anxiety will react appropriately,        
      adequately, and more rapidly than they would in the absence of           
      threat.  Many, on the other hand, may freeze and be incapable of         
      doing anything to correct the situation which has caused their           
      anxiety.  Others may do things without rational thought or               
      reason.                                                                  
                                                                               
      Both normal and abnormal reactions to anxiety are of concern to          
      the flight instructor.  The normal reactions are significant             
      because they indicate a need for special instruction to relieve          
      the anxiety.  The abnormal reactions are even more important             
      because they may signify a deep-seated problem.                          
                                                                               
      Anxiety can be countered by reinforcing students' enjoyment of           
      flying, and by teaching them to cope with their fears.  An               
      effective technique is to treat fears as a normal reaction,              
      rather than ignoring them.  Keep in mind that anxiety for student        
      pilots usually is associated with certain types of flight                
      operations and maneuvers.  Instructors should introduce these            
      maneuvers with care, so that students know what to expect, and           
      what their reactions should be.  When introducing stalls, for            
      example, instructors should first review the aerodynamic                 
      principles and explain how stalls affect flight characteristics.         
      Then, carefully describe the sensations to be expected, as well          
      as the recovery procedures.                                              
                                                                               
      Student anxieties can be minimized throughout training by                
      emphasizing the benefits and pleasurable experiences which can be        
      derived from flying, rather than by continuously citing the              
      unhappy consequences of faulty performance.  Safe flying                 
      practices should be presented as conducive to satisfying,                
      efficient, uninterrupted operations, rather than as necessary            
      only to prevent catastrophe.                                             
                                                                               
      NORMAL REACTIONS TO STRESS                                               
                                                                               
      When a threat is recognized or imagined, the brain alerts the            
      body.  The adrenal gland activates hormones which prepare the            
      body to meet the threat, or to retreat from it.  This often is           
      called the fight or flight syndrome.  The heart rate quickens,           
      certain blood vessels constrict to divert blood to the organs            
      which will need it, and numerous other physiological changes take        
      place.                                                                   
                                                                               
      Normal individuals begin to respond rapidly and exactly, within          
      the limits of their experience and training.  Many responses are         
      automatic, which points out the need for proper training in              
      emergency operations prior to an actual emergency.  The affected         
      individual thinks rationally, acts rapidly, and is extremely             
      sensitive to all aspects of the surroundings.                            
                                                                               
      ABNORMAL REACTIONS TO STRESS                                             
                                                                               
      Reactions to stress may produce abnormal responses in some               
      people.  With them, response to anxiety or stress may be                 
      completely absent or at least inadequate.  Their responses may be        
      random or illogical, or they may do more than is called for by           
      the situation.                                                           
                                                                               
      During flight instruction, instructors normally are the only ones        
      who can observe students when they are under pressure.                   
      Instructors, therefore, are in a position to differentiate               
      between safe and unsafe piloting actions.  Instructors also may          
      be able to detect potential psychological problems.  The                 
      following student reactions are indicative of abnormal reactions         
      to stress.  None of them provides an absolute indication, but the        
      presence of any of them under conditions of stress is reason for         
      careful instructor evaluation.                                           
                                                                               
      .    Inappropriate reactions, such as extreme over-cooperation,          
           painstaking self-control, inappropriate laughter or singing,        
           and very rapid changes in emotions.                                 
                                                                               
      .    Marked changes in mood on different lessons, such as                
           excellent morale followed by deep depression.                       
                                                                               
      .    Severe anger directed toward the flight instructor, service         
           personnel, and others.                                              
                                                                               
      In difficult situations, flight instructors must carefully               
      examine student responses and their own responses to the                 
      students.  These responses may be the normal products of a               
      complex learning situation, but they also can be indicative of           
      psychological abnormalities which will inhibit learning, or              
      potentially be very hazardous to future piloting operations.             
                                                                               
      FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR ACTIONS REGARDING SERIOUSLY ABNORMAL STUDENTS          
                                                                               
      A flight instructor who believes a student may be suffering from         
      a serious psychological abnormality has a responsibility to              
      refrain from certifying that student.  In addition, a flight             
      instructor has the personal responsibility of assuring that such         
      a person does not continue flight training or become certificated        
      as a pilot.  To accomplish this, the following steps are                 
      available:                                                               
                                                                               
      .    If an instructor believes that a student may have a                 
           disqualifying psychological defect, arrangements should be          
           made for another instructor, who is not acquainted with the         
           student, to conduct an evaluation flight.  After the flight,        
           the two instructors should confer to determine whether they         
           agree that further investigation or action is justified.            
                                                                               
      .    An informal discussion should be initiated with the local           
           Flight Standards District Office (FSDO), suggesting that the        
           student may be able to meet the skill standards, but may be         
           unsafe psychologically.  This action should be taken as soon        
           as a question arises regarding the student's fitness.  It           
           should not be delayed until the student feels competent to          
           solo.                                                               
                                                                               
      .    A discussion should be held with a local aviation medical           
           examiner (AME), preferably the one who issued the student's         
           medical certificate, to obtain advice and to decide on the          
           possibility of further examination of the student.                  
                                                                               
      The flight instructor's primary legal responsibility concerns the        
      decision whether to certify the student to be competent for solo         
      flight operations, or to make a recommendation for the practical         
      test leading to certification as a pilot.  If, after consultation        
      with an unbiased instructor, the FSDO, and the AME, the                  
      instructor believes that the student suffers a serious                   
      psychological deficiency, such authorizations and recommendations        
      must be withheld.                                                        
                                  CHAPTER 3                                    
                                                                               
                           EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION                             
                                                                               
      The ability to communicate effectively is essential for all              
      aviation instructors.  However, communication does not occur             
      automatically even though the instructor has a high level of             
      technical knowledge in a particular subject area.  The beginning         
      instructor must understand the complex process involved in               
      communication, and become aware of the common barriers to                
      effective communication.  Mere awareness of these factors is not         
      enough.  The new instructor must also develop a comfortable style        
      of communication that meets the goal of conveying information to         
      students.                                                                
                                                                               
      BASIC ELEMENTS                                                           
                                                                               
      Communication takes place when one person transmits ideas or             
      feelings to another person or group of people.  Its effectiveness        
      is measured by the similarity between the idea transmitted and           
      the idea received.                                                       
                                                                               
      The process of communication is composed of three elements:  the         
      source (sender, speaker, transmitter, or instructor), the symbols        
      used in composing and transmitting the message (words or signs),         
      and the receiver (listener, reader, or student).  The three              
      elements are dynamically interrelated since each element is              
      dependent on the others for effective communication to take              
      place.  The relationship between instructor and student also is          
      dynamic and depends on the two-way flow of symbols between the           
      instructor and student.  The instructor depends on feedback from         
      the student to properly tailor the communication to the                  
      situation.  The instructor also provides feedback to the student         
      to reinforce the desired student responses.                              
                                                                               
      SOURCE                                                                   
                                                                               
      As indicated, the source in communication is the sender, speaker,        
      transmitter, or instructor.  The instructor's effectiveness as a         
      communicator is related to at least three basic factors.  First,         
      an ability to select and use language is essential for                   
      transmitting symbols which are meaningful to listeners and               
      readers.  Second, an instructor consciously or unconsciously             
      reveals his or her attitudes toward themselves as a communicator,        
      toward the ideas being communicated, and toward the students.            
      Third, an instructor is more likely to communicate effectively if        
      material is accurate, up-to-date, and stimulating.                       
                                                                               
      An instructor should exercise great care that ideas and feelings         
      are meaningful to the students.  A speaker or a writer may depend        
      on a highly technical or professional background with its                
      associated vocabulary that is meaningful only to others with a           
      similar background.  It is the responsibility of the instructor,         
      as the source of communication, to realize that the effectiveness        
      of the communication is dependent on the student's understanding         
      of the symbols or words being used.  For instance, if an                 
      instructor were to use any of the many aviation acronyms, slang,         
      and abbreviations with a new student, effective communication            
      would be difficult if not impossible.  Terms like SIGMET,                
      taildragger, FBO, IO-540 do not carry the same meaning to a              
      beginning student.  Use of technical language will always be             
      necessary, but the student must be taught the language first.            
                                                                               
      In addition to using the correct symbols to communicate                  
      effectively, the instructor must reveal a positive attitude while        
      delivering a message.  The presentation should show that the             
      instructor is confident in the information.  It should also show         
      that the message is important and that the student has a need to         
      know the information.                                                    
                                                                               
      An instructor must constantly strive to have the most current and        
      interesting information possible.  In this way, the student's            
      interest can be held.  Out-of-date information causes the                
      instructor to lose credibility in the eyes of the student.  Use          
      of boring or uninteresting information runs the risk of losing           
      the student's attention.                                                 
                                                                               
      SYMBOLS                                                                  
                                                                               
      At its basic level, communication is achieved through symbols            
      which are simple oral and visual codes.  The words in the                
      vocabulary constitute a basic code.  Common gestures and facial          
      expressions form another, but words and gestures alone do not            
      communicate ideas.  They should be combined into units                   
      (sentences, paragraphs, lectures, or chapters) that mean                 
      something to the student.  When symbols are combined into these          
      units, each portion becomes important to effective communication.        
                                                                               
      The parts of the total idea should be analyzed to determine which        
      are most suited to starting or ending the communication, and             
      which are best for the purpose of explaining, clarifying, or             
      emphasizing.  All of these functions are required for effective          
      transmission of ideas.  The process finally culminates in the            
      determination of the medium best suited for their transmission.          
      Most frequently, communicators select the channels of hearing and        
      seeing.  For motor skills, the sense of touch, or kinesthetic            
      learning, is added as the student practices the skill.                   
                                                                               
      The instructor will be more successful in gaining and retaining          
      the student's attention by using a variety of channels.  As an           
      example, instead of telling students to adjust the trim, the             
      instructor can move the trim wheel while the student tries to            
      maintain a given aircraft attitude.  The student will experience,        
      by feel, that the trim wheel affects the amount of control wheel         
      pressure needed to maintain the attitude.  At the same time, the         
      instructor can explain to the student that what is felt is               
      forward or back pressure on the control wheel.  After that, the          
      student will begin to understand the correct meaning of control          
      pressure and trim, and when told to adjust the trim to relieve           
      control pressure, the student will respond in the manner desired         
      by the instructor.                                                       
                                                                               
      The feedback an instructor is getting from a student needs to be         
      constantly monitored in order to modify the symbols, as required,        
      to optimize communication.  In figure 3-1, the instructor                
      realizes from the response of the student that stall has been            
      interpreted by the student to have something to do with the              
      engine quitting.  Recognizing that the student has misunderstood,        
      the instructor is able to clarify the information and help the           
      student to obtain the desired outcome.                                   
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                      Figure 3-1.  The instructor must                         
                    constantly monitor student feedback.                       
                                                                               
                  __________________________________                           
      Sender --->(  Today we will practice stalls.  )                          
                 (__________________________________)                          
            ___________         ___________         ___________                
           ]  Encodes  ]------>]  Message  ]------>]  Decodes  ]               
           ]___________]       ]___________]       ]___________]               
                        Channel(s)          Channel(s)                         
                    ___________                                                
      Receiver --->]  Stalls?  ] ___                                           
                   ]___________]    ]                                          
                                    ]                                          
         ___________________________]                                          
        ]                                                                      
        V         __________________________________________                   
      Sender --->(  If the engine stalls, will it restart?  )                  
                 (__________________________________________)                  
            ___________         ___________         ___________                
           ]  Decodes  ]<------]  Message  ]<------]  Encodes  ]               
           ]___________]       ]___________]       ]___________]               
                        Channel(s)          Channel(s)                         
                    _____________________________________________              
      Receiver --->(  This is not related to the engine.  It is  )             
                   (  a demonstration of aerodynamic principles. )             
                    ---------------------------------------------              
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      In addition to feedback received by the instructor from the              
      students, students need feedback from the instructor on how they         
      are doing.  The feedback not only informs the students of their          
      performance, but also can serve as a valuable source of                  
      motivation.  An instructor's praise builds the student's ego and         
      reinforces favorable behavior.  On the other hand, negative              
      feedback must be used carefully.  To avoid embarrassing a                
      student, use negative feedback only in private.  This information        
      should be delivered as a description of actual performance and           
      given in a non-judgmental manner.  For example, it would be              
      appropriate to tell a maintenance student that a safety wire             
      installation is not satisfactory.  But to refer to the work as           
      careless would not be good and could do harm to the student's            
      feeling of self-worth.                                                   
                                                                               
      RECEIVER                                                                 
                                                                               
      Remember, the receiver is the listener, reader, or student.              
      Instructors should always keep in mind that communication                
      succeeds only in relation to the reaction of their students.             
      When students react with understanding and change their behavior         
      according to the intent of the instructor, effective                     
      communication has taken place.                                           
                                                                               
      In order for an instructor to change the behavior of students,           
      some of the students' abilities, attitudes, and experiences need         
      to be understood.  First, students come to aviation training with        
      a wide variety of abilities.  Some may be familiar with aviation         
      in some form while others barely know what an airplane looks             
      like.  Some students arrive with highly developed motor skills,          
      and others have not had opportunities to develop these skills.           
      The instructor needs to determine the abilities of the students          
      and to understand the students in order to properly communicate.         
      The process is complicated by differences in gender, age,                
      cultural background, and level of education.  For instance, the          
      instructor would want to tailor a presentation differently for a         
      teenage student than for an older student.  Likewise, a student          
      with a strong technical background would require a different             
      level of communication than one with no such background.                 
                                                                               
      The instructor also must understand that the viewpoint and               
      background of people may differ significantly because of cultural        
      differences.  However, this consciousness of the differences             
      between people should not be overdone.  The instructor should be         
      aware of possible differences, but not overreact or assume               
      certain values because of these differences.  For example, just          
      because a student is a college graduate does not guarantee rapid         
      advancement in aviation training.  A student's education will            
      certainly affect the instructor's style of presentation, but that        
      style should be based on the evaluation of the student's                 
      knowledge of the aviation subject being taught.                          
                                                                               
      Second, the attitudes students exhibit may indicate resistance,          
      willingness, or passive neutrality.  To gain and hold the                
      students' attention, attitudes should be molded into forms that          
      promote reception of information.  A varied communicative                
      approach will succeed best in reaching most students since they          
      all have different attitudes.                                            
                                                                               
      Third, the student's experience, background, and educational             
      level will determine the approach an instructor will take.  What         
      the student knows, along with the student's abilities and                
      attitudes, will guide the instructor in communicating.  It is            
      essential to understand the dynamics of communication, but the           
      instructor also needs to be aware of several barriers to                 
      communication that can inhibit learning.                                 
                                                                               
      BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION                                      
                                                                               
      The nature of language and the way it is used often lead to              
      misunderstandings.  An example might be a maintenance instructor         
      telling a student to time the magnetos.  A student new to the            
      maintenance field might think a stopwatch or clock would be              
      necessary to do the requested task.  Instruction would be                
      necessary for the student to understand that the procedure has           
      nothing to do with the usual concept of time.  This is an example        
      of a lack of common experience, one of four barriers to effective        
      communication.  Figure 3-2a                                             
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                Figure 3-2.  Misunderstandings stem primarily                  
               from four barriers to effective communication.                  
                                                                               
                           COMMUNICATION BARRIERS                              
                                                                               
           .  LACK OF COMMON EXPERIENCE                                        
                                                                               
           .  CONFUSION BETWEEN THE SYMBOL AND THE SYMBOLIZED OBJECT           
                                                                               
           .  OVERUSE OF ABSTRACTIONS                                          
                                                                               
           .  INTERFERENCE                                                     
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      LACK OF COMMON EXPERIENCE                                                
                                                                               
      Lack of common experience between instructor and student is              
      probably the greatest single barrier to effective communication.         
      Many people seem to believe that words transport meanings from           
      speaker to listener in the same way that a truck carries bricks          
      from one location to another.  Words, however, rarely carry              
      precisely the same meaning from the mind of the instructor to the        
      mind of the student.  In fact, words, in themselves, do not              
      transfer meanings at all.  Whether spoken or written, they are           
      merely stimuli used to arouse a response in the student.  The            
      student's past experience with the words and the things to which         
      they refer determines how the student responds to what the               
      instructor says.  A communicator's words cannot communicate the          
      desired meaning to another person unless the listener or reader          
      has had some experience with the objects or concepts to which            
      these words refer.  Since it is the students' experience that            
      forms vocabulary, it is also essential that instructors speak the        
      same language as the students.  If the instructor's terminology          
      is necessary to convey the idea, some time needs to be spent             
      making certain the students understand that terminology.                 
                                                                               
      The English language abounds in words that mean different things         
      to different people.  To a farmer, the word tractor means the            
      machine that pulls the implements to cultivate the soil; to a            
      trucker, it is the vehicle used to pull a semitrailer; in                
      aviation, a tractor propeller is the opposite of a pusher                
      propeller.  Each technical field has its own vocabulary.                 
      Technical words might mean something entirely different to a             
      person outside that field, or perhaps, mean nothing at all.  In          
      order for communication to be effective, the students'                   
      understanding of the meaning of the words needs to be the same as        
      the instructor's understanding.                                          
                                                                               
      CONFUSION BETWEEN THE SYMBOL AND THE SYMBOLIZED OBJECT                   
                                                                               
      Languages abound with words that mean different things to                
      different people.  Confusion between the symbol and the                  
      symbolized object results when a word is confused with what it is        
      meant to represent.                                                      
                                                                               
      Although it is obvious that words and the connotations they carry        
      can be different, people sometimes fail to make the distinction.         
      An aviation maintenance technician (AMT) might be introduced as          
      a mechanic.  To many people, the term mechanic conjures up images        
      of a person laboring over an automobile.  Being referred to as an        
      aircraft mechanic might be an improvement in some people's minds,        
      but neither really portrays the training and skill of the trained        
      AMT.  Words and symbols do not always represent the same thing to        
      every person.  To communicate effectively, speakers and writers          
      should be aware of these differences.  Words and symbols can then        
      be carefully chosen to represent exactly what the speaker or             
      writer intends.                                                          
                                                                               
      OVERUSE OF ABSTRACTIONS                                                  
                                                                               
      Abstractions are words that are general rather than specific.            
      Concrete words or terms refer to objects that people can relate          
      directly to their experiences.  They specify an idea that can be         
      perceived or a thing that can be visualized.  Abstract words, on         
      the other hand, stand for ideas that cannot be directly                  
      experienced, things that do not call forth mental images in the          
      minds of the students.  The word aircraft is an abstract word.           
      it does not call to mind a specific aircraft in the imaginations         
      of various students.  One student may visualize an airplane,             
      another student might visualize a helicopter, and still another          
      student might visualize an airship.  Although the word airplane          
      is more specific, various students might envision anything from a        
      Boeing 777 to a Piper Cub.  Figure 3-3a                                 
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                   Figure 3-3.  OVERUSE OF ABSTRACT TERMS                      
                 CAN INTERFERE WITH EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION.                   
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Another example of abstractions would be if an instructor                
      referred to aircraft engines.  Some students might think of jet          
      engines, while others would think of reciprocating engines.  Even        
      reciprocating engine is too abstract since it could be a radial          
      engine, an inline engine, a V-type engine, or an opposed type            
      engine.  Use of the technical language of engines, as in Lycoming        
      IO-360, would narrow the engine type, but would only be                  
      understood by students who have learned the terminology                  
      particular to aircraft engines.                                          
                                                                               
      Abstractions should be avoided in most cases, but there are times        
      when abstractions are necessary and useful.  Aerodynamics is             
      applicable to all aircraft and is an example of an abstraction           
      that can lead to understanding aircraft flight characteristics.          
      The danger of abstractions is that they will not evoke the same          
      specific items of experience in the minds of the students that           
      the instructor intends.  When such terms are used, they should be        
      linked with specific experiences through examples and                    
      illustrations.  For instance, when an approach to landing is             
      going badly, telling a student to take appropriate measures might        
      not result in the desired action.  It would be better to tell the        
      student to conduct a go-around since this is an action that has          
      the same meaning to both student and instructor.  When                   
      maintenance students are being taught to torque the bolts on an          
      engine, it would be better to tell them to torque the bolts in           
      accordance with the maintenance manual for that engine rather            
      than simply to torque the bolts to the proper values.  Whenever          
      possible, the level of abstraction should be reduced by using            
      concrete, specific terms.  This better defines and gains control         
      of images produced in the minds of the students.                         
      INTERFERENCE                                                             
                                                                               
      Barriers to effective communication are usually under the direct         
      control of the instructor.  However, interference is made up of          
      factors that are outside the direct control of the instructor:           
      physiological, environmental, and psychological interference.  To        
      communicate effectively, the instructor should consider the              
      effects of these factors.                                                
                                                                               
      Physiological interference is any biological problem that may            
      inhibit symbol reception, such as hearing loss, injury, or               
      physical illness.  These, and other physiological factors, can           
      inhibit communication because the student is not comfortable.            
      The instructor must adapt the presentation to allow the student          
      to feel better about the situation and be more receptive to new          
      ideas.  Adaptation could be as simple as putting off a lesson            
      until the student is over an illness.  Another accommodation             
      could be the use of a seat cushion to allow a student to sit             
      properly in the airplane.                                                
                                                                               
      Environmental interference is caused by external physical                
      conditions.  One example of this is the noise level found in many        
      light aircraft.  Noise not only impairs the communication                
      process, but also can result in long-term damage to hearing.  One        
      solution to this problem is the use of headphones and an intercom        
      system.  If an intercom system is not available, a good solution         
      is the use of earplugs.  It has been shown that in addition to           
      protecting hearing, use of earplugs actually clarifies speaker           
      output.                                                                  
                                                                               
      Psychological interference is a product of how the instructor and        
      student feel at the time the communication process is occurring.         
      If either instructor or student is not committed to the                  
      communication process, communication is impaired.  Fear of the           
      situation or mistrust between the instructor and student could           
      severely inhibit the flow of information.                                
                                                                               
      DEVELOPING COMMUNICATION SKILLS                                          
                                                                               
      Communication skills must be developed; they do not occur                
      automatically.  The ability to effectively communicate stems from        
      experience.  The experience of instructional communication begins        
      with role playing during the training to be an instructor,               
      continues during the actual instruction, and is enhanced by              
      additional training.                                                     
                                                                               
      ROLE PLAYING                                                             
                                                                               
      Experience in instructional communication comes from actually            
      doing it.  This is learned in the beginning by way of role               
      playing during the instructor's initial training.  A new                 
      instructor can try out different instructional techniques with an        
      assigned instructor in the case of a flight instructor applicant,        
      or with a mentor or supervisor in the case of a maintenance              
      instructor.  A new instructor is more likely to find a                   
      comfortable style of communication in an environment that is not         
      threatening.  For a prospective flight instructor, this might            
      take the form of conducting a practice ground training session.          
      The new instructor is naturally most concerned about developing          
      flight instruction skills.  But it also is essential that he or          
      she develop good ground instructional skills to prepare students         
      for what is to transpire in the air.  Likewise, the maintenance          
      instructor must develop skills in the classroom to prepare the           
      maintenance student for the practical, hands-on tasks.  In both          
      cases, effective communication will be necessary to reinforce the        
      skills that have been attempted and to assess or critique the            
      results.  This development continues as an instructor progresses;        
      nothing remains static.  What worked early on might be refined or        
      replaced by some other technique as the instructor gains more            
      experience.                                                              
                                                                               
      INSTRUCTIONAL COMMUNICATION                                              
                                                                               
      Instruction has taken place when the instructor has explained a          
      particular procedure and subsequently determined that the desired        
      student response has occurred.  The instructor can improve               
      communication by adhering to several techniques of good                  
      communication.  One of the basic principles used in public               
      speaking courses is to encourage students to talk about something        
      they understand.  It would not be good if an instructor without a        
      maintenance background tried to teach a course for aviation              
      maintenance.  Instructors will perform better when speaking of           
      something that they know very well and for which they have a high        
      level of confidence.                                                     
                                                                               
      The instructor should not be afraid to use examples of past              
      experiences to illustrate particular points.  When teaching the          
      procedures to be used for transitioning from instrument                  
      meteorological conditions to visual cues during an approach, it          
      would be helpful to be able to tell the student about                    
      encountering these same conditions.  An instructor's personal            
      experiences make instruction more valuable than reading the same         
      information in a textbook.                                               
                                                                               
      Communication has not occurred unless desired results of the             
      communication have taken place.  The instructor needs some way of        
      determining results, and the method used should be related to the        
      expected outcome.  In the case of flight training, the instructor        
      can judge the actual performance of a maneuver.  For a                   
      maintenance student, the instructor can judge the level of               
      accomplishment of a maintenance procedure.  In both cases, the           
      instructor must determine whether the student has actually               
      received and retained the knowledge or if acceptable performance         
      was a one-time event.                                                    
                                                                               
      The aviation student should know how and why something should be         
      done.  For example, a maintenance student may know how to tighten        
      a particular fastener to a specified torque, but it is more              
      important for the student to know that the security and integrity        
      of any fastener depends on proper torque.  In this way, the              
      student would be more likely to torque all fasteners properly in         
      the future.  For a flight student, simply knowing the different          
      airspeeds for takeoffs and landings is not enough.  It is                
      essential to know the reasons for different airspeeds in specific        
      situations to fully understand the importance of proper airspeed         
      control.  Normally, the instructor must determine the level of           
      understanding by use of some sort of evaluation.                         
                                                                               
      Written examinations are sometimes appropriate.  Well constructed        
      written exams can indicate whether the student has absorbed the          
      desired information or not.  Since written examinations also             
      provide a permanent record, training programs usually require            
      them.  Another testing technique is to have the student explain a        
      procedure.  This works well because it allows the student to put         
      the information in his or her own words.  The instructor can then        
      judge whether or not the information received by the student             
      matches with what the instructor intended.                               
      LISTENING                                                                
                                                                               
      Instructors must know something about their students in order to         
      communicate effectively.  As discussed earlier, an instructor            
      needs to determine the abilities of the students and understand          
      the students to properly communicate.  One way of becoming better        
      acquainted with students is to be a good listener.  Instructors          
      can use a number of techniques to become better at listening.  It        
      is important to realize that in order to master the art of               
      listening, an attitude of wanting to listen must be developed.           
      Figure 3-4a                                                             
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                  Figure 3-4.  Instructors can use a number                    
                   of tools to become better at listening.                     
                                                                               
            __________________________________________________                 
           ]               INSTRUCTOR'S TOOLBOX               ]                
           ]--------------------------------------------------]                
           ]                 DO NOT INTERRUPT                 ]                
           ]--------------------------------------------------]                
           ]                   DO NOT JUDGE                   ]                
           ]--------------------------------------------------]                
           ]              THINK BEFORE ANSWERING              ]                
           ]--------------------------------------------------]                
           ]              BE CLOSE ENOUGH TO HEAR             ]                
           ]--------------------------------------------------]                
           ]             WATCH NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR             ]                
           ]--------------------------------------------------]                
           ]                 BE AWARE OF BIASES               ]                
           ]--------------------------------------------------]                
           ]           LOOK FOR UNDERLYING FEELINGS           ]                
           ]--------------------------------------------------]                
           ]                    CONCENTRATE                   ]                
           ]--------------------------------------------------]                
           ]     AVOID REHEARSING ANSWERS WHILE LISTENING     ]                
           ]--------------------------------------------------]                
           ]          DO NOT INSIST ON THE LAST WORD          ]                
           ]__________________________________________________]                
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Just as it is important for instructors to want to listen in             
      order to be effective listeners, it is necessary for students to         
      want to listen.  Wanting to listen is just one of several                
      techniques which allow a student to listen effectively.                  
      Instructors can improve the percentage of information transfer by        
      teaching students how to listen.  Figure 3-5a                           
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
              Figure 3-5.  Students can improve their listening                
            skills by applying the steps to effective listening.               
                                                                               
                           ___________________________________________         
                          /                                 LISTENING ]        
                        /               _____                         ]        
                      /                Take }           ___________  ]         
                    /                  Notes}             Guard   } ]          
                  /                    _____}            Against  } ]          
                /                 ___________   ______  Daydreaming} ]         
              /   _____________      Be     } Listen} ___________} ]           
            /     Listen to   } Emotionally}  for  }               ]           
          /       Understand, }     Calm   }  Main }              /            
        /         Not Refute  } ___________} Ideas }            /              
       ]         _____________}               ______}          /               
       ]     _______________                                   /               
       ]      Responsible  }                                /                  
       ]     for Listening }                              /                    
       ]    _______________}                            /                      
       ]  _________________                            /                       
       ]  Ready to Listen }                         /                          
       ] _________________}                       /                            
       ]                                         /                             
       ] HEARING                               /                               
       ]_____________________________________/                                 
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Listening is more than hearing.  As mentioned earlier, it is             
      important for students to be able to hear the radio and the              
      instructor.  But simply hearing is not enough.  An example of            
      hearing that is not listening would be a pilot acknowledging             
      instructions from the tower, but then having no idea what the            
      tower operator said.  When calling back to the tower to get the          
      information, the pilot will want to hear what is being said and          
      will be more inclined to do a better job of listening.  This time        
      the pilot must be ready to listen and be responsible for                 
      listening.  Otherwise, communication will fail again.                    
                                                                               
      Students also need to be reminded that emotions play a large part        
      in determining how much information is retained.  One emotional          
      area to concentrate on is listening to understand rather than            
      refute.  An example is the instrument student pilot who                  
      anticipates drastic changes in requested routing and is already          
      upset.  With this frame of mind, it will be very difficult for           
      the student to listen to the routing instructions and then retain        
      very much.  In addition, instructors must ensure that students           
      are aware of their emotions concerning certain subjects.  If             
      certain areas arouse emotion in a student, the student should be         
      aware of this and take extra measures to listen carefully.  For          
      example, if a student who is terrified of the prospect of spins          
      is listening to a lesson on spins, the emotions felt by the              
      student might overwhelm the attempt to listen.  If the student,          
      aware of this possibility, made a conscious effort to put that           
      fear aside, listening would probably be more successful.                 
                                                                               
      Another listening technique that can be taught to students is            
      that of listening for the main ideas.  This is primarily a               
      technique for listening to a lecture or formal lesson                    
      presentation, but is sometimes applicable to hand-on situations          
      as well.  People who concentrate on remembering or recording             
      facts might very well miss the message because they have not             
      picked up on the big picture.  A listener must always ask, what          
      is the purpose of what I am listening to?  By doing this, the            
      listener can relate the words to the overall concept.                    
                                                                               
      The instructor must ensure that the student is aware of the              
      danger of daydreaming.  Most people can listen much faster than          
      even the fastest talker can speak.  This leaves room for the mind        
      to get off onto some other subject.  The listener who is aware of        
      this problem can concentrate on repeating, paraphrasing, or              
      summarizing the speaker's words.  Doing so will use the extra            
      time to reinforce the speaker's words, allowing the student to           
      retain more of the information.                                          
                                                                               
      Nobody can remember everything.  Teaching a student to take notes        
      allows the student to use an organized system to reconstruct what        
      was said during the lesson.  Every student will have a slightly          
      different system, but no attempt to record the lecture verbatim          
      should be made.  In most cases a shorthand or abbreviated system         
      of the student's choosing should be encouraged.  Note taking is          
      merely a method of allowing the student to recreate the lecture          
      so that it can be studied.  The same note taking skills can be           
      used outside the classroom any time information needs to be              
      retained.  An example of this would be copying an instrument             
      clearance.  It is very difficult to copy an instrument clearance         
      word for word.  By knowing the format of a typical clearance,            
      student instrument pilots can develop their own system of                
      abbreviations.  This allows them to copy the clearance in a              
      useful form for readback and for flying of the clearance.  By            
      incorporating all or some of these techniques, students will             
      retain more information.  Instructors can vastly improve their           
      students' retention of information by making certain their               
      students have the best possible listening skills.                        
                                                                               
      QUESTIONING                                                              
                                                                               
      Good questioning can determine how well the student understands.         
      It also shows the student that the instructor is paying                  
      attention.  And it shows that the instructor is interested in the        
      student's response.  An instructor should ask both open-ended and        
      focused questions.  Open-ended questions allow the student to            
      explain more fully.  Focused questions allow the instructor to           
      concentrate on desired areas.  An instructor may ask for                 
      additional details, examples, and impressions from the student.          
      This allows the instructor to ask further questions if necessary.        
      The presentation can then be modified to fit the understanding of        
      the student.                                                             
                                                                               
      Two ways of confirming that the student and instructor understand        
      things in the same way are the use of paraphrasing and perception        
      checking.  The instructor can use paraphrasing to show what the          
      student's statement meant to the instructor.  In this way, the           
      student can then make any corrections or expansions on the               
      statement in order to clarify.  Perception checking gets to the          
      feelings of the student, again by stating what perceptions the           
      instructor has of the student's behavior and the student can then        
      clarify as necessary.                                                    
                                                                               
      Since it is important that the instructor understand as much as          
      possible about the students, instructors can be much more                
      effective by using improved listening skills and effective               
      questions to help in putting themselves in the place of the              
      students.                                                                
                                                                               
      Knowledge of the subject material and skill at instructional             
      communication are necessary to be an instructor.  Increasing the         
      depth of knowledge in either area will make the instructor more          
      effective.                                                               
                                                                               
      INSTRUCTIONAL ENHANCEMENT                                                
                                                                               
      The deeper the knowledge of a particular area, the better the            
      instructor is at conveying that information.  For example, a             
      maintenance instructor teaching basic electricity might be able          
      to teach at a minimally satisfactory level if the instructor had         
      only the same training level as that being taught.  If asked a           
      question that exceeded the instructor's knowledge, the instructor        
      could research the answer and get back to the student.  It would         
      be much better if the instructor, through experience or                  
      additional training, was prepared to answer the question                 
      initially.  Additional knowledge and training would also bolster         
      the instructor's confidence and give the instructional                   
      presentation more depth.  Advanced courses in the instructional          
      area and on instructional techniques are widely available.  These        
      are discussed in Chapter 11.  The instructor must be careful to          
      put adequate information into the presentation without providing         
      excessive information.  Otherwise, the essential elements could          
      get lost in a depth of presentation more suited to an advanced           
      course on the subject.                                                   
                                                                               
      An awareness of the three basic elements of the communicative            
      process (the source, the symbols, and the receiver) indicates the        
      beginning of the understanding required for the successful               
      communicator.  Recognizing the various barriers to communication         
      further enhances the flow of ideas between an instructor and the         
      student.  The instructor must develop communication skills in            
      order to convey desired information to the students and must             
      recognize that communication is a two-way process.  In the end,          
      the true test of whether successful communication has taken place        
      is to determine if the desired results have been achieved.               
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                  CHAPTER 4                                    
                                                                               
                            THE TEACHING PROCESS                               
                                                                               
      Effective teaching is based on principles of learning which have         
      been discussed in some detail in Chapter 1.  The learning process        
      is not easily separated into a definite number of steps.                 
      Sometimes, learning occurs almost instantaneously, and other             
      times it is acquired only through long, patient study and                
      diligent practice.  The teaching process, on the other hand, can         
      be divided into steps.  Although there is disagreement as to the         
      number of steps, examination of the various lists of steps in the        
      teaching process reveals that different authors are saying               
      essentially the same thing:  the teaching of new material can be         
      reduced to preparation, presentation, application, and review and        
      evaluation.  Discussions in this handbook focus on these four            
      basic steps.  Figure 4-1a                                               
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
       Figure 4-1.  The teaching process consists of four basic steps.         
                                                                               
           .  PREPARATION                                                      
                                                                               
           .  PRESENTATION                                                     
                                                                               
           .  APPLICATION                                                      
                                                                               
           .  REVIEW AND EVALUATION                                            
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      PREPARATION                                                              
                                                                               
      For each lesson or instructional period, the instructor must             
      prepare a lesson plan.  Traditionally, this plan includes a              
      statement of lesson objectives, the procedures and facilities to         
      be used during the lesson, the specific goals to be attained, and        
      the means to be used for review and evaluation.  The lesson plan         
      should also include home study or other special preparation to be        
      done by the student.  The instructor should make certain that all        
      necessary supplies, materials, and equipment needed for the              
      lesson are readily available and that the equipment is operating         
      properly.  Preparation of the lesson plan may be accomplished            
      after reference to the syllabus or practical test standards              
      (PTS), or it may be in pre-printed form as prepared by a                 
      publisher of training materials.  These documents will list              
      general objectives that are to be accomplished.  Objectives are          
      needed to bring the unit of instruction into focus.  The                 
      instructor can organize the overall instructional plan by writing        
      down the objectives and making certain that they flow in a               
      logical sequence from beginning to end.  The objectives allow the        
      instructor to structure the training and permit the student to           
      clearly see what is required along the way.  It also allows              
      persons outside the process to see and evaluate what is supposed         
      to take place.                                                           
                                                                               
      PERFORMANCE-BASED OBJECTIVES                                             
                                                                               
      One good way to write lesson plans is to begin by formulating            
      performance-based objectives.  The instructor uses the objectives        
      as listed in the syllabus or the appropriate PTS as the beginning        
      point for establishing performance-based objectives.  These              
      objectives are very helpful in delineating exactly what needs to         
      be done and how it will be done during each lesson.  Once the            
      performance-based objectives are written, most of the work of            
      writing a final lesson plan is completed.  Chapter 10 discusses          
      lesson plans in depth and provides examples of a variety of              
      acceptable formats.                                                      
                                                                               
      Performance-based objectives are used to set measurable,                 
      reasonable standards that describe the desired performance of the        
      student.  This usually involves the term behavioral objective,           
      although it may be referred to as a performance, instructional,          
      or educational objective.  All refer to the same thing, the              
      behavior of the student.                                                 
                                                                               
      These objectives provide a way of stating what performance level         
      is desired of a student before the student is allowed to progress        
      to the next stage of instruction.  Again, objectives must be             
      clear, measurable, and repeatable.  In other words, they must            
      mean the same thing to any knowledgeable reader.  The objectives         
      must be written.  If they are not written, they become subject to        
      the fallibility of recall, interpretation, or loss of specificity        
      with time.                                                               
                                                                               
      Performance-based objectives consist of three parts:  description        
      of the skill or behavior, conditions, and criteria.  Each part is        
      required and must be stated in a way that will leave every reader        
      with the same picture of the objective, how it will be performed,        
      and to what level of performance.  Figure 4-2a                          
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
         Figure 4-2.  Performance-based objectives are made up of a            
       description of the skill or behavior, conditions, and criteria.         
                                                                               
                  ELEMENTS OF PERFORMANCE-BASED OBJECTIVES                     
                                                                               
           .  Description of the Skill or Behavior-Desired outcome of          
              training stated in concrete terms that can be measured.          
                                                                               
             .  Conditions - The framework under which the skill or            
                behavior will be demonstrated.                                 
                                                                               
               .  Criteria - The standard which will be used to measure        
                  the accomplishment of the objective.                         
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      DESCRIPTION OF THE SKILL OR BEHAVIOR                                     
                                                                               
      The description of the skill or behavior explains the desired            
      outcome of the instruction.  It actually is a learned capability,        
      which may be defined as knowledge, a skill, or an attitude.  The         
      description should be on concrete terms that can be measured.            
      Terms such as "knowledge of ..." and "awareness of ..." cannot be        
      measured very well and are examples of the types of verbiage             
      which should be avoided.  Phrases like "able to select from a            
      list of ..." or "able to repeat the steps to ..." are better             
      because they can be measured.  Furthermore, the skill or behavior        
      described should be logical and within the overall instructional         
      plan.                                                                    
                                                                               
      CONDITIONS                                                               
                                                                               
      Conditions are necessary to specifically explain the rules under         
      which the skill or behavior is demonstrated.  If a desired               
      capability is to navigate from point A to point B, the objective         
      as stated is not specific enough for all students to do it in the        
      same way.  Information such as equipment, tools, reference               
      material, and limiting parameters should be included.  For               
      example, inserting conditions narrows the objective as follows:          
      "Using sectional charts, a flight computer, and a Cessna 172,            
      navigate from point A to point B while maintaining standard              
      hemispheric altitudes."  Sometimes, in the process of writing the        
      objective, a difficulty is encountered.  This might be someone           
      saying, "But, what if ...?"  This is a good indication that the          
      original version was confusing to that person.  If it is                 
      confusing to one person, it will be confusing to others and              
      should be corrected.                                                     
                                                                               
      CRITERIA                                                                 
                                                                               
      Criteria is a list of standards which measure the accomplishment         
      of the objective.  The criteria should be stated so that there is        
      no question whether the objective has been met.  In the previous         
      example, the criteria may include that navigation from A to B be         
      accomplished within five minutes of the preplanned flight time           
      and that en route altitude be maintained within 200 feet.  The           
      revised performance-based objective may now read, "Using a               
      sectional chart and a flight computer, plan a flight and fly from        
      point A to point B in a Cessna 172.  Arrival at point B should be        
      within five minutes of planned arrival time and cruise altitude          
      should be maintained within 200 feet during the en route phase of        
      the flight."  The alert reader has already noted that the                
      conditions and criteria have changed slightly during the                 
      development of these objectives, and that is exactly the way it          
      will occur.  Conditions and criteria should be refined as                
      necessary.                                                               
                                                                               
      As noted earlier, the practical test standards already have many         
      of the elements needed to formulate performance-based objectives.        
      In most cases, the objective is listed along with sufficient             
      conditions to describe the scope of the objective.  The PTS also         
      has specific criteria or standards upon which to grade                   
      performance; however, the criteria may not always be specific            
      enough for a particular lesson.  The instructor should feel free         
      to write performance-based objectives to fit the desired outcome         
      of the lesson.  The objective formulated in the last few                 
      paragraphs, for instance, is a well-defined lesson objective from        
      the task, Pilotage and Dead Reckoning, in the Private Pilot              
      Practical Test Standards.                                                
                                                                               
      OTHER USES OF PERFORMANCE-BASED OBJECTIVES                               
                                                                               
      The use of performance-based objectives expands the conventional         
      idea of an objective to include conditions and criteria.  This           
      expansion opens the way for the performance-based objective to be        
      used to fill in many of the blanks on the lesson plan.  For              
      example, having formulated the conditions under which the student        
      will accomplish the objective, the instructor has already done           
      most of the work toward determining the elements of the lesson           
      and the schedule of events.  The equipment necessary, and the            
      instructor and student actions anticipated during the lesson have        
      also been specified.  By listing the criteria for the                    
      performance-based objectives, the instructor has already                 
      established the completion standards normally included as part of        
      the lesson plan.                                                         
                                                                               
      Use of performance-based objectives also provides the student            
      with a better understanding of the big picture, as well as               
      knowledge of exactly what is expected.  This overview can                
      alleviate a significant source of frustration on the part of the         
      student.                                                                 
                                                                               
      As indicated in Chapter 1, performance-based objectives apply to         
      all three domains of learning - cognitive (knowledge), affective         
      (attitudes, beliefs, values), and psychomotor (physical skills).         
      In addition, since each domain includes several educational or           
      skill levels, performance-based objectives may easily be adapted         
      to a specific performance level of knowledge or skill.                   
                                                                               
      PRESENTATION                                                             
                                                                               
      Instructors have several methods of presentation from which to           
      choose.  In this handbook, the discussion is limited to the              
      lecture method, the demonstration-performance method, and the            
      guided discussion.  The nature of the subject matter and the             
      objective in teaching it normally determine the method of                
      presentation.  The lecture method is suitable for presenting new         
      material, for summarizing ideas, and for showing relationships           
      between theory and practice.  For example, it is suitable for the        
      presentation of a ground school lesson on aircraft weight and            
      balance.  This method is most effective when accompanied by              
      instructional aids and training devices.  In the case of a               
      lecture on weight and balance, a chalkboard, a marker board, or          
      flip chart could be used effectively.                                    
                                                                               
      The demonstration-performance method is desirable for teaching a         
      skill, such as a ground school lesson on the flight computer, or         
      during instruction on most flight maneuvers.  Showing a student          
      pilot how to recognize stalls, for example, would be appropriate         
      for this method.  The instructor would first demonstrate the             
      common indications of a stall, and then have the student attempt         
      to identify the same stall indications.                                  
                                                                               
      Combining the lecture and the demonstration-performance methods          
      would be useful for teaching students to overhaul an engine.  The        
      initial information on overhaul procedures would be taught in the        
      classroom using the lecture method, and the actual hands on              
      portion in the shop would use the demonstration-performance              
      method.                                                                  
                                                                               
      In the shop, the instructor would first demonstrate a procedure          
      and then the student would have an opportunity to perform the            
      same procedure.  In the demonstration-performance method, the            
      steps must be sequenced in the proper order so the students get a        
      correct picture of each separate process or operation, as well as        
      the overall procedure.                                                   
      Another form of presentation is the guided discussion which is           
      used in a classroom situation.  It is a good method for                  
      encouraging active participation of the students.  It is                 
      especially helpful in teaching subjects such as safety and               
      emergency procedures where students can use initiative and               
      imagination in addressing problem areas.  All three forms of             
      presentation will be addressed in greater depth in Chapter 5.            
                                                                               
      APPLICATION                                                              
                                                                               
      Application is where the student uses what the instructor has            
      presented.  After a classroom presentation, the student may be           
      asked to explain the new material.  The student also may be asked        
      to perform a procedure or operation that has just been                   
      demonstrated.  For example, after an instructor has demonstrated         
      and explained the use of the flight computer, the student may be         
      asked to use the flight computer to compute groundspeed, drift           
      correction, or time en route.  In most instructional situations,         
      the instructor's explanation and demonstration activities are            
      alternated with student performance efforts.  The instructor             
      makes a presentation and then asks the student to try the same           
      procedure or operation.                                                  
                                                                               
      Usually the instructor will have to interrupt the student's              
      efforts for corrections and further demonstrations.  This is             
      necessary, because it is very important that each student perform        
      the maneuver or operation the right way the first few times.             
      This is when habits are established.  Faulty habits are difficult        
      to correct and must be addressed as soon as possible.  Flight            
      instructors in particular must be aware of this problem since            
      students do a lot of their practice without an instructor.  Only         
      after reasonable competence has been demonstrated should the             
      student be allowed to practice certain maneuvers on solo flights.        
      Then, the student can practice the maneuver again and again until        
      correct performance becomes almost automatic.  Periodic review           
      and evaluation by the instructor is necessary to ensure that the         
      student has not acquired any bad habits.                                 
                                                                               
      REVIEW AND EVALUATION                                                    
                                                                               
      Before the end of the instructional period, the instructor should        
      review what has been covered during the lesson and require the           
      students to demonstrate how well the lesson objectives have been         
      met.  Evaluation is an integral part of each classroom, shop, or         
      flight lesson.  The instructor's evaluation may be informal and          
      recorded only for the instructor's own use in planning the next          
      lesson for the students, or it may be formal.  More likely, the          
      evaluation will be formal and results recorded to certify the            
      student's progress in the course.  In Chapter 5, methods of              
      integrating training syllabi and record keeping will be                  
      introduced.                                                              
                                                                               
      In either case, students should be made aware of their progress.         
      Any advances and deficiencies should be noted at the conclusion          
      of the lesson.  Failure to make students aware of their progress,        
      or lack of it, may create a barrier that could impede further            
      instruction.  Figure 4-3a                                               
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
            Figure 4-3.  If students understand that performance               
            is measured against task standards, they will be less              
              likely to become discouraged with their progress.                
                                                                               
            ___________________________________________________                
            You did very well on your landings today.         }                
            You are well ahead of what the syllabus requires. }                
           ___________________________________________________}                
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      In aviation training programs, the instructor should remember            
      that it often is difficult for students to get a clear picture of        
      their progress.  Students in flight training seldom have a chance        
      to compare their performance with other students.  However, they         
      are in a competitive situation with an unseen competitor -               
      competency - and they are normally able to compare their                 
      performance only with that of their instructor.  The instructor's        
      feedback must adequately compare the students' performance to the        
      completion standards of the lesson plan so the students really           
      know how they are doing.  Otherwise, the students may become             
      discouraged when their only visible competition, their                   
      instructor, is doing well and they are not.                              
                                                                               
      In addition to a review of knowledge and skills learned during           
      the instruction period just completed, each lesson should include        
      a selective review and evaluation of things previously learned.          
      If the evaluation reveals a deficiency in the knowledge or               
      performance, it must be corrected before new material is                 
      presented.                                                               
                                                                               
      If deficiencies or faults not associated with the present lesson         
      are revealed, they should be carefully noted and pointed out to          
      the student.  Corrective measures that are practicable within the        
      limitations of the current lesson should be taken immediately.           
      Remedial actions, which are beyond the scope of the immediate            
      lesson, must be included in future lessons in order to minimize          
      unsafe practices or other discrepancies.                                 
                                                                               
      The evaluation of student performance and accomplishment during a        
      lesson should be based on the objectives and goals that were             
      established in the instructor's lesson plan.  Review and                 
      evaluation allow both the instructor and the students to have a          
      valid picture of where the student stands in respect to the              
      established standard.  Review and evaluation in every lesson             
      provides opportunities for both positive feedback and correction         
      of faults.                                                               
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                  CHAPTER 5                                    
                                                                               
                              TEACHING METHODS                                 
                                                                               
      The information presented in previous chapters has been largely          
      theoretical, emphasizing concepts and principles pertinent to the        
      learning process, human behavior, and effective communication in         
      education and training programs.  This knowledge, if properly            
      used, will enable instructors to be more confident, efficient,           
      and successful.  The discussion which follows departs from the           
      theoretical with some specific recommendations for the actual            
      conduct of the teaching process.  Included are methods and               
      procedures which have been tested and found to be effective.             
                                                                               
      Teaching methods in common use, such as the lecture method, the          
      guided discussion method, and the demonstration-performance              
      method are covered in this chapter.  A discussion on cooperative         
      or group learning also is included since this type of learning           
      may be useful in conjunction with either the lecture or guided           
      discussion methods.  A teaching method is seldom used by itself.         
      In a typical lesson, an effective instructor normally uses more          
      than one method.  For example, a demonstration is usually                
      accompanied by a thorough explanation, which is essentially a            
      lecture.                                                                 
                                                                               
      Personal computers are a part of every segment of our society            
      today.  Since a number of computer-based programs are currently          
      available from publishers of aviation training materials, a brief        
      description of new technologies and how to use them effectively          
      is provided near the end of the chapter.                                 
                                                                               
      ORGANIZING MATERIAL                                                      
                                                                               
      Regardless of the teaching method used, an instructor must               
      properly organize the material.  The lessons do not stand alone          
      within a course of training.  There must be a plan of action to          
      lead instructors and their students through the course in a              
      logical manner toward the desired goal.  Usually the goal for            
      students is a certificate or rating.  It could be a private pilot        
      certificate, an instrument rating, or an aviation maintenance            
      technician certificate or rating.  In all cases, a systematic            
      plan of action requires the use of an appropriate training               
      syllabus.  Generally, the syllabus must contain a description of         
      each lesson, including objectives and completion standards.              
      Refer to Chapter 10, Planning Instructional Activity, for                
      detailed information on requirements for an aviation training            
      syllabus, and the building-block concept for curriculum                  
      development.                                                             
                                                                               
      Although some schools and independent instructors may develop            
      their own syllabus, in practice, many instructors use a                  
      commercially developed syllabus that already has been selected by        
      a school for use in their aviation training program.  Thus, the          
      main concern of the instructor usually is the more manageable            
      task of organizing a block of training with integrated lesson            
      plans.  The traditional way of organizing a lesson plan is -             
      introduction, development, and conclusion.                               
                                                                               
      INTRODUCTION                                                             
                                                                               
      The introduction sets the stage for everything to come.  Efforts         
      in this area pay great dividends in terms of quality of                  
      instruction.  In brief, the introduction is made up of three             
      elements - attention, motivation, and an overview of what is to          
      be covered.  Figure 5-1a                                                
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                 Figure 5-1.  The introduction prepares the                    
             students to receive the information in the lesson.                
                                                                               
                                INTRODUCTION                                   
                                                                               
           ELEMENT             PURPOSE                                         
                                                                               
           .  Attention   -    Establish common ground between                 
                               instructor and student                          
                          -    Capture and hold the attention of the           
                               class                                           
                          -    Specify benefits the student can expect         
                               from the lesson                                 
                                                                               
           .  Motivation  -    Establish receptive attitude toward             
                               lesson                                          
                          -    Create smooth transition into lesson            
           .  Overview    -    Indicate what is to be covered and              
                               relate this information to the overall          
                               course                                          
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      ATTENTION                                                                
                                                                               
      The purpose of the attention element is to focus each student's          
      attention on the lesson.  The instructor may begin by telling a          
      story, making an unexpected or surprising statement, asking a            
      question, or telling a joke.  Any of these may be appropriate at         
      one time or another.  Regardless of which is used, it should             
      relate to the subject and establish a background for developing          
      the learning outcomes.  Telling a story or a joke that is not            
      related in some way to the subject can only distract from the            
      lesson.  The main concern is to gain the attention of everyone           
      and concentrate on the subject.  Figure 5-2a                            
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                  Figure 5-2.  THE ATTENTION ELEMENT CAUSES                    
                  STUDENTS TO FOCUS ON THE UPCOMING LESSON.                    
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      MOTIVATION                                                               
                                                                               
      The purpose of the motivation element is to offer the students           
      specific reasons why the lesson content is important to know,            
      understand, apply, or perform.  For example, the instructor may          
      talk about an occurrence where the knowledge in the lesson was           
      applied.  Or the instructor may remind the students of an                
      upcoming test on the material.  This motivation should appeal to         
      each student personally and engender a desire to learn the               
      material.                                                                
                                                                               
      OVERVIEW                                                                 
                                                                               
      Every lesson introduction should contain an overview that tells          
      the group what is to be covered during the period.  A clear,             
      concise presentation of the objective and the key ideas gives the        
      students a road map of the route to be followed.  A good visual          
      aid can help the instructor show the students the path that they         
      are to travel.  The introduction should be free of stories,              
      jokes, or incidents that do not help the students focus their            
      attention on the lesson objective.  Also, the instructor should          
      avoid a long apologetic introduction, because it only serves to          
      dampen the students' interest in the lesson.                             
                                                                               
      DEVELOPMENT                                                              
                                                                               
      Development is the main part of the lesson.  Here, the instructor        
      develops the subject matter in a manner that helps the students          
      achieve the desired learning outcomes.  The instructor must              
      logically organize the material to show the relationships of the         
      main points.  The instructor usually shows these primary                 
      relationships by developing the main points in one of the                
      following ways:  from past to present, simple to complex, known          
      to unknown, and most frequently used to least frequently used.           
                                                                               
      PAST TO PRESENT                                                          
                                                                               
      In this pattern of development, the subject matter is arranged           
      chronologically, from the present to the past or from the past to        
      the present.  Time relationships are most suitable when history          
      is an important consideration, as in tracing the development of          
      radio navigation systems.                                                
                                                                               
      SIMPLE TO COMPLEX                                                        
                                                                               
      The simple-to-complex pattern helps the instructor lead the              
      student from simple facts or ideas to an understanding of                
      involved phenomena or concepts.  In studying jet propulsion, for         
      example, the student might begin by considering the action               
      involved in releasing air from a toy balloon and finish by taking        
      part in a discussion of a complex gas turbine engine.                    
                                                                               
      KNOWN TO UNKNOWN                                                         
                                                                               
      By using something the student already knows as the point of             
      departure, the instructor can lead into new ideas and concepts.          
      For example, in developing a lesson on heading indicators, the           
      instructor could begin with a discussion of the vacuum-driven            
      heading indicator before proceeding to a description of the radio        
      magnetic indicator (RMI).                                                
                                                                               
      MOST FREQUENTLY USED TO LEAST FREQUENTLY USED                            
                                                                               
      In some subjects, certain information or concepts are common to          
      all who use the material.  This fourth organizational pattern            
      starts with common usage before progressing to the rarer ones.           
      When learning navigation, students should study frequently used          
      pilotage, dead reckoning, and basic VOR/NDB radio navigation             
      procedures before going on to area navigation procedures such as         
      global positioning system (GPS) or inertial navigation system            
      (INS).                                                                   
      Under each main point in a lesson, the subordinate points should         
      lead naturally from one to the other.  With this arrangement,            
      each point leads logically into, and serves as a reminder of, the        
      next.  Meaningful transitions from one main point to another keep        
      the students oriented, aware of where they have been, and where          
      they are going.  This permits effective sorting or categorizing          
      chunks of information in the working or short-term memory.               
      Organizing a lesson so the students will grasp the logical               
      relationships of ideas is not an easy task, but it is necessary          
      if the students are to learn and remember what they have learned.        
      Poorly organized information is of little or no value to the             
      student because it cannot be readily understood or remembered.           
                                                                               
      CONCLUSION                                                               
                                                                               
      An effective conclusion retraces the important elements of the           
      lesson and relates them to the objective.  This review and               
      wrap-up of ideas reinforces student learning and improves the            
      retention of what has been learned.  New ideas should not be             
      introduced in the conclusion because at this point they are              
      likely to confuse the students.                                          
                                                                               
      By organizing the lesson material into a logical format, the             
      instructor has maximized the opportunity for students to retain          
      the desired information.  However, each teaching situation is            
      unique.  The setting and purpose of the lesson will determine            
      which teaching method - lecture, guided discussion,                      
      demonstration-performance, cooperative or group learning,                
      computer-based training, or a combination - will be used.                
                                                                               
      LECTURE METHOD                                                           
      The lecture method is the most widely used form of presentation.         
      Every instructor should know how to develop and present a                
      lecture.  They also should understand the advantages and                 
      limitations of this method.  Lectures are used for introduction          
      of new subjects, summarizing ideas, showing relationships between        
      theory and practice, and reemphasizing main points.  The lecture         
      method is adaptable to many different settings, including either         
      small or large groups.  Lectures also may be used to introduce a         
      unit of instruction or a complete training program.  Finally,            
      lectures may be combined with other teaching methods to give             
      added meaning and direction.                                             
                                                                               
      The lecture method of teaching needs to be very flexible since it        
      may be used in different ways.  For example, there are several           
      types of lectures such as the illustrated talk where the speaker         
      relies heavily on visual aids to convey ideas to the listeners.          
      With a briefing, the speaker presents a concise array of facts to        
      the listeners who normally do not expect elaboration of                  
      supporting material.  During a formal lecture, the speaker's             
      purpose is to inform, to persuade, or to entertain with little or        
      no verbal participation by the students.  When using a teaching          
      lecture, the instructor plans and delivers an oral presentation          
      in a manner that allows some participation by the students and           
      helps direct them toward the desired learning outcomes.                  
                                                                               
      TEACHING LECTURE                                                         
                                                                               
      The teaching lecture is favored by aviation instructors because          
      it allows some active participation by the students.  The                
      instructor must determine the method to be used in developing the        
      subject matter.  The instructor also should carefully consider           
      the class size and the depth of the presentation.  As mentioned          
      in Chapter 3, covering a subject in too much detail is as bad or         
      worse than sketchy coverage.  Regardless of the method of                
      development or depth of coverage, the success of the teaching            
      lecture depends upon the instructor's ability to communicate             
      effectively with the class.                                              
                                                                               
      In other methods of teaching such as demonstration-performance or        
      guided discussion, the instructor receives direct reaction from          
      the students, either verbally or by some form of body language.          
      However, in the teaching lecture, the feedback is not nearly as          
      obvious and is much harder to interpret.  In the teaching                
      lecture, the instructor must develop a keen perception for subtle        
      responses from the class - facial expressions, manner of taking          
      notes, and apparent interest or disinterest in the lesson.  The          
      successful instructor will be able to interpret the meaning of           
      these reactions and adjust the lesson accordingly.                       
                                                                               
      PREPARING THE TEACHING LECTURE                                           
                                                                               
      The competent instructor knows that careful preparation is one           
      key to successful performance as a classroom lecturer.  This             
      preparation should start well in advance of the presentation.            
      The following four steps should be followed in the planning phase        
      of preparation:                                                          
                                                                               
           .  Establishing the objective and desired outcomes;                 
           .  Researching the subject;                                         
           .  Organizing the material; and                                     
           .  Planning productive classroom activities.                        
                                                                               
      In all stages of preparing for the teaching lecture, the                 
      instructor should support any point to be covered with meaningful        
      examples, comparisons, statistics, or testimony.  The instructor         
      should consider that the student may neither believe nor                 
      understand any point without the use of testimony from subject           
      area experts or without meaningful examples, statistics, or              
      comparisons.  While developing the lesson, the instructor also           
      should strongly consider the use of examples and personal                
      experiences related to the subject of the lesson.                        
                                                                               
      After completing the preliminary planning and writing of the             
      lesson plan, the instructor should rehearse the lecture to build         
      self-confidence.  Rehearsals, or dry runs, help smooth out the           
      mechanics of using notes, visual aids, and other instructional           
      devices.  If possible, the instructor should have another                
      knowledgeable person, preferably another instructor, observe the         
      practice sessions and act as a critic.  This critique will help          
      the instructor judge the adequacy of supporting materials and            
      visual aids, as well as the presentation.  Figure 5-3a                  
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
         Figure 5-3.  INSTRUCTORS SHOULD TRY A DRY RUN WITH ANOTHER            
           INSTRUCTOR TO GET A FEEL FOR THE LECTURE PRESENTATION.              
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      SUITABLE LANGUAGE                                                        
                                                                               
      In the teaching lecture, simple rather than complex words should         
      be used whenever possible.  Good newspapers offer examples of the        
      effective use of simple words.  Picturesque slang and free-and-          
      easy colloquialisms, if they suit the subject, can add variety           
      and vividness to a teaching lecture.  The instructor should not,         
      however, use substandard English.  Errors in grammar and                 
      vulgarisms detract from an instructor's dignity and reflect upon         
      the intelligence of the students.                                        
                                                                               
      If the subject matter includes technical terms, the instructor           
      should clearly define each one so that no student is in doubt            
      about its meaning.  Whenever possible, the instructor should use         
      specific rather than general words.  For example, the specific           
      words, a leak in the fuel line, tell more than the general term,         
      mechanical defect.                                                       
                                                                               
      Another way the instructor can add life to the lecture is to vary        
      his or her tone of voice and pace of speaking.  In addition,             
      using sentences of different length helps, since consistent use          
      of short sentences results in a choppy style.  Unless long               
      sentences are carefully constructed, they are difficult to follow        
      and can easily become tangled.  To ensure clarity and variety,           
      the instructor should normally use sentences of short and medium         
      length.                                                                  
                                                                               
      TYPES OF DELIVERY                                                        
                                                                               
      Lectures may include several different types of delivery.                
      However, depending on the requirements of any particular                 
      circumstances, a lecture is usually delivered in one of four             
      ways:                                                                    
                                                                               
           .  Reading from a typed or written manuscript.                      
           .  Reciting memorized material without the aid of a                 
              manuscript.                                                      
           .  Speaking extemporaneously from an outline.                       
           .  Speaking impromptu without preparation.                          
      The teaching lecture is probably best delivered in an                    
      extemporaneous manner.  The instructor speaks from a mental or           
      written outline, but does not read or memorize the material to be        
      presented.  Because the exact words to express an idea are               
      spontaneous, the lecture is more personalized than one that is           
      read or spoken from memory.                                              
                                                                               
      Since the instructor talks directly to the students, their               
      reactions can be readily observed, and adjustments can be made           
      based on their responses.  The instructor has better control of          
      the situation, can change the approach to meet any contingency,          
      and can tailor each idea to suit the responses of the students.          
      For example, if the instructor realizes from puzzled expressions         
      that a number of students fail to grasp an idea, that point can          
      be elaborated on until the reactions of the students indicate            
      they understand.  The extemporaneous presentation reflects the           
      instructor's personal enthusiasm and is more flexible than other         
      methods.  For these reasons, it is likely to hold the interest of        
      the students.                                                            
                                                                               
      USE OF NOTES                                                             
                                                                               
      An instructor who is thoroughly prepared or who has made the             
      presentation before can usually speak effectively without notes.         
      If the lecture has been carefully prepared, and the instructor is        
      completely familiar with the outline, there should be no real            
      difficulty.                                                              
                                                                               
      Notes used wisely can ensure accuracy, jog the memory, and dispel        
      the fear of forgetting.  They are essential for reporting                
      complicated information.  For an instructor who tends to ramble,         
      notes are a must because they help keep the lecture on track.            
      The instructor who requires notes should use them sparingly and          
      unobtrusively, but at the same time should make no effort to hide        
      them from the students.  Notes may be written legibly or typed,          
      and they should be placed where they can be consulted easily, or         
      held, if the instructor walks about the room.  Figure 5-4a              
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                    Figure 5-4.  NOTES ALLOW THE ACCURATE                      
                  DISSEMINATION OF COMPLICATED INFORMATION.                    
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      FORMAL VERSUS INFORMAL LECTURES                                          
                                                                               
      The lecture may be conducted in either a formal or an informal           
      manner.  The informal lecture includes active student                    
      participation.  The primary consideration in the lecture method,         
      as in all other teaching methods, is the achievement of desired          
      learning outcomes.  Learning is best achieved if students                
      participate actively in a friendly, relaxed atmosphere.                  
      Therefore, the use of the informal lecture is encouraged.  At the        
      same time, it must be realized that a formal lecture is still to         
      be preferred on some subjects and occasions, such as lectures            
      introducing new subject matter.                                          
                                                                               
      The instructor can achieve active student participation in the           
      informal lecture through the use of questions.  In this way, the         
      students are encouraged to make contributions that supplement the        
      lecture.  The instructor can use questions to determine the              
      experience and background of the students in order to tailor the         
      lecture to their needs, and/or to add variety, stimulate                 
      interest, and check student understanding.  However, it is the           
      instructor's responsibility to plan, organize, develop, and              
      present the major portion of a lesson.                                   
                                                                               
      ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE LECTURE                              
                                                                               
      There are a number of advantages to lectures.  For example, a            
      lecture is a convenient way to instruct large groups.  If                
      necessary, a public address system can be used to amplify the            
      speaker's voice.  Lectures can be used to present information            
      that would be difficult for the student to get in other ways,            
      particularly if the students do not have the time required for           
      research, or if they do not have access to reference material.           
      Lectures also can usefully and successfully supplement other             
      teaching devices and methods.  A brief introductory lecture can          
      give direction and purpose to a demonstration or prepare students        
      for a discussion by telling them something about the subject             
      matter to be covered.                                                    
                                                                               
      In a lecture, the instructor can present many ideas in a                 
      relatively short time.  Facts and ideas that have been logically         
      organized can be concisely presented in rapid sequence.                  
      Lecturing is unquestionably the most economical of all teaching          
      methods in terms of the time required to present a given amount          
      of material.                                                             
                                                                               
      The lecture is particularly suitable for introducing a new               
      subject and for explaining the necessary background information.         
      By using a lecture in this way, the instructor can offer students        
      with varied backgrounds a common understanding of essential              
      principles and facts.                                                    
                                                                               
      Although the lecture method can help the instructor meet special         
      challenges, it does have several drawbacks.  Too often the               
      lecture inhibits student participation and, as a consequence,            
      many students willingly let the instructor do all the work.              
      Learning is an active process, and the lecture method tends to           
      foster passiveness and teacher-dependence on the part of the             
      students.  As a teaching method, the lecture does not bring about        
      maximum attainment of certain types of learning outcomes.  Motor         
      skills, for example, can seldom be learned by listening to a             
      lecture.  The only effective way students can perfect such skills        
      is through hands-on practice.                                            
                                                                               
      The lecture does not easily allow the instructor to estimate the         
      students' understanding as the material is covered.  Within a            
      single period, the instructor may unwittingly present more               
      information than students can absorb, and the lecture method             
      provides no accurate means of checking student progress.                 
                                                                               
      Many instructors find it difficult to hold the attention of all          
      students in a lecture throughout the class period.  To achieve           
      desired learning outcomes through the lecture method, an                 
      instructor needs considerable skill in speaking.  As indicated in        
      Chapter 1, a student's rate of retention drops off significantly         
      after the first 10 - 15 minutes of a lecture and picks back up at        
      the end.  In addition, the retention rate for a lecture is about         
      five percent after 24 hours.  In comparison, the rate of                 
      retention for active learning goes up dramatically.  An                  
      instructor who can introduce some form of active student                 
      participation in the middle of a lecture will greatly increase           
      retention.  One form of active learning that has been                    
      successfully used is cooperative or group learning.                      
                                                                               
      COOPERATIVE OR GROUP LEARNING METHOD                                     
                                                                               
      Cooperative or group learning is an instructional strategy which         
      organizes students into small groups so that they can work               
      together to maximize their own and each other's learning.                
      Numerous research studies in diverse school settings, and across         
      a wide range of subject areas, indicate promising possibilities          
      for academic achievement with this strategy.  For example,               
      advocates have noted that students completing cooperative                
      learning group tasks tend to have higher test scores, higher             
      self-esteem, improved social skills, and greater comprehension of        
      the subjects they are studying.  Numerous other benefits for             
      students have been attributed to these programs.  Perhaps the            
      most significant characteristic of group learning is that it             
      continually requires active participation of the student in the          
      learning process.                                                        
                                                                               
      CONDITIONS AND CONTROLS                                                  
                                                                               
      In spite of its many advantages, cooperative or group learning is        
      not a panacea for education or training.  Virtually all studies          
      and literature carefully mention that success depends on                 
      conditions that must be met and certain controls that must be in         
      place.  First of all, instructors need to begin planning early to        
      determine what the student group is expected to learn and be able        
      to do on their own.  The end result of a curriculum unit or group        
      task may emphasize academic achievement, cognitive abilities, or         
      physical skills, but the instructor must describe in very                
      unambiguous language the specific knowledge and/or abilities the         
      students are to acquire and then demonstrate on their own.  In           
      addition to clear and specific learning outcomes or objectives,          
      some of the other conditions and controls that may apply are             
      discussed in the following paragraphs.                                   
                                                                               
      HETEROGENEOUS GROUPS                                                     
                                                                               
      Instructors should organize small groups of approximately 3 to 6         
      members so that students are mixed heterogeneously, considering          
      academic abilities, ethnic backgrounds, race, and gender.                
      Students should not be allowed to form their own groups based on         
      friendship or cliques.  The main advantages with heterogeneous           
      groups are that students tend to interact and achieve in ways and        
      at levels that are rarely found with other instructional                 
      strategies.  They also tend to become tolerant of diverse                
      viewpoints, to consider the thoughts and feelings of others, and         
      to seek more support and clarification of various opinions.              
                                                                               
      CLEAR, COMPLETE DIRECTIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS                              
                                                                               
      Instructors need to provide directions and instructions that             
      contain in clear, precise terms exactly what students are to do,         
      in what order, with what materials, and when appropriate, what           
      students are to generate as evidence of their mastery of targeted        
      content and skills.  These directions need to be given to the            
      students before they engage in their group learning efforts.             
                                                                               
      ALL STUDENTS IN THE GROUP MUST BUY INTO THE TARGETED OBJECTIVES          
                                                                               
      Students must perceive these objectives as their own.  They must         
      understand and believe that everyone in the group needs to master        
      the essential information and/or skills.  In cases where groups          
      select their own objectives, all members of the group must accept        
      the objectives as ones they have agreed to achieve.                      
                                                                               
      POSITIVE INTERDEPENDENCE                                                 
                                                                               
      Instructors must structure learning tasks so students will               
      believe that they sink or swim together.  Thus, access to rewards        
      is through membership in the group where all members receive a           
      reward or no member does.  This means tasks are structured so            
      that students must depend upon one another for their group's             
      success in completing and mastering the targeted objectives.             
                                                                               
      OPPORTUNITY FOR SUCCESS                                                  
                                                                               
      Every student must believe that he or she has an equal chance of         
      learning the content and/or abilities, and earning the group             
      rewards for success, regardless of the group he or she is in.  In        
      other words, the student must not feel penalized by being placed         
      in a particular group.                                                   
                                                                               
      ACCESS TO MUST-LEARN INFORMATION                                         
                                                                               
      Instructors must structure the tasks so that students have access        
      to and comprehend the specific information that they must learn.         
      The focus of learning tasks must be aligned with the specific            
      objectives, as well as any test items that will be used to               
      measure their achievement.                                               
                                                                               
      SUFFICIENT TIME FOR LEARNING                                             
                                                                               
      Each student and group should be provided the amount of time             
      needed to learn the targeted information and/or abilities.  If           
      students do not spend sufficient time learning, the benefits will        
      be limited.  Research suggests that many of the positive values,         
      social skills, and academic advantages of cooperative learning           
      tend to emerge and be retained only after students have spent            
      several weeks together in the same heterogeneous group.                  
                                                                               
      POSITIVE SOCIAL INTERACTION BEHAVIORS AND ATTITUDES                      
                                                                               
      Students should be positioned and postured to face each other for        
      direct eye-to-eye contact and face-to-face conversations.  Just          
      because students are placed in groups and expected to use                
      appropriate social and group skills does not mean they will              
      automatically use these skills.  To work together as a group,            
      students need to engage in such interactive abilities as                 
      leadership, trust-building, conflict management, constructive            
      criticism, encouragement, compromise, negotiation, and                   
      clarification.  Instructors may need to describe the expected            
      social interaction behaviors and attitudes of students, and to           
      assign particular students specific roles to ensure that they            
      consciously work on these behaviors in their groups.                     
                                                                               
      INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY                                                
                                                                               
      The main reason that students are put in cooperative learning            
      groups is so they can individually achieve greater success than          
      if they were to study alone.  Thus, each student must be held            
      individually responsible and accountable for doing his or her own        
      share of the work and for learning what needs to be learned.  As         
      a result, each student must be formally and individually tested          
      to determine mastery and retention of the targeted learning              
      outcomes or training objectives.                                         
                                                                               
      RECOGNITION AND REWARDS FOR GROUP SUCCESS                                
                                                                               
      Only members of groups who meet established levels for                   
      achievement receive the rewards or public recognition.  The              
      specific awards must be something valued by the students.                
                                                                               
      DEBRIEF ON GROUP EFFORTS                                                 
                                                                               
      Students should spend time after the group tasks have been               
      completed to systematically reflect upon how they worked together        
      as a team - specifically how well they achieved their group              
      objectives; how they helped each other comprehend the content,           
      resources, and task procedures; how they used positive behaviors         
      and attitudes to enable each individual and the entire group to          
      be successful; and what they need to do in the future to be even         
      more successful.                                                         
                                                                               
      All of the preceding conditions and controls do not have to be           
      used every time an instructor assigns students to work in groups.        
      In practice, cooperative or group learning in aviation training          
      is normally modified to adapt to school policy or for other valid        
      reasons.  For example, collaborative, student-led, instructor-           
      led, or working group strategies are alternatives to a pure form         
      of group learning.  In these examples, the student leader or the         
      instructor serves as a coach or facilitator who interacts with           
      the group, as necessary, to keep it on track or to encourage             
      everyone in the group to participate.                                    
                                                                               
      GUIDED DISCUSSION METHOD                                                 
                                                                               
      In the guided discussion method, as is true with any group               
      learning effort, the instructor typically relies on the students         
      to provide ideas, experiences, opinions, and information.  An            
      instructor may use this method during classroom periods, and             
      preflight and postflight briefings, after the students have              
      gained some knowledge and experience.  Fundamentally, the guided         
      discussion method is almost the opposite of the lecture method.          
      The instructor's goal is to draw out what the students know,             
      rather than to spend the class period telling them.  The                 
      instructor should remember that the more intense the discussion          
      and the greater the participation, the more effective the                
      learning.  All members of the group should follow the discussion.        
      The instructor should treat everyone impartially, encourage              
      questions, exercise patience and tact, and comment on all                
      responses.  Sarcasm or ridicule should never be used, since it           
      inhibits the spontaneity of the participants.  In a guided               
      discussion, the instructor acts as a facilitator to encourage            
      discussion between students.                                             
                                                                               
      USE OF QUESTIONS IN A GUIDED DISCUSSION                                  
                                                                               
      In the guided discussion, learning is achieved through the               
      skillful use of questions.  Questions can be categorized by              
      function and by characteristics.  Understanding these                    
      distinctions helps the instructor become a more skilled user of          
      questions.                                                               
                                                                               
      The instructor often uses a question to open up an area for              
      discussion.  This is the lead-off question and its function is           
      indicated by its name.  The purpose is to get the discussion             
      started.  After the discussion develops, the instructor may ask a        
      follow-up question to guide the discussion.  The reasons for             
      using a follow-up question may vary.  The instructor may want a          
      student to explain something more thoroughly, or may need to             
      bring the discussion back to a point from which it has strayed.          
                                                                               
      In terms of characteristics, questions can be identified as              
      overhead, rhetorical, direct, reverse, and relay.  The overhead          
      question is directed to the entire group to stimulate the thought        
      and response from each group member.  The instructor may use an          
      overhead question to pose the lead-off question.  The rhetorical         
      question is similar in nature, because it also spurs group               
      thought.  However, the instructor provides the answer to the             
      rhetorical question.  Consequently, it is more commonly used in          
      lecturing than in guided discussion.                                     
                                                                               
      The instructor who wants to phrase a question for follow-up              
      purposes may choose the overhead type.  If, however, a response          
      is desired from a specific individual, a direct question may be          
      asked of that student.  A reverse question is used in response to        
      a student's question.  Rather than give a direct answer to the           
      student's query, the instructor can redirect the question to             
      another student to provide the answer.  A relay question is              
      redirected to the group instead of the individual.                       
                                                                               
      Questions are so much a part of teaching that they are often             
      taken for granted.  Effective use of questions may result in more        
      student learning than any other single technique used by                 
      instructors.  In general, instructors should ask open-ended              
      questions that are thought provoking and require more mental             
      activity than simply remembering facts.  Since most aviation             
      training is at the understanding level of learning, or higher,           
      questions should require students to grasp concepts, explain             
      similarities and differences, and to infer cause-and-effect              
      relationships.  Figure 5-5a                                             
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
               Figure 5-5.  If the objectives of a lesson are                  
            clearly established in advance, instructors will find              
            it much easier to ask appropriate questions that keep              
               the discussion moving in the planned direction.                 
                                                                               
                  CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE QUESTION                     
                                                                               
           .  Have a Specific Purpose                                          
             .  Be Clear in Meaning                                            
               .  Contain a Single Idea                                        
                 .  Stimulate Thought                                          
                   .  Require Definite Answers                                 
                     .  Relate to Previously Covered Information               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      PLANNING A GUIDED DISCUSSION                                             
                                                                               
      Planning a guided discussion is basically the same as planning a         
      lecture.  The instructor will find the following suggestions             
      helpful in planning a discussion lesson.  Note that these same           
      suggestions include many that are appropriate for planning               
      cooperative learning.                                                    
                                                                               
      .    Select a topic the students can profitably discuss.  Unless         
           the students have some knowledge to exchange with each              
           other, they cannot reach the desired learning outcomes by           
           the discussion method.  If necessary, make assignments that         
           will give the students an adequate background for discussing        
           the lesson topic.                                                   
                                                                               
      .    Establish a specific lesson objective with desired learning         
           outcomes.  Through discussion, the students develop an              
           understanding of the subject by sharing knowledge,                  
           experiences, and backgrounds.  Consequently, the objective          
           normally is stated at the understanding level of learning.          
           The desired learning outcomes should stem from the                  
           objective.                                                          
                                                                               
      .    Conduct adequate research to become familiar with the topic.        
           While researching, the instructor should always be alert for        
           ideas on the best way to tailor a lesson for a particular           
           group of students.  Similarly, the instructor can prepare           
           the pre-discussion assignment more effectively while                
           conducting research for the classroom period.  During this          
           research process, the instructor should also earmark reading        
           material that appears to be especially appropriate as               
           background material for students.  Such material should be          
           well organized and based on fundamentals.                           
                                                                               
      .    Organize the main and subordinate points of the lesson in a         
           logical sequence.  The guided discussion has three main             
           parts - introduction, discussion, and conclusion.  The              
           introduction consists of three elements - attention,                
           motivation, and overview.  In the discussion, the instructor        
           should be certain that the main points discussed build              
           logically with the objective.  The conclusion consists of           
           the summary, remotivation, and closure.  By organizing in           
           this manner, the instructor phrases the questions to help           
           the students obtain a firm grasp of the subject matter and          
           to minimize the possibility of a rambling discussion.               
                                                                               
      .    Plan at least one lead-off question for each desired                
           learning outcome.  In preparing questions, the instructor           
           should remember that the purpose is to stimulate discussion,        
           not merely to get answers.  The instructor should avoid             
           questions that require only short categorical answers, such         
           as yes or no.  Lead-off questions should usually begin with         
           how or why.  For example, it is better, to ask "Why does an         
           airplane normally require a longer takeoff run at Denver            
           than at New Orleans?" instead of, "Would you expect an              
           airplane to require a longer takeoff run at Denver or at New        
           Orleans?"  Students can answer the second question by merely        
           saying "Denver," but the first question is likely to start a        
           discussion of air density, engine efficiency, and the effect        
           of temperature on performance.                                      
                                                                               
      STUDENT PREPARATION FOR A GUIDED DISCUSSION                              
                                                                               
      It is the instructor's responsibility to help students prepare           
      themselves for the discussion.  Each student should be encouraged        
      to accept responsibility for contributing to the discussion and          
      benefiting from it.  Throughout the time the instructor prepares         
      the students for their discussion, they should be made aware of          
      the lesson objective.  In certain instances, the instructor has          
      no opportunity to assign preliminary work and must face the              
      students cold for the first time.  In such cases, it is practical        
      and advisable to give the students a brief general survey of the         
      topic during the introduction.  Normally students should not be          
      asked to discuss a subject without some background in that               
      subject.                                                                 
                                                                               
      GUIDING A DISCUSSION - INSTRUCTOR TECHNIQUE                              
                                                                               
      The techniques used to guide a discussion require practice and           
      experience.  The instructor needs to keep up with the discussion         
      and know where to intervene with questions or redirect the               
      group's focus.  The following information provides a framework           
      for successfully conducting the guided discussion.                       
      INTRODUCTION                                                             
                                                                               
      A guided discussion lesson is introduced in the same manner as           
      the lecture.  The introduction should include an attention               
      element, a motivation element, and an overview of key points.  To        
      encourage enthusiasm and stimulate discussion, the instructor            
      should create a relaxed, informal atmosphere.  Each student              
      should be given the opportunity to discuss the various aspects of        
      the subject, and feel free to do so.  Moreover, the student              
      should feel a personal responsibility to contribute.  The                
      instructor should try to make the students feel that their ideas         
      and active participation are wanted and needed.                          
                                                                               
      DISCUSSION                                                               
                                                                               
      The instructor opens the discussion by asking one of the prepared        
      lead-off questions.  After asking a question, the instructor             
      should be patient.  The students should be given a chance to             
      react.  The instructor should have the answer in mind before             
      asking the question, but the students have to think about the            
      question before answering.  Sometimes an instructor finds it             
      difficult to be patient while students figure out answers.  Keep         
      in mind that it takes time to recall data, determine how to              
      answer, or to think of an example.                                       
                                                                               
      The more difficult the question, the more time the students will         
      need to produce an answer.  Sometimes students do not understand         
      the question.  Whenever the instructor sees puzzled expressions,         
      the question should be rephrased in a slightly different form.           
      The nature of the questions should be determined by the lesson           
      objective and desired learning outcomes.                                 
      Once the discussion is underway, the instructor should listen            
      attentively to the ideas, experiences, and examples contributed          
      by the students during the discussion.  Remember that during the         
      preparation, the instructor listed some of the anticipated               
      responses that would, if discussed by the students, indicate that        
      they had a firm grasp of the subject.  As the discussion                 
      proceeds, the instructor may find it necessary to guide the              
      direction, to stimulate the students to explore the subject in           
      greater depth, or to encourage them to discuss the topic in more         
      detail.  By using how and why follow-up questions, the instructor        
      should be able to guide the discussion toward the objective of           
      helping students understand the subject.                                 
                                                                               
      When it appears the students have discussed the ideas that               
      support this particular part of the lesson, the instructor should        
      summarize what the students have accomplished.  In a guided              
      discussion lesson, the interim summary is one of the most                
      effective tools available to the instructor.  To bring ideas             
      together and help in transition, an interim summary can be made          
      immediately after the discussion of each learning outcome.  This         
      will summarize the ideas developed by the group and show how they        
      relate to, and support, the idea discussed.  The interim summary         
      may be omitted after discussing the last learning outcome when it        
      is more expedient for the instructor to present the first part of        
      the conclusion.  An interim summary reinforces learning in               
      relation to a specific learning outcome.  In addition to its uses        
      as a summary and transitional device, the interim summary may            
      also be used to keep the group on the subject or to divert the           
      discussion to another member.                                            
                                                                               
      CONCLUSION                                                               
      A guided discussion is closed by summarizing the material                
      covered.  In the conclusion the instructor should tie together           
      the various points or topics discussed, and show the                     
      relationships between the facts brought forth and the practical          
      application of these facts.  For example, in concluding a                
      discussion on density altitude, an instructor might give a fairly        
      complete description of an accident which occurred due to a pilot        
      attempting to take off in an overloaded airplane from a short            
      runway at a high-altitude airport on a hot day.                          
                                                                               
      The summary should be succinct, but not incomplete.  If the              
      discussion has revealed that certain areas are not understood by         
      one or more members of the group, the instructor should clarify          
      or cover this material again.                                            
                                                                               
      DEMONSTRATION-PERFORMANCE METHOD                                         
                                                                               
      This method of teaching is based on the simple, yet sound                
      principle that we learn by doing.  Students learn physical or            
      mental skills by actually performing those skills under                  
      supervision.  An individual learns to write by writing, to weld          
      by welding, and to fly an aircraft by actually performing flight         
      maneuvers.  Students also learn mental skills, such as speed             
      reading, by this method.  Skills requiring the use of tools,             
      machines, and equipment are particularly well suited to this             
      instructional method.                                                    
                                                                               
      Every instructor should recognize the importance of student              
      performance in the learning process.  Early in a lesson that is          
      to include demonstration and performance, the instructor should          
      identify the most important learning outcomes.  Next, explain and        
      demonstrate the steps involved in performing the skill being             
      taught.  Then, allow students time to practice each step, so they        
      can increase their ability to perform the skill.                         
                                                                               
      The demonstration-performance method is widely used.  The science        
      teacher uses it during laboratory periods, the aircraft                  
      maintenance instructor uses it in the shop, and the flight               
      instructor uses it in teaching piloting skills.  Figure 5-6a            
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                 Figure 5-6.  The demonstration-performance                    
                method of teaching has five essential phases.                  
                                                                               
                      DEMONSTRATION-PERFORMANCE METHOD                         
                                                                               
                .  Explanation                                                 
                  .  Demonstration                                             
                    .  Student Performance                                     
                      .  Instructor Supervision                                
                        .  Evaluation                                          
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      EXPLANATION PHASE                                                        
                                                                               
      Explanations must be clear, pertinent to the objectives of the           
      particular lesson to be presented, and based on the known                
      experience and knowledge of the students.  In teaching a skill,          
      the instructor must convey to the students the precise actions           
      they are to perform.  In addition to the necessary steps, the            
      instructor should describe the end result of these efforts.              
      Before leaving this phase, the instructor should encourage               
      students to ask questions about any step of the procedure that           
      they do not understand.                                                  
                                                                               
      DEMONSTRATION PHASE                                                      
                                                                               
      The instructor must show students the actions necessary to               
      perform a skill.  As little extraneous activity as possible              
      should be included in the demonstration if students are to               
      clearly understand that the instructor is accurately performing          
      the actions previously explained.  If, due to some unanticipated         
      circumstances the demonstration does not closely conform to the          
      explanation, this deviation should be immediately acknowledged           
      and explained.                                                           
                                                                               
      STUDENT PERFORMANCE AND INSTRUCTOR SUPERVISION PHASES                    
                                                                               
      Because these two phases, which involve separate actions, are            
      performed concurrently, they are discussed here under a single           
      heading.  The first of these phases is the student's performance         
      of the physical or mental skills that have been explained and            
      demonstrated.  The second activity is the instructor's                   
      supervision.                                                             
                                                                               
      Student performance requires students to act and do.  To learn           
      skills, students must practice.  The instructor must, therefore,         
      allot enough time for meaningful student activity.  Through              
      doing, students learn to follow correct procedures and to reach          
      established standards.  It is important that students be given an        
      opportunity to perform the skill as soon as possible after a             
      demonstration.  In flight training, the instructor may allow the         
      student to follow along on the controls during the demonstration         
      of a maneuver.  Immediately thereafter, the instructor should            
      have the student attempt to perform the maneuver, coaching as            
      necessary.  In another example, students have been performing a          
      task, such as a weight and balance computation, as a group.              
      Prior to terminating the performance phase, they should be               
      allowed to independently complete the task at least once, with           
      supervision and coaching as necessary.                                   
                                                                               
      EVALUATION PHASE                                                         
                                                                               
      In this phase, the instructor judges student performance.  The           
      student displays whatever competence has been attained, and the          
      instructor discovers just how well the skill has been learned.           
      To test each student's ability to perform, the instructor                
      requires students to work independently throughout this phase and        
      makes some comment as to how each performed the skill relative to        
      the way it was taught.  From this measurement of student                 
      achievement, the instructor determines the effectiveness of the          
      instruction.                                                             
                                                                               
      COMPUTER-BASED TRAINING METHOD                                           
                                                                               
      Many new and innovative training technologies are available              
      today.  One of the most significant is computer-based training           
      (CBT) - the use of the personal computer as a training device.           
      CBT is sometimes called computer-based instruction (CBI).  The           
      terms CBT and CBI are synonymous and may be used interchangeably.        
      The personal computer or PC has revolutionized the way businesses        
      function and promises the same for education and training.  The          
      new generation is as comfortable with the PC as they are with the        
      telephone.  As a result, educators today are using personal              
      computers as part of educational programs of all types.                  
                                                                               
      For example, major aircraft manufacturers allocate considerable          
      resources to developing CBT programs that are used to teach              
      aircraft systems and maintenance procedures.  As a result, the           
      amount of manpower necessary to train aircrews and maintenance           
      technicians on the new equipment has been significantly reduced.         
      End users of the aircraft, such as the major airlines, can               
      purchase the package of CBT materials along with the aircraft in         
      order to accomplish both initial and recurrent training of their         
      personnel.  One of the major advantages of CBT is that students          
      can progress at a rate which is comfortable for them.  The               
      students also are often able to access the CBT at their own              
      convenience rather than that of the instructor.                          
                                                                               
      Computers are now used for training at many different levels.            
      One example that is very significant is the high technology              
      flight training devices and flight simulators in use by everyone         
      from flight schools to major airlines, as well as the military.          
      Fixed-base operators (FBOs) who offer instrument training may use        
      personal computer-based aviation training devices (PCATDs) or            
      flight training devices (FTDs) for a portion of the instrument           
      time a pilot needs for the instrument rating.  Major airlines            
      have high-level flight simulators that are so realistic that             
      transitioning captains meet all qualifications in the flight             
      simulator.  Likewise, military pilots use flight training devices        
      or flight simulators to prepare for flying aircraft, such as the         
      A-10, for which there are no two-seat training versions.                 
                                                                               
      Other common examples of CBT include the computer versions of the        
      test prep study guides which are useful for preparation for the          
      FAA knowledge tests.  These programs typically allow the students        
      to select a test, complete the questions, and find out how they          
      did on the test.  The student may then conduct a review of               
      questions missed.                                                        
      Some of the more advanced CBT applications allow students to             
      progress through a series of interactive segments where the              
      presentation varies as a result of their responses.  If students         
      wish to learn about a particular area, they do so by clicking the        
      mouse on a particular portion of the screen.  They can focus on          
      the area they either need to study or want to study.  For                
      example, a maintenance student who wants to find information on          
      the refueling of a specific aircraft could use a CBT program to          
      access the refueling section, and study the entire procedure.  If        
      the student wishes to repeat a section or a portion of the               
      section, it can be done at any time merely by clicking on the            
      appropriate icon.                                                        
                                                                               
      Another term in computer training is computer assisted                   
      instruction - the use of the computer as a tool.  This is much           
      more descriptive of the way instructors should utilize the               
      computer in aviation training.  The computer may be used as              
      described in the previous paragraph, as well as in many other            
      ways.  However, since aviation training is all encompassing and          
      dynamic, entrusting an entire training program to a computer is          
      not practical.  Even airline simulator programs require tailoring        
      and hands-on interaction with a human instructor.                        
                                                                               
      For most aviation training, the computer should be thought of as         
      a very valuable tool to be used to aid the instructor.  For              
      example, in teaching aircraft maintenance, CBT programs produced         
      by various aircraft manufacturers can be used to expose students         
      to equipment not normally found at a maintenance school.  Another        
      use of computers would be to allow students to review procedures         
      at their own pace while the instructor is involved in hands-on           
      training with other students.  The major advantage of CBT over           
      other forms of instructional aid is that it is interactive - the         
      computer responds in different ways, depending on the student's          
      input.                                                                   
                                                                               
      While computers provide many training advantages, they also have         
      limitations.  Improper or excessive use of CBT should be avoided.        
      For example, a flight instructor should not rely exclusively on a        
      CBT program on traffic patterns and landings to do the ground            
      instruction for a student pilot, then expect the student to              
      demonstrate patterns and landings in the aircraft.  Likewise, it         
      would be improper to expect a maintenance student to be able to          
      safely and properly perform a compression check on an aircraft           
      engine if the only training the student received was via CBT.            
      Computer-based training should not be used by the instructor as          
      stand-alone training any more than a textbook or video.  Like            
      video or a textbook, CBT is an aid to the instructor.  The               
      instructor must be actively involved with the students when using        
      instructional aids.  This involvement should include close               
      supervision, questions, examinations, quizzes, or guided                 
      discussions on the subject matter.                                       
                                                                               
      In teaching flight students, CBT programs can be used by the             
      instructor as simply another form of reference for students to           
      study.  Just as a student can reread a section in a text, a              
      student can review portions of a CBT program until it is                 
      understood.  The instructor must continue to monitor and evaluate        
      the progress of the student as usual.  This is necessary to be           
      certain a student is on track with the training syllabus.  At            
      times, instructors may feel that they are doing more one-on-one          
      instruction than in a normal classroom setting, but repetitive           
      forms of teaching may be accomplished by computer.  This actually        
      gives the instructor more time for one-on-one teaching.                  
      Remember, the computer has no way of knowing when a student is           
      having difficulty, and it will always be the responsibility of           
      the instructor to provide monitoring and oversight of student            
      progress and to intervene when necessary.  Figure 5-7a                  
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
        Figure 5-7.  THE INSTRUCTOR MUST CONTINUALLY MONITOR STUDENT           
         PERFORMANCE WHEN USING CBT, AS WITH ALL INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS.           
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      A successful instructor needs to be familiar with as many                
      teaching methods as possible.  Although lecture and                      
      demonstration-performance may be the methods used most often,            
      being aware of other methods and teaching tools such as guided           
      discussion, cooperative learning, and computer-based instruction         
      will better prepare an instructor for a wide variety of teaching         
      situations.                                                              
                                                                               
      Obviously the aviation instructor is the key to effective                
      teaching.  An experienced instructor's knowledge and skill               
      regarding methods of instruction may be compared to a maintenance        
      technician's toolbox.  The instructor's tools are teaching               
      methods.  Just as the technician uses some tools more than               
      others, the instructor will use some methods more often than             
      others.  As is the case with the technician, there will be times         
      when a less used tool will be the exact tool needed for a                
      particular situation.  The instructor's success is determined to         
      a large degree by the ability to organize material and to select         
      and utilize a teaching method appropriate to a particular lesson.        
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                  CHAPTER 6                                    
                                                                               
                           CRITIQUE AND EVALUATION                             
                                                                               
      The emphasis in previous chapters centered on learning,                  
      communicating, and the teaching process.  In this chapter, we            
      will discuss the instructor's role as a critic, describe several         
      methods of evaluation, and show how to conduct effective                 
      evaluations.                                                             
                                                                               
      Since every student is different and each learning situation is          
      unique, the actual outcome may not be entirely as expected.  The         
      instructor must be able to appraise student performance and              
      convey this information back to the student.  This is an informal        
      critique, which is a part of each lesson.  The critique should be        
      used by the instructor to summarize and close out one lesson, and        
      prepare the student for the next lesson.  Formal evaluations are         
      used periodically throughout a course, and at the end of course,         
      to measure and document whether or not the course objectives have        
      been met.                                                                
                                                                               
      THE INSTRUCTOR AS A CRITIC                                               
                                                                               
      Although this chapter deals with the critique primarily from the         
      standpoint of the instructor in the classroom, the techniques and        
      methods described also apply to the aircraft maintenance                 
      instructor in the shop and to the flight instructor in the               
      aircraft or in the briefing area.  No skill is more important to         
      an instructor than the ability to analyze, appraise, and judge           
      student performance.  The student quite naturally looks to the           
      instructor for guidance, analysis, appraisal, as well as                 
      suggestions for improvement and encouragement.  This feedback            
      from instructor to student is called a critique.                         
                                                                               
      A critique may be oral, written, or both.  It should come                
      immediately after a student's performance, while the details of          
      the performance are easy to recall.  An instructor may critique          
      any activity which a student performs or practices to improve            
      skill, proficiency, and learning.  A critique may be conducted in        
      private or before the entire class.  A critique presented before         
      the entire class can be beneficial to every student in the               
      classroom as well as to the student who performed the exercise or        
      assignment.  In this case, however, the instructor should be             
      judicious and avoid embarrassing the student in front of the             
      whole class.                                                             
                                                                               
      Two common misconceptions about the critique should be corrected         
      at the outset.  First, a critique is not a step in the grading           
      process.  It is a step in the learning process.  Second, a               
      critique is not necessarily negative in content.  It considers           
      the good along with the bad, the individual parts, relationships         
      of the individual parts, and the overall performance.  A critique        
      can, and usually should, be as varied in content as the                  
      performance being critiqued.                                             
                                                                               
      PURPOSE OF A CRITIQUE                                                    
                                                                               
      A critique should provide the students with something                    
      constructive upon which they can work or build.  It should               
      provide direction and guidance to raise their level of                   
      performance.  Students must understand the purpose of the                
      critique; otherwise, they will be unlikely to accept the                 
      criticism offered and little improvement will result.                    
                                                                               
      A critique also can be used as a tool for reteaching.  Although          
      not all critiques lend themselves to reteaching, the instructor          
      should be alert to the possibility and take advantage of the             
      opportunity when it arises.  If, for example, several students           
      falter when they reach the same step in a weight-and-balance             
      problem, the instructor might recognize the need for a more              
      detailed explanation, another demonstration of the step, or              
      special emphasis in the critiques of subsequent performance.             
                                                                               
      CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE CRITIQUE                                 
                                                                               
      In order to provide direction and raise the students' level of           
      performance, the critique must be factual and be aligned with the        
      completion standards of the lesson.  This, of course, is because         
      the critique is a part of the learning process.  Some of the             
      requirements for an effective critique are shown in figure 6-1.          
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                      Figure 6-1.  Effective critiques                         
                     share a number of characteristics.                        
                                                                               
                        CHARACTERISTICS OF CRITIQUES                           
                                                                               
                .  Objective                                                   
                  .  Flexible                                                  
                    .  Acceptable                                              
                      .  Comprehensive                                         
                        .  Constructive                                        
                          .  Organized                                         
                            .  Thoughtful                                      
                              .  Specific                                      
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
      OBJECTIVE                                                                
                                                                               
      The effective critique is focused on student performance.  It            
      should be objective, and not reflect the personal opinions,              
      likes, dislikes, and biases of the instructor.  For example, if a        
      student accomplishes a complicated flight planning problem, it           
      would hardly be fair for the instructor to criticize the                 
      student's personality traits unless they interfered with the             
      performance itself.  Instructors sometime permit their judgment          
      to be influenced by their general impression of the student,             
      favorable or unfavorable.  Sympathy or over-identification with a        
      student, to such a degree that it influences objectivity, is             
      known as "halo error."  A conflict of personalities can also             
      distort an opinion.  If a critique is to be objective, it must be        
      honest; it must be based on the performance as it was, not as it         
      could have been, or as the instructor and student wished that it         
      had been.                                                                
                                                                               
      FLEXIBLE                                                                 
                                                                               
      The instructor needs to examine the entire performance of a              
      student and the context in which it is accomplished.  Sometimes a        
      good student will turn in a poor performance and a poor student          
      will turn in a good one.  A friendly student may suddenly become         
      hostile, or a hostile student may suddenly become friendly and           
      cooperative.  The instructor must fit the tone, technique, and           
      content of the critique to the occasion, as well as the student.         
      A critique should be designed and executed so that the instructor        
      can allow for variables.  Again and again, the instructor is             
      faced with the problem of what to say, what to omit, what to             
      stress, and what to minimize.  The challenge of the critique for         
      an instructor is to determine what to say at the proper moment.          
      An effective critique is one that is flexible enough to satisfy          
      the requirements of the moment.                                          
                                                                               
      ACCEPTABLE                                                               
                                                                               
      Before students willingly accept their instructor's criticism,           
      they must first accept the instructor.  Students must have               
      confidence in the instructor's qualifications, teaching ability,         
      sincerity, competence, and authority.  Usually, instructors have         
      the opportunity to establish themselves with their students              
      before the formal critiquing situations arises.  If this is not          
      the case, however, the instructor's manner, attitude, and readily        
      apparent familiarity with the subject at hand must serve instead.        
      Critiques do not have to be all sweetness and light, nor do they         
      have to curry favor with students.  If a critique is presented           
      fairly, with authority, conviction, sincerity, and from a                
      position of recognizable competence, the student probably will           
      accept it as such.  Instructors should not rely on their position        
      to make a critique more acceptable to their students.  While such        
      factors usually operate to the instructor's advantage,                   
      acceptability depends on more active and demonstrable qualities          
      than on simply being the instructor.                                     
                                                                               
      COMPREHENSIVE                                                            
                                                                               
      A comprehensive critique is not necessarily a long one, nor must         
      it treat every aspect of the performance in detail.  The                 
      instructor must decide whether the greater benefit will come from        
      a discussion of a few major points or a number of minor points.          
      The instructor might critique what most needs improvement, or            
      only what the student can reasonably be expected to improve.  An         
      effective critique covers strengths as well as weaknesses.  How          
      to balance the two is a decision that only the instructor can            
      make.  To dwell on the excellence of a performance while                 
      neglecting the portion that should be improved is a disservice to        
      the student.                                                             
                                                                               
      CONSTRUCTIVE                                                             
                                                                               
      A critique is pointless unless the student profits from it.              
      Praise for praise's sake is of no value, but praise should be            
      included to show how to capitalize on things that are done well.         
      The praise can then be used to inspire the student to improve in         
      areas of lesser accomplishment.  By the same token, it is not            
      enough to identify a fault or weakness.  The instructor should           
      give positive guidance for correcting the fault and strengthening        
      the weakness.  Negative criticism that does not point toward             
      improvement or a higher level of performance should be omitted           
      from a critique altogether.                                              
                                                                               
      ORGANIZED                                                                
                                                                               
      Unless a critique follows some pattern of organization, a series         
      of otherwise valid comments may lose their impact.  Almost any           
      pattern is acceptable as long as it is logical and makes sense to        
      the student as well as to the instructor.  An effective                  
      organizational pattern might be the sequence of the performance          
      itself.  Sometimes a critique can profitably begin at the point          
      where a demonstration failed and work backward through the steps         
      that led to the failure.  A success can be analyzed in similar           
      fashion.  Sometimes a defect is so glaring or the consequences so        
      great that it overshadows the rest of the performance and can            
      serve as the core of a critique.  Breaking the whole into parts          
      or building the parts into a whole has strong possibilities.             
      Whatever the organization of the critique, the instructor should         
      be flexible enough to change so the student can follow and               
      understand it.                                                           
                                                                               
      THOUGHTFUL                                                               
                                                                               
      An effective critique reflects the instructor's thoughtfulness           
      toward the student's need for self-esteem, recognition, and              
      approval from others.  The instructor should never minimize the          
      inherent dignity and importance of the individual.  Ridicule,            
      anger, or fun at the expense of the student have no place in a           
      critique.  On occasion, an instructor may need to criticize a            
      student in private.  In some cases, discretion may rule out any          
      criticism at all.  For example, criticism does not help a student        
      whose performance is impaired by a physiological defect.  While          
      being straightforward and honest, the instructor should always           
      respect the student's personal feelings.                                 
                                                                               
      SPECIFIC                                                                 
                                                                               
      The instructor's comments and recommendations should be specific,        
      rather than general.  The student needs to focus on something            
      concrete.  A statement such as, "Your second weld wasn't as good         
      as your first," has little constructive value.  Instead, tell the        
      student why it was not as good and how to improve the weld.  If          
      the instructor has a clear, well-founded, and supportable idea in        
      mind, it should be expressed with firmness and authority in terms        
      that cannot be misunderstood.  Students cannot act on                    
      recommendations unless they know specifically what the                   
      recommendations are.  At the conclusion of a critique, students          
      should have no doubt what they did well and what they did poorly         
      and, most importantly, specifically how they can improve.                
                                                                               
      METHODS OF CRITIQUE                                                      
                                                                               
      The critique of student performance is always the instructor's           
      responsibility, and it can never be delegated in its entirety.           
      The instructor can add interest and variety to the criticism             
      through the use of imagination and by drawing on the talents,            
      ideas, and opinions of others.  There are several useful methods         
      of conducting a critique.                                                
                                                                               
      INSTRUCTOR/STUDENT CRITIQUE                                              
                                                                               
      The instructor leads a group discussion in which members of the          
      class are invited to offer criticism of a performance.  This             
      method should be controlled carefully and directed with a firm           
      purpose.  It should be organized and not allowed to degenerate           
      into a random free-for-all.                                              
                                                                               
      STUDENT-LED CRITIQUE                                                     
                                                                               
      The instructor asks a student to lead the critique.  The                 
      instructor can specify the pattern of organization and the               
      techniques or can leave it to the discretion of the student              
      leader.  Because of the inexperience of the participants in the          
      lesson area, student-led critiques may not be efficient, but they        
      can generate student interest and learning and, on the whole, be         
      effective.                                                               
                                                                               
      SMALL GROUP CRITIQUE                                                     
                                                                               
      For this method, the class is divided into small groups and each         
      group is assigned a specific area to analyze.  These groups must         
      present their findings to the class.  Frequently, it is desirable        
      for the instructor to furnish the criteria and guidelines.  The          
      combined reports from the groups can result in a comprehensive           
      critique.                                                                
                                                                               
      INDIVIDUAL STUDENT CRITIQUE BY ANOTHER STUDENT                           
                                                                               
      The instructor also may require another student to present the           
      entire critique.  A variation is for the instructor to ask a             
      number of students questions about the manner and quality of             
      performance.  Discussion of the performance, and of the critique,        
      can often allow the group to accept more ownership of the ideas          
      expressed.  As with all critiques incorporating student                  
      participation, it is important that the instructor maintain firm         
      control over the process.                                                
                                                                               
      SELF-CRITIQUE                                                            
                                                                               
      A student is required to critique personal performance.  Like all        
      other methods, a self-critique must be controlled and supervised         
      by the instructor.  Whatever the methods employed, the instructor        
      must not leave controversial issues unresolved, nor erroneous            
      impressions uncorrected.  The instructor must make allowances for        
      the student's relative inexperience.  Normally, the instructor           
      should reserve time at the end of the student critique to cover          
      those areas that might have been omitted, not emphasized                 
      sufficiently, or considered worth repeating.                             
                                                                               
      WRITTEN CRITIQUE                                                         
                                                                               
      Written critiques have three advantages.  First, the instructor          
      can devote more time and thought to it than to an oral critique          
      in the classroom.  Second, the students can keep written                 
      critiques and refer to them whenever they wish.  Third, when the         
      instructor requires all the students to write a critique of a            
      performance, the student-performer has the permanent record of           
      the suggestions, recommendations, and opinions of all the other          
      students.  The disadvantage of a written critique is that other          
      members of the class do not benefit.                                     
                                                                               
      GROUND RULES FOR CRITIQUING                                              
                                                                               
      There are a number of rules and techniques to keep in mind when          
      conducting a critique.  The following list can be applied,               
      regardless of the type of critiquing activity.                           
                                                                               
      .    Except in rare and unusual instances, do not extend the             
           critique beyond its scheduled time and into the time                
           allotted for other activities.  A point of diminishing              
           returns can be reached quickly.                                     
                                                                               
      .    Avoid trying to cover too much.  A few well-made points will        
           usually be more beneficial than a large number of points            
           that are not developed adequately.                                  
                                                                               
      .    Allow time for a summary of the critique to reemphasize the         
           most important things a student should remember.                    
                                                                               
      .    Avoid dogmatic or absolute statements, remembering that most        
           rules have exceptions.                                              
                                                                               
      .    Avoid controversies with the class, and do not get into the         
           delicate position of taking sides with group factions.              
      .    Never allow yourself to be maneuvered into the unpleasant           
           position of defending criticism.  If the criticism is               
           honest, objective, constructive, and comprehensive, no              
           defense should be necessary.                                        
                                                                               
      .    If part of the critique is written, make certain that it is         
           consistent with the oral portion.                                   
                                                                               
      Although, at times, a critique may seem like an evaluation, it is        
      not.  Both student and instructor should consider it as an               
      integral part of the lesson.  It normally is a wrap-up of the            
      lesson.  A good critique closes the chapter on the lesson and            
      sets the stage for the next lesson.  Since the critique is a part        
      of the lesson, it should be limited to what transpired during            
      that lesson.  In contrast, an evaluation is more far reaching            
      than a critique because it normally covers several lessons.              
                                                                               
      EVALUATION                                                               
                                                                               
      Whenever learning takes place, the result is a definable,                
      observable, measurable change in behavior.  The purpose of an            
      evaluation is to determine how a student is progressing in the           
      course.  Evaluation is concerned with defining, observing, and           
      measuring or judging this new behavior.  Evaluation normally             
      occurs before, during, and after instruction; it is an integral          
      part of the learning process.  During instruction, some sort of          
      evaluation is essential to determine what the students are               
      learning and how well they are learning it.  The instructor's            
      evaluation may be the result of observations of the students'            
      overall performance, or it may be accomplished as either a               
      spontaneous or planned evaluation, such as an oral quiz, written         
      test, or skill performance test.  Figure 6-2a                           
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                  Figure 6-2.  There are three common types                    
                  of evaluations that instructors may use.                     
                                                                               
                                 EVALUATION                                    
                                                                               
                                Oral Quizzes                                   
                                                                               
                                Written Tests                                  
                                                                               
                              Performance Tests                                
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      ORAL QUIZZES                                                             
                                                                               
      The most used means of evaluation is the direct or indirect oral         
      questioning of students by the instructor.  Questions may be             
      loosely classified as fact questions and thought questions.  The         
      answer to a fact question is based on memory or recall.  This            
      type of question usually concerns who, what, when, and where.            
      Thought questions usually involve why or how, and require the            
      student to combine knowledge of facts with an ability to analyze         
      situations, solve problems, and arrive at conclusions.  Proper           
      quizzing by the instructor can have a number of desirable                
      results.                                                                 
                                                                               
      .    Reveals the effectiveness of the instructor's training              
           procedures.                                                         
                                                                               
      .    Checks the student's retention of what has been learned.            
      .    Reviews material already covered by the student.                    
                                                                               
      .    Can be used to retain the student's interest and stimulate          
           thinking.                                                           
                                                                               
      .    Emphasizes the important points of training.                        
                                                                               
      .    Identifies points that need more emphasis.                          
                                                                               
      .    Checks the student's comprehension of what has been learned.        
                                                                               
      .    Promotes active student participation, which is important to        
           effective learning.                                                 
                                                                               
      CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE QUESTIONS                                   
                                                                               
      An effective oral quiz requires some preparation.  The instructor        
      should devise and write pertinent questions in advance.  One             
      method is to place them in the lesson plan.  Prepared questions          
      merely serve as a framework, and as the lesson progresses, should        
      be supplemented by such impromptu questions as the instructor            
      considers appropriate.  Usually an effective question has only           
      one correct answer.  This is always true of good questions of the        
      objective type and generally will be true of all good questions,         
      although the one correct answer to a thought question may                
      sometimes be expressed in a variety of ways.  To be effective,           
      questions must apply to the subject of instruction.  Unless the          
      question pertains strictly to the particular training being              
      conducted, it serves only to confuse the students and divert             
      their thoughts to an unrelated subject.  An effective question           
      should be brief and concise, but also clear and definite.  Enough        
      words must be used to establish the conditions or significant            
      circumstances exactly, so that instructor and students will have         
      the same mental picture.                                                 
                                                                               
      To be effective, questions must be adapted to the ability,               
      experience, and stage of training of the students.  Effective            
      questions center on only one idea.  A single question should be          
      limited to who, what, when, where, how, or why, not a                    
      combination.  Effective questions must present a challenge to the        
      students.  Questions of suitable difficulty serve to stimulate           
      learning.  Effective questions demand and deserve the use of             
      proper English.                                                          
                                                                               
      TYPES OF QUESTIONS TO AVOID                                              
                                                                               
      Asking, "Do you understand?" or "Do you have any questions?" has         
      no place in effective quizzing.  Assurance by the students that          
      they do understand or that they have no questions provides no            
      evidence of their comprehension, or that they even know the              
      subject under discussion.  Other typical types of questions that         
      must be avoided are provided in the following list.                      
                                                                               
      .    Puzzle - "What is the first action you should take if a             
           conventional gear airplane with a weak right brake is               
           swerving left in a right crosswind during a full-flap,              
           power-on wheel landing?"                                            
                                                                               
      .    Oversize - "What do you do before beginning an engine               
           overhaul?"                                                          
                                                                               
      .    Toss-up - "In an emergency, should you squawk 7700 or pick a        
           landing spot?"                                                      
      .    Bewilderment - "In reading the altimeter - you know you set         
           a sensitive altimeter for the nearest station pressure - if         
           you take temperature into account, as when flying from a            
           cold air mass through a warm front, what precaution should          
           you take when in a mountainous area?"                               
                                                                               
      .    Trick questions - These questions will cause the students to        
           develop the feeling that they are engaged in a battle of            
           wits with the instructor, and the whole significance of the         
           subject of the instruction involved will be lost.                   
                                                                               
      An example of a trick question would be where the alternatives           
      are 1, 2, 3, and 4, but they are placed in the following form.           
                                                                               
      A.  4                                                                    
      B.  3                                                                    
      C.  2                                                                    
      D.  1                                                                    
                                                                               
      The only reason for reversing the order of choices is to trick           
      the student to inadvertently answering incorrectly.  Instructors         
      often justify use of trick questions as testing for attention to         
      detail.  If attention to detail is an objective, detailed                
      construction of alternatives is preferable to trick questions.           
                                                                               
      .    Irrelevant questions - The teaching process must be an              
           orderly procedure of building one block of learning upon            
           another in logical progression, until a desired goal is             
           reached.  Diversions, which introduce unrelated facts and           
           thoughts, will only obscure this orderly process and slow           
           the student's progress.  Answers to unrelated questions are         
           not helpful in evaluating the student's knowledge of the            
           subject at hand.  An example of an irrelevant question would        
           be to ask a question about tire inflation during a test on          
           the timing of magnetos.                                             
                                                                               
      ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM STUDENTS                                        
                                                                               
      Responses to student questions must also conform with certain            
      considerations if answering is to be an effective teaching               
      method.  The question must be clearly understood by the                  
      instructor before an answer is attempted.  The instructor should         
      display interest in the student's question and frame an answer           
      that is as direct and accurate as possible.  After the instructor        
      completes a response, it should be determined whether or not the         
      student's request for information has been completely answered,          
      and if the student is satisfied with the answer.                         
                                                                               
      Sometimes it may be unwise to introduce the more complicated or          
      advanced considerations necessary to completely answer a                 
      student's question at the current point in training.  In this            
      case, the instructor should carefully explain to the student that        
      the question was good and pertinent, but that a detailed answer          
      would, at this time, unnecessarily complicate the learning tasks.        
      The instructor should advise the student to reintroduce the              
      question later at the appropriate point in training, if it does          
      not become resolved in the normal course of instruction.                 
                                                                               
      Occasionally, a student asks a question that the instructor              
      cannot answer.  In such cases, the instructor should freely admit        
      not knowing the answer, but should promise to get the answer or,         
      if practicable, offer to help the student look it up in available        
      references.                                                              
      In all quizzing conducted as a portion of the instruction                
      process, "yes" and "no" answers should be avoided.  Questions            
      should be framed so that the desired answers are specific and            
      factual.  Questions should also be constructed to avoid one-word         
      answers, since such answers might be the product of a good guess         
      and not be truly representative of student learning or ability.          
      If a one-word answer is received, the instructor should follow up        
      with additional questions to get a better idea of the student's          
      comprehension of the material.                                           
                                                                               
      WRITTEN TESTS                                                            
                                                                               
      As evaluation devices, written tests are only as good as the             
      knowledge and proficiency of the test writer.  This section is           
      intended to provide the aviation instructor with only the basic          
      concepts of written test design.  There are many excellent               
      publications available to the aviation instructor on test                
      administration, test scoring, grade assignment, whole test               
      analysis, and test item analysis.  Refer to the reference section        
      at the end of this handbook for testing and test writing                 
      publications.                                                            
                                                                               
      CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD TEST                                           
                                                                               
      A test is a set of questions, problems, or exercises for                 
      determining whether a person has a particular knowledge or skill.        
      A test can consist of just one test item, but it usually consists        
      of a number of test items.  A test item measures a single                
      objective and calls for a single response.  The test could be as         
      simple as the correct answer to an essay question or as complex          
      as completing a knowledge or practical test.  Regardless of the          
      underlying purpose, effective tests share certain                        
      characteristics.  Figure 6-3a                                           
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
       Figure 6-3.  Effective tests have six primary characteristics.          
                                                                               
                       CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD TEST                          
                                                                               
                .  Reliability                                                 
                  .  Validity                                                  
                    .  Usability                                               
                      .  Objectivity                                           
                        .  Comprehensiveness                                   
                          .  Discrimination                                    
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Reliability is the degree to which test results are consistent           
      with repeated measurements.  If identical measurements are               
      obtained every time a certain instrument is applied to a certain         
      dimension, the instrument is considered reliable.  An unreliable         
      instrument cannot be depended upon to yield consistent results.          
      An altimeter that has worn moving parts, a steel tape that               
      expands and contracts with temperature changes, or cloth tapes           
      that are affected by humidity cannot be expected to yield                
      reliable measurements.  While no instrument is perfectly                 
      reliable, it is obvious that some instruments are more reliable          
      than others.  For example, a laboratory balance is more reliable         
      than a bathroom scale for measuring weight.                              
                                                                               
      The reliability of an instrument can be estimated by numerous            
      measurements of the same object.  For example, a rough measure of        
      the reliability of a thermometer can be obtained by taking               
      several, consecutive readings of the temperature of a fluid held         
      at a constant temperature.  Except for the errors made by the            
      person taking the readings, the difference between the highest           
      and lowest readings can be considered a range of unreliability in        
      the thermometer.                                                         
                                                                               
      Reliability has the same meaning whether applied to written tests        
      or to balances, thermometers, and altimeters.  The reliability of        
      a written test is judged by whether it gives consistent                  
      measurement to a particular individual or group.  Measuring the          
      reliability of a written test is, however, not as straightforward        
      as it is for the measuring devices we have discussed.  In an             
      educational setting, knowledge, skills, and understanding do not         
      remain constant.  Students can be expected to improve their              
      scores between attempts at taking the same test because the first        
      test serves as a learning device.  The student gains new                 
      knowledge and understanding.  If a written test consistently             
      rates the members of a group in a certain rank order, the                
      reliability is probably acceptable, even though the scores of the        
      students have increased overall.                                         
                                                                               
      Validity is the extent to which a test measures what it is               
      supposed to measure.  If a maintenance technician intends to             
      measure the diameter of a bearing with a micrometer, it must be          
      determined that the contacting surfaces of the bearing and the           
      micrometer are free of grease and dirt.  Otherwise, the                  
      measurement will include the diameter of the bearing and the             
      thickness of the extraneous matter, and it will be invalid.              
                                                                               
      A test used in educational evaluation follows the same principles        
      of validity.  Evaluations used in the classroom are valid only to        
      the extent that they measure achievement of the objectives of            
      instruction.                                                             
                                                                               
      A rough estimate of the content validity of a classroom test may         
      be obtained from the judgments of several competent instructors.         
      To estimate validity, they should read the test critically and           
      consider its content relative to the stated objectives of the            
      instruction.  Items that do not pertain directly to the                  
      objectives of the course should be modified or eliminated.               
      Validity is the most important consideration in test evaluation.         
      The instructor must carefully consider whether the test actually         
      measures what it is supposed to measure.                                 
                                                                               
      Usability refers to the functionality of tests.  A usable written        
      test is easy to give if it is printed in a type size large enough        
      for the students to read easily.  The wording of both the                
      directions for taking the test and of the test items themselves          
      needs to be clear and concise.  Graphics, charts, and                    
      illustrations, which are appropriate to the test items, must be          
      clearly drawn, and the test should be easily graded.                     
                                                                               
      Objectivity describes singleness of scoring of a test; it does           
      not reflect the biases of the person grading the test.  Later in         
      the discussion, you will find that supply-type test items are            
      very difficult to grade with complete objectivity.  An example of        
      this is essay questions.  It is nearly impossible to prevent an          
      instructor's own knowledge and experience in the subject area,           
      writing style, or grammar from affecting the grade awarded.              
      Selection-type test items, such as true-false or multiple-choice,        
      are much easier to grade objectively.                                    
                                                                               
      Comprehensiveness is the degree to which a test measures the             
      overall objectives.  Suppose, for example, an aircraft                   
      maintenance technician wants to measure the compression of an            
      aircraft engine.  Measuring the compression on a single cylinder         
      would not provide an indication of the entire engine.  Only by           
      measuring the compression of every cylinder would the test be            
      comprehensive enough to indicate the compression condition of the        
      engine.                                                                  
                                                                               
      In classroom evaluation, a test must sample an appropriate cross-        
      section of the objectives of instruction.  The comprehensiveness         
      of a test is the degree to which the scope of the course                 
      objectives is tested.  Sometimes it will not be possible to have         
      test questions measuring all objectives of the course.  At these         
      times, the evaluation is but a sample of the entire course.  Just        
      as the owner of the wheat has to select samples of wheat from            
      scattered positions in the car, the instructor has to make               
      certain that the evaluation includes a representative and                
      comprehensive sampling of the objectives of the course.  In both         
      instances, the evaluators must deliberately take comprehensive           
      samples in order to realistically measure the overall achievement        
      of the course objectives.                                                
                                                                               
      Discrimination is the degree to which a test distinguishes the           
      difference between students.  For example, a machinist wishes to         
      measure six bearings that are slightly graduated in size.  If a          
      ruler is used to measure the diameters of the bearings, little           
      difference will be found between the smallest bearing and the            
      second smallest one.  If the machinist compares the third bearing        
      with the first bearing, slight differences in size might be              
      detected, but the ruler could not be depended on for accurately          
      assorting the six bearings.  However, if the machinist measures          
      with a micrometer, which can measure very find graduations, the          
      diameters of the first and second bearing, the second and third          
      bearing, and so on, can be easily differentiated.                        
                                                                               
      In classroom evaluation, a test must be able to measure small            
      differences in achievement in relation to the objectives of the          
      course.  When a test is constructed to identify the difference in        
      the achievement of students, it has three features.                      
                                                                               
      .    There is a wide range of scores.                                    
                                                                               
      .    All levels of difficulty are included.                              
                                                                               
      .    Each item distinguishes between the students who are low and        
           those who are high in achievement of the course objectives.         
                                                                               
      TEST DEVELOPMENT                                                         
                                                                               
      When testing aviation students, the instructor is usually                
      concerned more with criterion-referenced testing than                    
      norm-referenced testing.  Norm-referenced testing measures a             
      student's performance against the performance of other students.         
      Criterion-reference testing evaluates each student's performance         
      against a carefully written, measurable, standard or criterion.          
      There is little or no concern about the student's performance in         
      relation to the performance of other students.  The FAA knowledge        
      and practical tests for pilots and aircraft maintenance                  
      technicians are all criterion referenced because in aviation             
      training, it is necessary to measure student performance against         
      a high standard of proficiency consistent with safety.                   
                                                                               
      The aviation instructor constructs test to measure progress              
      toward the standards that will eventually be measured at the             
      conclusion of the training.  For example, during an early stage          
      of flight training, the flight instructor must administer a              
      presolo written exam to student pilots.  Since tests are an              
      integral part of the instructional process, it is important for          
      the aviation instructor to be well informed about recommended            
      testing procedures.                                                      
                                                                               
      Aviation instructors can follow a four-step process when                 
      developing a test.  This process is useful for tests that apply          
      to the cognitive and affective domains of learning, and also can         
      be used for skill testing in the psychomotor domain.  The                
      development process for criterion-referenced tests follows a             
      general-to-specific pattern.  Figure 6-4a                               
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
           Figure 6-4.  There are four steps to test development.              
                                                                               
                           TEST DEVELOPMENT STEPS                              
                                                                               
                .  Determine Level-of-Learning Objectives                      
                                                                               
                  .  List Indicators/Samples of Desired Behavior               
                                                                               
                    .  Establish Criterion Objectives                          
                                                                               
                      .  Develop Criterion-Referenced Test Items               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      DETERMINE LEVEL-OF-LEARNING OBJECTIVES                                   
                                                                               
      The first step in developing a test is to state the individual           
      objectives as general, level-of-learning objectives.  The                
      objectives should measure one of the learning levels of the              
      cognitive, affective, or psychomotor domains described in Chapter        
      1.  The levels of cognitive learning include knowledge,                  
      comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.         
      For the comprehension or understanding level, an objective could         
      be stated as, "Describe how to perform a compression test on an          
      aircraft reciprocating engine."  This objective requires a               
      student to explain how to do a compression test, but not                 
      necessarily perform a compression test (application level).              
      Further, the student would not be expected to compare the results        
      of compression tests on different engines (analysis level),              
      design a compression test for a different type of engine                 
      (synthesis or correlation level), or interpret the results of the        
      compression test (evaluation level).  A general level-of-learning        
      objective is a good starting point for developing a test because         
      it defines the scope of the learning task.                               
                                                                               
      LIST INDICATORS/SAMPLES OF DESIRED BEHAVIOR                              
                                                                               
      The second step is to list the indicators or samples of behavior         
      that will give the best indication of the achievement of the             
      objective.  Some level-of-learning objectives often cannot be            
      directly measured.  As a result, behaviors that can be measured          
      are selected in order to give the best evidence of learning.  For        
      example, if the instructor is expecting the student to display           
      the comprehension level-of-learning on compression testing, some         
      of the specific test question answers should describe appropriate        
      tools and equipment, the proper equipment setup, appropriate             
      safety procedures, and the steps used to obtain compression              
      readings.  The overall test must be comprehensive enough to give         
      a true representation of the learning to be measured.  It is not         
      usually feasible to measure every aspect of a level-of-learning          
      objective, but by carefully choosing samples of behavior, the            
      instructor can obtain adequate evidence of learning.                     
                                                                               
      ESTABLISH CRITERION OBJECTIVES                                           
                                                                               
      The next step in the test development process is to define               
      criterion (performance-based) objectives.  In addition to the            
      behavior expected, criterion objectives state the conditions             
      under which the behavior is to be performed and the criteria that        
      must be met.  If the instructor developed performance-based              
      objectives during the creation of lesson plans, criterion                
      objectives have already been formulated.  The criterion objective        
      provides the framework for developing the test items used to             
      measure the level-of-learning objectives.  In the compression            
      test example, a criterion objective to measure the comprehension         
      level of learning might be stated as, "The student will                  
      demonstrate comprehension of compression test procedures for             
      reciprocating aircraft engines by completing a quiz with a               
      minimum passing score of 70%."                                           
                                                                               
      DEVELOP CRITERION-REFERENCED TEST ITEMS                                  
                                                                               
      The last step is to develop criterion-referenced test items.  The        
      actual development of the test questions is covered in the               
      remainder of this chapter.  While developing questions, the              
      instructor should attempt to measure the behaviors described in          
      the criterion objective(s).  The questions in the exam for the           
      compression test example should cover all of the areas necessary         
      to give evidence of comprehending the procedure.  The results of         
      the test (questions missed) identify areas that were not                 
      adequately covered.                                                      
                                                                               
      Performance-based objectives serve as a reference for the                
      development of test items.  If the test is the presolo knowledge         
      test, the objectives are for the student to comprehend the               
      regulations, the local area, the aircraft type, and the                  
      procedures to be used.  The test should measure the student's            
      knowledge in these specific areas.  Individual instructors should        
      develop their own tests to measure the progress of their                 
      students.  If the test is to measure the readiness of a student          
      to take a knowledge test, it should be based on the objectives of        
      all the lessons the student has received.                                
                                                                               
      Another source of test items includes FAA knowledge test guides          
      for a particular knowledge test.  These sample questions are             
      designed to measure the level-of-learning desired for pilots or          
      aviation maintenance technicians.  As a result, they are a good          
      source of example questions to be used in measuring a student's          
      preparedness to take the knowledge test.                                 
                                                                               
      However, care must be taken not to teach questions to ensure the         
      student does not merely memorize answers or the letter of the            
      answer.  When using questions from any source, whether from a            
      publisher or developed by individual instructors, periodically           
      revising the questions used and changing the letters and                 
      positions of the answers will encourage learning the material            
      rather than learning the test.                                           
                                                                               
      WRITTEN TEST ITEMS                                                       
                                                                               
      Written questions include two general categories, the                    
      supply-type item and the selection-type item.  Supply-type test          
      items require the student to furnish a response in the form of a         
      word, sentence, or paragraph.  Selection-type test items require         
      the student to select from two or more alternatives.  See                
      Appendix A for sample test items.                                        
                                                                               
      SUPPLY TYPE                                                              
                                                                               
      The supply-type item may be required where a selection-type              
      cannot be devised to properly measure student knowledge.  The            
      supply-type requires the students to organize their knowledge.           
      It demands an ability to express ideas that is not required for a        
      selection-type item.  This type item is valuable in measuring the        
      students' generalized understanding of a subject.                        
                                                                               
      On the other hand, a supply-type item may evaluate the students'         
      ability to write rather than their specific knowledge of the             
      subject matter.  It places a premium on neatness and penmanship.         
      The main disadvantage of supply-type tests is that they cannot be        
      graded with uniformity.  There is no assurance that the grade            
      assigned is the grade deserved by the student.  The same test            
      graded by different instructors would probably be assigned               
      different scores.  Even the same test graded by the same                 
      instructor on consecutive days might be assigned altogether              
      different scores.  Still another disadvantage of a supply-type           
      test is the time required by the student to complete it and the          
      time required by the instructor to grade it.  Everything                 
      considered, the disadvantages of the supply-type test appear to          
      exceed the advantages to such an extent that instructors prefer          
      to use the selection-type test.  It should be noted that although        
      selection-type tests are best in many cases, there are times             
      where the supply-type is desirable.  This would be when there is         
      a need to thoroughly determine the knowledge of a person in a            
      particular subject area.  An example of this would be the presolo        
      knowledge exam where it would be difficult to determine knowledge        
      of procedures strictly with selection-type test items.                   
      SELECTION TYPE                                                           
                                                                               
      Written tests made up of selection-type items are highly                 
      objective.  That is, the results of such a test would be graded          
      the same regardless of the student taking the test or the person         
      grading it.  Tests that include only selection-type items make it        
      possible to directly compare student accomplishment.  For                
      example, it is possible to compare the performance of students           
      within one class to students in a different class, or students           
      under one instructor with those under another instructor.  By            
      using selection-type items, the instructor can test on many more         
      areas of knowledge in a given time than could be done by                 
      requiring the student to supply written responses.  This increase        
      in comprehensiveness can be expected to increase validity and            
      discrimination.  Another advantage is that selection-type tests          
      are well adapted to statistical item analysis.                           
                                                                               
      True-False                                                               
                                                                               
      The true-false test item consists of a statement followed by an          
      opportunity for the student to determine whether the statement is        
      true or false.  This item-type, with all its variations, has a           
      wide range of usage.  It is well adapted for testing knowledge of        
      facts and details, especially when there are only two possible           
      answers.  The chief disadvantage is that true-false questions            
      create the greatest probability of guessing.                             
                                                                               
      True-false test items are probably used and misused more than any        
      other selection-type item.  Frequently, instructors select               
      sentences more or less at random from textual material and make          
      half of them false by inserting negatives.  When tests are               
      constructed in this way, the principal attribute being measured          
      is rote memory rather than knowledge of the subject.  Such test          
      construction has aroused antagonism toward selection tests in            
      general and true-false questions in particular.  It has also             
      decreased the validity of educational evaluations.  Some of the          
      principles that should be followed in the construction of                
      true-false items are contained in the accompanying list.                 
                                                                               
      .    Include only one idea in each statement.                            
                                                                               
      .    Use original statements rather than verbatim text.                  
                                                                               
      .    Statements should be entirely true or entirely false.               
                                                                               
      .    Avoid the unnecessary use of negatives.  They tend to               
           confuse the reader.                                                 
                                                                               
      .    If negatives must be used, underline or otherwise emphasize         
           the negative.                                                       
                                                                               
      .    Avoid involved statements.  Keep wording and sentence               
           structure as simple as possible.  Make statements both              
           definite and clear.                                                 
                                                                               
      .    Avoid the use of ambiguous words and terms (some, any,              
           generally, most times, etc.)                                        
                                                                               
      .    Whenever possible, use terms which mean the same thing to           
           all students.                                                       
                                                                               
      .    Avoid absolutes (all, every, only, no, never, etc.)  These          
           words are known as determiners and provide clues to the             
           correct answer.  Since unequivocally true or false                  
           statements are rare, statements containing absolutes are            
           usually false.                                                      
                                                                               
      .    Avoid patterns in the sequence of correct responses because         
           students can often identify the patterns.  Instructors              
           sometimes deliberately use patterns to make hand scoring            
           easier.  This is a poor practice.                                   
                                                                               
      .    Make statements brief and about the same length.  Some              
           instructors unconsciously make true statements longer than          
           false ones.  Students are quick to take advantage of this           
           tendency.                                                           
                                                                               
      .    If a statement is controversial (sources have differing             
           information), the source of the statement should be listed.         
                                                                               
      Multiple-Choice                                                          
                                                                               
      A multiple-choice test item consists of two parts; the stem which        
      include the question, statement, or problem, and a list of               
      alternatives or responses.  Incorrect answers are called                 
      distractors.  When properly devised and constructed,                     
      multiple-choice items offer several advantages that make this            
      type more widely used and versatile than either the matching or          
      the true-false items.  Figure 6-5a                                      
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
               Figure 6-5.  Sample multiple-choice test item.                  
                                                                               
                           ______                                              
                          ] Stem ]________________________                     
                          ]______]                        ]                    
                                                 _____    ]                    
      17.   What is the compass error caused by the   ]   ]                    
            magnetic north pole not being at the      ]  /                     
            same geographical location as the true    ]/                       
            north pole?                               ]                        
                                                  ____]                        
                                                                               
        ___________                                                            
       ] Responses ]                                                           
       ]___________]                                                           
       ]  __                                                                   
       ] ]  A.  Deviation  \    _____________                                  
       ] ]                  \ ] Distractors ]                                  
       ]_]  B.  Precession  / ]_____________]                                  
         ]                          ________________                           
         ]  C.  Variation   -------] Correct Answer ]                          
         ]__                       ]________________]                          
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Multiple-choice test questions may be used to determine student          
      achievement, ranging from acquisition of facts to understanding,         
      reasoning, and ability to apply what has been learned.  It is            
      appropriate to use when the question, statement, or problem has          
      the following characteristics.                                           
                                                                               
      .    Has a built-in and unique solution such as a specific               
           application of laws or principles.                                  
                                                                               
      .    May be clearly limited by the wording of the item so that           
           the student must choose the best of several offered                 
           solutions rather than a universal solution.                         
      .    Is such that several options are plausible, or even                 
           scientifically accurate, but the student may be asked to            
           identify the one most pertinent.                                    
                                                                               
      .    Has several pertinent solutions, and the students may be            
           asked to identify the most appropriate solution.                    
                                                                               
      Three major difficulties are common in the construction of               
      multiple-choice test items.  One is the development of a question        
      or an item stem that must be expressed clearly and without               
      ambiguity.  Another requirement is that the statement of an              
      answer or correct response cannot be refuted.  Finally, the              
      distractors must be written in such a way that they will be              
      attractive to those students who do not possess the knowledge or         
      understanding necessary to recognize the keyed response.                 
                                                                               
      As mentioned previously, a multiple-choice item stem may take            
      several basic forms.                                                     
                                                                               
      .    It may be a direct question followed by several possible            
           answers.                                                            
                                                                               
      .    It may be an incomplete sentence followed by several                
           possible phrases that complete the sentence.                        
                                                                               
      .    It may be a stated problem based on an accompanying graph,          
           diagram, or other artwork followed by the correct response          
           and the distractors.                                                
                                                                               
      The student may be asked to select the one choice which is the           
      correct answer or completion, the one choice that is an incorrect        
      answer or completion, or the one choice which is best of the             
      answers presented in the test item.  Beginning test writers find         
      it easier to write items in the question form.  In general, the          
      form with the options as answers to a question is preferable to          
      the form that uses an incomplete statement as the stem.  It is           
      more easily phrased and is more natural for the student to read.         
      Less likely to contain ambiguities, it usually results in more           
      similarity between the options and gives fewer clues to the              
      correct response.  Samples of multiple-choice questions can be           
      found in Appendix A.                                                     
                                                                               
      When multiple-choice questions are used, three or four                   
      alternatives are generally provided.  It is usually difficult to         
      construct more than four convincing responses; that is, responses        
      which appear to be correct to a person who has not mastered the          
      subject matter.                                                          
                                                                               
      Students are not supposed to guess the correct option; they              
      should select an alternative only if they know it is correct.            
      Therefore it is considered ethical to mislead the unsuccessful           
      student into selecting an incorrect alternative.  An effective           
      and valid means of diverting the student from the correct                
      response is to use common student errors as distractors.  For            
      example, if writing a question on the conversion of degrees              
      Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit, providing alternatives derived by         
      using incorrect formulas would be logical, since using the wrong         
      formula is a common student error.                                       
                                                                               
      Items intended to measure the knowledge level of learning should         
      have only one correct alternative; all other alternatives should         
      be clearly incorrect.  When items are to measure achievement at a        
      higher level of learning, some or all of the alternatives should         
      be acceptable responses - but one should be clearly better than          
      the others.  In either case, the instructions given should direct        
      the student to select the best alternative.  Some of the                 
      principles that should be followed in the construction of                
      multiple-choice items are contained in the following list.               
                                                                               
      .    Make each item independent of every other item in the test.         
           Do not permit one question to reveal, or depend on, the             
           correct answer to another question.  If items are to be             
           interrelated, it becomes impossible to pinpoint specific            
           deficiencies in either students or instructors.                     
                                                                               
      .    Design questions that call for essential knowledge rather           
           than for abstract background knowledge or unimportant facts.        
                                                                               
      .    State each question in language appropriate to the students.        
           Failure to do so can result in decreased validity of the            
           test, since the ability to understand the language will be          
           measured as well as the subject-matter knowledge or                 
           achievement.                                                        
                                                                               
      .    Include sketches, diagrams, or pictures when they can               
           present a situation more vividly than words.  They generally        
           speed the testing process, add interest, and help to avoid          
           reading difficulties and technical language.  A common              
           criticism of written tests is the reliance placed on the            
           reading ability of the student.  The validity of the                
           examination may be decreased unless reading ability is an           
           objective of the course or test.                                    
                                                                               
      .    When a negative is used, emphasize the negative word or             
           phrase by underlining, bold facing, italicyzing, or printing        
           in a different color.  A student who is pressed for time may        
           identify the wrong response simply because the negative form        
           is overlooked.  To whatever extent this occurs, the validity        
           of the test is decreased.                                           
                                                                               
      .    Questions containing double negatives invariably cause              
           confusion.  If a word, such as "not" or "false," appears in         
           the stem, avoid using another negative word in the stem or          
           any of the responses.                                               
                                                                               
      .    Trick questions, unimportant details, ambiguities, and              
           leading questions should be avoided, since they do not              
           contribute to effective evaluation in any way.  Instead,            
           they tend to confuse and antagonize the student.                    
           Instructors often justify use of trick questions as testing         
           for attention to detail.  If attention to detail is an              
           objective, detailed construction of alternatives is                 
           preferable to trick questions.                                      
                                                                               
      Stems                                                                    
                                                                               
      In preparing the stem of a multiple-choice item, the following           
      general principles should be applied.  These principles will help        
      to ensure that the test item is valid.  Figure 6-6a                     
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                    Figure 6-6.  This is an example of a                       
            multiple-choice question with a poorly written stem.               
                                                                               
                                                    ______________             
                                                   ] Negative Not ]            
                                                   ]  Emphasized  ]            
                                                   ]______________]            
            ___                                           ]                    
      36.  ]  There is a thunderstorm raging outside      ]                    
          _]                                              ]                    
         ] ]  the hangar.  It is almost time to go        ]                    
         ] ]___                                           ]                    
         ]    home, and the aviation maintenance          ]                    
         ]                                                ]                    
         ]    technician has to do a weight and           ]                    
         ]                                                ]                    
         ]    balance on an airplane.  The piece of       ]                    
         ]               ________________________________/                     
         ]    equipment ] not ] used for this procedure                        
         ]                                                                     
         ]    would be ] a ]                                                   
         ]             ]___]                                                   
         ]               ]                                                     
        _]___________     \                                                    
       ] Irrelevant  ]      \                                                  
       ] Information ]        \___________________                             
       ]_____________]                            ]                            
              A.  aircraft scale set.   __________]________________            
                                       ] .  "a" or "an" should be  ]           
              B.  attitude indicator.  ]    avoided                ]           
                                       ]                           ]           
              C.  level.               ] .  Does not grammatically ]           
                                       ]    match all choices      ]           
                                       ]___________________________]           
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      .    The stem of the question should clearly present the central         
           problem or idea.  The function of the stem is to set the            
           stage for the alternatives that follow.                             
                                                                               
      .    The stem should contain only material relevant to its               
           solution, unless the selection of what is relevant is part          
           of the problem.                                                     
                                                                               
      .    The stem should be worded in such a way that it does not            
           give away the correct response.  Avoid the use of                   
           determiners such as clue words or phrases.                          
                                                                               
      .    Put everything that pertains to all alternatives in the stem        
           of the item.  This helps to avoid repetitious alternatives          
           and saves time.                                                     
                                                                               
      .    Generally avoid using "a" or "an" at the end of the stem.           
           They may give away the correct choice.  Every alternative           
           should grammatically fit with the stem of the item.                 
                                                                               
      Alternatives                                                             
                                                                               
      The alternatives in a multiple-choice test item are as important         
      as the stem.  They should be formulated with care; simply being          
      incorrect should not be the only criterion for the distracting           
      alternatives.  Some distractors which can be used are listed             
      below.                                                                   
                                                                               
      .    An incorrect response which is related to the situation and         
           which sounds convincing to the untutored.                           
                                                                               
      .    A common misconception.                                             
                                                                               
      .    A statement which is true but does not satisfy the                  
           requirements of the problem.                                        
                                                                               
      .    A statement which is either too broad or too narrow for the         
           requirements of the problem.                                        
                                                                               
      Research of instructor-made tests reveals that, in general,              
      correct alternatives are longer than incorrect ones.  When               
      alternatives are numbers, they should generally be listed in             
      ascending or descending order of magnitude or length.                    
                                                                               
      Matching                                                                 
                                                                               
      A matching test item consists of two lists which may include a           
      combination of words, terms, illustrations, phrases, or                  
      sentences.  The student is asked to match alternatives in one            
      list with related alternatives in a second list.  In reality,            
      matching exercises are a collection of related multiple-choice           
      items.  In a given period of time, more samples of a student's           
      knowledge usually can be measured with matching rather than              
      multiple-choice items.  The matching item is particularly good           
      for measuring a student's ability to recognize relationships and         
      to make associations between terms, parts, words, phrases,               
      clauses, or symbols listed in one column with related items in           
      another column.  Matching reduces the probability of guessing            
      correct responses, especially if alternatives may be used more           
      than once.  The testing time can also be used more efficiently.          
      Some of the principles that should be followed in the                    
      construction of matching items are included below.                       
                                                                               
      .    Give specific and complete instructions.  Do not make the           
           student guess what is required.                                     
                                                                               
      .    Test only essential information; never test unimportant             
           details.                                                            
                                                                               
      .    Use closely related materials throughout an item.  If               
           students can divide the alternatives into distinct groups,          
           the item is reduced to several multiple-choice items with           
           few alternatives, and the possibility of guessing is                
           distinctly increased.                                               
                                                                               
      .    Make all alternatives credible responses to each element in         
           the first column, wherever possible, to minimize guessing by        
           elimination.                                                        
                                                                               
      .    Use language the student can understand.  By reducing               
           language barriers, both the validity and reliability of the         
           test will be improved.                                              
                                                                               
      .    Arrange the alternatives in some sensible order.  An                
           alphabetical arrangement is common.                                 
                                                                               
      Matching-type test items are either equal column or unequal              
      column.  An equal column test item has the same number of                
      alternatives in each column.  When using this form, always               
      provide for some items in the response column to be used more            
      than once, or not at all, to preclude guessing by elimination.           
      Unequal column type test items have more alternatives in the             
      second column than in the first and are generally preferable to          
      equal columns.  Samples of the two forms of matching-item                
      questions can be found in Appendix A.                                    
                                                                               
      DEVELOPING A TEST ITEM BANK                                              
                                                                               
      Developing a test item bank is one of the instructor's most              
      difficult tasks.  Besides requiring considerable time and effort,        
      this task demands a mastery of the subject, an ability to write          
      clearly, and an ability to visualize realistic situations for use        
      in developing problems.  Because it is so difficult to develop           
      good test items, a semipermanent record of items that have been          
      developed is desirable.  One way of preserving test items is to          
      record the test item, along with the analysis of each question,          
      on a set of cards.  If questions are maintained on a computer,           
      provisions could be made to include appropriate analysis                 
      gathered, thus creating a useful database.  In either case, a            
      pool of test questions is created after a large group of                 
      questions has been assembled.  As long as precautions are taken          
      to safeguard the security of items in the pool, the existence of         
      the pool lightens the instructor's burden of continuously                
      preparing new items.  Figure 6-7a                                       
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                      Figure 6-7.  A BANK OF TEST ITEMS                        
                   MAKES IT EASIER TO CONSTRUCT NEW TESTS.                     
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      PRINCIPLES TO FOLLOW                                                     
                                                                               
      Regardless of item type or form, the following principles should         
      be followed in writing new items.  The list also applies to              
      reviewing and revising existing items.                                   
                                                                               
      .    Each item should test a concept or idea that is important           
           for the student to know, understand, or be able to apply.           
                                                                               
      .    Each item must be stated so that everyone who is competent          
           in the subject-matter area would agree on the correct               
           response.                                                           
                                                                               
      .    Each item should be stated in language the student will             
           understand.                                                         
                                                                               
      .    The wording of the item should be simple, direct, and free          
           of ambiguity.  The wording should be edited for brevity.            
           Unnecessary words merely delay the student.                         
                                                                               
      .    Sketches, diagrams, or pictures should be included when they        
           are necessary for the student to visualize the problem              
           correctly or when they will add realism.                            
                                                                               
      .    Each item should present a problem that demands knowledge of        
           the subject or course.  No item that can be responded to            
           solely on the basis of general knowledge should be included         
           in an achievement test.                                             
                                                                               
      PRESOLO KNOWLEDGE TESTS                                                  
                                                                               
      Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61             
      requires the satisfactory completion of a presolo knowledge test         
      prior to solo flight.  The presolo knowledge test is required to         
      be administered, graded, and all incorrect answers reviewed by           
      the instructor providing the training prior to endorsing the             
      student pilot certificate and logbook for solo flight.  The              
      regulation states that the presolo knowledge test must include           
      questions applicable to 14 CFR parts 61 and 91 and on the flight         
      characteristics and operational limitations of the make and model        
      aircraft to be flown.  This allows the flight instructor the             
      flexibility to develop a presolo written test which not only             
      evaluates the student's knowledge on general operating rules, but        
      on the specific environment in which the student will be                 
      operating and on the particular make and model of aircraft to be         
      flown.                                                                   
                                                                               
      The content and number of test questions are to be determined by         
      the flight instructor.  An adequate sampling of the general              
      operating rules should be included.  In addition, a sufficient           
      number of specific questions should be asked to ensure the               
      student has the knowledge to safely operate the aircraft in the          
      local environment.                                                       
                                                                               
      The regulation requires a presolo knowledge test for each make           
      and model of aircraft to be soloed.  Because of the varying              
      complexity of aircraft and operating environments, the flight            
      instructor will have to use good judgment in developing the test.        
      For instance, a student who would be operating from a controlled         
      airport located near a terminal control area or airport radar            
      service area should have adequate knowledge to operate safely in         
      the environment prior to solo.  Likewise, a student operating            
      from a high elevation airport might need emphasis placed on the          
      effects of density altitude.  Specific questions should be asked         
      to fit the situation.  Figure 6-8a                                      
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                 Figure 6-8.  THE PRESOLO TEST MUST INCLUDE                    
                    QUESTIONS ON GENERAL OPERATING RULES,                      
              AIRCRAFT TO BE FLOWN, AND LOCAL AREA PROCEDURES.                 
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      The specific procedures for developing test questions have been          
      covered earlier in this chapter, but a review of some items as           
      they apply to the presolo knowledge test are in order.  Though           
      selection-type test items are easier to grade, it is recommended         
      that supply-type test items be used for portions of the presolo          
      knowledge test where specific knowledge is to be tested.  One            
      problem with supply-type test items is difficulty in assigning           
      the appropriate grade.  Since the purpose of this test is to             
      determine if a student pilot is ready to solo, no specific grade         
      is assigned.  The purpose of the test is to determine fitness for        
      solo and not to assign a grade relative to a student's peers.            
      Since solo flight requires a thorough working knowledge of the           
      different conditions likely to be encountered on the solo flight,        
      it is important that the test properly evaluate this area.  In           
      this way, the instructor can see any areas that are not                  
      adequately understood and can then cover them in the review of           
      the test.  Selection-type test items do not allow the instructor         
      to evaluate the student's knowledge beyond the immediate scope of        
      the test items.  An example of a supply-type test question would         
      be to ask the student to, "Explain the procedures for entering           
      the traffic pattern for Runway 26."  The supply-type test item           
      measures much more adequately the knowledge of the student, and          
      lends itself very well to presolo testing.                               
                                                                               
      Though supply-type test items allow broad questions to be asked,         
      it is probably not possible to cover every conceivable                   
      circumstance to be encountered on a solo flight.  The instructor         
      must devise the test so the general operating rules are                  
      adequately sampled to ensure the overall objective of a safe solo        
      flight is measured.  The test also should ask a sufficient number        
      of specific questions to determine that the student has the              
      knowledge to safely operate the aircraft in the local area.              
      The instructor should keep a record of the test results for at           
      least three (3) years.  The record should at least include the           
      date, name of the student, and the results of the test.                  
                                                                               
      PERFORMANCE TESTS                                                        
                                                                               
      The flight instructor does not administer the practical test for         
      a pilot certificate, nor does the aviation maintenance instructor        
      administer the oral and practical exam for certification as an           
      aviation maintenance technician.  Aviation instructors do get            
      involved with the same skill or performance testing that is              
      measured in these tests.  Performance testing is desirable for           
      evaluating training that involves an operation, a procedure, or a        
      process.  The job of the instructor is to prepare the student to         
      take these tests.  Therefore, each element of the practical test         
      will have been evaluated prior to an applicant taking the                
      practical exam.                                                          
                                                                               
      Practical tests for maintenance technicians and pilots are               
      criterion-referenced tests.  The practical tests are criterion-          
      referenced because the objective is for all successful applicants        
      to meet the high standards of knowledge, skill, and safety               
      required by the Federal Aviation Regulations.                            
                                                                               
      The purpose of the practical test standards (PTS) is to delineate        
      the standards by which FAA inspectors and designated pilot               
      examiners conduct tests for ratings and certificates.  The               
      standards are in accordance with the requirements of 14 CFR parts        
      61, 91, and other FAA publications including the Aeronautical            
      Information Manual and pertinent advisory circulars and                  
      handbooks.  The objective of the PTS is to ensure the                    
      certification of pilots at a high level of performance and               
      proficiency, consistent with safety.                                     
                                                                               
      The practical test standards for aeronautical certificates and           
      ratings include AREAS OF OPERATION and TASKS that reflect the            
      requirements of the FAA publications mentioned above.  Areas of          
      operation define phases of the practical test arranged in a              
      logical sequence within each standard.  They usually begin with          
      Preflight Preparation and end with Postflight Procedures.  Tasks         
      are titles of knowledge areas, flight procedures, or maneuvers           
      appropriate to an area of operation.  Included are references to         
      the applicable regulations or publications.  Private pilot               
      applicants are evaluated in all tasks of each area of operation.         
      Flight instructor applicants are evaluated on one or more tasks          
      in each area of operation.  In addition, certain tasks are               
      required to be covered and are identified by notes immediately           
      following the area of operation titles.  Figure 6-9a                    
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                    Figure 6-9.  PRACTICAL TEST STANDARDS                      
                ARE MADE UP OF AREAS OF OPERATION AND TASKS.                   
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      An instructor is responsible for training the applicants to              
      acceptable standards in all subject matter areas, procedures, and        
      maneuvers included in the TASKS within each AREA OF OPERATION in         
      the appropriate practical test standard.  Because of the impact          
      of their teaching activities in developing safe, proficient              
      pilots, flight instructors should exhibit a high level of                
      knowledge, skill, and the ability to impart that knowledge and           
      skill to the students.                                                   
      Since every task in the PTS may be covered on the check ride, the        
      instructor must evaluate all of the tasks before certifying the          
      applicant to take the practical test.  While this evaluation will        
      not be totally formal in nature, it should adhere to criterion-          
      referenced testing.  Practical test standards are available from         
      several aviation publishers and are a good reference to use when         
      preparing a student for the practical test.  Although the                
      instructor should always train the student to the very highest           
      level possible, the evaluation of the student is only in relation        
      to the standards listed in the PTS.  The instructor, and the             
      examiner, should also keep in mind that the standards are set at         
      a level that is already very high.  They are not minimum                 
      standards and they do not represent a floor of acceptability.  In        
      other words, the standards are the acceptable level that must be         
      met and there are no requirements to exceed them.                        
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                  CHAPTER 7                                    
                                                                               
                INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS AND TRAINING TECHNOLOGIES                   
                                                                               
      Instructional aids should not be confused with training media.           
      Educators generally describe training media as any physical means        
      that communicates an instructional message to students.  For             
      example, the instructor's voice, printed text, video cassettes,          
      interactive computer programs, part-task trainers, flight                
      training devices or flight simulators, and numerous other types          
      of training devices are considered training media.  Instructional        
      aids, on the other hand, are devices that assist an instructor in        
      the teaching-learning process.  Instructional aids are not               
      self-supporting; they are supplementary training devices.  The           
      key factor is that instructional aids support, supplement, or            
      reinforce.                                                               
                                                                               
      In general, the coverage of instructional aids in the first part         
      of this chapter applies to a classroom setting with one                  
      instructor and several students.  The discussion about types of          
      instructional aids begins with the most basic aids and progresses        
      to the more complex and expensive aids.  The last segment is             
      about new training technologies which may apply to a typical             
      classroom environment, as well as other training environments.           
                                                                               
      While instructors may become involved in the selection and               
      preparation of instructional aids, usually they are already in           
      place.  Instructors simply need to learn how to effectively use          
      them.                                                                    
                                                                               
      INSTRUCTIONAL AND THEORY                                                 
                                                                               
      For many years, educators have theorized about how the human             
      brain and the memory function during the communicative process.          
      There is general agreement about certain theoretical factors that        
      seem pertinent to understanding the use of instructional aids.           
                                                                               
      .    During the communicative process, the sensory register of           
           the memory acts as a filter.  As stimuli are received, the          
           individual's sensory register works to sort out the                 
           important bits of information from the routine or less              
           significant bits.  Within seconds, what is perceived as the         
           most important information is passed to the working or              
           short-term memory where it is processed for possible storage        
           in the long-term memory.  This complex process is enhanced          
           by the use of appropriate instructional aids that highlight         
           and emphasize the main points or concepts.                          
                                                                               
      .    The working or short-term memory functions are limited by           
           both time and capacity.  Therefore, it is essential that the        
           information be arranged in useful bits or chunks for                
           effective coding, rehearsal, or recording.  The                     
           effectiveness of the instructional aid is critical for this         
           process.  Carefully selected charts, graphs, pictures, or           
           other well-organized visual aids are examples of items that         
           help the student understand, as well as retain, essential           
           information.                                                        
                                                                               
      .    Ideally, instructional aids should be designed to cover the         
           key points and concepts.  In addition, the coverage should          
           be straightforward and factual so it is easy for students to        
           remember and recall.  Generally, instructional aids that are        
           relatively simple are best suited for this purpose.                 
                                                                               
      REASONS FOR USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS                                    
                                                                               
      In addition to helping students remember important information,          
      instructional aids have other advantages.  When properly used,           
      they help gain and hold the attention of students.  Audio or             
      visual aids can be very useful in supporting a topic, and the            
      combination of both audio and visual stimuli is particularly             
      effective since the two most important senses are involved.              
      Instructors should keep in mind that they often are salesmen of          
      ideas, and many of the best sales techniques that attract the            
      attention of potential clients are well worth considering.  One          
      caution - the instructional aid should keep student attention on         
      the subject; it should not be a distracting gimmick.                     
                                                                               
      Clearly, a major goal of all instruction is for the student to be        
      able to retain as much knowledge of the subject as possible,             
      especially the key points.  Numerous studies have attempted to           
      determine how well instructional aids serve this purpose.                
      Indications from the studies vary greatly - from modest results,         
      which show a 10 to 15 percent increase in retention, to more             
      optimistic results in which retention is increased by as much as         
      80 percent.  Figure 7-1a                                                
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
            Figure 7-1.  Studies generally agree that measurable               
         improvement in student retention of information occurs when           
         instruction is supported by appropriate instructional aids.           
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
      Good instructional aids also can help solve certain language             
      barrier problems.  Consider the continued expansion of technical         
      terminology in everyday usage.  This, coupled with culturally            
      diverse backgrounds of today's students, makes it necessary for          
      instructors to be precise in their choice of terminology.  Words         
      or terms used in an instructional aid should be carefully                
      selected to convey the same meaning for the student as they do           
      for the instructor.  They should provide an accurate visual image        
      and make learning easier for the student.                                
                                                                               
      Another use for instructional aids is to clarify the                     
      relationships between material objects and concepts.  When               
      relationships are presented visually, they often are much easier         
      to understand.  For example, the subsystems within a physical            
      unit are relatively easy to relate to each other through the use         
      of schematics or diagrams.  Symbols, graphs, and diagrams can            
      also show relationships of location, size, time, frequency, and          
      value.  By symbolizing the factors involved, it is even possible         
      to visualize abstract relationships.                                     
                                                                               
      Instructors are frequently asked to teach more and more in a             
      smaller time frame.  Instructional aids can help them do this.           
      For example, instead of using many words to describe a sound,            
      object, or function, the instructor plays a recording of the             
      sound, shows a picture of the object, or presents a diagram of           
      the function.  Consequently, the student learns faster and more          
      accurately, and the instructor saves time in the process.                
                                                                               
      GUIDELINES FOR USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS                                 
                                                                               
      The use of any instructional aid must be planned, based on its           
      ability to support a specific point in a lesson.  A simple               
      process can be used to determine if and where instructional aids         
      are necessary.                                                           
                                                                               
      .    Clearly establish the lesson objective.  Be certain of what         
           is to be communicated.                                              
                                                                               
      .    Gather the necessary data by researching for support                
           material.                                                           
                                                                               
      .    Organize the material into an outline or a lesson plan.  The        
           plan should include all key points that need to be covered.         
           This may include important safety considerations.                   
                                                                               
      .    Select the ideas to be supported with instructional aids.           
           The aids should be concentrated on the key points.  Aids are        
           often appropriate when long segments of technical                   
           description are necessary, when a point is complex and              
           difficult to put into words, when instructors find                  
           themselves forming visual images, or when students are              
           puzzled by an explanation or description.                           
                                                                               
      Aids should be simple and compatible with the learning outcomes          
      to be achieved.  Obviously, an explanation of elaborate equipment        
      may require detailed schematics or mockups, but less complex             
      equipment may lend itself to only basic shapes or figures.  Since        
      aids are normally used in conjunction with a verbal presentation,        
      words on the aid should be kept to a minimum.  In many cases,            
      visual symbols and slogans can replace extended use of verbiage.         
      The instructor should avoid the temptation to use the aids as a          
      crutch.  The tendency toward unnecessarily distracting artwork           
      also should be avoided.                                                  
                                                                               
      Instructional aids should appeal to the student and be based on          
      sound principles of instructional design.  When practical, they          
      should encourage student participation.  They also should be             
      meaningful to the student, lead to the desired behavioral or             
      learning objectives, and provide appropriate reinforcement.  Aids        
      that involve learning a physical skill should guide students             
      toward mastery of the skill or task specified in the lesson              
      objective.                                                               
                                                                               
      Instructional aids have no value in the learning process if they         
      cannot be heard or seen.  Recordings of sounds and speeches              
      should be tested for correct volume and quality in the actual            
      environment in which they will be used.  Visual aids must be             
      visible to the entire class.  All lettering and illustrations            
      must be large enough to be seen easily by the students farthest          
      from the aids.  Colors, when used, should provide clear contrast         
      and easily be visible.                                                   
      The usefulness of aids can be improved by proper sequencing to           
      build on previous learning.  Frequently, good organization and           
      natural patterns of logic dictate the sequence.  However, use of         
      standardized materials, including a syllabus, is recommended.            
      Sequencing also can be enhanced simply by using overlays on              
      transparencies, stripping techniques on charts and chalk or              
      marker boards, and by imaginative use of magnetic boards.                
      Sequencing can be emphasized and made clearer by the use of              
      contrasting colors.                                                      
                                                                               
      The effectiveness of aids and the ease of their preparation can          
      be increased by initially planning them in rough draft form.             
      Revisions and alterations are easier to make at that time than           
      after their completion.  The rough draft should be carefully             
      checked for technical accuracy, proper terminology, grammar,             
      spelling, basic balance, clarity, and simplicity.  Instructional         
      aids should also be reviewed to determine whether their use is           
      feasible in the training environment and whether they are                
      appropriate for the students.  Figure 7-2a                              
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
               Figure 7-2.  The listing shown here summarizes                  
                guidelines for effective instructional aids.                   
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]               GUIDELINES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS               ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ]\_____________________________________________________________/]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Support the lesson objective.                             ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Be student centered.                                      ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Build on previous learning.                               ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Contain useful and meaningful content that is consistent  ] ]        
      ] ] with sound principles of learning.                        ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Appeal to students.                                       ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Maintain student attention and interest.                  ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Encourage student participation, when appropriate.        ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Lead students in the direction of the behavior or         ] ]        
      ] ] learning outcomes specified in the learning objective.    ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Provide proper stimuli and reinforcement.                 ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Contain quality photos, graphs, and text, as required.    ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Be checked prior to use for completeness and technical    ] ]        
      ] ] accuracy.                                                 ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Contain appropriate terminology for the student.          ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Be properly sequenced.                                    ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Be easy to understand.                                    ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Include appropriate safety precautions.                   ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ]___________________________________________________________] ]        
      ]/_____________________________________________________________\]        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      In practice, the choice of instructional aids depends on several         
      factors.  Availability, feasibility, or cost may impose realistic        
      limitations.  The number of students in class and the existing           
      facilities are other considerations.  In some school situations,         
      the designers of the curriculum determine the use of                     
      instructional aids.  In this case, the instructor may have little        
      control over their use.  On the other hand, an independent               
      instructor may have considerable latitude, but limited resources.        
      Often, instructors must improvise and adapt to the existing              
      circumstances in order to incorporate quality instructional aids.        
                                                                               
      TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS                                              
                                                                               
      Some of the most common and economical aids are chalk or marker          
      boards, and supplemental print materials, including charts,              
      diagrams, and graphs.  Other aids, which usually are more                
      expensive, are projected materials, video, computer-based                
      programs, and models, mock-ups, or cut-aways.                            
                                                                               
      CHALK OR MARKER BOARD                                                    
                                                                               
      The chalk or marker board is one of the most widely used tools           
      for instructors.  Its versatility and effectiveness provide              
      several advantages for most types of instruction.  First, the            
      material presented can be erased, allowing the surface to be used        
      again and again; and second, the boards serve as an excellent            
      medium for joint student-instructor activity in the classroom.           
      The following practices are fundamental in the use of the chalk          
      or marker board:                                                         
      .    Keep the chalk or marker board clean.                               
                                                                               
      .    Erase all irrelevant material.                                      
                                                                               
      .    Keep chalk, markers, erasers, cleaning cloths, rulers, and          
           related items readily available to avoid interruption of the        
           presentation.                                                       
                                                                               
      .    Organize and practice the chalk or marker board presentation        
           in advance.                                                         
                                                                               
      .    Write or draw large enough for everyone in the group to see.        
                                                                               
      .    Leave a margin around the material and sufficient space             
           between lines of copy so the board is not overcrowded.              
                                                                               
      .    Present material simply and briefly.                                
                                                                               
      .    Make only one point at a time.  A complete outline tends to         
           distract students and makes a logical presentation                  
           difficult.  If writing has been previously prepared, it             
           should be covered and then revealed one step at a time.             
                                                                               
      .    If necessary, use the ruler, compass, or other devices in           
           making drawings.                                                    
                                                                               
      .    Use colored chalk or marker for emphasis.                           
                                                                               
      .    Underline statements for emphasis.                                  
                                                                               
      .    Use the upper part of the board.  In many classrooms,               
           students may not be able to see the lower half.                     
                                                                               
      .    Stand to one side of the board to avoid hiding the essential        
           information.                                                        
                                                                               
      .    Use a pointer when appropriate.                                     
                                                                               
      .    Adjust lighting as necessary to remove glare.                       
                                                                               
      SUPPLEMENTAL PRINT MATERIAL                                              
                                                                               
      Print media, including photographs, reproductions of pictures,           
      drawings, murals, cartoons, and other print materials are                
      valuable supplemental aids.  Charts, diagrams, and graphs are            
      also in this category.  Many of these items are suitable for             
      long-term use on bulletin boards and in briefing areas.                  
      Pictures, drawings, and photographs are especially effective             
      because they provide common visual imagery for both instructors          
      and students.  In addition, they also provide realistic details          
      necessary for visual recognition of important subject material.          
      In many cases, this type of supplemental training media may be           
      reproduced in a format for projection on a screen or other clear         
      surface.                                                                 
                                                                               
      Charts, diagrams, and graphs include any printed material which          
      gives information in tabular form.  There are several types of           
      charts which can be used in presenting data such as the pie              
      chart, the flow chart, and the organizational chart, among               
      others.  The type of chart selected for use depends largely on           
      the type of information the instructor wants to convey.  An              
      important factor is the chart's format.  Since charts may consist        
      of a series of single sheets or be tied together in a flip-chart         
      format with several pages, the location and handling of them             
      should be planned in advance.                                            
                                                                               
      A graph is a symbolic drawing which shows relationships or makes         
      comparisons.  The most common types are the line graph and the           
      bar graph.  The selection of a graph for use in any given                
      situation depends upon the type of information the instructor            
      wants to convey.                                                         
                                                                               
      Charts, diagrams, and graphs can be used effectively to show             
      relationships, chronological changes, distributions, components,         
      and flow.  They are easy to construct and can be produced in the         
      same manner as pictures.  In addition, they can be drawn on a            
      chalk or marker board and can be duplicated.  Care must be taken         
      to display only a small amount of material and to make the               
      material as simple but meaningful as possible.                           
                                                                               
      Numerous other useful print items may be considered as                   
      supplemental training aids.  Some of these include study guides,         
      exercise books, course outlines, and syllabi.  Well-designed             
      course outlines are especially useful to students because they           
      list the key points and help students organize note taking during        
      a lecture.                                                               
                                                                               
      ENHANCED TRAINING MATERIALS                                              
                                                                               
      Aviation instructors must cover a broad range of aeronautical            
      knowledge and skill training for pilots and aviation maintenance         
      technicians.  The actual training requirements are based in the          
      Federal Aviation Regulations and other publications used by              
      designated pilot and maintenance examiners when they conduct             
      practical tests.  While aviation instructors are expected to be          
      familiar with all regulatory training requirements, use of               
      instructor-oriented training materials which are enhanced for            
      regulatory compliance can be very beneficial for ensuring                
      required training is being accomplished, endorsed, and properly          
      documented.  Whether working as an individual instructor or              
      employed by a flight or maintenance school, the instructor must          
      ensure that each student accomplishes a number of important              
      benchmarks.  Enhanced training materials, which include these            
      benchmarks, can help aviation instructors to complete, endorse,          
      and document required training.                                          
                                                                               
      One example of these types of materials includes training                
      syllabi, which have provisions for instructor endorsements and           
      record keeping.  Such syllabi not only present the course of             
      training in a logical step-by-step, building block sequence, they        
      contain provisions to remind both students and instructors of            
      critical regulatory training benchmarks which are approaching.           
      Blocks for instructor endorsements also may be included at               
      appropriate points.  Provisions for logging training time can be         
      incorporated so the syllabus could also serve as the training            
      record for the student, instructor, or school.  When required            
      endorsements and record keeping provisions are designed into             
      training syllabi, it is much easier, from the instructors'               
      standpoint, to conduct required training, track student progress,        
      and certify records.  In case the student transfers to another           
      school or instructor, the training record can be reviewed and the        
      student's training status easily assessed.                               
                                                                               
      Another example of enhanced, instructor-oriented material for            
      pilot training is a maneuvers guide or handbook which includes           
      the practical test standards as an integral part of the                  
      description of maneuvers and procedures.  Students learn from the        
      beginning how to perform the maneuver or procedure and also              
      become familiar with the performance criteria.  Instructors need         
      not refer to another document to evaluate the student's                  
      performance.  The examiner for the Oral and Practical (O&P) is           
      required to ask four questions in each of the subject areas,             
      which are required by the regulations to be taught.  The examiner        
      also is required to assign a practical project from each subject         
      area.  Individual maintenance instructors, as well as publishers,        
      have compiled lists of typical questions and projects.  Use of           
      these questions and projects as part of the syllabus helps an            
      instructor ensure that all subject areas for a particular class          
      have been covered.                                                       
                                                                               
      There are many ways to incorporate design features in training           
      materials in order to facilitate regulatory compliance, required         
      endorsements, and record keeping.  Computer-based training also          
      can be designed so the progress of the student can be tracked and        
      documented.  As training becomes more detailed and complex,              
      instructor-oriented materials can be a valuable instructional aid        
      for all aviation instructors.  More information on enhanced              
      training material is presented in Chapter 10.                            
                                                                               
      PROJECTED MATERIAL                                                       
                                                                               
      Traditional aids in this group include motion pictures,                  
      filmstrips, slides of various sizes, transparencies for overhead         
      projection, and specialized equipment such as rear screen                
      projection or an opaque projector.  However, the use of motion           
      pictures and filmstrips for training has declined, mostly because        
      of availability of more user-friendly media such as video.  The          
      essential factor governing continued use is that the content must        
      be current and support the lesson.                                       
      Use of projected materials requires planning and practice.  The          
      instructor should set up and adjust the equipment and lighting           
      beforehand and then preview the presentation.  During a classroom        
      session, the instructor should provide students with an overview         
      of the presentation before showing it.  After the presentation,          
      the instructor should allow time for questions and a summary of          
      key points.                                                              
                                                                               
      Aside from a chalk or marker board, the overhead transparency and        
      projector is still one of the more convenient and cost effective         
      instructional aids.  With acetate or plastic, instructors can            
      easily create their own overhead transparencies, or they may             
      purchase commercially produced ones.                                     
                                                                               
      The equipment can be placed at the front of the room, allowing           
      the instructor to maintain eye contact with students.  The               
      brilliant light source concentrated at a short distance makes it         
      possible to use the projector in lighted areas.  The instructor          
      also can write on a blank transparency as the lesson progresses,         
      much like a chalk or marker board.  Additional transparencies can        
      be overlaid onto the original to show development or buildup of          
      an event or display.  Overlays can also be cut into various              
      shapes and moved about in relation to the base transparency.             
      This is a useful technique for displaying dial indications or            
      fitting several parts of a component together so relative motion         
      can be simulated.  Figure 7-3a                                          
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
           Figure 7-3.  THE OVERHEAD PROJECTOR IS SELF-CONTAINED,              
            PORTABLE, AND ADAPTABLE TO LARGE OR SMALL CLASSROOMS.              
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      As with any projection equipment, instructors should ensure that         
      the projector does not obstruct the students' line of sight.  The        
      projector usually works better on a low stand, chair, or table.          
      The projection angle should be adjusted to eliminate image               
      distortion.  Finally, although the overhead projector is simple          
      to operate and requires little maintenance, it has disadvantages.        
      Most projectors are bulky to handle and store, and the fan used          
      for cooling the projector may be noisy.                                  
                                                                               
      Although vastly different from other projection equipment, the           
      opaque projector reflects light from the surface of the picture          
      or three-dimensional object onto a regular projection screen.            
      The height of usable objects is limited to the space between the         
      top of the lowered projection plate and the body of the                  
      projector, usually about two or three inches.  The area of the           
      picture or object is limited to approximately 10 inches by 10            
      inches.                                                                  
                                                                               
      Items which may be projected are practically limitless.  A               
      postage stamp, typed material, textbook illustrations, or a              
      defective spark plug are representative of the items that may be         
      projected.  This equipment is especially adapted to enlarging            
      diagrams and small charts for display purposes.  Since the               
      material projected requires no special preparation, the cost is          
      very low.  Many of the limitations of the overhead projector are         
      also true of the opaque projector.                                       
                                                                               
      VIDEO                                                                    
                                                                               
      As indicated previously, video has become one of the most popular        
      of all instructional aids.  The initial discussion of video,             
      which follows, is limited to passive video.  Interactive video is        
      covered separately.                                                      
                                                                               
      PASSIVE VIDEO                                                            
                                                                               
      Passive video cassettes provide motion, color, sound, and in many        
      cases, special effects with advanced graphic and animation               
      techniques.  High-quality, commercially produced video cassettes         
      are available for almost every subject pertaining to aviation            
      training.  Consequently, video has replaced many of the                  
      projection-type instructional aids.                                      
                                                                               
      Advantages of video are well documented.  The current generation         
      of students is sometimes referred to as the video generation.            
      Some educators have theorized that TV has produced a visual              
      culture that has actually changed the way people learn.  In any          
      case, it is apparent that most, if not all, students are familiar        
      with and receptive to video.                                             
                                                                               
      For instructors, the convenience of video is certainly an                
      advantage.  The capability to easily stop, freeze, rewind, and           
      replay is particularly helpful for both instructors and students.        
      The cost of a video cassette and the associated equipment,               
      although higher than some of the more basic instructional aid            
      equipment, is fairly economical.  In addition, the video cassette        
      recorder and television can be used for other than instructional         
      purposes.                                                                
                                                                               
      Instructors also should be aware of certain disadvantages with           
      video.  Students are often accustomed to dramatic, action-packed         
      film or video that is designed as entertainment.  At the same            
      time, they tend to watch film or TV in a passive way without             
      attempting to absorb what they are seeing and hearing.                   
      Instructional video, in comparison, normally is perceived as much        
      less exciting and less stimulating visually.  This, coupled with         
      an inattentive viewing style, can diminish the instructional             
      value of the video.                                                      
                                                                               
      As is true with any instructional aid, instructors need to follow        
      some basic guidelines when using video.  For example, the video          
      presentation is not designed to replace the instructor.  Prior           
      planning and rehearsal will help determine the important points          
      and concepts that should be stressed, either during the                  
      presentation or as part of a summary.  Instructors should also           
      try to prepare students for viewing video programs by telling            
      them what to watch carefully, what is important, or possibly,            
      what is incorrect.  In addition, instructors should be available         
      to summarize the presentation and answer any questions students          
      may have regarding content.                                              
                                                                               
      INTERACTIVE VIDEO                                                        
                                                                               
      Interactive video refers broadly to software that responds               
      quickly to certain choices and commands by the user.  A typical          
      system consists of a combination of a compact disk, computer, and        
      video technology.  A compact disk (CD) is a format for storing           
      information digitally.  A major advantage of a CD is the                 
      capability to store enormous amounts of information.  As an              
      example, a single compact disk may contain all pertinent aviation        
      regulations, plus the complete AIM.  With search and find                
      features incorporated, a CD is a powerful information source.            
      The software may include additional features such as image banks         
      with full color photos and graphics, as well as questions or             
      directions which are programmed to create interactivity for              
      students as they progress through the course.                            
                                                                               
      The questions or directions are programmed using a branching             
      technique, which provides several possible courses of action for         
      the user to choose in order to move from one sequence to another.        
      For example, a program may indicate, "That was incorrect.  Go            
      back to ... and try again."                                              
                                                                               
      Interactive video solves one of the main problems of passive             
      video in that it increases involvement of the student in the             
      learning process.  Well-designed interactive video, when properly        
      used, is highly effective as an instructional aid.  Each student         
      essentially receives a customized learning experience.                   
                                                                               
      Distance learning, or distance education, is another trend               
      applicable to aviation.  In general terms, distance learning is          
      the use of print or electronic media to deliver instruction when         
      the instructor and student are separated.  It also may be defined        
      as a system and process that connects students with resources for        
      learning.  As sources for access to information expand, the              
      possibilities for distance learning increases.                           
                                                                               
      COMPUTER-BASED MULTIMEDIA                                                
                                                                               
      Interactive video is one form of computer-based multi-media.             
      However, in recent years, the terms computer-based training              
      (CBT), or multimedia training, have become very popular.  The            
      term multimedia is not new.  Multimedia has been used for decades        
      in some form or other.  In a basic form, multimedia is a                 
      combination of more than one instructional media, but it could           
      include several forms of media - audio, text, graphics, and video        
      (or film).  Multimedia in a more current context generally               
      implies a computer-based media that is shown on personal                 
      computers (PCs).  With computer-based multimedia, information            
      access is simplified.  Sophisticated databases can organize vast         
      amounts of information which can be quickly sorted, searched,            
      found, and cross-indexed.                                                
                                                                               
      Real interactivity with computer-based training means the student        
      is fully engaged with the instruction by doing something                 
      meaningful which makes the subject of study come alive.  For             
      example, the student frequently is able to control the pace of           
      instruction, review previous material, jump forward, and receive         
      instant feedback.  With advanced tracking features,                      
      computer-based training also can be used to test the student's           
      achievement, compare the results with past performance, and              
      indicate the student's weak or strong areas.                             
                                                                               
      Although computers are often used on an individual basis by              
      students, equipment is available that can project images from a          
      computer screen.  This allows the instructor to use a computer in        
      conjunction with specially designed software programs to create          
      presentations for an entire class.  The instructor can tailor the        
      presentation for the class, if necessary, and also include               
      graphics at appropriate points.  Figure 7-4a                            
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
          Figure 7-4.  SOFTWARE PROGRAMS ARE AVAILABLE WHICH ALLOW             
         INSTRUCTORS TO USE COMPUTERS TO CREATE UNIQUE PRESENTATIONS           
              FOR AN ENTIRE CLASS THROUGH ON-SCREEN PROJECTION.                
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      With computer-based training, the role of both the student and           
      the instructor changes.  Students become more involved in their          
      own learning, and instructors may no longer occupy a center-             
      stage position in a typical classroom setting.  Instead,                 
      instructors become supportive facilitators of the computer-based         
      multimedia programs.  As such, they serve as guides or resource          
      experts and circulate among students who are working individually        
      or in small groups.  This results in considerable one-on-one             
      instructor/student interaction.  Thus, the instructor provides           
      assistance, reinforcement, and answers questions for those who           
      need it most.                                                            
                                                                               
      In this situation, the computer-based training should still be           
      considered as an add-on instructional aid to improve traditional         
      classroom instruction.  The instructor, although no longer the           
      center of attention, must continue to maintain complete control          
      over the learning environment to ensure learning objectives are          
      being achieved.                                                          
                                                                               
      A more advanced application of computer-based training may               
      involve less instructor control.  For example, a laboratory-type         
      environment may be configured with separate study areas for each         
      student.  With this setup, the physical facility is usually              
      referred to as a learning center or training center.  Students in        
      these centers are often monitored by a teacher's aid, or other           
      trained personnel, who can provide guidance, answer questions,           
      and act as a conduit to the instructor who is responsible for the        
      training.  In this case, the responsible instructor needs to             
      establish procedures to make sure the required training is               
      accomplished, since he or she must certify student competency at         
      the end of the course.                                                   
                                                                               
      Numerous advantages are attributed to computer-based multimedia          
      training.  It is widely used in airline training for both pilots         
      and aviation maintenance technicians.  Due to the active nature          
      of CBT, the overall learning process is enhanced in several ways.        
      Well-designed programs allow students to feel like they are in           
      control of what they are learning and how fast they learn it.            
      They can explore areas that interest them and discover more about        
      a subject on their own.  In addition, learning often seems more          
      enjoyable than learning from a regular classroom lecture.  The           
      main advantages are less time spent on instruction compared to           
      traditional classroom training, and higher levels of mastery and         
      retention.                                                               
                                                                               
      Disadvantages include the lack of peer interaction and personal          
      feedback.  For the instructor, maintaining control of the                
      learning situation may be difficult.  It also may be difficult to        
      find good CBT programs for certain subject areas, and the expense        
      associated with the equipment, software, and facilities must be          
      considered.  In addition, instructors and students may lack              
      sufficient experience with personal computers to take full               
      advantage of the CBT programs that are available.                        
                                                                               
      MODELS, MOCK-UPS, AND CUT-AWAYS                                          
                                                                               
      Models, mock-ups, and cut-aways are additional instructional             
      aids.  A model is a copy of a real object.  It can be an                 
      enlargement, a reduction, or the same size as the original.  The         
      scale model represents an exact reproduction of the original,            
      while simplified models do not represent reality in all details.         
      Some models are solid and show only the outline of the object            
      they portray, while others can be manipulated or operated.  Still        
      others, called cut-aways, are built in sections and can be taken         
      apart to reveal the internal structure.  Whenever possible, the          
      various parts should be labeled or colored to clarify                    
      relationships.                                                           
                                                                               
      Although a model may not be a realistic copy of an actual piece          
      of equipment, it can be used effectively in explaining operating         
      principles of various types of equipment.  Models are especially         
      adaptable to small group discussions in which students are               
      encouraged to ask questions.  A model is even more effective if          
      it works like the original, and if it can be taken apart and             
      reassembled.  With the display of an operating model, the                
      students can observe how each part works in relation to the other        
      parts.  When the instructor points to each part of the model             
      while explaining these relationships, the students can better            
      understand the mechanical principles involved.  As instructional         
      aids, models are usually more practical than originals because           
      they are lightweight and easy to manipulate.                             
                                                                               
      A mock-up is a three-dimensional or specialized type of working          
      model made from real or synthetic materials.  It is used for             
      study, training, or testing in place of the real object, which is        
      too costly or too dangerous, or which is impossible to obtain.           
      The mock-up may emphasize or highlight elements or components for        
      learning and eliminate nonessential elements.  Figure 7-5a              
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
        Figure 7-5.  THIS MOCK-UP, WHICH INCLUDES MOVEABLE POINTERS,           
          A ROTATABLE COMPASS CARD, AND OTHER MOVEABLE INDICATORS,             
           IS DESIGNED TO TEACH INSTRUMENT NAVIGATION PROCEDURES.              
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Production and equipment costs are limiting factors to consider          
      in developing and using models, mock-ups, and cut-aways.                 
      Depending on the nature of the representation, costs can vary            
      from low to high.  For instance, scale replicas are often very           
      expensive.  In general, if a two-dimensional representation will         
      satisfy the instructor's requirement, it should be used.                 
                                                                               
      TEST PREPARATION MATERIAL                                                
                                                                               
      Test preparation material applies to an array of paper-based,            
      video, and computer-based products that are designed by                  
      commercial publishers to help student applicants prepare for FAA         
      tests.  While test preparation materials may be effective in             
      preparing students for FAA tests, the danger is that students may        
      learn to pass a given test, but fail to learn other critical             
      information essential to safe piloting and maintenance practices.        
      In addition, FAA inspectors and designated examiners have found          
      that student applicants often exhibit a lack of knowledge during         
      oral questioning, even though many have easily passed the FAA            
      knowledge test.  A major shortcoming of test preparation                 
      materials is that the emphasis is on rote learning, which is the         
      lowest of all levels of learning.                                        
                                                                               
      Test preparation materials, as well as instructors, that dwell on        
      teaching the test are shortchanging student applicants.  All             
      instructors who use test preparation publications should stress          
      that these materials are not designed as stand-alone learning            
      tools.  They should be considered as a supplement to                     
      instructor-led training.                                                 
                                                                               
      FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS                                                      
                                                                               
      While no one person can accurately predict the future, most will         
      agree that new technological advances will affect practically            
      everyone.  In aviation training, the increased use of computer           
      technology, such as CBT, simulation, and virtual reality will            
      continue to expand.  The proliferation of sources for information        
      has prompted writers to refer to the current era as the                  
      information age.  Electronic communications, including use of            
      computer databases, voice mail, e-mail, the Internet, the World          
      Wide Web, and satellite-based, wireless communications, have             
      become routine.  This explosion of information access has already        
      affected aviation training, and it will be even more significant         
      in the future.                                                           
                                                                               
      Emerging computer technology includes improved voice-recognition         
      software and miniature electro-optical devices.                          
      Voice-recognition technology, which lets computers accept spoken         
      rather than keyed input, is expected to be highly effective for          
      technical training.  Miniature electro-optical devices have also         
      advanced beyond the science fiction stage.  With these devices,          
      computer-aided information is projected electronically on                
      sunglass-style eyewear which is connected to a lightweight,              
      belt-mounted computer.  The computer-aided information would be          
      particularly useful for aviation maintenance activities.  For            
      example, it would be possible for a technician's eyes to easily          
      move back and forth from computer-generated technical data to the        
      actual hardware while diagnosing and correcting a maintenance            
      problem.                                                                 
                                                                               
      Trends in training indicate a shift from the typical classroom to        
      more extensive use of a lab-type environment with computer work          
      or study stations.  This is part of the learning or training             
      center concept in which students become more actively involved           
      and responsible for their own training.  In these centers,               
      students will have access to simulation devices, computer                
      networks, and multimedia programs.  As a related part of this            
      concept, training system designers advocate more use of group or         
      collaborative learning techniques, cable or closed circuit TV,           
      interactive multimedia, and electronic communications.  Aviation-        
      related learning centers are usually associated with colleges,           
      universities, and research centers.  The airlines, as well as            
      aeronautical programs at some colleges and universities, have            
      used similar facilities for many years.  Further growth in this          
      type of training is likely.                                              
                                                                               
      One other type of computer-based technology is virtual reality.          
      Virtual reality (VR) actually is a separate form of computer-            
      based technology.  It creates a sensory experience that allows a         
      participant to believe and barely distinguish a virtual                  
      experience from a real one.  VR uses graphics with animation             
      systems, sounds, and images to reproduce electronic versions of          
      real-life experience.  Despite enormous potential, VR, in its            
      current stage of development, has drawbacks.  It is extremely            
      expensive, and versions with a head-mounted display sometimes            
      produce unfavorable side effects.                                        
                                                                               
      For those engaged in aviation training, the implications of              
      ongoing technological advances should be apparent.  The challenge        
      will be to learn how to stay abreast of the changes that apply to        
      training and adopt those that are the most useful and cost               
      effective.  Since much of the new technology will be based on            
      computer technology, instructors with well-developed computer            
      skills will be in demand.  In the new century, much of the               
      existing technology will become obsolete.  New, more efficient,          
      and probably more complex technology will appear and replace the         
      old.                                                                     
                                                                               
      Although the explosion of training technology offers new                 
      opportunities, instructors must remember their main teaching             
      goals and be selectively receptive to new possibilities.                 
      Electronic information on computer networks and bulletin boards          
      is from commercial providers, as well as community, state, and           
      national government agencies.  There is no guarantee that all of         
      this information is current, or even accurate.                           
                                                                               
      Professional instructors need to be resourceful and                      
      discriminating.  They should study and research extensively in           
      professional journals and other publications as well as use the          
      Internet.  Above all, they should use creativity and imagination.        
      There is always a better way to help students learn what they            
      really need to know.  In the next chapter, the broad scope of            
      aviation instructor responsibilities is fully covered.  Among            
      these are the need for instructors to continue to update and             
      expand their existing levels of knowledge and skill.  The subject        
      of professionalism, along with several methods for enhancing the         
      instructor's professional image, also is discussed.                      
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                  CHAPTER 8                                    
                                                                               
               INSTRUCTOR RESPONSIBILITIES AND PROFESSIONALISM                 
                                                                               
      Students look to aviation instructors as authorities in their            
      respective areas.  It is important that aviation instructors not         
      only know how to teach, but they also need to project a                  
      knowledgeable and professional image.  In addition, aviation             
      instructors are on the front lines of efforts to improve the             
      safety record of the industry.  This chapter addresses the scope         
      of responsibilities for aviation instructors and enumerates              
      methods they can use to enhance their professional image and             
      conduct.                                                                 
                                                                               
      AVIATION INSTRUCTOR RESPONSIBILITIES                                     
                                                                               
      The job of an aviation instructor, or any instructor, is to              
      teach.  Previous chapters have discussed how people learn, the           
      teaching process, and teaching methods.  As indicated, the               
      learning process can be made easier by helping students learn,           
      providing adequate instruction, demanding adequate standards of          
      performance, and emphasizing the positive.  Figure 8-1a                 
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                      Figure 8-1.  There are four main                         
                 responsibilities for aviation instructors.                    
                                                                               
                RESPONSIBILITIES FOR ALL AVIATION INSTRUCTORS                  
                                                                               
                .  Helping Students Learn                                      
                  .  Providing Adequate Instruction                            
                    .  Demanding Adequate Standards of Performance             
                      .  Emphasizing the Positive                              
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      HELPING STUDENTS LEARN                                                   
                                                                               
      Learning should be an enjoyable experience.  By making each              
      lesson a pleasurable experience for the student, the instructor          
      can maintain a high level of student motivation.  This does not          
      mean the instructor must make things easy for the student or             
      sacrifice standards of performance to please the student.  The           
      student will experience satisfaction from doing a good job or            
      from successfully meeting the challenge of a difficult task.             
                                                                               
      The idea that people must be led to learning by making it easy is        
      a fallacy.  People are not always attracted to something simply          
      because it is pleasant and effortless.  Though they might                
      initially be drawn to less difficult tasks, they ultimately              
      devote more effort to activities that bring rewards, such as             
      self-enhancement and personal satisfaction.  People want to feel         
      capable; they are proud of the successful achievement of                 
      difficult goals.                                                         
                                                                               
      Learning should be interesting.  Knowing the objective of each           
      period of instruction gives meaning and interest to the student          
      as well as the instructor.  Not knowing the objective of the             
      lesson often leads to confusion, disinterest, and uneasiness on          
      the part of the student.                                                 
                                                                               
      Learning to fly should provide students with an opportunity for          
      exploration and experimentation.  As part of this, students              
      should be allowed time to explore and evaluate the various               
      elements of each lesson.  This encourages them to discover their         
      own capabilities and it helps build self-confidence.  Since              
      students learn at different rates and in different ways, it              
      usually is necessary to adjust presentations for some students.          
                                                                               
      Learning to fly should be a habit-building period during which           
      students devote their attention, memory, and judgment to the             
      development of correct habit patterns.  Any objective other than         
      to learn the right way is likely to make students impatient.  The        
      instructor should keep the students focused on good habits both          
      by example and by a logical presentation of learning tasks.              
                                                                               
      Because aviation instructors have full responsibility for all            
      phases of required training, they must be clear regarding the            
      objectives.  For ground and flight training, the objectives              
      reflect the knowledge and skill required to train safe pilots who        
      can complete the knowledge and practical tests for the                   
      appropriate certificate or rating.  In the case of the flight            
      student studying for the practical test, the objectives will come        
      from the practical test standards (PTS) for the desired                  
      certificate or rating.  Maintenance students will likewise be            
      facing objectives aligned with the knowledge tests and the Oral          
      and Practical.  After the objectives have been established, the          
      sequence of training, teaching methods, and related activities           
      must be organized to best achieve them.                                  
                                                                               
      To accomplish these objectives, instructors need to take specific        
      actions.  The following measures should result in a positive and         
      efficient learning experience.                                           
                                                                               
      .    Devise a plan of action.                                            
                                                                               
      .    Create a positive student-instructor relationship.                  
                                                                               
      .    Present information and guidance effectively.                       
                                                                               
      .    Transfer responsibility to the student as learning occurs.          
                                                                               
      .    Evaluate student learning and thereby measure teaching              
           effectiveness.                                                      
                                                                               
      As noted in the list, the instructor must devise a plan of               
      action, and present information and guidance effectively.                
      Knowing the objectives is one part of accomplishing these tasks          
      and knowing the student is the other.  For example, the plan of          
      action for a lesson on reciprocating engines for maintenance             
      students would be different for a student transitioning from             
      automotive maintenance than it would for a student with no               
      maintenance background.  In theory, the transitioning student            
      would have less need for basic information.  The best way to             
      confirm this is with a pretest.  Until the students are tested,          
      the instructor does not know for sure where each student stands          
      in relation to the objectives.  A pretest is a criterion-                
      referenced test constructed to measure the knowledge and skills          
      that are necessary to begin the course.  Pretests also may be            
      used to determine the student's current level of knowledge and           
      skill in relation to the material that will be presented in the          
      course.                                                                  
                                                                               
      The pretest measures whether or not the student has the                  
      prerequisite knowledge and skills necessary to proceed with the          
      course of instruction.  Examples of skills that might be required        
      of a student pilot would be knowledge of basic math,                     
      understanding the English language, and having certain spatial           
      skills to understand maps and the relationship of maps to the            
      earth.  A pretest can expose deficiencies in these and other             
      areas.  The instructor could then base the plan of action                
      accordingly.  In the extreme, it might be necessary for the              
      prospective student to get more training or education before             
      beginning flight training.                                               
                                                                               
      The second part of a pretest is measuring the level of knowledge         
      or skill the student has in relation to the material that is             
      going to be taught.  Typically, one or two questions for each of         
      the key knowledge areas or skills in the course are included.            
      The instructor will then be able to identify how much the student        
      knows and tailor the instruction accordingly.  Knowing where a           
      student is at the beginning helps the instructor present the             
      information and offer guidance more effectively.                         
                                                                               
      Helping the student learn does not mean that the instructor has          
      the responsibility for performing learning tasks which students          
      need to do for themselves.  This is not effective instruction.           
      The best instructors provide information, guidance, and                  
      opportunity for student learning, and support the student's              
      motivation while they are in a learning situation.                       
                                                                               
      PROVIDING ADEQUATE INSTRUCTION                                           
                                                                               
      The flight instructor should attempt to carefully and correctly          
      analyze the student's personality, thinking, and ability.  No two        
      students are alike, and the same methods of instruction cannot be        
      equally effective for each student.  The instructor must talk            
      with a student at some length to learn about the student's               
      background, interests, temperament, and way of thinking.  The            
      instructor's methods also may change as the student advances             
      through successive stages of training.                                   
                                                                               
      An instructor who has not correctly analyzed a student may soon          
      find that the instruction is not producing the desired results.          
      For example, this could mean that the instructor has analyzed a          
      student as a slow thinker, who is actually a quick thinker but is        
      hesitant to act.  Such a student may fail to act at the proper           
      time due to lack of self-confidence, even though the situation is        
      correctly understood.  In this case, instruction would obviously         
      be directed toward developing student self-confidence, rather            
      than drill on flight fundamentals.  In another case, too much            
      criticism may completely subdue a timid person, whereas brisk            
      instruction may force a more diligent application to the learning        
      task.  A slow student requires instructional methods that combine        
      tact, keen perception, and delicate handling.  If such a student         
      receives too much help and encouragement, a feeling of                   
      incompetence may develop.                                                
                                                                               
      A student whose slow progress is due to discouragement and a lack        
      of confidence should be assigned sub-goals that can be attained          
      more easily than the normal learning goals.  For this purpose,           
      complex lessons can be separated into elements, and each element         
      practiced until an acceptable performance is achieved before the         
      whole maneuver or operation is attempted.  As an example,                
      instruction in S-turns may begin with consideration for headings         
      only.  Elements of altitude control, drift correction, and               
      coordination can be introduced one at a time.  As the student            
      gains confidence and ability, goals should be increased in               
      difficulty until progress is normal.                                     
                                                                               
      Students who are fast learners can also create problems for the          
      instructor.  Because they make few mistakes, they may assume that        
      the correction of errors is unimportant.  Such overconfidence may        
      soon result in faulty performance.  For such students, the               
      instructor should constantly raise the standard of performance           
      for each lesson, demanding greater effort.  Individuals learn            
      when they are aware of their errors.  Students who are permitted         
      to complete every flight lesson without corrections and guidance         
      will not retain what they have practiced as well as those                
      students who have their attention constantly directed to an              
      analysis of their performance.  On the other hand, deficiencies          
      should not be invented solely for the students' benefit because          
      unfair criticism immediately destroys their confidence in the            
      instructor.                                                              
                                                                               
      The demands on an instructor to serve as a practical psychologist        
      are much greater than is generally realized.  As discussed in            
      Chapters 1 and 2, an instructor can meet this responsibility             
      through a careful analysis of the students and through a                 
      continuing deep interest in them.                                        
                                                                               
      STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE                                                 
                                                                               
      Flight instructors must continuously evaluate their own                  
      effectiveness and the standard of learning and performance               
      achieved by their students.  The desire to maintain pleasant             
      personal relationships with the students must not cause the              
      acceptance of a slow rate of learning or substandard flight              
      performance.  It is a fallacy to believe that accepting lower            
      standards to please a student will produce a genuine improvement         
      in the student-instructor relationship.  An earnest student does         
      not resent reasonable standards that are fairly and consistently         
      applied.                                                                 
                                                                               
      Instructors fail to provide competent instruction when they              
      permit their students to get by with a substandard performance,          
      or without learning thoroughly some item of knowledge pertinent          
      to safe piloting.  More importantly, such deficiencies may in            
      themselves allow hazardous inadequacies in student performance           
      later on.                                                                
                                                                               
      EMPHASIZING THE POSITIVE                                                 
                                                                               
      Aviation instructors have a tremendous influence on their                
      students' perception of aviation.  The way instructors conduct           
      themselves, the attitudes they display, and the manner in which          
      they develop their instruction all contribute to the formation of        
      either positive or negative impressions by their students.  The          
      success of an aviation instructor depends, in large measure, on          
      the ability to present instruction so that students develop a            
      positive image of aviation.  Figure 8-2a                                
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                    Figure 8-2.  STUDENTS LEARN MORE WHEN                      
               INSTRUCTION IS PRESENTED IN A POSITIVE MANNER.                  
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Chapter 1 emphasized that a negative self-concept inhibits the           
      perceptual process, that fear adversely affects the students'            
      perceptions, that the feeling of being threatened limits the             
      ability to perceive, and that negative motivation is not as              
      effective as positive motivation.  Merely knowing about these            
      factors is not enough.  Instructors must be able to detect these         
      factors in their students and strive to prevent negative feelings        
      from becoming part of the instructional process.                         
                                                                               
      Consider how the following scenario for the first lesson might           
      impress a new student pilot without previous experience in               
      aviation:                                                                
                                                                               
      .    An exhaustive indoctrination in preflight procedures with           
           emphasis on the extreme precautions which must be taken             
           before every flight because " ... mechanical failures in            
           flight are often disastrous."                                       
                                                                               
      .    Instruction in the extreme care which must be taken in              
           taxiing an airplane, because " ... if you go too fast, it's         
           likely to get away from you."                                       
                                                                               
      .    A series of stalls, because " ... this is how so many people        
           lose their lives in airplanes."                                     
                                                                               
      .    A series of simulated forced landings, because " ... one            
           should always be prepared to cope with an engine failure."          
                                                                               
      These are a series of new experiences that might make the new            
      student wonder whether or not learning to fly is a good idea.            
      The stall series may even cause the student to become airsick.           
      In contrast, consider a first flight lesson in which the                 
      preflight inspection is presented to familiarize the student with        
      the airplane and its components, and the flight consists of a            
      perfectly normal flight to a nearby airport and return.                  
      Following the flight, the instructor can call the student's              
      attention to the ease with which the trip was made in comparison         
      with other modes of transportation, and the fact that no critical        
      incidents were encountered or expected.                                  
                                                                               
      This by no means proposes that preflight inspections, stalls, and        
      emergency procedures should be omitted from training.  It only           
      illustrates the positive approach in which the student is not            
      overwhelmed with the critical possibilities of aviation before           
      having an opportunity to see its potential and pleasurable               
      features.  The introduction of emergency procedures after the            
      student has developed an acquaintance with normal operations is          
      not so likely to be discouraging and frightening, or to inhibit          
      learning by the imposition of fear.                                      
                                                                               
      There is nothing in aviation that demands that students must             
      suffer as part of their instruction.  This has often been the            
      case because of overemphasis on negative motivation and                  
      explanations.  Every reasonable effort should be made to ensure          
      that instruction is given under the most favorable conditions.           
                                                                               
      Although most student pilots have been exposed to air travel in          
      one form or another, they may not have flown in light, training          
      aircraft.  Consequently, students may experience unfamiliar              
      noises, vibrations, eerie sensations due to G-forces, or a woozy         
      feeling in the stomach.  To be effective, instructors cannot             
      ignore the existence of these negative factors, nor should they          
      ridicule students who are adversely affected by them.  These             
      negative sensations can usually be overcome by understanding and         
      positive instruction.                                                    
                                                                               
      When emphasizing to a student that a particular procedure must be        
      accomplished in a certain manner, an instructor might be tempted         
      to point out the consequences of doing it differently.  The              
      instructor may even tell the student that to do it otherwise is          
      to flirt with disaster or to suffer serious consequences.                
      Justifications such as these may be very convenient, and the             
      instructor may consider the negative approach necessary to ensure        
      that the point is committed to memory.  However, the final test          
      must be whether the stated reasons contribute to the learning            
      situation.                                                               
                                                                               
      Most new instructors tend to adopt those teaching methods used by        
      their own instructors.  These methods may or may not have been           
      good.  The fact that one has learned under one system of                 
      instruction does not mean that this is necessarily the best way          
      it can be done, regardless of the respect one retains for the            
      ability of their original instructor.  Some students learn in            
      spite of their instruction, rather than because of it.  Emphasize        
      the positive because positive instruction results in positive            
      learning.                                                                
                                                                               
      FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR RESPONSIBILITIES                                       
                                                                               
      All aviation instructors shoulder an enormous responsibility             
      because their students will ultimately be flying and servicing or        
      repairing aircraft.  Flight instructors have some additional             
      responsibilities including the responsibility of evaluating              
      student pilots and making a determination of when they are ready         
      to solo.  Other flight instructor responsibilities are based on          
      Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61, and        
      advisory circulars (ACs).  Figure 8-3a                                  
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                     Figure 8-3.  The flight instructor                        
                    has many additional responsibilities.                      
                                                                               
             ADDITIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS                
                                                                               
           .  Evaluation of Student Piloting Ability                           
             .  Pilot Supervision                                              
               .  Practical Test Recommendations                               
                 .  Flight Instructor Endorsements                             
                   .  Additional Training and Endorsements                     
                     .  Pilot Proficiency                                      
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      EVALUATION OF STUDENT PILOTING ABILITY                                   
                                                                               
      Evaluation is one of the most important elements of instruction.         
      In flight instruction, the instructor initially determines that          
      the student understands the procedure or maneuver.  Then the             
      instructor demonstrates the maneuver, allows the student to              
      practice the maneuver under direction, and finally evaluates             
      student accomplishment by observing the performance.                     
                                                                               
      Evaluation of demonstrated ability during flight instruction must        
      be based upon established standards of performance, suitably             
      modified to apply to the student's experience and stage of               
      development as a pilot.  The evaluation must consider the                
      student's mastery of the elements involved in the maneuver,              
      rather than merely the overall performance.                              
                                                                               
      Demonstrations of performance directly apply to the qualification        
      of student pilots for solo and solo cross-country privileges.            
      Also associated with pilot skill evaluations during flight               
      training are the stage checks conducted in FAA-approved school           
      courses and the practical tests for pilot certificates and               
      ratings.                                                                 
                                                                               
      In evaluating student demonstrations of piloting ability, it is          
      important for the flight instructor to keep the student informed         
      of progress.  This may be done as each procedure or maneuver is          
      completed or summarized during postflight critiques.  When               
      explaining errors in performance, instructors should point out           
      the elements in which the deficiencies are believed to have              
      originated and, if possible, suggest appropriate corrective              
      measures.                                                                
                                                                               
      Correction of student errors should not include the practice of          
      taking the controls away from students immediately when a mistake        
      is made.  Safety permitting, it is frequently better to let              
      students progress part of the way into the mistake and find their        
      own way out.  It is difficult for students to learn to do a              
      maneuver properly if they seldom have the opportunity to correct         
      an error.  On the other hand, students may perform a procedure or        
      maneuver correctly and not fully understand the principles and           
      objectives involved.  When the instructor suspects this, students        
      should be required to vary the performance of the maneuver               
      slightly, combine it with other operations, or apply the same            
      elements to the performance of other maneuvers.  Students who do         
      not understand the principles involved will probably not be able         
      to do this successfully.                                                 
                                                                               
      PILOT SUPERVISION                                                        
                                                                               
      Flight instructors have the responsibility to provide guidance           
      and restraint with respect to the solo operations of their               
      students.  This is by far the most important flight instructor           
      responsibility because the instructor is the only person in a            
      position to make the determination that a student is ready for           
      solo operations.  Before endorsing a student for solo flight, the        
      instructor should require the student to demonstrate consistent          
      ability to perform all of the fundamental maneuvers.  The student        
      should also be capable of handling ordinary problems that might          
      occur, such as traffic pattern congestion, change in active              
      runway, or unexpected crosswinds.  The instructor must remain in         
      control of the situation.  By requiring the first solo flight to         
      consist of landings to a full stop, the instructor has the               
      opportunity to stop the flight if unexpected conditions or poor          
      performance warrant such action.                                         
                                                                               
      PRACTICAL TEST RECOMMENDATIONS                                           
      Provision is made on the airman certificate or rating application        
      form for the written recommendation of the flight instructor who         
      has prepared the applicant for the practical test involved.              
      Signing this recommendation imposes a serious responsibility on          
      the flight instructor.  A flight instructor who makes a practical        
      test recommendation for an applicant seeking a certificate or            
      rating should require the applicant to thoroughly demonstrate the        
      knowledge and skill level required for that certificate or               
      rating.  This demonstration should in no instance be less than           
      the complete procedure prescribed in the applicable practical            
      test standards (PTS).                                                    
                                                                               
      A practical test recommendation based on anything less risks the         
      presentation of an applicant who may be unprepared for some part         
      of the actual practical test.  In such an event, the flight              
      instructor is logically held accountable for a deficient                 
      instructional performance.  This risk is especially great in             
      signing recommendations for applicants who have not been trained         
      by the instructor involved.  14 CFR parts 61 and 141 require a           
      minimum of three hours of flight training preparation within 60          
      days preceding the date of the test for a recreational, private,         
      or commercial certificate.  The same training requirement applies        
      to the instrument rating.  The instructor signing the endorsement        
      is required to have conducted the training in the applicable             
      areas of operation stated in the regulations and the PTS, and            
      certify that the person is prepared for the required practical           
      tests.  In most cases, the conscientious instructor will have            
      little doubt concerning the applicant's readiness for the                
      practical test.                                                          
                                                                               
      FAA inspectors and designated pilot examiners rely on flight             
      instructor recommendations as evidence of qualification for              
      certification, and proof that a review has been given of the             
      subject areas found to be deficient on the appropriate knowledge         
      test.  Recommendations also provide assurance that the applicant         
      has had a thorough briefing on the practical test standards and          
      the associated knowledge areas, maneuvers, and procedures.  If           
      the flight instructor has trained and prepared the applicant             
      competently, the applicant should have no problem passing the            
      practical test.                                                          
                                                                               
      FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR ENDORSEMENTS                                           
                                                                               
      The authority and responsibility for endorsing student pilot             
      certificates and logbooks for solo and solo cross-country flight         
      privileges are granted in 14 CFR part 61.  These endorsements are        
      further explained in AC 61-65, Certification:  Pilots and Flight         
      Instructors.  Failure to ensure that a student pilot meets the           
      requirements of regulations prior to making endorsements allowing        
      solo flight is a serious deficiency in performance for which an          
      instructor is held accountable.  Providing a solo endorsement for        
      a student pilot who is not fully prepared to accept the                  
      responsibility for solo flight operations also is a breach of            
      faith with the student.                                                  
                                                                               
      Flight instructors also have the responsibility to make logbook          
      endorsements for pilots who are already certificated.  Included          
      are additional endorsements for recreational, private,                   
      commercial, and instrument-rated pilots as well as flight                
      instructors.  Typical examples include endorsements for flight           
      reviews, instrument proficiency checks, and the additional               
      training required for high performance, high altitude, and               
      tailwheel aircraft.  Completion of prerequisites for a practical         
      test is another instructor task that must be documented properly.        
      Examples of all common endorsements can be found in the current          
      issue of AC 61-65, Appendix 1.  This appendix also includes              
      references to 14 CFR part 61 for more details concerning the             
      requirements that must be met to qualify for each respective             
      endorsement.  The examples shown contain the essential elements          
      of each endorsement, but it is not necessary for all endorsements        
      to be worded exactly as those in the AC.  For example, changes to        
      regulatory requirements may affect the wording, or the instructor        
      may customize the endorsement for any special circumstances of           
      the student.  Any time a flight instructor gives ground or flight        
      training, a logbook entry is required.  Figure 8-4a                     
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                    Figure 8-4.  This is a sample logbook                      
               endorsement for presolo aeronautical knowledge.                 
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]R  ]                REMARKS AND ENDORSEMENTS               ]N  ]        
      ]ST.]                                                       ]TA ]        
      ]PP.]                                                       ]   ]        
      ]___]_______________________________________________________]___]        
      ]   ] I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has        ]   ]        
      ]___]_______________________________________________________]___]        
      ]   ] satisfactorily completed the presolo knowledge exam   ]   ]        
      ]   ] of Section 61.87(b) for the (make and model aircraft).]   ]        
      ]   ] S/S datea J. J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-__    ]   ]        
      ]___]_______________________________________________________]___]        
      ]   ]                                                       ]   ]        
      ]___]_______________________________________________________]___]        
      ]   ]                                                       ]   ]        
      ]___]_______________________________________________________]___]        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      14 CFR part 61 also requires that the instructor maintain a              
      record in a logbook or some separate document that includes              
      information on the type of endorsement, the name of the person           
      receiving the endorsement, and the date of the endorsement.  For         
      a knowledge or practical test endorsement, the record must               
      include the kind of test, the date, and the results.  Records of         
      endorsements must be maintained for at least three years.                
                                                                               
      FAA FORM 8710-1                                                          
                                                                               
      After ensuring that an applicant for a certificate is prepared           
      for the test and has met all the knowledge, proficiency, and             
      experience requirements, it is advisable for the flight                  
      instructor to assist the applicant in filling out FAA Form               
      8710-1, Airman Certificate and/or Rating Application.  The               
      instructors' certification that the applicant is ready to take           
      the test is on the reverse of the form, but the applicant will           
      likely need the assistance of the instructor in filling out the          
      front.                                                                   
                                                                               
      FAA Form 8710-1 comes with instructions attached for completing          
      it.  The example shown is for a private pilot applicant who              
      received training under 14 CFR part 61.  This is only an example,        
      since the form is periodically revised to reflect changes in the         
      applicable rules and regulations.  If the current form is a later        
      edition than shown here, the instructions must be read very              
      carefully to ensure all areas of the form are filled out                 
      correctly.  The example shown is annotated with additional               
      guidance to clarify or reinforce certain areas that are                  
      frequently found incomplete by the FAA during the certification          
      process.  Figure 8-5a                                                   
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
       Figure 8-5.  THIS SAMPLE FAA FORM 8710-1 (FRONT AND BACK PAGE)          
              HAS BEEN COMPLETED FOR A PRIVATE PILOT APPLICANT.                
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      ADDITIONAL TRAINING AND ENDORSEMENTS                                     
                                                                               
      Flight instructors often provide required training and                   
      endorsements for certificated pilots.  AC 61-98, Currency and            
      Additional Qualification Requirements for Certificated Pilots,           
      contains information to assist the instructor in providing               
      training/endorsements for flight reviews, instrument proficiency         
      checks, and transitions to other makes and models of aircraft.           
      Included in the AC is general guidance in each of these areas,           
      references to other related documents, and sample training plans         
      that are pertinent to this type of training.                             
                                                                               
      FLIGHT REVIEWS                                                           
                                                                               
      The conduct of flight reviews for certificated pilots is not only        
      a responsibility of the flight instructor, but it can also be an         
      excellent opportunity to expand on the instructor's professional         
      services.  The flight review is intended to be an industry-              
      managed, FAA-monitored currency program.  The flight instructor          
      must remember that the flight review is not a test or a check            
      ride, but an instructional service designed to assess a pilot's          
      knowledge and skills.  As stated in 14 CFR part 61, no person may        
      act as pilot in command of an aircraft unless a flight review has        
      been accomplished within the preceding 24 calendar months.               
      Effective pilot refresher training must be based on specific             
      objectives and standards.  The objectives should include a               
      thorough checkout appropriate to the pilot certificate and               
      aircraft ratings held, and the standards should be at least those        
      required for the issuance of that pilot certificate.  Before             
      beginning any training, the pilot and the instructor should agree        
      fully on these objectives and standards, and, as training                
      progresses, the pilot should be kept appraised of progress toward        
      achieving those goals.                                                   
                                                                               
      AC 61-98, Chapter 1, provides guidance for conducting the flight         
      review.  Appendix 1 is a sample flight review plan and checklist.        
      Appendix 2 is a sample list of flight review knowledge,                  
      maneuvers, and procedures.  It contains recommended procedures           
      and standards for general pilot refresher courses.  At the               
      conclusion of a successful flight review, the logbook of the             
      pilot should be endorsed.  Figure 8-6a                                  
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                Figure 8-6.  This sample logbook endorsement                   
                    is for completion of a flight review.                      
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]R  ]                REMARKS AND ENDORSEMENTS               ]N  ]        
      ]ST.]                                                       ]T/O]        
      ]PP.]                                                       ]   ]        
      ]___]_______________________________________________________]___]        
      ]   ] I certify that (First name, MI, Last name), (pilot    ]   ]        
      ]___]_______________________________________________________]___]        
      ]   ] certificate) (certificate number) has satisfactorily  ]   ]        
      ]   ] completed a flight review of Section 61.56(a) on      ]   ]        
      ]   ] (date).  S/S datea J. J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp.    ]   ]        
      ]   ] 12-31-__                                              ]   ]        
      ]___]_______________________________________________________]___]        
      ]   ]                                                       ]   ]        
      ]___]_______________________________________________________]___]        
      ]   ]                                                       ]   ]        
      ]___]_______________________________________________________]___]        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      INSTRUMENT PROFICIENCY CHECKS                                            
                                                                               
      Instrument rated pilots who have not met instrument currency             
      requirements in the preceding six months or for six months               
      thereafter are required by 14 CFR part 61 to pass an instrument          
      proficiency check in order to regain their instrument flying             
      privileges.                                                              
                                                                               
      AC 61-98 contains guidance for the conduct of an instrument              
      proficiency check, including a sample plan of action and                 
      checklist.  When conducting an instrument proficiency check, the         
      flight instructor should use the Instrument Rating Practical Test        
      Standards as the primary reference for specific maneuvers and any        
      associated tolerances.  A pilot taking an instrument proficiency         
      check should be expected to meet the criteria of specific tasks          
      selected in the Instrument Rating Practical Test Standards.              
                                                                               
      The flight instructor must hold aircraft and instrument ratings          
      on his or her instructor certificate appropriate to the aircraft         
      being flown.  Part or all of the check may be conducted in a             
      flight training device or flight simulator that meets 14 CFR             
      section 141.41 requirements.  The FAA FSDO having jurisdiction           
      over the area where the device is used must specifically approve         
      each flight training device or flight simulator.  If planning to         
      use a flight training device or flight simulator to conduct all          
      or part of an instrument proficiency check, instructors should           
      contact the local FSDO to verify the approval status of the              
      device.                                                                  
                                                                               
      AIRCRAFT CHECKOUTS/TRANSITIONS                                           
                                                                               
      Certificated pilots look to flight instructors for aircraft              
      checkouts and transition training including high performance             
      airplanes, tailwheel airplanes, and aircraft capable of flight at        
      high altitudes.  The flight instructor who checks out and                
      certifies the competency of a pilot in an aircraft for which a           
      type rating is not required by regulations is accepting a major          
      responsibility for the safety of future passengers.  Many newer          
      light airplanes are comparable in performance and complexity to          
      transport airplanes.  For these, the flight instructor's checkout        
      should be at least as thorough as an official type rating                
      practical test.                                                          
                                                                               
      AC 61-98 provides a list of requirements for transitioning to            
      other makes and models of aircraft along with a sample training          
      plan.  This AC also lists other publications that can be helpful         
      in conducting checkouts.  All checkouts should be conducted to           
      the performance standards required by the appropriate practical          
      test standards for the pilot certificate.                                
                                                                               
      For the conduct of an aircraft checkout, it is essential that the        
      flight instructor be fully qualified in the aircraft to be used          
      and be thoroughly familiar with its operating procedures,                
      approved flight manual, and operating limitations.  An instructor        
      who does not meet the recent flight experience prescribed by             
      regulations for the aircraft concerned should not attempt to             
      check out another pilot.                                                 
                                                                               
      For the benefit of the pilot concerned, and for the instructor's         
      protection in the case of later questions, the flight instructor         
      should record in the pilot's logbook the exact extent of any             
      checkout conducted.  This can be done most easily by reference to        
      the appropriate PTS.                                                     
                                                                               
      In the event the instructor finds a pilot's performance to be            
      insufficient to allow sign off, the pilot should be thoroughly           
      debriefed on all problem areas, and further instruction                  
      scheduled.  In some cases, a referral to another instructor may          
      be appropriate.                                                          
                                                                               
      PILOT PROFICIENCY                                                        
                                                                               
      Profession flight instructors know the importance of maintaining         
      knowledge and skill both as instructors and as pilots.  Only by          
      keeping themselves at top proficiency can they be true                   
      professionals.  The flight instructor is at the leading edge of          
      the aviation industry's efforts to improve aviation safety               
      through additional training.  One of the ways the FAA attempts to        
      improve proficiency is through the requirement for having a              
      flight review within the past 24 months.  Another method of              
      encouraging pilot proficiency is through provisions of AC 61-91,         
      Pilot Proficiency Award Program.                                         
                                                                               
      The objective of the program is to provide pilots with the               
      opportunity to establish and participate in a personal recurrent         
      training program.  It is open to all pilots holding a                    
      recreational pilot certificate or higher and a current medical           
      certificate when required.  Pilots of qualified ultralight               
      vehicles are also eligible.  For airplanes, the program requires         
      three hours of flight training which includes one hour directed          
      toward basic airplane control and mastery of the airplane; one           
      hour devoted to patterns, approaches, and landings; and one hour         
      of instrument training either in an airplane, approved flight            
      training device, or flight simulator.  The program also requires         
      attending at least one sanctioned aviation safety seminar, or            
      industry-conducted recurrent training program.  AC 61-91 contains        
      requirements for other categories/classes of aircraft, as well as        
      additional detailed requirements for all aircraft.                       
                                                                               
      Incentives to participate include distinctive pins and                   
      certificates of completion for Phases I through X.  A certificate        
      is awarded for Phases XI through XX.  Work toward another phase          
      can begin as soon as one phase is completed, but 12 months must          
      pass between completion of one phase and application for the             
      award of the next phase.  Another incentive to participate is            
      that the completion of a phase substitutes for the flight review         
      and restarts the 24-month clock.                                         
                                                                               
      Flight instructors may also participate in the program.  By              
      giving instruction leading to phase completion for three pilots          
      (nine hours of instruction) and attendance at a safety seminar or        
      clinic, an instructor can earn Phases I through III.  Phases IV          
      through XX are each earned by completion of an evaluation or             
      proficiency flight with a designated examiner or FAA inspector           
      and attendance at a safety seminar or clinic.                            
                                                                               
      Flight instructors can substantially improve their own                   
      proficiency and that of their students and other pilots by               
      participating and encouraging participation in the Pilot                 
      Proficiency Award Program.  When an instructor has conducted the         
      appropriate training toward the completion of a phase, a logbook         
      endorsement is required.  Figure 8-7a                                   
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
             Figure 8-7.  This is an example of an instructor's                
              logbook endorsement for a pilot who has completed                
              a phase of training according to requirements of                 
                    the Pilot Proficiency Award Program.                       
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]R  ]                REMARKS AND ENDORSEMENTS               ]N  ]        
      ]ST.]                                                       ]T/O]        
      ]PP.]                                                       ]   ]        
      ]___]_______________________________________________________]___]        
      ]   ] I certify that (First name, MI, Last name), (pilot    ]   ]        
      ]___]_______________________________________________________]___]        
      ]   ] certificate) (certificate number) has satisfactorily  ]   ]        
      ]   ] completed Phase No. _____________ of a WINGS program  ]   ]        
      ]   ] on (date).  S/S datea J. J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. ]   ]        
      ]   ] 12-31-__                                              ]   ]        
      ]___]_______________________________________________________]___]        
      ]   ]                                                       ]   ]        
      ]___]_______________________________________________________]___]        
      ]   ]                                                       ]   ]        
      ]___]_______________________________________________________]___]        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      PROFESSIONALISM                                                          
                                                                               
      The aviation instructor is the central figure in aviation                
      training and is responsible for all phases of required training.         
      The instructor must be fully qualified as an aviation                    
      professional, either as a pilot or aircraft maintenance                  
      technician; however, the instructor's ability must go far beyond         
      this if the requirements of professionalism are to be met.               
      Although the word "professionalism" is widely used, it is rarely         
      defined.  In fact, no single definition can encompass all of the         
      qualifications and considerations that must be present before            
      true professionalism can exist.                                          
                                                                               
      Though not all inclusive, the following list gives some major            
      considerations and qualifications that should be included in the         
      definition of professionalism.                                           
                                                                               
      .    Professionalism exists only when a service is performed for         
           someone, or for the common good.                                    
                                                                               
      .    Professionalism is achieved only after extended training and        
           preparation.                                                        
                                                                               
      .    True performance as a professional is based on study and            
           research.                                                           
                                                                               
      .    Professionals must be able to reason logically and                  
           accurately.                                                         
                                                                               
      .    Professionalism requires the ability to make good judgmental        
           decisions.  Professionals cannot limit their actions and            
           decisions to standard patterns and practices.                       
                                                                               
      .    Professionalism demands a code of ethics.  Professionals            
           must be true to themselves and to those they service.               
           Anything less than a sincere performance is quickly                 
           detected, and immediately destroys their effectiveness.             
                                                                               
      Aviation instructors should carefully consider this list.                
      Failing to meet these qualities may result in poor performance by        
      the instructor and students.  Preparation and performance as an          
      instructor with these qualities constantly in mind will command          
      recognition as a professional in aviation instruction.                   
      Professionalism includes an instructor's public image.                   
                                                                               
      SINCERITY                                                                
                                                                               
      The professional instructor should be straightforward and honest.        
      Attempting to hide some inadequacy behind a smokescreen of               
      unrelated instruction will make it impossible for the instructor         
      to command the respect and full attention of a student.  Teaching        
      an aviation student is based upon acceptance of the instructor as        
      a competent, qualified teacher and an expert pilot or aircraft           
      maintenance technician.  Any facade of instructor                        
      pretentiousness, whether it is real or mistakenly assumed by the         
      student, will immediately cause the student to lose confidence in        
      the instructor and learning will be adversely affected.                  
                                                                               
      ACCEPTANCE OF THE STUDENT                                                
                                                                               
      With regard to students, the instructor must accept them as they         
      are, including all their faults and problems.  The student is a          
      person who wants to learn, and the instructor is a person who is         
      available to help in the learning process.  Beginning with this          
      understanding, the professional relationship of the instructor           
      with the student should be based on a mutual acknowledgement that        
      the student and the instructor are important to each other, and          
      that both are working toward the same objective.                         
      Under no circumstance should the instructor do anything which            
      implies degrading the student.  Acceptance, rather than ridicule,        
      and support rather than reproof will encourage learning.                 
      Students must be treated with respect, regardless of whether the         
      student is quick to learn or is slow and apprehensive.                   
      Criticizing a student who does not learn rapidly is similar to a         
      doctor reprimanding a patient who does not get well as rapidly as        
      predicted.                                                               
                                                                               
      PERSONAL APPEARANCE AND HABITS                                           
                                                                               
      Personal appearance has an important effect on the professional          
      image of the instructor.  Today's aviation customers expect their        
      instructors to be neat, clean, and appropriately dressed.  Since         
      the instructor is engaged in a learning situation, the attire            
      worn should be appropriate to a professional status.                     
      Figure 8-8a                                                             
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                 Figure 8-8.  THE AVIATION INSTRUCTOR SHOULD                   
                  ALWAYS PRESENT A PROFESSIONAL APPEARANCE.                    
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Personal habits have a significant effect on the professional            
      image.  The exercise of common courtesy is perhaps the most              
      important of these.  An instructor who is rude, thoughtless, and         
      inattentive cannot hold the respect of students, regardless of           
      ability as a pilot or aviation maintenance technician.  Personal         
      cleanliness is important to aviation instruction.  Frequently, an        
      instructor and a student work in close proximity, and even little        
      annoyances such as body odor or bad breath can cause serious             
      distractions from learning the tasks at hand.                            
                                                                               
      DEMEANOR                                                                 
                                                                               
      The attitude and behavior of the instructor can contribute much          
      to a professional image.  The instructor should avoid erratic            
      movements, distracting speech habits, and capricious changes in          
      mood.  The professional image requires development of a calm,            
      thoughtful, and disciplined, but not somber, demeanor.                   
                                                                               
      The instructor should avoid any tendency toward frequently               
      countermanding directions, reacting differently to similar or            
      identical errors at different times, demanding unreasonable              
      performance or progress, or criticizing a student unfairly.  A           
      forbidding or overbearing manner is as much to be avoided as is          
      an air of flippancy.  Effective instruction is best conducted in         
      a calm, pleasant, thoughtful approach that puts the student at           
      ease.  The instructor must constantly portray competence in the          
      subject matter and genuine interest in the student's well being.         
                                                                               
      SAFETY PRACTICES AND ACCIDENT PREVENTION                                 
                                                                               
      The safety practices emphasized by instructors have a long               
      lasting effect on students.  Generally, students consider their          
      instructor to be a model of perfection whose habits they attempt         
      to imitate, whether consciously or unconsciously.  The                   
      instructor's advocacy and description of safety practices mean           
      little to a student if the instructor does not demonstrate them          
      consistently.                                                            
                                                                               
      For this reason, instructors must meticulously observe the safety        
      practices being taught to students.  A good example is the use of        
      a checklist before takeoff.  If a student pilot sees the flight          
      instructor start an airplane and take off without referring to a         
      checklist, no amount of instruction in the use of a checklist            
      will convince that student to faithfully use one when solo flight        
      operations begin.                                                        
                                                                               
      To maintain a professional image, a flight instructor must               
      carefully observe all regulations and recognized safety practices        
      during all flight operations.  An instructor who is observed to          
      fly with apparent disregard for loading limitations or weather           
      minimums creates an image of irresponsibility that many hours of         
      scrupulous flight instruction can never correct.  Habitual               
      observance of regulations, safety precautions, and the precepts          
      of courtesy will enhance the instructor's image of                       
      professionalism.  Moreover, such habits make the instructor more         
      effective by encouraging students to develop similar habits.             
                                                                               
      The flight instructor must go beyond the requirements of                 
      developing technically proficient students who are knowledgeable         
      in the areas of their equipment, flight procedures, and                  
      maneuvers.  The flight instructor must not only teach students to        
      know their own and their equipment's limitations, but must also          
      teach them to be guided by those limitations.  The flight                
      instructor must make a strenuous effort to develop good judgment         
      on the part of the students.                                             
                                                                               
      The aircraft maintenance instructor must similarly make the              
      maintenance technician student aware of the consequences of              
      safety in the work place.  If a maintenance student observes the         
      instructor violating safety practices such as not wearing safety         
      glasses around hazardous equipment, the student will likely not          
      be conscientious about using safety equipment when the instructor        
      is not around.                                                           
                                                                               
      PROPER LANGUAGE                                                          
                                                                               
      In aviation instruction, as in other professional activities, the        
      use of profanity and obscene language leads to distrust or, at           
      best, to a lack of complete confidence in the instructor.  To            
      many people, such language is actually objectionable to the point        
      of being painful.  The professional instructor must speak                
      normally, without inhibitions, and develop the ability to speak          
      positively and descriptively without excesses of language.               
                                                                               
      The beginning aviation student is being introduced to new                
      concepts and experiences and encountering new terms and phrases          
      that are often confusing.  Words such as "traffic," "stall,"             
      "elevator," and "lift" are familiar, but are given entirely new          
      meanings.  Coined words, such as VORTAC, UNICOM, and PIREP cause         
      further difficulty.  Phrases such as "clear the area," "monitor          
      ATIS," or "lower the pitch attitude" are completely                      
      incomprehensible.  The language is new and strange, but the words        
      are a part of aviation and beginning students need to learn the          
      common terms.  Normally, they are eager to learn and will quickly        
      adopt the terminology as part of their vocabulary.  At the               
      beginning of the student's training, and before each lesson              
      during early instruction, the instructor should carefully define         
      the terms and phrases that will be used during the lesson.  The          
      instructor should then be careful to limit instruction to those          
      terms and phrases, unless the exact meaning and intent of any new        
      expression are explained immediately.                                    
                                                                               
      Student errors and confusion can also result from using many of          
      the colloquial expressions of aviation.  These expressions are           
      the result of the glamorous past of aviation and often are not           
      understood even by long time aviators.  Jargon such as " ...             
      throw the cobs to it," or " ... firewall it," should be avoided.         
      A phrase such as " ... advance the power," would be preferable,          
      since it has wider acceptance and understanding.  In all cases,          
      terminology should be explained to the student before it is used         
      during instruction.                                                      
                                                                               
      SELF-IMPROVEMENT                                                         
                                                                               
      Professional aviation instructors must never become complacent or        
      satisfied with their own qualifications and abilities.  They             
      should be constantly alert for ways to improve their                     
      qualifications, effectiveness, and the services they provide to          
      students.  Flight instructors are considered authorities on              
      aeronautical matters and are the experts to whom many pilots             
      refer questions concerning regulations, requirements, and new            
      operating techniques.  Likewise, aviation maintenance instructors        
      are considered by maintenance students and other maintenance             
      technicians to be a source of up-to-date information.  They have         
      the opportunity and responsibility of introducing new procedures         
      and techniques to their students and other aviation professionals        
      with whom they come in contact.  Specific suggestions for                
      self-improvement are discussed in Chapter 11.                            
                                                                               
      MINIMIZING STUDENT FRUSTRATIONS                                          
                                                                               
      Minimizing student frustrations in the classroom, shop, or during        
      flight training, is a basic instructor responsibility.  By               
      following some basic rules, instructors can reduce student               
      frustrations and create a learning environment that will                 
      encourage rather than discourage learning.  Figure 8-9a                 
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                      Figure 8-9.  These are practical                         
                    ways to minimize student frustration.                      
                                                                               
                .  Motivate Students                                           
                  .  Keep Students Informed                                    
                    .  Approach Students As Individuals                        
                      .  Give Credit When Due                                  
                        .  Criticize Constructively                            
                          .  Be Consistent                                     
                            .  Admit Errors                                    
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Motivate Students - More can be gained from wanting to learn than        
      from being forced to learn.  All too often students do not               
      realize how a particular lesson or course can help them reach an         
      important goal.  When they can see the benefits or purpose of a          
      lesson or course, their enjoyment and their efforts will                 
      increase.                                                                
                                                                               
      Keep Students Informed - Students feel insecure when they do not         
      know what is expected of them or what is going to happen to them.        
      Instructors can minimize feelings of insecurity by telling               
      students what is expected of them and what they can expect in            
      return.  Instructors should keep students informed in various            
      ways, including giving them an overview of the course, keeping           
      them posted on their progress, and giving them adequate notice of        
      examinations, assignments, or other requirements.                        
                                                                               
      Approach Students As Individuals - When instructors limit their          
      thinking to the whole group without considering the individuals          
      who make up that group, their efforts are directed at an average         
      personality which really fits no one.  Each group has its own            
      personality that stems from the characteristics and interactions         
      of its members.  However, each individual within the group has a         
      personality that is unique and that should be constantly                 
      considered.                                                              
                                                                               
      Give Credit When Due - When students do something extremely well,        
      they normally expect their abilities and efforts to be noticed.          
      Otherwise, they may become frustrated.  Praise or credit from the        
      instructor is usually ample reward and provides an incentive to          
      do even better.  Praise pays dividends in student effort and             
      achievement when deserved, but when given too freely, it becomes         
      valueless.                                                               
                                                                               
      Criticize Constructively - Although it is important to give              
      praise and credit when deserved, it is equally important to              
      identify mistakes and failures.  It does not help to tell                
      students that they have made errors and not provide explanations.        
      If a student has made an earnest effort but is told that the work        
      is unsatisfactory, with no other explanation, frustration occurs.        
      Errors cannot be corrected if they are not identified, and if            
      they are not identified, they will probably be perpetuated               
      through faulty practice.  On the other hand, if the student is           
      briefed on the errors and is told how to correct them, progress          
      can be made.                                                             
                                                                               
      Be Consistent - Students want to please their instructor.  This          
      is the same desire that influences much of the behavior of               
      subordinates toward their superiors in industry and business.            
      Naturally, students have a keen interest in knowing what is              
      required to please the instructor.  If the same thing is                 
      acceptable one day and unacceptable the next, the student becomes        
      confused.  The instructor's philosophy and actions must be               
      consistent.                                                              
                                                                               
      Admit Errors - No one, including the students, expects an                
      instructor to be perfect.  The instructor can win the respect of         
      students by honestly acknowledging mistakes.  If the instructor          
      tries to cover up or bluff, the students will be quick to sense          
      it.  Such behavior tends to destroy student confidence.  If in           
      doubt about some point, the instructor should admit it to the            
      students.                                                                
                                                                               
      ADDITIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES                                              
                                                                               
      This chapter has identified a number of areas necessary to               
      maintain a professional appearance, demeanor, and attitude.  In          
      addition, the instructor has a number of responsibilities to the         
      student, the public, and the FAA.  Other areas aviation                  
      intructors should be deeply involved with include accident               
      prevention and judgment training.  Experience has shown that most        
      accidents are the result of a chain of events.  These events can         
      be a mistake, but can also be a simple oversight, lack of                
      awareness, or lack of a sense of urgency.  The study of human            
      factors in accidents is being taught throughout the aviation             
      industry in an effort to understand why accidents occur and how          
      training can prevent them.  Concentration of this effort is in           
      the area of how people make mistakes as a result of fatigue,             
      stress, complacency, personal conflict, fear, or confusion.              
      Human factors training also addresses the development of good            
      judgment through the study of how and why people react to                
      internal and external influences.                                        
      Flight instructors must incorporate aeronautical decision making         
      (ADM) and judgment training into their instruction.  This is a           
      systematic approach to risk assessment and stress management in          
      aviation.  It shows how personal attitudes can influence decision        
      making and how those attitudes can be modified to enhance safety         
      in the cockpit.  A number of FAA and industry references are             
      available which provide instructors with methods for teaching ADM        
      techniques and skills as a part of flight instruction.                   
      Aeronautical decision making and judgment training will be               
      discussed more fully in Chapter 9.                                       
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                  CHAPTER 9                                    
                                                                               
                      TECHNIQUES OF FLIGHT INSTRUCTION                         
                                                                               
      In this chapter, the demonstration-performance method is applied         
      to the telling-and-doing technique of flight instruction, as well        
      as the integrated technique of flight instruction.  This chapter         
      also discusses positive exchange of flight controls, use of              
      distractions, obstacles to learning encountered during flight            
      training, and provides an overall orientation for teaching               
      aeronautical decision making (ADM) and judgment.                         
                                                                               
      THE TELLING-AND-DOING TECHNIQUE                                          
                                                                               
      This technique has been in use for a long time and is very               
      effective in teaching physical skills.  Flight instructors find          
      it valuable in teaching procedures and maneuvers.  The telling-          
      and-doing technique is actually a variation of the demonstration-        
      performance method.  It follows the four steps of demonstration          
      performance discussed in Chapter 5, except for the first step.           
      In the telling-and-doing technique, the first step is                    
      preparation.  This is particularly important in flight                   
      instruction because of the introduction of new maneuvers or              
      procedures.                                                              
                                                                               
      The flight instructor needs to be well prepared and highly               
      organized if complex maneuvers and procedures are to be taught           
      effectively.  The student must be intellectually and                     
      psychologically ready for the learning activity.  The preparation        
      step is accomplished prior to the flight lesson with a discussion        
      of lesson objectives and completion standards, as well as a              
      thorough preflight briefing.  Students need to know not only what        
      they will learn, but also how they will learn it - that is, how          
      the lesson will proceed and how they will be evaluated.  The             
      preparation phase also should include coverage of appropriate            
      safety procedures.                                                       
                                                                               
      INSTRUCTOR TELLS - INSTRUCTOR DOES                                       
                                                                               
      Presentation is the second step in the teaching process.  It is a        
      continuation of preparing the student, which began in the                
      detailed preflight discussion, and now continues by a carefully          
      planned demonstration and accompanying verbal explanation of the         
      procedure or maneuver.  While demonstrating inflight maneuvers,          
      the instructor should explain the required power settings,               
      aircraft attitudes, and describe any other pertinent factors that        
      may apply.  This is the only step in which the student plays a           
      passive role.  It is important that the demonstration conforms to        
      the explanation as closely as possible.  In addition, it should          
      be demonstrated in the same sequence in which it was explained so        
      as to avoid confusion and provide reinforcement.  Since students         
      generally imitate the instructor's performance, the instructor           
      must demonstrate the skill exactly the way the students are              
      expected to practice it, including all safety procedures that the        
      students must follow.  If a deviation does occur, the instructor         
      should point it out and discuss any differences from the initial         
      explanation.                                                             
                                                                               
      Most physical skills lend themselves to a sequential pattern             
      where the skill is explained in the same step-by-step order              
      normally used to perform it.  When the skill being taught is             
      related to previously learned procedures or maneuvers, the known         
      to unknown strategy may be used effectively.  When teaching more         
      than one skill at the same time, the simple-to-complex strategy          
      works well.  By starting with the simplest skill, a student gains        
      confidence and is less likely to become frustrated when faced            
      with building skills that are more complex.                              
                                                                               
      Another consideration in this phase is the language used.                
      Instructors should attempt to avoid unnecessary jargon and               
      technical terms that are over the heads of their students.               
      Instructors should also take care to clearly describe the actions        
      that students are expected to perform.  Communication is the key.        
      It is neither appropriate nor effective for instructors to try to        
      impress students with their expertise by using language that is          
      unnecessarily complicated.                                               
                                                                               
      As an example, a level turn might be demonstrated and described          
      by the instructor in the following way:                                  
                                                                               
      .    Use outside visual references and monitor the flight                
           instruments.                                                        
                                                                               
      .    After clearing the airspace around the airplane, add power          
           slightly, turn the airplane in the desired direction, and           
           apply a slight amount of back pressure on the yoke to               
           maintain altitude.  Maintain coordinated flight by applying         
           rudder in the direction of the turn.                                
                                                                               
      .    Remember, the ailerons control the roll rate, as well as the        
           angle of bank.  The rate at which the airplane rolls depends        
           on how much aileron deflection you use.  How far the                
           airplane rolls (steepness of the bank) depends on how long          
           you deflect the ailerons, since the airplane continues to           
           roll as long as the ailerons are deflected.  When you reach         
           the desired angle of bank, neutralize the ailerons and trim,        
           as appropriate.                                                     
                                                                               
      .    Lead the roll-out by approximately one-half the number of           
           degrees of your angle of bank.  Use coordinated aileron and         
           rudder control pressures as you roll out.  Simultaneously,          
           begin releasing the back pressure so aileron, rudder, and           
           elevator pressures are neutralized when the airplane reaches        
           the wings-level position.                                           
                                                                               
      .    Leading the roll-out heading by one-half your bank angle is         
           a good rule of thumb for initial training.  However, keep in        
           mind that the required amount of lead really depends on the         
           type of turn, turn rate, and roll-out rate.  As you gain            
           experience, you will develop a consistent roll-in and               
           roll-out technique for various types of turns.  Upon                
           reaching a wings-level attitude, reduce power and trim to           
           remove control pressures.                                           
                                                                               
      STUDENT TELLS - INSTRUCTOR DOES                                          
      This is a transition between the second and third steps in the           
      teaching process.  It is the most obvious departure from the             
      demonstration-performance technique, and may provide the most            
      significant advantages.  In this step, the student actually plays        
      the role of instructor, telling the instructor what to do and how        
      to do it.  Two benefits accrue from this step.  First, being             
      freed from the need to concentrate on performance of the maneuver        
      and from concern about its outcome, the student should be able to        
      organize his or her thoughts regarding the steps involved and the        
      techniques to be used.  In the process of explaining the maneuver        
      as the instructor performs it, perceptions begin to develop into         
      insights.  Mental habits begin to form with repetition of the            
      instructions previously received.  Second, with the student doing        
      the talking, the instructor is able to evaluate the student's            
      understanding of the factors involved in performance of the              
      maneuver.                                                                
                                                                               
      According to the principle of primacy, it is important for the           
      instructor to make sure the student gets it right the first time.        
      The student should also understand the correct sequence and be           
      aware of safety precautions for each procedure or maneuver.  If a        
      misunderstanding exists, it can be corrected before the student          
      becomes absorbed in controlling the airplane.                            
                                                                               
      STUDENT TELLS - STUDENT DOES                                             
                                                                               
      Application is the third step in the teaching process.  This is          
      where learning takes place and where performance habits are              
      formed.  If the student has been adequately prepared (first step)        
      and the procedure or maneuver fully explained and demonstrated           
      (second step), meaningful learning will occur.  The instructor           
      should be alert during the student's practice to detect any              
      errors in technique and to prevent the formation of faulty               
      habits.                                                                  
                                                                               
      At the same time, the student should be encouraged to think about        
      what to do during the performance of a maneuver, until it becomes        
      habitual.  In this step, the thinking is done verbally.  This            
      focuses concentration on the task to be accomplished, so that            
      total involvement in the maneuver is fostered.  All of the               
      student's physical and mental faculties are brought into play.           
      The instructor should be aware of the student's thought                  
      processes.  It is easy to determine whether an error is induced          
      by a misconception or by a simple lack of motor skills.                  
      Therefore, in addition to forcing total concentration on the part        
      of the student, this method provides a means for keeping the             
      instructor aware of what the student is thinking.  The student is        
      not only learning to do something, but he or she is learning a           
      self-teaching process that is highly desirable in development of         
      a skill.                                                                 
                                                                               
      The exact procedures that the instructor should use during               
      student practice depends on factors such as the student's                
      proficiency level, the type of maneuver, and the stage of                
      training.  The instructor must exercise good judgment to decide          
      how much control to use.  With potentially hazardous or difficult        
      maneuvers, the instructor should be alert and ready to take              
      control at any time.  This is especially true during a student's         
      first attempt at a particular maneuver.  On the other hand, if a         
      student is progressing normally, the instructor should avoid             
      unnecessary interruptions or too much assistance.                        
                                                                               
      A typical test of how much control is needed often occurs during         
      a student's first few attempts to land an aircraft.  The                 
      instructor must quickly evaluate the student's need for help, and        
      not hesitate to take control, if required.  At the same time, the        
      student should be allowed to practice the entire maneuver often          
      enough to achieve the level of proficiency established in the            
      lesson objectives.  Since this is a learning phase rather than an        
      evaluation phase of the training, errors or unsafe practices             
      should be identified and corrected in a positive and timely way.         
      In some cases, the student will not be able to meet the                  
      proficiency level specified in the lesson objectives within the          
      allotted time.  When this occurs, the instructor should be               
      prepared to schedule additional training.                                
                                                                               
      STUDENT DOES - INSTRUCTOR EVALUATES                                      
                                                                               
      The fourth step of the teaching process is review and evaluation.        
      In this step, the instructor reviews what has been covered during        
      the instructional flight and determines to what extent the               
      student has met the objectives outlined during the preflight             
      discussion.  Since the student no longer is required to talk             
      through the maneuver during this step, the instructor should be          
      satisfied that the student is well prepared and understands the          
      task before starting.  This last step is identical to the final          
      step used in the demonstration-performance method.  The                  
      instructor observes as the student performs, then makes                  
      appropriate comments.                                                    
                                                                               
      At the conclusion of the evaluation phase, record the student's          
      performance and verbally advise each student of the progress made        
      toward the objectives.  Regardless of how well a skill is taught,        
      there may still be failures.  Since success is a motivating              
      factor, instructors should be positive in revealing results.             
      When pointing out areas that need improvement, offer concrete            
      suggestions that will help.  If possible, avoid ending the               
      evaluation on a negative note.                                           
                                                                               
      In summary, the telling and doing technique of flight instruction        
      follows the four basic steps of the teaching process and the             
      demonstration-performance method.  However, the telling-and-             
      doing technique includes specific variations for flight                  
      instruction.  Figure 9-1a                                               
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
       Figure 9-1.  This comparison of steps in the teaching process,          
       the demonstration-performance method, and the telling-and-doing         
       technique shows the similarities as well as some differences.           
        The main difference in the telling-and-doing technique is the          
        important transition, student tells - instructor does, which           
                  occurs between the second and third step.                    
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]      TEACHING      ]   DEMONSTRATION-   ]      TELLING-       ]        
      ]      PROCESS       ]    PERFORMANCE     ]      AND-DOING      ]        
      ]                    ]       METHOD       ]      TECHNIQUE      ]        
      ]____________________]____________________]_____________________]        
      ]     Preparation    ]    Explanation     ]     Preparation     ]        
      ]____________________]____________________]_____________________]        
      ]                    ]                    ]     Instructor      ]        
      ]    Presentation    ]   Demonstration    ]       Tells         ]        
      ]                    ]                    ]     Instructor      ]        
      ]                    ]                    ]       Does          ]        
      ]                    ]                    ]   _______________   ]        
      ]____________________]____________________]__] Student Tells ]__]        
      ]                    ]                    ]   \ Instructor  /   ]        
      ]                    ]                    ]     \  Does   /     ]        
      ]                    ]                    ]       \     /       ]        
      ]                    ]       Student      ]         \ /         ]        
      ]    Application     ]     Performance    ]   Student Tells     ]        
      ]                    ]     Supervision    ]   Student Does      ]        
      ]____________________]____________________]_____________________]        
      ]                    ]                    ]    Student Does     ]        
      ]     Review and     ]                    ]     Instructor      ]        
      ]     Evaluation     ]     Evaluation     ]     Evaluates       ]        
      ]____________________]____________________]_____________________]        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      INTEGRATED FLIGHT INSTRUCTION                                            
                                                                               
      Integrated flight instruction is flight instruction during which         
      students are taught to perform flight maneuvers both by outside          
      visual references and by reference to flight instruments.  For           
      this type of instruction to be fully effective, the use of               
      instrument references should begin the first time each new               
      maneuver is introduced.  No distinction in the pilot's operation         
      of the flight controls is permitted, regardless of whether               
      outside references or instrument indications are used for the            
      performance of the maneuver.  When this training technique is            
      used, instruction in the control of an airplane by outside visual        
      references is integrated with instruction in the use of flight           
      instrument indications for the same operations.                          
                                                                               
      DEVELOPMENT OF HABIT PATTERNS                                            
                                                                               
      The continuing observance and reliance upon flight instruments is        
      essential for efficient, safe operations.  The habit of                  
      monitoring instruments is difficult to develop after one has             
      become accustomed to relying almost exclusively on outside               
      references.                                                              
                                                                               
      General aviation accident reports provide ample support for the          
      belief that reference to flight instruments is important to              
      safety.  The safety record of pilots who hold instrument ratings         
      is significantly better than that of pilots with comparable              
      flight time who have never received formal flight training for an        
      instrument rating.  Student pilots who have been required to             
      perform all normal flight maneuvers by reference to instruments,         
      as well as by outside references, will develop from the start the        
      habit of continuously monitoring their own and the airplane's            
      performance.                                                             
                                                                               
      The early establishment of proper habits of instrument                   
      cross-check, instrument interpretation, and aircraft control will        
      be highly useful to the student pilot.  The habits formed at this        
      time also will give the student a firm foundation for later              
      training for an instrument rating.                                       
                                                                               
      ACCURACY OF FLIGHT CONTROL                                               
                                                                               
      During early experiments with the integrated technique of flight         
      instruction, it was soon recognized that students trained in this        
      manner are much more precise in their flight maneuvers and               
      operations.  This applies to all flight operations, not just when        
      flight by reference to instruments is required.                          
                                                                               
      Notable among student achievements are better monitoring of power        
      settings and more accurate control of headings, altitudes, and           
      airspeeds.  As the habit of monitoring their own performance by          
      reference to instruments is developed, students will begin to            
      make corrections without prompting.                                      
                                                                               
      The habitual attention to instrument indications leads to                
      improved landings because of more precise airspeed control.              
      Effective use of instruments also results in superior                    
      cross-country navigation, better coordination, and generally, a          
      better overall pilot competency level.                                   
                                                                               
      OPERATING EFFICIENCY                                                     
                                                                               
      As student pilots become more proficient in monitoring and               
      correcting their own flight technique by reference to flight             
      instruments, the performance obtained from an airplane increases         
      noticeably.  This is particularly true of modern, complex, or            
      high-performance airplanes, which are responsive to the use of           
      correct operating airspeeds.                                             
                                                                               
      The use of correct power settings and climb speeds and the               
      accurate control of headings during climbs result in a measurable        
      increase in climb performance.  Holding precise headings and             
      altitudes in cruising flight will definitely increase average            
      cruising performance.                                                    
                                                                               
      The use of integrated flight instruction provides the student            
      with the ability to control an airplane in flight for limited            
      periods if outside references are lost.  This ability could save         
      the pilot's life and those of the passengers in an actual                
      emergency.                                                               
                                                                               
      During the conduct of integrated flight training, the flight             
      instructor must emphasize to the students that the introduction          
      to the use of flight instruments does not prepare them for               
      operations in marginal weather or instrument meteorological              
      conditions.  The possible consequences, both to themselves and to        
      others, of experiments with flight operations in weather                 
      conditions below VFR minimums before they are instrument rated,          
      should be constantly impressed on the students.                          
                                                                               
      PROCEDURES                                                               
                                                                               
      The conduct of integrated flight instruction is simple.  The             
      student's first briefing on the function of the flight controls          
      should include the instrument indications to be expected, as well        
      as the outside references which should be used to control the            
      attitude of the airplane.                                                
                                                                               
      Each new flight maneuver should be introduced using both outside         
      references and instrument references.  Students should develop           
      the ability to maneuver an aircraft equally as well by instrument        
      or outside references.  They naturally accept the fact that the          
      manipulation of the flight controls is identical, regardless of          
      which references are used to determine the attitude of the               
      airplane.  This practice should continue throughout the student's        
      flight instruction for all maneuvers.  To fully achieve the              
      demonstrated benefits of this type of training, the use of visual        
      and instrument references must be constantly integrated                  
      throughout the training.  Failure to do so will lengthen the             
      flight instruction necessary for the student to achieve the              
      competency required for a private pilot certificate.                     
                                                                               
      PRECAUTIONS                                                              
                                                                               
      The instructor must be sure that the students develop, from the          
      start of their training, the habit of looking for other air              
      traffic at all times.  If students are allowed to believe that           
      the instructor assumes all responsibility for scanning and               
      collision avoidance procedures, they will not develop the habit          
      of maintaining a constant vigilance, which is essential to               
      safety.  Any observed tendency of a student to enter flight              
      maneuvers without first making a careful check for other air             
      traffic must be corrected immediately.                                   
                                                                               
      In earlier stages of training, students may find it easier to            
      perform flight maneuvers by instruments than by outside                  
      references.  The fact that students can perform better by                
      reference to instruments may cause them to concentrate most of           
      their attention on the instruments, when they should be using            
      outside references.  This must not be allowed to continue, since         
      it will cause considerable difficulty later in training while            
      maneuvering by reference to ground objects.  This tendency will          
      also limit vigilance for other air traffic.  The instructor              
      should carefully observe the student's performance of maneuvers          
      during the early stages of integrated flight instruction to              
      ensure that this habit does not develop.                                 
                                                                               
      During the conduct of integrated flight instruction, the                 
      instructor should make it clear that the use of instruments is           
      being taught to prepare students to accurately monitor their own         
      and their aircraft's performance.  The instructor must avoid any         
      indication, by word or action that the proficiency sought is             
      intended solely for use in difficult weather situations.                 
                                                                               
      FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR QUALIFICATIONS                                         
                                                                               
      As a prerequisite, a flight instructor must be thoroughly                
      familiar with the functions, characteristics, and proper use of          
      all standard flight instruments.  It is the personal                     
      responsibility of each flight instructor to maintain familiarity         
      with current pilot training techniques and certification                 
      requirements.  This may be done by frequent review of new                
      periodicals and technical publications, personal contacts with           
      FAA inspectors and designated pilot examiners, and by                    
      participation in pilot and flight instructor clinics.  The               
      application of outmoded instructional procedures, or the                 
      preparation of student pilots using obsolete certification               
      requirements is inexcusable.                                             
                                                                               
      OBSTACLES TO LEARNING DURING FLIGHT INSTRUCTION                          
                                                                               
      Certain obstacles are common to flight instruction and may apply         
      directly to the student's attitude, physical condition, and              
      psychological make-up.  These are included in the following list:        
                                                                               
      .    Feeling of unfair treatment;                                        
                                                                               
      .    Impatience to proceed to more interesting operations;               
                                                                               
      .    Worry or lack of interest;                                          
                                                                               
      .    Physical discomfort, illness, and fatigue;                          
                                                                               
      .    Apathy due to inadequate instruction; and                           
                                                                               
      .    Anxiety.                                                            
                                                                               
      UNFAIR TREATMENT                                                         
                                                                               
      Students who believe that their instruction is inadequate, or            
      that their efforts are not conscientiously considered and                
      evaluated, will not learn well.  In addition, their motivation           
      will suffer no matter how intent they are on learning to fly.            
      Motivation will also decline when a student believes the                 
      instructor is making unreasonable demands for performance and            
      progress.  Figure 9-2a                                                  
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                Figure 9-2.  THE ASSIGNMENT OF IMPOSSIBLE OR                   
                 UNREASONABLE GOALS DISCOURAGES THE STUDENT,                   
            DIMINISHES EFFORT, AND RETARDS THE LEARNING PROCESS.               
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Assignment of goals that the student considers difficult, but            
      possible, usually provides a challenge, and promotes learning.           
      In a typical flight lesson, reasonable goals are listed in the           
      lesson objectives and the desired levels of proficiency for the          
      goals are included in statements that contain completion                 
      standards.                                                               
                                                                               
      IMPATIENCE                                                               
                                                                               
      Impatience is a greater deterrent to learning pilot skills than          
      is generally recognized.  With a flight student, this may take           
      the form of a desire to make an early solo flight, or to set out         
      on cross-country flights before the basic elements of flight have        
      been learned.                                                            
                                                                               
      The impatient student fails to understand the need for                   
      preliminary training and seeks only the ultimate objective               
      without considering the means necessary to reach it.  With every         
      complex human endeavor, it is necessary to master the basics if          
      the whole task is to be performed competently and safely.  The           
      instructor can correct student impatience by presenting the              
      necessary preliminary training one step at a time, with clearly          
      stated goals for each step.  The procedures and elements mastered        
      in each step should be clearly identified in explaining or               
      demonstrating the performance of the subsequent step.                    
                                                                               
      Impatience can result from instruction keyed to the pace of a            
      slow learner when it is applied to a motivated, fast learner.  It        
      is just as important that a student be advanced to the subsequent        
      step as soon as one goal has been attained, as it is to complete         
      each step before the next one is undertaken.  Disinterest grows          
      rapidly when unnecessary repetition and drill are required on            
      operations that have already been adequately learned.                    
                                                                               
      WORRY OR LACK OF INTEREST                                                
                                                                               
      Worry or lack of interest has a detrimental effect on learning.          
      Students who are worried or emotionally upset are not ready to           
      learn and derive little benefit from instruction.  Worry or              
      distraction may be due to student concerns about progress in the         
      training course, or may stem from circumstances completely               
      unrelated to their instruction.  Significant emotional upsets may        
      be due to personal problems, psychiatric disturbances, or a              
      dislike of the training program or the instructor.                       
                                                                               
      The experiences of students outside their training activities            
      affect their behavior and performance in training; the two cannot        
      be separated.  When students begin flight training, they bring           
      with them their interests, enthusiasms, fears, and troubles.  The        
      instructor cannot be responsible for these outside diversions,           
      but cannot ignore them because they have a critical effect on the        
      learning process.  Instruction must be keyed to the utilization          
      of the interests and enthusiasm students bring with them, and to         
      diverting their attention from their worries and troubles to the         
      learning tasks at hand.  This is admittedly difficult, but must          
      be accomplished if learning is to proceed at a normal rate.              
                                                                               
      Worries and emotional upsets that result from a flight training          
      course can be identified and addressed.  These problems are often        
      due to inadequacies of the course or of the instructor.  The most        
      effective cure is prevention.  The instructor must be alert to           
      see that the students understand the objectives of each step of          
      their training, and that they know at the completion of each             
      lesson exactly how well they have progressed and what                    
      deficiencies are apparent.  Discouragement and emotional upsets          
      are rare when students feel that nothing is being withheld from          
      them or is being neglected in their training.                            
                                                                               
      PHYSICAL DISCOMFORT, ILLNESS, AND FATIGUE                                
                                                                               
      Physical discomfort, illness, and fatigue will materially slow           
      the rate of learning during both classroom instruction and flight        
      training.  Students who are not completely at ease, and whose            
      attention is diverted by discomforts such as the extremes of             
      temperature, poor ventilation, inadequate lighting, or noise and         
      confusion, cannot learn at a normal rate.  This is true no matter        
      how diligently they attempt to apply themselves to the learning          
      task.                                                                    
                                                                               
      A minor illness, such as a cold, or a major illness or injury            
      will interfere with the normal rate of learning.  This is                
      especially important for flight instruction.  Most illnesses             
      adversely affect the acuteness of vision, hearing, and feeling,          
      all of which are essential to correct performance.                       
                                                                               
      Airsickness can be a great deterrent to flight instruction.  A           
      student who is airsick, or bothered with incipient airsickness,          
      is incapable of learning at a normal rate.  There is no sure cure        
      for airsickness, but resistance or immunity can be developed in a        
      relatively short period of time.  An instructional flight should         
      be terminated as soon as incipient sickness is experienced.  As          
      the student develops immunity, flights can be increased in length        
      until normal flight periods are practicable.                             
                                                                               
      Keeping students interested and occupied during flight is a              
      deterrent to airsickness.  They are much less apt to become              
      airsick while operating the controls themselves.  Rough air and          
      unexpected abrupt maneuvers tend to increase the chances of              
      airsickness.  Tension and apprehension apparently contribute to          
      airsickness and should be avoided.                                       
                                                                               
      The detection of student fatigue is important to efficient flight        
      instruction.  This is important both in assessing a student's            
      substandard performance early in a lesson, and also in                   
      recognizing the deterioration of performance.  Once fatigue              
      occurs as a result of application to a learning task, the student        
      should be given a break in instruction and practice.  Fatigue can        
      be delayed by introducing a number of maneuvers, which involve           
      different elements and objectives.                                       
                                                                               
      Fatigue is the primary consideration in determining the length           
      and frequency of flight instruction periods.  The amount of              
      training, which can be absorbed by one student without incurring         
      debilitating fatigue, does not necessarily indicate the capacity         
      of another student.  Fatigue which results from training                 
      operations may be either physical or mental, or both.  It is not         
      necessarily a function of physical robustness or mental acuity.          
      Generally speaking, complex operations tend to induce fatigue            
      more rapidly than simpler procedures do, regardless of the               
      physical effort involved.  Flight instruction should be continued        
      only as long as the student is alert, receptive to instruction,          
      and is performing at a level consistent with experience.                 
                                                                               
      APATHY DUE TO INADEQUATE INSTRUCTION                                     
                                                                               
      Students quickly become apathetic when they recognize that the           
      instructor has made inadequate preparations for the instruction          
      being given, or when the instruction appears to be deficient,            
      contradictory, or insincere.  To hold the student's interest and         
      to maintain the motivation necessary for efficient learning,             
      well-planned, appropriate, and accurate instruction must be              
      provided.  Nothing destroys a student's interest so quickly as a         
      poorly organized period of instruction.  Even an inexperienced           
      student realizes immediately when the instructor has failed to           
      prepare a lesson.  Figure 9-3a                                          
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                Figure 9-3.  POOR PREPARATION LEADS TO SPOTTY                  
            COVERAGE, MISPLACED EMPHASIS, UNNECESSARY REPETITION,              
            AND A LACK OF CONFIDENCE ON THE PART OF THE STUDENT.               
                  THE INSTRUCTOR SHOULD ALWAYS HAVE A PLAN.                    
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Instruction may be overly explicit and so elementary it fails to         
      hold student interest, or it may be so general or complicated            
      that it fails to evoke the interest necessary for effective              
      learning.  To be effective, the instructor must teach for the            
      level of the student.  The presentation must be adjusted to be           
      meaningful to the person for whom it is intended.  For example,          
      instruction in the preflight inspection of an aircraft should be         
      presented quiet differently for a student who is a skilled               
      aircraft maintenance technician compared to the instruction on           
      the same operation for a student with no previous aeronautical           
      experience.  The inspection desired in each case is the same, but        
      a presentation meaningful to one of these students would be              
      inappropriate for the other.                                             
                                                                               
      Poor instructional presentations may result not only from poor           
      preparation, but also from distracting mannerisms, personal              
      untidiness, or the appearance of irritation with the student.            
      Creating the impression of talking down to the student is one of         
      the surest ways for an instructor to lose the student's                  
      confidence and attention.  Once the instructor loses this                
      confidence, it is difficult to regain, and the learning rate is          
      unnecessarily diminished.                                                
                                                                               
      ANXIETY                                                                  
                                                                               
      Anxiety may place additional burdens on the instructor.  This            
      frequently limits the student's perceptive ability and retards           
      the development of insights.  The student must be comfortable,           
      confident in the instructor and the aircraft, and at ease, if            
      effective learning is to occur.  Providing this atmosphere for           
      learning is one of the first and most important tasks of the             
      instructor.  Although doing so may be difficult at first,                
      successive accomplishments of recognizable goals and the                 
      avoidance of alarming occurrences or situations will rapidly ease        
      the student's mind.  This is true of all flight students, but            
      special handling by the instructor may be required for students          
      who are obviously anxious or uncomfortable.                              
                                                                               
      POSITIVE EXCHANGE OF FLIGHT CONTROLS                                     
                                                                               
      Positive exchange of flight controls is an integral part of              
      flight training.  It is especially critical during the telling-          
      and-doing technique of flight instruction.  Due to the importance        
      of this subject, the following discussion provides guidance for          
      all pilots, especially student pilots, flight instructors, and           
      pilot examiners, on the recommended procedure to use for the             
      positive exchange of flight controls between pilots when                 
      operating an aircraft.                                                   
                                                                               
      BACKGROUND                                                               
                                                                               
      Incident/accident statistics indicate a need to place additional         
      emphasis on the exchange of control of an aircraft by pilots.            
      Numerous accidents have occurred due to a lack of communication          
      or misunderstanding as to who actually had control of the                
      aircraft, particularly between students and flight instructors.          
      Establishing the following procedure during the initial training         
      of students will ensure the formation of a habit pattern that            
      should stay with them throughout their flying careers.  They will        
      be more likely to relinquish control willingly and promptly when         
      instructed to do so during flight training.                              
                                                                               
      PROCEDURES                                                               
                                                                               
      During flight training, there must always be a clear                     
      understanding between students and flight instructors of who has         
      control of the aircraft.  Prior to flight, a briefing should be          
      conducted that includes the procedure for the exchange of flight         
      controls.  A positive three-step process in the exchange of              
      flight controls between pilots is a proven procedure and one that        
      is strongly recommended.  When an instructor is teaching a               
      maneuver to a student, the instructor will normally demonstrate          
      the maneuver first, then have the student follow along on the            
      controls during a demonstration, and, finally, the student will          
      perform the maneuver with the instructor following along on the          
      controls.  Figure 9-4a                                                  
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
             Figure 9-4.  During this procedure, a visual check                
            is recommended to see that the other person actually               
            has the flight controls.  When returning the controls              
            to the instructor, the student should follow the same              
            procedure the instructor used when giving control to               
            the student.  The student should stay on the controls              
           and keep flying the aircraft until the instructor says,             
          "I have the flight controls."  There should never be any             
                   doubt as to who is flying the aircraft.                     
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]             POSITIVE EXCHANGE OF FLIGHT CONTROLS              ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ]  1.  When the flight instructor wishes the student to take    ]        
      ]      control of the aircraft, the instructor says to the      ]        
      ]      student,                                                 ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ]                "You have the flight controls."                ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ]  2.  The student acknowledges immediately by saying,          ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ]                 "I have the flight controls."                 ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ]  3.  The flight instructor again says,                        ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ]                "You have the flight controls."                ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Flight instructors should always guard the controls and be               
      prepared to take control of the aircraft.  When necessary, the           
      instructor should take the controls and calmly announce, "I have         
      the flight controls."  If an instructor allows a student to              
      remain on the controls, the instructor may not have full and             
      effective control of the aircraft.  Anxious students can be              
      incredibly strong and usually exhibit reactions inappropriate to         
      the situation.  If a recovery is necessary, there is absolutely          
      nothing to be gained by having the student on the controls and           
      having to fight for control of the aircraft.                             
                                                                               
      Students should never be allowed to exceed the flight                    
      instructor's limits.  Flight instructors should not exceed their         
      own ability to perceive a problem, decide upon a course of               
      action, and physically react within their ability to fly the             
      aircraft.                                                                
                                                                               
      USE OF DISTRACTIONS                                                      
                                                                               
      National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) statistics reveal            
      that most stall/spin accidents occurred when the pilot's                 
      attention was diverted from the primary task of flying the               
      aircraft.  Sixty percent of stall/spin accidents occurred during         
      takeoff and landing, and twenty percent were preceded by engine          
      failure.  Preoccupation inside or outside the cockpit while              
      changing aircraft configuration or trim, maneuvering to avoid            
      other traffic or clearing hazardous obstacles during takeoff and         
      climb could create a potential stall/spin situation.                     
                                                                               
      The intentional practice of stalls and spins seldom resulted in          
      an accident.  The real danger was inadvertent stalls induced by          
      distractions during routine flight situations.                           
                                                                               
      Pilots at all skill levels should be aware of the increased risk         
      of entering into an inadvertent stall or spin while performing           
      tasks that are secondary to controlling the aircraft.  The FAA           
      has also established a policy for use of certain distractions on         
      practical tests for pilot certification.  The purpose is to              
      determine that applicants possess the skills required to cope            
      with distractions while maintaining the degree of aircraft               
      control required for safe flight.  The most effective training is        
      the simulation of scenarios that can lead to inadvertent stalls          
      by creating distractions while the student is practicing certain         
      maneuvers.                                                               
                                                                               
      The instructor should tell the student to divide his/her                 
      attention between the distracting task and maintaining control of        
      the aircraft.  The following are examples of distractions that           
      can be used for this training:                                           
                                                                               
      .    Drop a pencil.  Ask the student to pick it up.                      
                                                                               
      .    Ask the student to determine a heading to an airport using a        
           chart.                                                              
                                                                               
      .    Ask the student to reset the clock.                                 
                                                                               
      .    Ask the student to get something from the back seat.                
                                                                               
      .    Ask the student to read the outside air temperature.                
                                                                               
      .    Ask the student to call the Flight Service Station (FSS) for        
           weather information.                                                
                                                                               
      .    Ask the student to compute true airspeed with a flight              
           computer.                                                           
                                                                               
      .    Ask the student to identify terrain or objects on the               
           ground.                                                             
                                                                               
      .    Ask the student to identify a field suitable for a forced           
           landing.                                                            
                                                                               
      .    Have the student climb 200 feet and maintain altitude, then         
           descend 200 feet and maintain altitude.                             
                                                                               
      .    Have the student reverse course after a series of S-turns.          
                                                                               
      AERONAUTICAL DECISION MAKING                                             
                                                                               
      Aeronautical decision making (ADM) is a systematic approach to           
      the mental process used by aircraft pilots to consistently               
      determine the best course of action in response to a given set of        
      circumstances.  The importance of teaching students effective ADM        
      skills can not be overemphasized.  The flight instructor can make        
      a difference!  While progress is continually being made in the           
      advancement of pilot training methods, aircraft equipment and            
      systems, and services for pilots, accidents still occur.  Despite        
      all the change in technology to improve flight safety, one factor        
      remains the same - the human factor.  It is estimated that               
      approximately 75% of all aviation accidents are human factors            
      related.                                                                 
                                                                               
      Historically, the term pilot error has been used to describe the         
      causes of these accidents.  Pilot error means that an action or          
      decision made by the pilot was the cause of, or contributing             
      factor which lead to, the accident.  This definition also                
      includes the pilot's failure to make a decision or take action.          
      From a broader perspective, the phrase "human factors related"           
      more aptly describes these accidents since it is usually not a           
      single decision that leads to an accident, but a chain of events         
      triggered by a number of factors.                                        
                                                                               
      The poor judgment chain, sometimes referred to as the error              
      chain, is a term used to describe this concept of contributing           
      factors in a human factors related accident.  Breaking one link          
      in the chain normally is all that is necessary to change the             
      outcome of the sequence of events.  The best way to illustrate           
      this concept to students is to discuss specific situations which         
      lead to aircraft accidents or incidents.  The following is an            
      example of the type of scenario which can be presented to                
      students to illustrate the poor judgment chain.                          
                                                                               
      A private pilot, who had logged 100 hours of flight time, made a         
      precautionary landing on a narrow dirt runway at a private               
      airport.  The pilot lost directional control during landing and          
      swerved off the runway into the grass.  A witness recalled later         
      that the airplane appeared to be too high and fast on final              
      approach, and speculated the pilot was having difficulty                 
      controlling the airplane in high winds.  The weather at the time         
      of the incident was reported as marginal VFR due to rain showers         
      and thunderstorms.  When the airplane was fueled the following           
      morning, 60 gallons of fuel were required to fill the 62-gallon          
      capacity tanks.                                                          
                                                                               
      By discussing the events that led to this incident, instructors          
      can help students understand how a series of judgmental errors           
      contributed to the final outcome of this flight.  For example,           
      one of the first elements that affected the pilot's flight was a         
      decision regarding the weather.  On the morning of the flight,           
      the pilot was running late, and having acquired a computer               
      printout of the forecast the night before, he did not bother to          
      obtain a briefing from flight service before his departure.              
                                                                               
      A flight planning decision also played a part in this poor               
      judgment chain.  The pilot calculated total fuel requirements for        
      the trip based on a rule-of-thumb figure he had used previously          
      for another airplane.  He did not use the fuel tables printed in         
      the pilot's operating handbook for the airplane he was flying on         
      this trip.  After reaching his destination, the pilot did not            
      request refueling.  Based on his original calculations, he               
      believed sufficient fuel remained for the flight home.                   
                                                                               
      Failing to recognize his own limitations was another factor that         
      led the pilot one step closer to the unfortunate conclusion of           
      his journey.  In the presence of deteriorating weather, he               
      departed for the flight home at 5:00 in the afternoon.  He did           
      not consider how fatigue and lack of extensive night flying              
      experience could affect the flight.  As the flight continued, the        
      weather along the route grew increasingly hazardous.  Since the          
      airplane's fuel supply was almost exhausted, the pilot no longer         
      had the option of diverting to avoid rapidly developing                  
      thunderstorms.  With few alternatives left, he was forced to land        
      at the nearest airfield available, a small private airport with          
      one narrow dirt runway.  Due to the gusty wind conditions and the        
      pilot's limited experience, the approach and landing were                
      difficult.  After touchdown, the pilot lost directional control          
      and the airplane finally came to a stop in the grass several             
      yards to the side of the runway.                                         
                                                                               
      On numerous occasions during the flight, the pilot could have            
      made effective decisions which may have prevented this incident.         
      However, as the chain of events unfolded, each poor decision left        
      him with fewer and fewer options.  Teaching pilots to make sound         
      decisions is the key to preventing accidents.  Traditional pilot         
      instruction has emphasized flying skills, knowledge of the               
      aircraft, and familiarity with regulations.  ADM training focuses        
      on the decision-making process and the factors that affect a             
      pilot's ability to make effective choices.                               
                                                                               
      ORIGINS OF ADM TRAINING                                                  
                                                                               
      The airlines developed some of the first training programs that          
      focused on improving aeronautical decision making.  Human                
      factors-related accidents motivated the airline industry to              
      implement crew resource management (CRM) training for flight             
      crews.  The focus of CRM programs is the effective use of all            
      available resources; human resources, hardware, and information.         
      Human resources include all groups routinely working with the            
      cockpit crew (or pilot) who are involved in decisions which are          
      required to operate a flight safely.  These groups include, but          
      are not limited to:  dispatchers, cabin crewmembers, maintenance         
      personnel, and air traffic controllers.  Although the CRM concept        
      originated as airlines developed ways of facilitating crew               
      cooperation to improve decision making in the cockpit, CRM               
      principles, such as workload management, situational awareness,          
      communication, the leadership role of the captain, and crewmember        
      coordination have direct application to the general aviation             
      cockpit.  This also includes single pilots since pilots of small         
      aircraft, as well as crews of larger aircraft, must make                 
      effective use of all available resources - human resources,              
      hardware, and information.                                               
                                                                               
      Crew resource management training has proven extremely successful        
      in reducing accidents, and airlines typically introduce CRM              
      concepts during initial indoctrination of new hires.  Instructors        
      in the general aviation environment can learn from this example          
      when conducting ADM training.  In the past, some students were           
      introduced to ADM concepts toward the completion of their                
      training or not at all.  It is important that these concepts be          
      incorporated throughout the entire training course for all levels        
      of students; private, instrument, commercial, multi-engine, and          
      ATP.  Instructors, as well as students, also can refer to                
      AC 60-22, Aeronautical Decision Making, which provides background        
      references, definitions, and other pertinent information about           
      ADM training in the general aviation environment.  Figure 9-5a          
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                Figure 9-5.  These terms are used in AC 60-22                  
                  to explain concepts used in ADM training.                    
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]                          DEFINITIONS                          ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ] ADM is a systematic approach to the mental process used by    ]        
      ] pilots to consistently determine the best course of action in ]        
      ] response to a given set of circumstances.                     ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] ATTITUDE is a personal motivational predisposition to respond ]        
      ] to persons, situations, or events in a given manner that can, ]        
      ] nevertheless, be changed or modified through training as sort ]        
      ] of a mental shortcut to decision making.                      ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] ATTITUDE MANAGEMENT is the ability to recognize hazardous     ]        
      ] attitudes in oneself and the willingness to modify them as    ]        
      ] necessary through the application of an appropriate antidote  ]        
      ] thought.                                                      ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (CRM) is the application of team     ]        
      ] management concepts in the flight deck environment.  It was   ]        
      ] initially known as cockpit resource management, but as CRM    ]        
      ] programs evolved to include cabin crews, maintenance          ]        
      ] personnel, and others, the phrase crew resource management    ]        
      ] was adopted.  This includes single pilots, as in most general ]        
      ] aviation aircraft.  Pilots of small aircraft, as well as      ]        
      ] crews of large aircraft, must make effective use of all       ]        
      ] available resources; human resources, hardware, and           ]        
      ] information.  A current definition includes all groups        ]        
      ] routinely working with the cockpit crew who are involved in   ]        
      ] decisions required to operate a flight safely.  These groups  ]        
      ] include, but are not limited to:  pilots, dispatchers, cabin  ]        
      ] crewmembers, maintenance personnel, and air traffic           ]        
      ] controllers.  CRM is one way of addressing the challenge of   ]        
      ] optimizing the human/machine interface and accompanying       ]        
      ] interpersonal activities.                                     ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] HEADWORK is required to accomplish a conscious, rational      ]        
      ] thought process when making decisions.  Good decision making  ]        
      ] involves risk identification and assessment, information      ]        
      ] processing, and problem solving.                              ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] JUDGMENT is the mental process of recognizing and analyzing   ]        
      ] all pertinent information in a particular situation, a        ]        
      ] rational evaluation of alternative actions in response to it, ]        
      ] and a timely decision on which action to take.                ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] PERSONALITY is the embodiment of personal traits and          ]        
      ] characteristics of an individual that are set at a very       ]        
      ] early age and extremely resistant to change.                  ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] POOR JUDGMENT CHAIN is a series of mistakes that may lead to  ]        
      ] an accident or incident.  Two basic principles generally      ]        
      ] associated with the creation of a poor judgment chain are:    ]        
      ] (1) One bad decision often leads to another; and (2) as a     ]        
      ] string of bad decisions grows, it reduces the number of       ]        
      ] subsequent alternatives for continued safe flight.  ADM is    ]        
      ] intended to break the poor judgment chain before it can cause ]        
      ] an accident or incident.                                      ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] RISK ELEMENTS IN ADM take into consideration the four         ]        
      ] fundamental risk elements:  the pilot, the aircraft, the      ]        
      ] environment, and the type of operation that comprise any      ]        
      ] given aviation situation.                                     ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] RISK MANAGEMENT is the part of the decision making process    ]        
      ] which relies on situational awareness, problem recognition,   ]        
      ] and good judgment to reduce risks associated with each flight.]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] SITUATIONAL AWARENESS is the accurate perception and          ]        
      ] understanding of all the factors and conditions within the    ]        
      ] four fundamental risk elements that affect safety before,     ]        
      ] during, and after the flight.                                 ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] SKILLS and PROCEDURES are the procedural, psychomotor, and    ]        
      ] perceptual skills used to control a specific aircraft or its  ]        
      ] systems.  They are the stick and rudder or airmanship         ]        
      ] abilities that are gained through conventional training, are  ]        
      ] perfected, and become almost automatic through experience.    ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] STRESS MANAGEMENT is the personal analysis of the kinds of    ]        
      ] stress experienced while flying, the application of           ]        
      ] appropriate stress assessment tools, and other coping         ]        
      ] mechanisms.                                                   ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS                                              
                                                                               
      An understanding of the decision-making process provides students        
      with a foundation for developing ADM skills.  Some situations,           
      such as engine failures, require a pilot to respond immediately          
      using established procedures with little time for detailed               
      analysis.  Traditionally, pilots have been well trained to react         
      to emergencies, but are not as well prepared to make decisions           
      which require a more reflective response.  Typically during a            
      flight, the pilot has time to examine any changes which occur,           
      gather information, and assess risk before reaching a decision.          
      The steps leading to this conclusion constitute the decision-            
      making process.  When the decision-making process is presented to        
      students, it is essential to discuss how the process applies to          
      an actual flight situation.  To explain the decision-making              
      process, the instructor can introduce the following steps with           
      the accompanying scenario that places the student in the position        
      of making a decision about a typical flight situation.                   
                                                                               
      DEFINING THE PROBLEM                                                     
                                                                               
      Problem definition is the first step in the decision-making              
      process.  Defining the problem begins with recognizing that a            
      change has occurred or that an expected change did not occur.  A         
      problem is perceived first by the senses, then is distinguished          
      through insight and experience.  These same abilities, as well as        
      an objective analysis of all available information, are used to          
      determine the exact nature and severity of the problem.                  
                                                                               
      One critical error that can be made during the decision-making           
      process is incorrectly defining the problem.  For example,               
      failure of a landing-gear-extended light to illuminate could             
      indicate that the gear is not down and locked into place or it           
      could mean the bulb is burned out.  The actions to be taken in           
      each of these circumstances would be significantly different.            
      Fixating on a problem that does not exist can divert the pilot's         
      attention from important tasks.  The pilot's failure to maintain         
      an awareness of the circumstances regarding the flight now               
      becomes the problem.  This is why once an initial assumption is          
      made regarding the problem, other sources must be used to verify         
      that the pilot's conclusion is correct.                                  
                                                                               
      While on a cross-country flight, you discover that your time             
      en route between two checkpoints is significantly longer than the        
      time you had originally calculated.  By noticing this                    
      discrepancy, you have recognized a change.  Based on your                
      insight, cross-country flying experience, and your knowledge of          
      weather systems, you consider the possibility that you have an           
      increased headwind.  You verify that your original calculations          
      are correct and consider factors which may have lengthened the           
      time between checkpoints, such as a climb or deviation off               
      course.  To determine if there is a change in the winds aloft            
      forecast and to check recent pilot reports, you contact Flight           
      Watch.  After weighing each information source, you conclude that        
      your headwind has increased.  To determine the severity of the           
      problem, you calculate your new groundspeed, and reassess fuel           
      requirements.                                                            
                                                                               
      CHOOSING A COURSE OF ACTION                                              
                                                                               
      After the problem has been identified, the pilot must evaluate           
      the need to react to it and determine the actions which may be           
      taken to resolve the situation in the time available.  The               
      expected outcome of each possible action should be considered and        
      the risks assessed before the pilot decides on a response to the         
      situation.                                                               
                                                                               
      You determine your fuel burn if you continue to your destination,        
      and consider other options, such as turning around and landing at        
      a nearby airport that you have passed, diverting off course, or          
      landing prior to your destination at an airport on your route.           
      You must now consider the expected outcome of each possible              
      action and assess the risk involved.  After studying the chart,          
      you conclude that there is an airport which has fueling services         
      within a reasonable distance ahead along your route.  You can            
      refuel there and continue to your destination without a                  
      significant loss of time.                                                
                                                                               
      IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION AND EVALUATING THE OUTCOME                     
      Although a decision may be reached and a course of action                
      implemented, the decision-making process is not complete.  It is         
      important to think ahead and determine how the decision could            
      affect other phases of the flight.  As the flight progresses, the        
      pilot must continue to evaluate the outcome of the decision to           
      ensure that it is producing the desired result.                          
                                                                               
      To implement your decision, you plot the course changes and              
      calculate a new estimated time of arrival, as well as contact the        
      nearest flight service station to amend your flight plan and             
      check weather conditions at your new destination.  As you proceed        
      to the airport, you continue to monitor your groundspeed,                
      aircraft performance, and the weather conditions to ensure that          
      no additional steps need to be taken to guarantee the safety of          
      the flight.                                                              
                                                                               
      To assist teaching pilots the elements of the decision-making            
      process, a six-step model has been developed using the acronym           
      "DECIDE."  The DECIDE model has been used to instruct pilots of          
      varying experience levels, as well as analyze accidents.                 
      Figure 9-6a                                                             
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
           Figure 9-6.  During initial training, the DECIDE model              
           can provide a framework for effective decision making.              
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]                         DECIDE MODEL                          ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ] Detect the fact that a change has occurred.                   ]        
      ] Estimate the need to counter or react to the change.          ]        
      ] Choose a desirable outcome for the success of the flight.     ]        
      ] Identify actions which could successfully control the change. ]        
      ] Do the necessary action to adapt to the change.               ]        
      ] Evaluate the effect of the action.                            ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      RISK MANAGEMENT                                                          
                                                                               
      During each flight, decisions must be made regarding events which        
      involve interactions between the four risk elements - the pilot          
      in command, the aircraft, the environment, and the operation.            
      The decision-making process involves an evaluation of each of            
      these risk elements to achieve an accurate perception of the             
      flight situation.  Figure 9-7a                                          
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
            Figure 9-7.  One of the most important decisions that              
          the pilot in command must make is the go/no-go decision.             
          Evaluating each of these risk elements can help the pilot            
          decide whether a flight should be conducted or continued.            
                                                                               
                                RISK ELEMENTS                                  
                                                                               
                               Pilot                                           
       ________________________________________________________                
      ] The pilot's fitness to fly must be evaluated including ]               
      ] competency in the airplane, currency, and flight       ]______         
      ] experience.                                            ]      ]        
      ]________________________________________________________]      ]        
                                                                      ]        
                               Aircraft                               ]        
       ________________________________________________________       ]        
      ] The airplane's performance, limitations, equipment,    ]______]        
      ] and airworthiness must be determined.                  ]      ]        
      ]________________________________________________________]      ]        
                                                                      ]        
                               Environment                            ]        
       ________________________________________________________       ]        
      ] Factors, such as weather, airport conditions, and the  ]      ]        
      ] availability of air traffic control services must be   ]______]        
      ] examined.                                              ]      ]        
      ]________________________________________________________]      ]        
                                                                      ]        
                               Operation                              ]        
       ________________________________________________________       ]        
      ] The purpose of the flight is a factor which influences ]      ]        
      ] the pilot's decision on undertaking or continuing the  ]______]        
      ] flight.                                                ]      ]        
      ]________________________________________________________]      ]        
                                                                      ]        
                                               _______________________]        
                               Situation      ]                                
       _______________________________________V________________                
      ] To maintain situational awareness, an accurate         ]               
      ] perception must be attained of how the pilot,          ]               
      ] aircraft, environment, and operation combine to affect ]               
      ] the flight.                                            ]               
      ]________________________________________________________]               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      To reinforce the risk elements and their significance to                 
      effective decision making, the instructor can ask the student to         
      identify the risk elements for a flight.  The student should also        
      be able to determine whether the risks have been appropriately           
      evaluated in the situation.                                              
                                                                               
      A pilot schedules to fly to a business appointment with a client         
      in a nearby city.  She is a noninstrument-rated private pilot            
      with no experience in marginal weather conditions, although she          
      did gain some attitude instrument flying experience during her           
      private pilot flight training.  She intends to fly in a small            
      four-seat, single-engine airplane with standard communication and        
      navigation equipment.  However, the VOR receiver is inoperative.         
      The pilot plans to leave in the morning and return early in the          
      afternoon.  When she receives her weather briefing, she is               
      informed that marginal VFR conditions with possible icing in the         
      clouds are forecast for late afternoon.  Having been delayed at          
      the office, the pilot departs later than planned.  While                 
      en route, the pilot encounters low ceilings and restricted               
      visibility and she becomes spatially disoriented due to continued        
      flight by ground reference.                                              
                                                                               
      In this case, the pilot did not effectively evaluate the four            
      risk elements when making decisions regarding this flight.  When         
      assessing her fitness as a pilot, she overestimated her flying           
      abilities by attempting to fly in marginal VFR conditions.  The          
      capability of her airplane was not properly evaluated.  The              
      inoperative VOR receiver limits her options if she becomes lost,         
      or is required to navigate with limited visual reference to the          
      ground.  In addition, her airplane did not contain sophisticated         
      navigation equipment which may have helped her locate an airport         
      in an emergency situation.  The flying environment was less than         
      optimal when she decided to depart despite the threat of marginal        
      conditions.  When faced with deteriorating weather, she did not          
      enlist the assistance of air traffic control (ATC) or use her            
      instruments as references to turn around.  Since she was trying          
      to reach her destination for a business appointment, the                 
      operation affected her decision to undertake and continue the            
      flight.                                                                  
                                                                               
      ASSESSING RISK                                                           
                                                                               
      Examining NTSB reports and other accident research can help              
      students learn to assess risk more effectively.  Instructors can         
      point out the phases of flight when accidents are most likely to         
      occur and when risk is the greatest.  For example, the majority          
      of accidents occur when approaching or departing airports.               
      Figure 9-8a                                                             
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
               Figure 9-8.  WORKLOAD IS HIGHEST DURING TAKEOFF                 
              AND LANDING, WHICH INCREASES THE CHANCE OF ERROR.                
                                                                               
                   Percentage of General      Exposure - Percentage            
                   Aviation Accidents         of Flight Time                   
                                                                               
      Preflight/Taxi     3.5                        -                          
                                                                               
      Takeoff/Initial                                                          
      Climb             23.4                        2                          
                                                                               
      Climb              3.3                       13                          
                                                                               
      Cruise            15.7                       60                          
                                                                               
      Descent            2.6                       10                          
                                                                               
      Maneuvering       13.0                       11                          
                                                                               
      Approach           9.7                        3                          
                                                                               
      Landing           24.1                        1                          
                                                                               
      Other              4.7                                                   
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Studies also indicate the types of flight activities that are            
      most likely to result in the most serious accidents.  The                
      majority of fatal general aviation accident causes fall under the        
      categories of maneuvering flight, approaches, takeoff/initial            
      climb, and weather.  Delving deeper into accident statistics can         
      provide some important details that can help students understand         
      the risks involved with specific flying situations.  For example,        
      maneuvering flight is one of the largest single producers of             
      fatal accidents and many of these accidents are attributed to            
      maneuvering during low, slow flight, often during buzzing or             
      unauthorized aerobatics.  Fatal accidents which occur during             
      approach often happen at night or in IFR conditions.  Takeoff/           
      initial climb accidents frequently are due to the pilot's lack of        
      awareness of the effects of density altitude on aircraft                 
      performance or other improper takeoff planning resulting in loss         
      of control or stalls during, or shortly after takeoff.  The              
      majority of weather-related accidents occur after attempted VFR          
      flight into IFR conditions.                                              
                                                                               
      In addition to discussing these facts, instructors can increase          
      student awareness of these risks by setting positive examples.           
      For instance, ensuring that students obtain weather briefings            
      before every flight develops good habits and emphasizes the              
      importance of the weather check.  Instructors should take the            
      time to discuss the conditions, and require the student to arrive        
      at a go/no-go decision.  Ignoring a marginal forecast or                 
      continuing a flight in poor weather may be sending the message           
      that checking the weather serves no practical purpose.  During           
      the flight planning phase, the flight instructor can introduce           
      situations that are different from those planned.  The student           
      should be asked to explain the possible consequences of each             
      situation.  Even if a flight lesson is canceled based on forecast        
      conditions that never materialize, a lesson in judgment has been         
      accomplished.                                                            
                                                                               
      FACTORS AFFECTING DECISION MAKING                                        
                                                                               
      It is important to point out to students that being familiar with        
      the decision-making process does not ensure that they will have          
      the good judgment to be safe pilots.  The ability to make                
      effective decisions as pilot in command depends on a number of           
      factors.  Some circumstances, such as the time available to make         
      a decision, may be beyond the pilot's control.  However, a pilot         
      can learn to recognize those factors that can be managed, and            
      learn skills to improve decision-making ability and judgment.            
                                                                               
      PILOT SELF-ASSESSMENT                                                    
                                                                               
      The pilot in command of an aircraft is directly responsible for,         
      and is the final authority as to, the operation of that aircraft.        
      In order to effectively exercise that responsibility and make            
      effective decisions regarding the outcome of a flight, pilots            
      must have an understanding of their limitations.  A pilot's              
      performance during a flight is affected by many factors, such as         
      health, recency of experience, knowledge, skill level, and               
      attitude.                                                                
                                                                               
      Students must be taught that exercising good judgment begins             
      prior to taking the controls of an aircraft.  Often, pilots              
      thoroughly check their aircraft to determine airworthiness, yet          
      do not evaluate their own fitness for flight.  Just as a                 
      checklist is used when preflighting an aircraft, a personal              
      checklist based on such factors as experience, currency, and             
      comfort level can help determine if a pilot is prepared for a            
      particular flight.  Specifying when refresher training should be         
      accomplished, designating weather minimums which may be higher           
      than those listed in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations         
      (14 CFR) part 91, and setting limitations regarding the amount of        
      crosswind for takeoffs and landings are examples of elements             
      which may be included on a personal checklist.  Instructors set          
      an example by having their own personal checklists and can help          
      students create their own checklists.  In addition to a review of        
      personal limitations, pilots should use the I'M SAFE Checklist to        
      further evaluate their fitness for flight.  Figure 9-9a                 
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
          Figure 9-9.  Prior to flight, pilots should assess their             
        fitness, just as they evaluate the aircraft's airworthiness.           
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]                      I'M SAFE CHECKLIST                       ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Illness - Do I have any symptoms?                             ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Medication - Have I been taking prescription or               ]        
      ] over-the-counter drugs?                                       ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Stress - Am I under psychological pressure from the job?      ]        
      ] Worried about financial matters, health problems, or family   ]        
      ] discord?                                                      ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Alcohol - Have I been drinking within 8 hours?  Within        ]        
      ] 24 hours?                                                     ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Fatigue - Am I tired and not adequately rested?               ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Eating - Am I adequately nourished?                           ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      RECOGNIZING HAZARDOUS ATTITUDES                                          
                                                                               
      Being fit to fly depends on more than just a pilot's physical            
      condition and recency of experience.  For example, attitude will         
      affect the quality of decisions.  Attitude can be defined as a           
      personal motivational predisposition to respond to persons,              
      situations, or events in a given manner.  Studies have identified        
      five hazardous attitudes which can interfere with a pilot's              
      ability to make sound decisions and exercise authority properly.         
      Figure 9-10a                                                            
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                  Figure 9-10.  Pilots should examine their                    
              decisions carefully to ensure that their choices                 
              have not been influenced by a hazardous attitude.                
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]                 THE FIVE HAZARDOUS ATTITUDES                  ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ] 1.  Anti-Authority:    This attitude is found in people who   ]        
      ]     "Don't tell me."   do not like anyone telling them what   ]        
      ]                        to do.  In a sense, they are saying,   ]        
      ]                        "No one can tell me what to do."  They ]        
      ]                        may be resentful of having someone     ]        
      ]                        tell them what to do, or may regard    ]        
      ]                        rules, regulations, and procedures as  ]        
      ]                        silly or unnecessary.  However, it is  ]        
      ]                        always your prerogative to question    ]        
      ]                        authority if you feel it is in error.  ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] 2.  Impulsivity:       This is the attitude of people who     ]        
      ]     "Do it quickly."   frequently feel the need to do         ]        
      ]                        something, anything, immediately.      ]        
      ]                        They do not stop to think about what   ]        
      ]                        they are about to do; they do not      ]        
      ]                        select the best alternative, and they  ]        
      ]                        do the first thing that comes to mind. ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] 3.  Invulnerability:   Many people feel that accidents happen ]        
      ]     "It won't happen   to others, but never to them.  They    ]        
      ]     to me."            know accidents can happen, and they    ]        
      ]                        know that anyone can be affected.      ]        
      ]                        They never really feel or believe that ]        
      ]                        they will be personally involved.      ]        
      ]                        Pilots who think this way are more     ]        
      ]                        likely to take chances and increase    ]        
      ]                        risk.                                  ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] 4.  Macho:             Pilots who are always trying to prove  ]        
      ]     "I can do it."     that they are better than anyone else  ]        
      ]                        are thinking, "I can do it - I'll show ]        
      ]                        them."  Pilots with this type of       ]        
      ]                        attitude will try to prove themselves  ]        
      ]                        by taking risks in order to impress    ]        
      ]                        others.  While this pattern is thought ]        
      ]                        to be a male characteristic, women are ]        
      ]                        equally susceptible.                   ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] 5.  Resignation:       Pilots who think, "What's the use?" do ]        
      ]     "What's the        not see themselves as being able to    ]        
      ]     use?"              make a great deal of difference in     ]        
      ]                        what happens to them.  When things go  ]        
      ]                        well, the pilot is apt to think that   ]        
      ]                        it is good luck.  When things go       ]        
      ]                        badly, the pilot may feel that someone ]        
      ]                        is out to get me, or attribute it to   ]        
      ]                        bad luck.  The pilot will leave the    ]        
      ]                        action to others, for better or worse. ]        
      ]                        Sometimes, such pilots will even go    ]        
      ]                        along with unreasonable requests just  ]        
      ]                        to be a "nice guy."                    ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Hazardous attitudes can lead to poor decision making and actions         
      which involve unnecessary risk.  Students must be taught to              
      examine their decisions carefully to ensure that their choices           
      have not been influenced by hazardous attitudes and they must be         
      familiar with positive alternatives to counteract the hazardous          
      attitudes.  These substitute attitudes are referred to as                
      antidotes.  During a flight operation, it is important to be able        
      to recognize a hazardous attitude, correctly label the thought,          
      and then recall its antidote.  Figure 9-11a                             
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
               Figure 9-11.  Students can be asked to identify                 
             hazardous attitudes and the corresponding antidotes               
                    when presented with flight scenarios.                      
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]          HAZARDOUS ATTITUDES                       ANTIDOTES  ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ] Anti-Authority - Although he knows that flying ] Follow the   ]        
      ] so low to the ground is prohibited by the      ] rules.  They ]        
      ] regulations, he feels that the regulations are ] are usually  ]        
      ] too restrictive in some circumstances.         ] right.       ]        
      ]                                                ]              ]        
      ] Impulsivity - As he is buzzing the park, the   ] Not so fast. ]        
      ] airplane does not climb as well as Steve had   ] Think first. ]        
      ] anticipated and without thinking, Steve pulls  ]              ]        
      ] back hard on the yoke.  The airspeed drops and ]              ]        
      ] the airplane is close to a stalling attitude   ]              ]        
      ] as the wing brushes a power line.              ]              ]        
      ]                                                ]              ]        
      ] Invulnerability - Steve is not worried about   ] It could     ]        
      ] an accident since he has flown this low many   ] happen to me.]        
      ] times before and he has not had any problems.  ]              ]        
      ]                                                ]              ]        
      ] Macho - Steve often brags to his friends about ] Taking       ]        
      ] his skills as a pilot and how close to the     ] chances is   ]        
      ] ground he flies.  During a local pleasure      ] foolish.     ]        
      ] flight in his single-engine airplane, he       ]              ]        
      ] decides to buzz some friends barbecuing at a   ]              ]        
      ] nearby park.                                   ]              ]        
      ]                                                ]              ]        
      ] Resignation - Although Steve manages to        ] I'm not      ]        
      ] recover, the wing sustains minor damage.       ] helpless.  I ]        
      ] Steve thinks to himself, "It's dangerous for   ] can make a   ]        
      ] the power company to put those lines so close  ] difference.  ]        
      ] to a park.  If somebody finds out about this   ]              ]        
      ] I'm going to be in trouble, but it seems like  ]              ]        
      ] no matter what I do, somebody's always going   ]              ]        
      ] to criticize."                                 ]              ]        
      ]________________________________________________]______________]        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      STRESS MANAGEMENT                                                        
                                                                               
      Everyone is stressed to some degree all the time.  A certain             
      amount of stress is good since it keeps a person alert and               
      prevents complacency.  However, effects of stress are cumulative         
      and, if not coped with adequately, they eventually add up to an          
      intolerable burden.  Performance generally increases with the            
      onset of stress, peaks, and then begins to fall off rapidly as           
      stress levels exceed a person's ability to cope.  The ability to         
      make effective decisions during flight can be impaired by stress.        
      Factors, referred to as stressors, can increase a pilot's risk of        
      error in the cockpit.  Figure 9-12a                                     
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                      Figure 9-12.  The three types of                         
                 stressors can affect a pilot's performance.                   
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]                           STRESSORS                           ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ] Physical Stress - Conditions associated with the environment, ]        
      ] such as temperature and humidity extremes, noise, vibration,  ]        
      ] and lack of oxygen.                                           ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Physiological Stress - Physical conditions, such as fatigue,  ]        
      ] lack of physical fitness, sleep loss, missed meals (leading   ]        
      ] to low blood sugar levels), and illness.                      ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Psychological Stress - Social or emotional factors, such as a ]        
      ] death in the family, a divorce, a sick child, or a demotion   ]        
      ] at work.  This type of stress may also be related to mental   ]        
      ] workload, such as analyzing a problem, navigating an          ]        
      ] aircraft, or making decisions.                                ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      One way of exploring the subject of stress with a student is to          
      recognize when stress is affecting performance.  If a student            
      seems distracted, or has a particularly difficult time                   
      accomplishing the tasks of the lesson, the instructor can query          
      the student.  Was the student uncomfortable or tired during the          
      flight?  Is there some stress in another aspect of the student's         
      life that may be causing a distraction?  This may prompt the             
      student to evaluate how these factors affect performance and             
      judgment.  The instructor should also try to determine if there          
      are aspects of pilot training that are causing excessive amounts         
      of stress for the student.  For example, if the student                  
      consistently makes a decision not to fly, even though weather            
      briefings indicate favorable conditions, it may be due to                
      apprehension regarding the lesson content.  Stalls, landings, or         
      an impending solo flight may cause concern for the student.  By          
      explaining a specific maneuver in greater detail or offering some        
      additional encouragement, the instructor may be able to alleviate        
      some of the student's stress.                                            
                                                                               
      To help students manage the accumulation of life stresses and            
      prevent stress overload, instructors can recommend several               
      techniques.  For example, including relaxation time in a busy            
      schedule and maintaining a program of physical fitness can help          
      reduce stress levels.  Learning to manage time more effectively          
      can help pilots avoid heavy pressures imposed by getting behind          
      schedule and not meeting deadlines.  While these pressures may           
      exist in the workplace, students may also experience the same            
      type of stress regarding their flight training schedule.                 
      Instructors can advise students to take assessments of themselves        
      to determine their capabilities and limitations and then set             
      realistic goals.  In addition, avoiding stressful situations and         
      encounters can help pilots cope with stress.                             
                                                                               
      USE OF RESOURCES                                                         
                                                                               
      To make informed decisions during flight operations, students            
      must be made aware of the resources found both inside and outside        
      the cockpit.  Since useful tools and sources of information may          
      not always be readily apparent, learning to recognize these              
      resources is an essential part of ADM training.  Resources must          
      not only be identified, but students must develop the skills to          
      evaluate whether they have the time to use a particular resource         
      and the impact that its use will have upon the safety of flight.         
      For example, the assistance of ATC may be very useful if a pilot         
      is lost.  However, in an emergency situation when action needs be        
      taken quickly, time may not be available to contact ATC                  
      immediately.  During training, instructors can routinely point           
      out resources to students.                                               
      INTERNAL RESOURCES                                                       
                                                                               
      Internal resources are found in the cockpit during flight.  Since        
      some of the most valuable internal resources are ingenuity,              
      knowledge, and skill, pilots can expand cockpit resources                
      immensely by improving their capabilities.  This can be                  
      accomplished by frequently reviewing flight information                  
      publications, such as the CFRs and the AIM, as well as by                
      pursuing additional training.                                            
                                                                               
      A thorough understanding of all the equipment and systems in the         
      aircraft is necessary to fully utilize all resources.  For               
      example, advanced navigation and autopilot systems are valuable          
      resources.  However, if pilots do not fully understand how to use        
      this equipment, or they rely on it so much that they become              
      complacent, it can become a detriment to safe flight.  To ensure         
      that students understand the operation of various equipment,             
      instructors must first be familiar with the components of each           
      aircraft in which they instruct.                                         
                                                                               
      Checklists are essential cockpit resources for verifying that the        
      aircraft instruments and systems are checked, set, and operating         
      properly, as well as ensuring that the proper procedures are             
      performed if there is a system malfunction or in-flight                  
      emergency.  Students reluctant to use checklists can be reminded         
      that pilots at all levels of experience refer to checklists, and         
      that the more advanced the aircraft is, the more crucial                 
      checklists become.  In addition, the POH, which is required to be        
      carried on board the aircraft, is essential for accurate flight          
      planning and for resolving in-flight equipment malfunctions.             
      Other valuable cockpit resources include current aeronautical            
      charts, and publications, such as the Airport/Facility Directory.        
                                                                               
      It should be pointed out to students that passengers can also be         
      a valuable resource.  Passengers can help watch for traffic and          
      may be able to provide information in an irregular situation,            
      especially if they are familiar with flying.  A strange smell or         
      sound may alert a passenger to a potential problem.  The pilot in        
      command should brief passengers before the flight to make sure           
      that they are comfortable voicing any concerns.                          
                                                                               
      EXTERNAL RESOURCES                                                       
                                                                               
      Possibly the greatest external resources during flight are air           
      traffic controllers and flight service specialists.  ATC can help        
      decrease pilot workload by providing traffic advisories, radar           
      vectors, and assistance in emergency situations.  Flight service         
      stations can provide updates on weather, answer questions about          
      airport conditions, and may offer direction-finding assistance.          
      The services provided by ATC can be invaluable in enabling pilots        
      to make informed in-flight decisions.  Instructors can help              
      students feel comfortable with ATC by encouraging them to take           
      advantage of services, such as flight following and Flight Watch.        
      If students are exposed to ATC as much as possible during                
      training, they will feel confident asking controllers to clarify         
      instructions and be better equipped to use ATC as a resource for         
      assistance in unusual circumstances or emergencies.                      
                                                                               
      Throughout training, students can be asked to identify internal          
      and external resources which can be used in a variety of flight          
      situations.  For example, if a discrepancy is found during               
      preflight, what resources can be used to determine its                   
      significance?  In this case, the student's knowledge of the              
      airplane, the POH, an instructor or another experienced pilot, or        
      an aviation maintenance technician are resources which may help          
      define the problem.                                                      
                                                                               
      During cross-country training, students may be asked to consider         
      the following situation.  On a cross-country flight, you become          
      disoriented.  Although you are familiar with the area, you do not        
      recognize any landmarks, and fuel is running low.  What resources        
      do you have to assist you?  Students should be able to identify          
      their own skills and knowledge, aeronautical charts, ATC, flight         
      service, and navigation equipment as some of the resources that          
      can be used in this situation.                                           
                                                                               
      WORKLOAD MANAGEMENT                                                      
                                                                               
      Effective workload management ensures that essential operations          
      are accomplished by planning, prioritizing, and sequencing tasks         
      to avoid work overload.  As experience is gained, a pilot learns         
      to recognize future workload requirements and can prepare for            
      high workload periods during times of low workload.  Instructors         
      can teach this skill by prompting their students to prepare for a        
      high workload.  For example, when en route, the student can be           
      asked to explain the actions that will need to be taken during           
      the approach to the airport.  The student should be able to              
      describe the procedures for traffic pattern entry and landing            
      preparation.  Reviewing the appropriate chart and setting radio          
      frequencies well in advance of when they will be needed helps            
      reduce workload as the flight nears the airport.  In addition,           
      the student should listen to ATIS, ASOS, or AWOS, if available,          
      and then monitor the tower frequency or CTAF to get a good idea          
      of what traffic conditions to expect.  Checklists should be              
      performed well in advance so there is time to focus on traffic           
      and ATC instructions.  These procedures are especially important         
      prior to entering a high-density traffic area, such as Class B           
      airspace.                                                                
                                                                               
      To manage workload, items should be prioritized.  This concept           
      should be emphasized to students and reinforced when training            
      procedures are performed.  For example, during a go-around,              
      adding power, gaining airspeed, and properly configuring the             
      airplane are priorities.  Informing the tower of the balked              
      landing should be accomplished only after these tasks are                
      completed.  Students must understand that priorities change as           
      the situation changes.  If fuel quantity is lower then expected          
      on a cross-country flight, the priority can shift from making a          
      scheduled arrival time at the destination, to locating a nearby          
      airport to refuel.  In an emergency situation, the first priority        
      is to fly the aircraft and maintain a safe airspeed.                     
                                                                               
      Another important part of managing workload is recognizing a work        
      overload situation.  The first effect of high workload is that           
      the pilot begins to work faster.  As workload increases,                 
      attention cannot be devoted to several tasks at one time, and the        
      pilot may begin to focus on one item.  When the pilot becomes            
      task saturated, there is no awareness of inputs from various             
      sources so decisions may be made on incomplete information, and          
      the possibility of error increases.  Figure 9-13a                       
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
            Figure 9-13.  ACCIDENTS OFTEN OCCUR WHEN FLYING TASK               
           REQUIREMENTS EXCEED PILOT CAPABILITIES.  THE DIFFERENCE             
          BETWEEN THESE TWO FACTORS IS CALLED THE MARGIN OF SAFETY.            
          NOTE THAT IN THIS IDEALIZED EXAMPLE, THE MARGIN OF SAFETY            
         IS MINIMAL DURING THE APPROACH AND LANDING.  AT THIS POINT,           
        AN EMERGENCY OR DISTRACTION COULD OVERTAX PILOT CAPABILITIES,          
                            CAUSING AN ACCIDENT.                               
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      During a lesson, workload can be gradually increased as the              
      instructor monitors the student's management of tasks.  The              
      instructor should ensure that the student has the ability to             
      recognize a work overload situation.  When becoming overloaded,          
      the student should stop, think, slow down, and prioritize.  It is        
      important that the student understand options that may be                
      available to decrease workload.  For example, tasks, such as             
      locating an item on a chart or setting a radio frequency, may be         
      delegated to another pilot or passenger, an autopilot (if                
      available) may be used, or ATC may be enlisted to provide                
      assistance.                                                              
                                                                               
      SITUATIONAL AWARENESS                                                    
                                                                               
      Situational awareness is the accurate perception of the                  
      operational and environmental factors that affect the aircraft,          
      pilot, and passengers during a specific period of time.                  
      Maintaining situational awareness requires an understanding of           
      the relative significance of these factors and their future              
      impact on the flight.  When situationally aware, the pilot has an        
      overview of the total operation and is not fixated on one                
      perceived significant factor.  Some of the elements inside the           
      aircraft to be considered are the status of aircraft systems,            
      pilot, and passengers.  In addition, an awareness of the                 
      environmental conditions of the flight, such as spatial                  
      orientation of the aircraft, and its relationship to terrain,            
      traffic, weather, and airspace must be maintained.                       
      To maintain situational awareness, all of the skills involved in         
      aeronautical decision making are used.  For example, an accurate         
      perception of the pilot's fitness can be achieved through                
      self-assessment and recognition of hazardous attitudes.  A clear         
      assessment of the status of navigation equipment can be obtained         
      through workload management, and establishing a productive               
      relationship with ATC can be accomplished by effective resource          
      use.                                                                     
                                                                               
      OBSTACLES TO MAINTAINING SITUATIONAL AWARENESS                           
                                                                               
      Fatigue, stress, and work overload can cause the pilot to fixate         
      on a single perceived important item rather than maintaining an          
      overall awareness of the flight situation.  A contributing factor        
      in many accidents is a distraction which diverts the pilot's             
      attention from monitoring the instruments or scanning outside the        
      aircraft.  Many cockpit distractions begin as a minor problem,           
      such as a gauge that is not reading correctly, but result in             
      accidents as the pilot diverts attention to the perceived problem        
      and neglects to properly control the aircraft.                           
                                                                               
      Complacency presents another obstacle to maintaining situational         
      awareness.  When activities become routine, the pilot may have a         
      tendency to relax and not put as much effort into performance.           
      Like fatigue, complacency reduces the pilot's effectiveness in           
      the cockpit.  However, complacency is harder to recognize than           
      fatigue, since everything is perceived to be progressing                 
      smoothly.  For example, cockpit automation can lead to                   
      complacency if the pilot assumes that the autopilot is doing its         
      job, and does not crosscheck the instruments or the aircraft's           
      position frequently.  If the autopilot fails, the pilot may not          
      be mentally prepared to fly the aircraft manually.  Instructors          
      should be especially alert to complacency in students with               
      significant flight experience.  For example, a pilot receiving a         
      flight review in a familiar aircraft may be prone to complacency.        
                                                                               
      By asking about positions of other aircraft in the traffic               
      pattern, engine instrument indications, and the aircraft's               
      location in relationship to references on a chart, the instructor        
      can determine if the student is maintaining situational                  
      awareness.  The instructor can also attempt to focus the                 
      student's attention on an imaginary problem with the                     
      communication or navigation equipment.  The instructor should            
      point out that situational awareness is not being maintained if          
      the student diverts too much attention away from other tasks,            
      such as controlling the aircraft or scanning for traffic.  These         
      are simple exercises that can be done throughout flight training         
      which will help emphasize the importance of maintaining                  
      situational awareness.                                                   
                                                                               
      OPERATIONAL PITFALLS                                                     
                                                                               
      There are a number of classic behavioral traps into which pilots         
      have been known to fall.  Pilots, particularly those with                
      considerable experience, as a rule always try to complete a              
      flight as planned, please passengers, meet schedules, and                
      generally demonstrate that they have the right stuff.  The basic         
      drive to demonstrate the right stuff can have an adverse effect          
      on safety, and can impose an unrealistic assessment of piloting          
      skills under stressful conditions.  These tendencies ultimately          
      may bring about practices that are dangerous and often illegal,          
      and may lead to a mishap.  Students will develop awareness and           
      learn to avoid many of these operational pitfalls through                
      effective ADM training.  The scenarios and examples provided by          
      instructors during ADM instruction should involve these pitfalls.        
      Figure 9-14a                                                            
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
              Figure 9-14.  All experienced pilots have fallen                 
              prey to, or have been tempted by, one or more of                 
                  these tendencies in their flying careers.                    
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]                     OPERATIONAL PITFALLS                      ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ] Peer Pressure - Poor decision making may be based upon an     ]        
      ] emotional response to peers, rather than evaluating a         ]        
      ] situation objectively.                                        ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Mind Set - A pilot displays mind set through an inability to  ]        
      ] recognize and cope with changes in a given situation.         ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Get-There-Itis - This disposition impairs pilot judgment      ]        
      ] through a fixation on the original goal or destination,       ]        
      ] combined with a disregard for any alternative course of       ]        
      ] action.                                                       ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Duck-Under Syndrome - A pilot may be tempted to make it into  ]        
      ] an airport by descending below minimums during an approach.   ]        
      ] There may be a belief that there is a built-in margin of      ]        
      ] error in every approach procedure, or a pilot may want to     ]        
      ] admit that the landing cannot be completed and a missed       ]        
      ] approach must be initiated.                                   ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Scud Running - This occurs when a pilot tries to maintain     ]        
      ] visual contact with the terrain at low altitudes while        ]        
      ] instrument conditions exist.                                  ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Continuing Visual Flight Rules (VFR) into Instrument          ]        
      ] Conditions - Spatial disorientation or collision with ground/ ]        
      ] obstacles may occur when a pilot continues VFR into           ]        
      ] instrument conditions.  This can be even more dangerous if    ]        
      ] the pilot is not instrument-rated or current.                 ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Getting Behind the Aircraft - This pitfall can be caused by   ]        
      ] allowing events or the situation to control pilot actions.    ]        
      ] A constant state of surprise at what happens next may be      ]        
      ] exhibited when the pilot is getting behind the aircraft.      ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Loss of Positional or Situational Awareness - In extreme      ]        
      ] cases, when a pilot gets behind the aircraft, a loss of       ]        
      ] positional or situational awareness may result.  The pilot    ]        
      ] may not know the aircraft's geographical location, or may be  ]        
      ] unable to recognize deteriorating circumstances.              ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Operating Without Adequate Fuel Reserves - Ignoring minimum   ]        
      ] fuel reserve requirements is generally the result of          ]        
      ] overconfidence, lack of flight planning, or disregarding      ]        
      ] applicable regulations.                                       ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Descent Below the Minimum En Route Altitude - The duck-under  ]        
      ] syndrome, as mentioned above, can also occur during the       ]        
      ] en route portion of an IFR flight.                            ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Flying Outside the Envelope - The assumed high performance    ]        
      ] capability of a particular aircraft may cause a mistaken      ]        
      ] belief that it can meet the demands imposed by a pilot's      ]        
      ] overestimated flying skills.                                  ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Neglect of Flight Planning, Preflight Inspections, and        ]        
      ] Checklists - A pilot may rely on short- and long-term memory, ]        
      ] regular flying skills, and familiar routes instead of         ]        
      ] established procedures and published checklists.  This can be ]        
      ] particularly true of experienced pilots.                      ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      EVALUATING STUDENT DECISION MAKING                                       
                                                                               
      A student's performance is often evaluated only on a technical           
      level.  The instructor determines whether maneuvers are                  
      technically accurate and that procedures are performed in the            
      right order.  Instructors must learn to evaluate students on a           
      different level.  How did the student arrive at a particular             
      decision?  What resources were used?  Was risk assessed                  
      accurately when a go/no-go decision was made?  Did the student           
      maintain situational awareness in the traffic pattern?  Was              
      workload managed effectively during a cross-country?  How does           
      the student handle stress and fatigue?                                   
                                                                               
      Instructors should continually evaluate student decision-making          
      ability and offer suggestions for improvement.  It is not always         
      necessary to present complex situations which require detailed           
      analysis.  By allowing students to make decisions about typical          
      issues that arise throughout the course of training, such as             
      their fitness to fly, weather conditions, and equipment problems,        
      instructors can address effective decision making and allow              
      students to develop judgment skills.  For example, when a                
      discrepancy is found during preflight inspection, the student            
      should be allowed to initially determine the action to be taken.         
      Then the effectiveness of the student's choice and other options         
      that may be available can be discussed.  Opportunities for               
      improving decision-making abilities occur often during training.         
      If the tower offers the student a runway that requires landing           
      with a tailwind in order to expedite traffic, the student can be         
      directed to assess the risks involved and asked to present               
      alternative actions to be taken.  Perhaps the most frequent              
      choice that has to be made during flight training is the                 
      go/no-go decision based on weather.  While the final choice to           
      fly lies with the instructor, students can be required to assess         
      the weather prior to each flight and make a go/no-go                     
      determination.                                                           
                                                                               
      In addition, instructors can create lessons that are specifically        
      designed to test whether students are applying ADM skills.               
      Planning a flight lesson in which the student is presented with          
      simulated emergencies, a heavy workload, or other operational            
      problems can be valuable in assessing the student's judgment and         
      decision-making skills.  During the flight, performance can be           
      evaluated on how effectively the student managed workload, or            
      handled stress.  While debriefing the student after the flight,          
      the instructor can suggest ways that problems may have been              
      solved more effectively, how tasks might have been prioritized           
      differently, or other resources that could have been used to             
      improve the situation.                                                   
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                 CHAPTER 10                                    
                                                                               
                       PLANNING INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITY                         
                                                                               
      This chapter is oriented to the beginning instructor who may be          
      instructing independently outside of a formal training                   
      organization such as a pilot school.  Independent instructors who        
      learn to plan instructional activity effectively can provide             
      high-quality training on an individual basis.                            
                                                                               
      Any instructional activity must be well planned and organized if         
      it is to proceed in an effective manner.  Much of the basic              
      planning necessary for the flight and ground instructor is               
      provided by the knowledge and proficiency requirements published         
      in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR), approved        
      school syllabi, and the various texts, manuals, and training             
      courses available.  This chapter reviews the planning required by        
      the professional aviation instructor as it relates to four key           
      topics - course of training, blocks of learning, training                
      syllabus, and lesson plans.                                              
                                                                               
      COURSE OF TRAINING                                                       
                                                                               
      In education, a course of training may be defined as a complete          
      series of studies leading to attainment of a specific goal.  The         
      goal might be a certificate of completion, graduation, or an             
      academic degree.  For example, a student pilot may enroll in a           
      private pilot certificate course, and upon completion of all             
      course requirements, be awarded a graduation certificate.  A             
      course of training also may be limited to something like the             
      additional training required for operating high-performance              
      airplanes.                                                               
                                                                               
      Other terms closely associated with a course of training include         
      curriculum, syllabus, and training course outline.  In many              
      cases, these terms are used interchangeably, but there are               
      important differences.                                                   
                                                                               
      A curriculum may be defined as a set of courses in an area of            
      specialization offered by an educational institution.  A                 
      curriculum for a pilot school usually includes courses for the           
      various pilot certificates and ratings.  A syllabus is a summary         
      or outline of a course of study.  In aviation, the term "training        
      syllabus" is commonly used.  In this context, a training syllabus        
      is a step-by-step, building block progression of learning with           
      provisions for regular review and evaluations at prescribed              
      stages of learning.  The syllabus defines the unit of training,          
      states by objective what the student is expected to accomplish           
      during the unit of training, shows an organized plan for                 
      instruction, and dictates the evaluation process for either the          
      unit or stages of learning.  And, finally, a training course             
      outline, within a curriculum, may be described as the content of         
      a particular course.  It normally includes statements of                 
      objectives, descriptions of teaching aids, definitions of                
      evaluating criteria, and indications of desired outcome.                 
                                                                               
      OBJECTIVES AND STANDARDS                                                 
                                                                               
      Before any important instruction can begin, a determination of           
      objectives and standards is necessary.  Considerable theory              
      regarding objectives and standards has been included in previous         
      chapters.  The theory described performance-based objectives as          
      they relate to development of individual lessons and test items.         
      The desired level of learning should also be incorporated into           
      the objectives.  In addition, level-of-learning objectives may           
      apply to one or more of the three domains of learning - cognitive        
      (knowledge), affective (attitudes, beliefs, and values), and             
      psychomotor (physical skills).  Normally, aviation training              
      aspires to a level-of-learning at the application level or               
      higher.                                                                  
                                                                               
      Standards are closely tied to objectives, since they include a           
      description of the desired knowledge, behavior, or skill stated          
      in specific terms, along with conditions and criteria.  When a           
      student is able to perform according to well-defined standards,          
      evidence of learning is apparent.  Comprehensive examples of the         
      desired learning outcomes, or behaviors, should be included in           
      the standards.  As indicated in Chapter 1, standards for the             
      level-of-learning in the cognitive and psychomotor domains are           
      easily established.  However, writing standards to evaluate a            
      student's level-of-learning or overt behavior in the affective           
      domain (attitudes, beliefs, and values) is more difficult.               
                                                                               
      The overall objective of an aviation training course is usually          
      well established, and the general standards are included in              
      various rules and related publications.  For example,                    
      eligibility, knowledge, proficiency, and experience requirements         
      for pilots and maintenance students are stipulated in the                
      regulations, and the standards are published in the applicable           
      practical test standards (PTS) or Oral and Practical Tests               
      (O & P).  It should be noted, though, that the PTS and O & P             
      standards are limited to the most critical job tasks.                    
      Certification tests do not represent an entire training syllabus.        
                                                                               
      A broad, overall objective of any pilot training course is to            
      qualify the student to be a competent, efficient, safe pilot for         
      the operation of specific aircraft types under stated conditions.        
      The established criteria or standards to determine whether the           
      training has been adequate are the passing of knowledge and              
      practical tests required by 14 CFR for the issuance of pilot             
      certificates.  Similar objectives and standards are established          
      for aviation maintenance technician (AMT) students.  Professional        
      instructors should not limit their objectives to meeting only the        
      published requirements for pilot or AMT certification.                   
      Instructional objectives should also extend beyond those listed          
      in official publications.  Successful instructors teach their            
      students not only how, but also why and when.  Ultimately, this          
      leads to sound judgment and decision-making skills.                      
                                                                               
      BLOCKS OF LEARNING                                                       
                                                                               
      After the overall training objectives have been established, the         
      next step is the identification of the blocks of learning which          
      constitute the necessary parts of the total objective.  Just as          
      in building a pyramid, some blocks are submerged in the structure        
      and never appear on the surface, but each is an integral and             
      necessary part of the structure.  Stated another way, the various        
      blocks are not isolated subjects but essential parts of the              
      whole.  During the process of identifying the blocks of learning         
      to be assembled for the proposed training activity, the planner          
      must also examine each carefully to see that it is truly an              
      integral part of the structure.  Extraneous blocks of instruction        
      are expensive frills, especially in flight instruction, and              
      detract from, rather than assist in, the completion of the final         
      objective.                                                               
                                                                               
      While determining the overall training objectives is a necessary         
      first step in the planning process, early identification of the          
      foundation blocks of learning is also essential.  Training for           
      any such complicated and involved task as piloting or maintaining        
      an aircraft requires the development and assembly of many                
      segments or blocks of learning in their proper relationships.  In        
      this way, a student can master the segments or blocks                    
      individually and can progressively combine these with other              
      related segments until their sum meets the overall training              
      objectives.                                                              
                                                                               
      The blocks of learning identified during the planning and                
      management of a training activity should be fairly consistent in         
      scope.  They should represent units of learning which can be             
      measured and evaluated - not a sequence of periods of                    
      instruction.  For example, the flight training of a private pilot        
      might be divided into the following major blocks:  achievement of        
      the knowledge and skills necessary for solo, the knowledge and           
      skills necessary for solo cross-country flight, and the knowledge        
      and skills appropriate for obtaining a private pilot certificate.        
      Figure 10-1a                                                            
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
         Figure 10-1.  The presolo stage, or phase, of private pilot           
           training is comprised of several basic building blocks.             
         These blocks of learning, which should include coordinated            
           ground and flight training, lead up to the first solo.              
                                                                               
                               _______________                                 
                              ]     FIRST     ]                                
                              ]     SOLO      ]                                
                      ________]_______________]_________                       
                     ]    EMERGENCY     ]    PRESOLO    ]                      
                     ]    PROCEDURES    ]    WRITTEN    ]                      
                     ]                  ]     EXAM      ]                      
               ______]__________________]_______________]______                
              ]    GROUND     ]   SLOW FLIGHT   ]   TAKEOFFS   ]               
              ]   REFERENCE   ]   AND STALLS    ]     AND      ]               
              ]   MANEUVERS   ]                 ]   LANDINGS   ]               
       _______]_______________]_________________]______________]______         
      ]  COMMUNICATION  ]    GROUND    ]     BASIC     ]   AIRPORT    ]        
      ]    AND FLIGHT   ]  OPERATIONS  ]   MANEUVERS   ]  OPERATIONS  ]        
      ]   INFORMATION   ]              ]               ]              ]        
      ]_________________]______________]_______________]______________]        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Use of the building block approach provides the student with a           
      boost in self-confidence.  This normally occurs each time a block        
      is completed.  Otherwise an overall goal, such as earning a              
      private pilot certificate, may seem unobtainable.  If the larger         
      blocks are broken down into smaller blocks of instruction, each          
      on its own is more manageable.                                           
                                                                               
      TRAINING SYLLABUS                                                        
                                                                               
      There are a number of valid reasons why all aviation instructors         
      should use a training syllabus.  As technology advances, training        
      requirements become more demanding.  At the same time, new, and          
      often more complicated rules continue to be proposed and                 
      implemented.  In addition, the rules for instruction in other            
      than an approved flight school are still quite specific about the        
      type and duration of training.  These factors, along with the            
      continuing growth of aviation, add to the complexity of aviation         
      training and certification.  Instructors need a practical guide          
      to help them make sure the training is accomplished in a logical         
      sequence and that all of the requirements are completed and              
      properly documented.  A well organized, comprehensive syllabus           
      can fulfill these needs.                                                 
                                                                               
      SYLLABUS FORMAT AND CONTENT                                              
      The format and organization of the syllabus may vary, but it             
      always should be in the form of an abstract or digest of the             
      course of training.  It should contain blocks of learning to be          
      completed in the most efficient order.                                   
                                                                               
      Since a syllabus is intended to be a summary of a course of              
      training, it should be fairly brief, yet comprehensive enough to         
      cover essential information.  This information is usually                
      presented in an outline format with lesson-by-lesson coverage.           
      Some syllabi include tables to show recommended training time for        
      each lesson, as well as the overall minimum time requirements.           
      Figure 10-2a                                                            
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
        Figure 10-2.  This excerpt of a ground lesson shows a unit of          
       ground instruction.  In this example, neither the time nor the          
       number of ground training periods to be devoted to the lesson           
         is specified.  The lesson should include three key parts -            
          the objective, the content, and the completion standards.            
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ] STAGE 1                                                       ]        
      ] GROUND LESSON 2                                               ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ] LESSON OBJECTIVES:                                            ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] The objective of this lesson is for the student to learn      ]        
      ] important safety of flight considerations and become          ]        
      ] thoroughly familiar with airports, including marking and      ]        
      ] lighting aids.  The student also will learn the significance  ]        
      ] of airspace divisions and how to use the radio for            ]        
      ] communications.  In addition, the student will understand the ]        
      ] capabilities and use of radar and other ATC services.         ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ] CONTENT:                                                      ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Introduce:                                                    ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Section A - "Safety of Flight"                                ]        
      ] - Visual Scanning                                             ]        
      ] - Collision Avoidance Precautions                             ]        
      ] - Blind Spots and Aircraft Design                             ]        
      ] - Right-of-Way Rules                                          ]        
      ] - Minimum Safe Altitudes                                      ]        
      ] - VFR Cruising Altitudes                                      ]        
      ] - Special Safety Considerations                               ]        
      ] Section B - "Airports"                                        ]        
      ] - Controlled and Uncontrolled Airports                        ]        
      ] - Runway and Taxiway Markings                                 ]        
      ] - Airport Signs                                               ]        
      ] - Wind Direction Indicators                                   ]        
      ] - Segmented Circle                                            ]        
      ] - Noise Abatement Procedures                                  ]        
      ] - Airport Lighting                                            ]        
      ] Section C - "Airspace"                                        ]        
      ] - Cloud Clearance and Visibility                              ]        
      ] - Special Use and Other Airspace Areas                        ]        
      ] Section D - "Radio Communications"                            ]        
      ] - VHF Communications Equipment                                ]        
      ] - Coordinated Universal Time                                  ]        
      ] - Radio Procedures                                            ]        
      ] - Common Traffic Advisory Frequency                           ]        
      ] - Flight Service Stations                                     ]        
      ] Section E - "Radar and ATC Services"                          ]        
      ] - Radar                                                       ]        
      ] - Transponder                                                 ]        
      ] - FAA Radar Systems                                           ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ] Completion Standards:                                         ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] The student will complete Private Pilot Exercises 2A, 2B, 2C, ]        
      ] 2D, and 2E with a minimum passing score of 80%, and the       ]        
      ] instructor will review each incorrect response to ensure      ]        
      ] understanding before the student progresses to Ground         ]        
      ] Lesson 3.                                                     ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      While many instructors may develop their own training syllabi,           
      there are many well-designed commercial products that may be             
      used.  These are found in various training manuals, approved             
      school syllabi, and other publications available from industry.          
                                                                               
      Syllabi developed for approved flight schools contain specific           
      information that is outlined in 14 CFR parts 141 and 147.  In            
      contrast, syllabi designed for training in other than approved           
      schools may not provide certain details such as enrollment               
      prerequisites, planned completion times, and descriptions of             
      checks and tests to measure student accomplishments for each             
      stage of training.                                                       
                                                                               
      Since effective training relies on organized blocks of learning,         
      all syllabi should stress well-defined objectives and standards          
      for each lesson.  Appropriate objectives and standards should be         
      established for the overall course, the separate ground and              
      flight segments, and for each stage of training.  Other details          
      may be added to a syllabus in order to explain how to use it and         
      describe the pertinent training and reference materials.                 
      Examples of the training and reference materials include                 
      textbooks, video, compact disks, exams, briefings and                    
      instructional guides.                                                    
                                                                               
      HOW TO USE A TRAINING SYLLABUS                                           
                                                                               
      Any practical training syllabus must be flexible, and should be          
      used primarily as a guide.  When necessary, the order of training        
      can and should be altered to suit the progress of the student and        
      the demands of special circumstances.  For example, previous             
      experience or different rates of learning often will require some        
      alteration or repetition to fit individual students.  The                
      syllabus also should be flexible enough so it can be adapted to          
      weather variations, aircraft availability, and scheduling changes        
      without disrupting the teaching process or completely suspending         
      training.                                                                
                                                                               
      In departing from the order prescribed by the syllabus, however,         
      it is the responsibility of the instructor to consider how the           
      relationships of the blocks of learning are affected.  It is             
      often preferable to skip to a completely different part of the           
      syllabus when the conduct of a scheduled lesson is impossible,           
      rather than proceeding to the next block, which may be predicated        
      completely on skills to be developed during the lesson which is          
      being postponed.                                                         
                                                                               
      Each approved training course provided by a certificated pilot           
      school should be conducted in accordance with a training syllabus        
      specifically approved by the Federal Aviation Administration             
      (FAA).  At certificated schools, the syllabus is a key part of           
      the training course outline.  The instructional facilities,              
      airport, aircraft, and instructor personnel must be able to              
      support the course of training specified in the syllabus.                
      Compliance with the appropriate, approved syllabus is a condition        
      for graduation from such courses.  Therefore, effective use of a         
      syllabus requires that it be referred to throughout the entire           
      course of training.  Both the instructor and the student should          
      have a copy of the approved syllabus.  However, as previously            
      mentioned, a syllabus should not be adhered to so stringently            
      that it becomes inflexible or unchangeable.  It must be flexible         
      enough to adapt to special needs of individual students.                 
                                                                               
      Ground training lessons concentrate on the cognitive domain of           
      learning.  A typical lesson might include several knowledge              
      areas.  Many of these knowledge areas are directly or indirectly         
      concerned with safety, aeronautical decision making, and                 
      judgment.  These subjects tend to be closely associated with the         
      affective domain of learning.  Thus, instructors who find a way          
      to stress safety, ADM, and judgment, along with the traditional          
      aviation subjects, can favorably influence a student's attitude,         
      beliefs, and values.                                                     
                                                                               
      Flight training lessons also include knowledge areas, but they           
      generally emphasize the psychomotor domain of learning.  In              
      addition, the affective domain of learning is also important in          
      flight training.  A student's attitude, especially toward flight         
      safety, ADM, and judgment, should be a major concern of the              
      instructor.  Figure 10-3a                                               
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
            Figure 10-3.  A flight training lesson, like a ground              
           training lesson, should include an objective, content,              
          and completion standards.  More than one objective could,            
              and often does, apply to a single flight lesson.                 
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ] STAGE 1                                                       ]        
      ] FLIGHT LESSON 4                                               ]        
      ] DUAL - LOCAL (1.0)                                            ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] ------------------------------------------------------------- ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] Note:  A view-limiting device is required for the .2 hours of ]        
      ] dual instrument time allocated to Flight Lesson 4.            ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ] LESSON OBJECTIVES:                                            ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] .  Practice the maneuvers listed for review to gain           ]        
      ]    additional proficiency and demonstrate the ability to      ]        
      ]    recognize and recover from stalls.                         ]        
      ] .  The student will also receive instruction and practice in  ]        
      ]    the maneuvers and procedures listed for introduction,      ]        
      ]    including emergency operations and additional practice of  ]        
      ]    airplane control by instrument reference (IR).             ]        
      ] .  Instructor may demonstrate secondary, accelerated          ]        
      ]    maneuver, crossed-control, and elevator trim stalls.       ]        
      ] .  Emphasis will be on procedures related to airport          ]        
      ]    operations, steep turns, slow flight, stalls, and stall    ]        
      ]    recovery.                                                  ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ] CONTENT:                                                      ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] INTRODUCE:                                                    ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ]  __                                                           ]        
      ] ]__]  Systems and Equipment Malfunctions                      ]        
      ]  __                                                           ]        
      ] ]__]  Emergency Procedures                                    ]        
      ]  __                                                           ]        
      ] ]__]  Emergency Descent                                       ]        
      ]  __                                                           ]        
      ] ]__]  Emergency Approach and Landing                          ]        
      ]  __                                                           ]        
      ] ]__]  Emergency Equipment and Survival Gear                   ]        
      ]  __                                                           ]        
      ] ]__]  Climbing and Descending Turns (VR) (IR)                 ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ] REVIEW:                                                       ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ]  __                                                           ]        
      ] ]__]  Airport and Runway Markings and Lighting                ]        
      ]  __                                                           ]        
      ] ]__]  Airspeed and Configuration Changes                      ]        
      ]  __                                                           ]        
      ] ]__]  Flight at Approach Speed                                ]        
      ]  __                                                           ]        
      ] ]__]  Flight at Various Airspeeds From Cruise to Slow Flight  ]        
      ]  __                                                           ]        
      ] ]__]  Maneuvering During Slow Flight                          ]        
      ]  __                                                           ]        
      ] ]__]  Power-Off Stalls                                        ]        
      ]  __                                                           ]        
      ] ]__]  Power-On Stalls                                         ]        
      ]  __                                                           ]        
      ] ]__]  Normal Takeoffs and Landings                            ]        
      ]  __                                                           ]        
      ] ]__]  Collision Avoidance Precautions                         ]        
      ]  __                                                           ]        
      ] ]__]  Traffic Patterns                                        ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ] COMPLETION                                                    ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] STANDARDS:                                                    ]        
      ]                                                               ]        
      ] .  Display increased proficiency in coordinated airplane      ]        
      ]    attitude control during basic maneuvers.                   ]        
      ] .  Perform unassisted takeoffs.                               ]        
      ] .  Demonstrate correct communications and traffic pattern     ]        
      ]    procedures.                                                ]        
      ] .  Landings completed with instructor assistance.             ]        
      ] .  Demonstrate basic understanding of steep turns, slow       ]        
      ]    flight, stalls, stall recovery, and emergency operations.  ]        
      ] .  Complete demonstrated stalls.                              ]        
      ] .  Indicate basic understanding of airplane control by use    ]        
      ]    of the flight instruments.                                 ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
      ________________________________________________________________         
                                                                               
      Individual flight lessons are much like ground lessons.                  
      Organization and format are similar.  The lesson shown in figure         
      10-3 is an example showing the main elements.                            
                                                                               
      A syllabus should include special emphasis items that have been          
      determined to be cause factors in aircraft accidents or                  
      incidents.  For example, the instructor should emphasize                 
      collision and wake turbulence avoidance procedures throughout a          
      student's flight training.                                               
                                                                               
      A syllabus lesson may include several other items that add to or         
      clarify the objective, content, or standards.  A lesson may              
      specify the recommended class time, reference or study materials,        
      recommended sequence of training, and study assignment for the           
      next lesson.  Both ground and flight lessons may have explanatory        
      information notes added to specific lessons.  Figure 10-4a              
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
               Figure 10-4.  Information in the form of notes                  
                 may be added to individual ground or flight                   
                lessons in a syllabus when the are necessary.                  
                                                                               
                           TYPICAL SYLLABUS NOTES                              
                                                                               
      .    Students should read Chapter 1 of the textbook prior to             
           Ground Lesson 1.                                                    
                                                                               
      .    All preflight duties and procedures will be performed and           
           evaluated prior to each flight.  Therefore, they will not           
           appear in the content outlines.                                     
                                                                               
      .    The notation VR or IR is used to indicate maneuvers which           
           should be performed by both visual references and instrument        
           references during the conduct of integrated flight                  
           instruction.                                                        
                                                                               
      .    A view-limiting device is required for the .2 hours of dual         
           instrument time allocated to Flight Lesson 4.                       
                                                                               
      .    The demonstrated stalls are not a proficiency requirement           
           for private pilot certification.  The purpose of the                
           demonstrations is to help the student learn how to                  
           recognize, prevent, and if necessary, recover before the            
           stall develops into a spin.  These stalls should not be             
           practiced without a qualified flight instructor.  In                
           addition, some stalls may be prohibited in some airplanes.          
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      While a syllabus is designed to provide a road map showing how to        
      accomplish the overall objective of a course of training, it may         
      be useful for other purposes.  As already mentioned, it can be           
      used as a checklist to ensure that required training has                 
      successfully been completed.  Thus, a syllabus can be an                 
      effective tool for record keeping.  Enhanced syllabi, which also         
      are designed for record keeping, can be very beneficial to the           
      independent instructor.                                                  
                                                                               
      This record-keeping function is usually facilitated by boxes or          
      blank spaces adjacent to the knowledge areas, procedures, or             
      maneuvers in a flight lesson.  Most syllabi introduce each               
      procedure or maneuver in one flight lesson and review them in            
      subsequent lessons.  Some syllabi also include provisions for            
      grading student performance and recording both ground and flight         
      training time.  Accurate record keeping is necessary to keep both        
      the student and the instructor informed on the status of                 
      training.  These records also serve as a basis for endorsements          
      and recommendations for knowledge and practical tests.                   
                                                                               
      Another benefit of using a syllabus is that it helps in                  
      development of lesson plans.  A well constructed syllabus already        
      contains much of the essential information that is required in a         
      lesson plan, including objectives, content, and completion               
      standards.                                                               
                                                                               
      LESSON PLANS                                                             
                                                                               
      A lesson plan is an organized outline for a single instructional         
      period.  It is a necessary guide for the instructor in that it           
      tells what to do, in what order to do it, and what procedure to          
      use in teaching the material of a lesson.  Lesson plans should be        
      prepared for each training period and be developed to show               
      specific knowledge and/or skills to be taught.                           
                                                                               
      A mental outline of a lesson is not a lesson plan.  A lesson plan        
      should be put into writing.  Another instructor should be able to        
      take the lesson plan and know what to do in conducting the same          
      period of instruction.  When putting it in writing, the lesson           
      plan can be analyzed from the standpoint of adequacy and                 
      completeness.                                                            
                                                                               
      PURPOSE OF THE LESSON PLAN                                               
      Lesson plans are designed to assure that each student receives           
      the best possible instruction under the existing conditions.             
      Lesson plans help instructors keep a constant check on their own         
      activity, as well as that of their students.  The development of         
      lesson plans by instructors signifies, in effect, that they have         
      taught the lessons to themselves prior to attempting to teach the        
      lessons to students.  An adequate lesson plan, when properly             
      used, should:                                                            
                                                                               
      .    Assure a wise selection of material and the elimination of          
           unimportant details.                                                
                                                                               
      .    Make certain that due consideration is given to each part of        
           the lesson.                                                         
                                                                               
      .    Aid the instructor in presenting the material in a suitable         
           sequence for efficient learning.                                    
                                                                               
      .    Provide an outline of the teaching procedure to be used.            
                                                                               
      .    Serve as a means of relating the lesson to the objectives of        
           the course of training.                                             
                                                                               
      .    Give the inexperienced instructor confidence.                       
                                                                               
      .    Promote uniformity of instruction regardless of the                 
           instructor or the date on which the lesson is given.                
                                                                               
      CHARACTERISTICS OF A WELL-PLANNED LESSON                                 
                                                                               
      The quality of planning affects the quality of results.                  
      Successful professionals understand the price of excellence is           
      hard work and thorough preparation.  The effective instructor            
      realizes that the time and energy spent in planning and preparing        
      each lesson is well worth the effort in the long run.                    
                                                                               
      A complete cycle of planning usually includes several steps.             
      After the objective is determined, the instructor must research          
      the subject as it is defined by the objective.  Once the research        
      is complete, the instructor must determine the method of                 
      instruction and identify a useful lesson planning format.  Other         
      steps, such as deciding how to organize the lesson and selecting         
      suitable support material also must be accomplished.  The final          
      steps include assembling training aids and writing the lesson            
      plan outline.  One technique for writing the lesson plan outline         
      is to prepare the beginning and ending first.  Then, complete the        
      outline and revise as required.  A lesson plan should be a               
      working document that can and should be revised as changes occur         
      or are needed.  The following are some of the important                  
      characteristics that should be reflected in all well-planned             
      lessons.                                                                 
                                                                               
      .    Unity - Each lesson should be a unified segment of                  
           instruction.  A lesson is concerned with certain limited            
           objectives, which are stated in terms of desired student            
           learning outcomes.  All teaching procedures and materials           
           should be selected to attain these objectives.                      
                                                                               
      .    Content - Each lesson should contain new material.  However,        
           the new facts, principles, procedures, or skills should be          
           related to the lesson previously presented.  A short review         
           of earlier lessons is usually necessary, particularly in            
           flight training.                                                    
      .    Scope - Each lesson should be reasonable in scope.  A person        
           can master only a few principles or skills at a time, the           
           number depending on complexity.  Presenting too much                
           material in a lesson results in confusion; presenting too           
           little material results in inefficiency.                            
                                                                               
      .    Practicality - Each lesson should be planned in terms of the        
           conditions under which the training is to be conducted.             
           Lesson plans conducted in an airplane or ground trainer will        
           differ from those conducted in a classroom.  Also, the kinds        
           and quantities of instructional aids available have a great         
           influence on lesson planning and instructional procedures.          
                                                                               
      .    Flexibility - Although the lesson plan provides an outline          
           and sequence for the training to be conducted, a degree of          
           flexibility should be incorporated.  For example, the               
           outline of content may include blank spaces for add-on              
           material, if required.                                              
                                                                               
      .    Relation to Course of Training - Each lesson should be              
           planned and taught so that its relation to the course               
           objectives are clear to each student.  For example, a lesson        
           on short-field takeoffs and landings should be related to           
           both the certification and safety objectives of the course          
           of training.                                                        
                                                                               
      .    Instructional Steps - Every lesson, when adequately                 
           developed, falls logically into the four steps of the               
           teaching process - preparation, presentation, application,          
           and review and evaluation.                                          
                                                                               
      HOW TO USE A LESSON PLAN PROPERLY                                        
                                                                               
      .    Be Familiar with the Lesson Plan - The instructor should            
           study each step of the plan and should be thoroughly                
           familiar with as much information related to the subject as         
           possible.                                                           
                                                                               
      .    Use the Lesson Plan as a Guide - The lesson plan is an              
           outline for conducting an instructional period.  It assures         
           that pertinent materials are at hand and that the                   
           presentation is accomplished with order and unity.  Having a        
           plan prevents the instructor from getting off the track,            
           omitting essential points, and introducing irrelevant               
           material.  Students have a right to expect an instructor to         
           give the same attention to teaching that they give to               
           learning.  The most certain means of achieving teaching             
           success is to have a carefully thought-out lesson plan.             
                                                                               
      .    Adapt the Lesson Plan to the Class or Student - In teaching         
           a ground school period, the instructor may find that the            
           procedures outlined in the lesson plan are not leading to           
           the desired results.  In this situation, the instructor             
           should change the approach.  There is no certain way of             
           predicting the reactions of different groups of students.           
           An approach that has been successful with one group may not         
           be equally successful with another.                                 
                                                                               
      A lesson plan for an instructional flight period should be               
      appropriate to the background, flight experience, and ability of         
      the particular student.  A lesson plan may have to be modified           
      considerably during flight, due to deficiencies in the student's         
      knowledge or poor mastery of elements essential to the effective         
      completion of the lesson.  In some cases, the entire lesson plan         
      may have to be abandoned in favor of review.                             
                                                                               
      .    Revise the Lesson Plan Periodically - After a lesson plan           
           has been prepared for a training period, a continuous               
           revision may be necessary.  This is true for a number of            
           reasons, including availability or nonavailability of               
           instructional aids, changes in regulations, new manuals and         
           textbooks, and changes in the state-of-the art among others.        
                                                                               
      LESSON PLAN FORMATS                                                      
                                                                               
      The format and style of a lesson plan depends on several factors.        
      Certainly the subject matter has a lot to do with how a lesson is        
      presented and what teaching method is used.  Individual lesson           
      plans may be quite simple for one-on-one training, or they may be        
      elaborate and complicated for large, structured classroom                
      lessons.  Preferably, each lesson should have somewhat limited           
      objectives that are achievable within a reasonable period of             
      time.  This principle should apply to both ground and flight             
      training.  However, as previously noted, aviation training is not        
      simple.  It involves all three domains of learning, and the              
      objectives usually include the higher levels of learning, at             
      least at the application level.                                          
                                                                               
      In spite of need for varied subject coverage, diverse teaching           
      methods, and relatively high level learning objectives, most             
      aviation lesson plans have the common characteristics already            
      discussed.  They all should include objectives, content to               
      support the objectives, and completion standards.  Various               
      authorities often divide the main headings into several                  
      subheadings, and terminology, even for the main headings, varies         
      extensively.  For example, completion standards may be called            
      assessment, review and feedback, performance evaluation, or some         
      other related term.                                                      
                                                                               
      Commercially-developed lesson plans are acceptable for most              
      training situations, including use by flight instructor                  
      applicants during their practical tests.  However, all                   
      instructors should recognize that even well-designed preprinted          
      lesson plans may need to be modified.  Therefore, instructors are        
      encouraged to use creativity when adapting preprinted lesson             
      plans or when developing their own lesson plans for specific             
      students or training circumstances.                                      
                                                                               
      As indicated by much of this discussion, the main concern in             
      developing a lesson plan is the student.  With this in mind, it          
      is apparent that one format does not work well for all students,         
      or for all training situations.  Because of the broad range of           
      aviation training requirements, a variety of lesson plans and            
      lesson plan formats is recommended.  Examples of various lesson          
      plans and lesson plan formats are included in the following              
      pages.                                                                   
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]  ___________________________________________________________  ]        
      ] ]                        LESSON PLAN                        ] ]        
      ] ]                  Introduction (3 minutes)                 ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] ATTENTION:      Relate aircraft accident in which a       ] ]        
      ] ]                 multi-engine airplane ran off the end of  ] ]        
      ] ]                 the runway.  This could have been avoided ] ]        
      ] ]                 by correctly computing the landing        ] ]        
      ] ]                 distance.  Relate similar personal        ] ]        
      ] ]                 experience of the same type of mishap.    ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] MOTIVATION:     Tell students how landing distance can    ] ]        
      ] ]                 affect them (any aircraft, plus future    ] ]        
      ] ]                 application).                             ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] OVERVIEW:       Explain what will be learned.  Explain    ] ]        
      ] ]                 how the lesson will proceed.  Define      ] ]        
      ] ]                 landing distance and explain the normal   ] ]        
      ] ]                 landing distance chart.  Then,            ] ]        
      ] ]                 demonstrate how to solve for landing      ] ]        
      ] ]                 distance.  The students will practice     ] ]        
      ] ]                 the procedure:  at least once with        ] ]        
      ] ]                 supervision and at least once with as     ] ]        
      ] ]                 little help as possible.  Next, the       ] ]        
      ] ]                 student will be evaluated according to    ] ]        
      ] ]                 the standards.  Finally, the lesson will  ] ]        
      ] ]                 conclude with questions and answers,      ] ]        
      ] ]                 followed by a brief summary.              ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ]                      Body (29 minutes)                    ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] EXPLANATION                                               ] ]        
      ] ] DEMONSTRATION:  Define landing distance.  Explain the     ] ]        
      ] ] (8 minutes)     normal landing distance chart to include  ] ]        
      ] ]                 the scale and interpolation.  Ensure      ] ]        
      ] ]                 students can see demonstration and        ] ]        
      ] ]                 encourage questions.  Demonstrate the     ] ]        
      ] ]                 procedure using degrees Celsius with a    ] ]        
      ] ]                 headwind and degrees Fahrenheit with a    ] ]        
      ] ]                 tailwind.  Show the normal landing        ] ]        
      ] ]                 distance chart with given data in the     ] ]        
      ] ]                 following order:                          ] ]        
      ] ]                      1.  temperature                      ] ]        
      ] ]                      2.  pressure altitude                ] ]        
      ] ]                      3.  gross weight                     ] ]        
      ] ]                      4.  headwind-tailwind component      ] ]        
      ] ]                      5.  read ground roll distance from   ] ]        
      ] ]                            graph                          ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] PERFORMANCE                                               ] ]        
      ] ] SUPERVISION:    Review standards.  Hand out chart and     ] ]        
      ] ] (15 minutes)    practice problems.  Remind students to    ] ]        
      ] ]                 use a pencil, to make small tick marks,   ] ]        
      ] ]                 and to work as accurately as possible.    ] ]        
      ] ]                 Explain that they should follow the       ] ]        
      ] ]                 procedure on the chart to work the        ] ]        
      ] ]                 practice problems.  Encourage students to ] ]        
      ] ]                 ask questions.  Check progress of each    ] ]        
      ] ]                 student continually so they develop skill ] ]        
      ] ]                 proficiency within acceptable standards.  ] ]        
      ] ]                 Reteach any area(s) of difficulty to the  ] ]        
      ] ]                 class as they go along.                   ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] EVALUATION:     Review procedure again from the chart.    ] ]        
      ] ] (6 minutes)     Reemphasize standards of acceptable       ] ]        
      ] ]                 performance including time available.     ] ]        
      ] ]                 Prepare area for evaluation by removing   ] ]        
      ] ]                 the task step chart and practice problem  ] ]        
      ] ]                 sheets, and by handing out the evaluation ] ]        
      ] ]                 problems.  Ask students to work the three ] ]        
      ] ]                 problems according to conditions and      ] ]        
      ] ]                 standards specified.  Terminate           ] ]        
      ] ]                 evaluation after 6 minutes.  Evaluate     ] ]        
      ] ]                 each student's performance and tactfully  ] ]        
      ] ]                 reveal results.  Record results for use   ] ]        
      ] ]                 in reteaching any area(s) of difficulty   ] ]        
      ] ]                 in the summary.                           ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ]                      Conclusion (3 minutes)               ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] SUMMARY:        Review lessons with emphasis on any weak  ] ]        
      ] ]                 area(s).                                  ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] REMOTIVATION:   Remind students that landing distance     ] ]        
      ] ]                 will be an important consideration in     ] ]        
      ] ]                 any aircraft they fly.                    ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] CLOSURE:        Advise students that this lesson will be  ] ]        
      ] ]                 used as a starting point for the next     ] ]        
      ] ]                 lesson.  Assign study materials for the   ] ]        
      ] ]                 next lesson.                              ] ]        
      ] ]___________________________________________________________] ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
        This is an example of the lesson plan designed for a                   
        traditional ground school in a classroom environment.                  
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]  ___________________________________________________________  ]        
      ] ] Flight 6                             Student:  Judy Smith ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] DUAL-LOCAL                                                ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ]       (7 to 10 knot crosswind conditions required)        ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] SEQUENCE:                                                 ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ]       1.  Preflight Orientation                           ] ]        
      ] ]       2.  Flight                                          ] ]        
      ] ]       3.  Postflight Evaluation                           ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] LESSON OBJECTIVE:                                         ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ]       During the lesson, the student will review          ] ]        
      ] ]       crosswind landing techniques in actual crosswind    ] ]        
      ] ]       conditions and attempt to increase understanding    ] ]        
      ] ]       and proficiency during their execution.  The        ] ]        
      ] ]       principle of a stabilized landing approach will     ] ]        
      ] ]       be emphasized.                                      ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] LESSON REVIEW:                                            ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ]       1.  Slips                                           ] ]        
      ] ]       2.  Crosswind Landings                              ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] COMPLETION STANDARDS:                                     ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ]       The student will demonstrate an understanding of    ] ]        
      ] ]       how the slip is used to perform crosswind landings. ] ]        
      ] ]       In addition, the student will demonstrate safe      ] ]        
      ] ]       crosswind landings in light crosswind conditions.   ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] --------------------------------------------------------- ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] NOTES:  Emphasize that the runway, airplane path, and     ] ]        
      ] ] longitudinal axis of airplane must be aligned at          ] ]        
      ] ] touchdown.  Have the student establish a slip early on    ] ]        
      ] ] the final approach rather than crabbing and establishing  ] ]        
      ] ] slip just prior to touchdown.  This should allow the      ] ]        
      ] ] student to concentrate on keeping the upwind wing low     ] ]        
      ] ] while maintaining runway alignment during the flare.      ] ]        
      ] ]___________________________________________________________] ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
        In this example, the lesson plan is specifically intended to           
        help a student who is having difficulty with crosswind                 
        approaches and landings.                                               
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]  ___________________________________________________________  ]        
      ] ] GROUND LESSON 8 - PCATD                                   ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] OBJECTIVE                                                 ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] .  Review of VOR concepts, intercepts, and tracks.        ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] EMPHASIS                                                  ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] .  Situational awareness; requires pilot constantly       ] ]        
      ] ]    asking:  Where am I?  Where am I going?  What am I     ] ]        
      ] ]    going to do next?                                      ] ]        
      ] ] .  VOR utilization                                        ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] SET-UP                                                    ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] .  Choose an unfamiliar environment in which to fly       ] ]        
      ] ]    (from the database map).                               ] ]        
      ] ] .  Set airplane location off of a line between 2          ] ]        
      ] ]    NAVAID(s) about 40 miles apart (save as file for       ] ]        
      ] ]    future use); configuration can be cruise flight or     ] ]        
      ] ]    normal maneuvering flight regime.                      ] ]        
      ] ] .  Utilize cockpit instrument check to set frequencies.   ] ]        
      ] ] .  Review terminology:  bearing vs. radial, tracking      ] ]        
      ] ]    inbound vs. outbound.                                  ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] EXERCISES and MANEUVERS                                   ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] .  Determine position by orientation of TO/FROM and CDI   ] ]        
      ] ]    centering; have student identify position on chart     ] ]        
      ] ]    (paper) before looking at map screen, verify on map    ] ]        
      ] ]    screen; discuss errors.                                ] ]        
      ] ] .  Re-position airplane on the map screen, determine and  ] ]        
      ] ]    note changes in CDI centering.                         ] ]        
      ] ] .  Fly direct to selected NAVAID(s).                      ] ]        
      ] ] .  Intercept a dictated radial:                           ] ]        
      ] ]        Tune/identify NAVAID(s).                           ] ]        
      ] ]        Determine location with respect to bearing by      ] ]        
      ] ]        turning to the heading of course dictated; note    ] ]        
      ] ]        on which side of airplane is desired course.       ] ]        
      ] ]        Determine intercept angle and turn to intercept    ] ]        
      ] ]        heading.                                           ] ]        
      ] ]        Demonstrate bracketing techniques.                 ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] COMPLETION STANDARDS                                      ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] .  Correctly determine location and orientation TO/FROM   ] ]        
      ] ]    NAVAID(s).                                             ] ]        
      ] ] .  Correctly determine appropriate intercept angle and    ] ]        
      ] ]    heading.                                               ] ]        
      ] ] .  Recognize that the ability to track is heavily         ] ]        
      ] ]    dependent on accurate maintenance of heading.          ] ]        
      ] ] .  Ability to visualize position.                         ] ]        
      ] ]___________________________________________________________] ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
        This example lesson plan may be used for ground training in            
        a personal computer-based aviation training device (PCATD)             
        or a flight training device (FTD).                                     
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]  ___________________________________________________________  ]        
      ] ] LESSON   Stalls     STUDENT   Larry    DATE   7-20        ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] OBJECTIVE       .  To familiarize the student with the    ] ]        
      ] ]                    stall warnings and handling            ] ]        
      ] ]                    characteristics of the airplane as     ] ]        
      ] ]                    it approaches a stall.  To develop     ] ]        
      ] ]                    the student's skill in recognition     ] ]        
      ] ]                    and recovery from stalls.              ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] CONTENT         .  Configuration of airplane for          ] ]        
      ] ]                    power-on and power-off stalls.         ] ]        
      ] ]                 .  Observation of airplane attitude,      ] ]        
      ] ]                    stall warnings, and handling           ] ]        
      ] ]                    characteristics as it approaches a     ] ]        
      ] ]                    stall.                                 ] ]        
      ] ]                 .  Control of airplane attitude,          ] ]        
      ] ]                    altitude, and heading.                 ] ]        
      ] ]                 .  Initiation of stall recovery           ] ]        
      ] ]                    procedures.                            ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] SCHEDULE        .  Preflight Discussion         :10       ] ]        
      ] ]                 .  Instructor Demonstrations    :25       ] ]        
      ] ]                 .  Student Practice             :45       ] ]        
      ] ]                 .  Postflight Critique          :10       ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] EQUIPMENT       .  Chalkboard or notebook for preflight   ] ]        
      ] ]                    discussion.                            ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] INSTRUCTOR'S                                              ] ]        
      ] ] ACTIONS         .  Preflight - Discuss lesson objective.  ] ]        
      ] ]                 .  Inflight - Demonstrate elements.       ] ]        
      ] ]                    Demonstrate power-on and power-off     ] ]        
      ] ]                    stalls and recovery procedures.        ] ]        
      ] ]                    Coach student practice.                ] ]        
      ] ]                 .  Postflight - Critique student          ] ]        
      ] ]                    performance and assign study material. ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] STUDENT'S                                                 ] ]        
      ] ] ACTIONS         .  Preflight - Discuss lesson objective   ] ]        
      ] ]                    and resolve questions.                 ] ]        
      ] ]                 .  Inflight - Review previous maneuvers   ] ]        
      ] ]                    including slow flight.  Perform each   ] ]        
      ] ]                    new maneuver as directed.              ] ]        
      ] ]                 .  Postflight - Ask pertinent questions.  ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] COMPLETION                                                ] ]        
      ] ] STANDARDS       .  Student should demonstrate competency  ] ]        
      ] ]                    in controlling the airplane at         ] ]        
      ] ]                    airspeeds approaching a stall.         ] ]        
      ] ]                    Student should recognize and take      ] ]        
      ] ]                    prompt corrective action to recover    ] ]        
      ] ]                    from power-on and power-off stalls.    ] ]        
      ] ]___________________________________________________________] ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
        This is a typical lesson plan for flight training which                
        emphasizes stall recognition and recovery procedures.                  
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]  ___________________________________________________________  ]        
      ] ] MULTI-ENGINE TRANSITION - LESSON THREE                    ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] OBJECTIVE:    To complete the Baron systems instruction,  ] ]        
      ] ]               review procedures for abnormal situations,  ] ]        
      ] ]               including systems failures, and further     ] ]        
      ] ]               review multi-engine aerodynamics and        ] ]        
      ] ]               concepts.  In addition, complete IFR        ] ]        
      ] ]               proficiency in the ground trainer, and      ] ]        
      ] ]               develop the pilot's skill and comfort       ] ]        
      ] ]               operating the Baron in a variety of         ] ]        
      ] ]               situations.                                 ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] ELEMENTS:     .  ground instruction                       ] ]        
      ] ]                     --->  systems                         ] ]        
      ] ]                               electrical                  ] ]        
      ] ]                               landing gear                ] ]        
      ] ]                     --->  procedures                      ] ]        
      ] ]                               systems failures            ] ]        
      ] ]                               other abnormal and          ] ]        
      ] ]                               emergency checklists        ] ]        
      ] ]                     --->  multi-engine considerations/    ] ]        
      ] ]                           aerodynamics                    ] ]        
      ] ]                               zero sideslip               ] ]        
      ] ]                               drag effects                ] ]        
      ] ]               .  flight training device or flight         ] ]        
      ] ]                  simulator                                ] ]        
      ] ]                     --->  any further training needed     ] ]        
      ] ]                           on IFR skills                   ] ]        
      ] ]                     --->  utilize to practice engine      ] ]        
      ] ]                           failure after takeoff and       ] ]        
      ] ]                           single-engine go-around         ] ]        
      ] ]                           procedures                      ] ]        
      ] ]               .  flight                                   ] ]        
      ] ]                     --->  engine failure on ground        ] ]        
      ] ]                     --->  V sub MC demo                   ] ]        
      ] ]                     --->  drag demo                       ] ]        
      ] ]                     --->  engine failure in cruise,       ] ]        
      ] ]                           descent                         ] ]        
      ] ]                     --->  systems failures including      ] ]        
      ] ]                           manual gear extension           ] ]        
      ] ]                     --->  IFR procedures/single-engine    ] ]        
      ] ]                           approaches                      ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] COMPLETION    The lesson is complete when the student     ] ]        
      ] ] STANDARDS:    demonstrates understanding of all Baron     ] ]        
      ] ]               systems and emergency procedures, and       ] ]        
      ] ]               demonstrates a level of proficiency, as     ] ]        
      ] ]               judged by the instructor, to cease          ] ]        
      ] ]               training in the instrument ground trainer.  ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] FURTHER                                                   ] ]        
      ] ] STUDY:        Baron POH (Chapter 3, Chapter 7)            ] ]        
      ] ]___________________________________________________________] ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
        This is a specialized flight training lesson plan for                  
        multi-engine transition.                                               
                                                                               
       _______________________________________________________________         
      ]  ___________________________________________________________  ]        
      ] ]                        LESSON PLAN                        ] ]        
      ] ]               AVIATION MAINTENANCE TRAINING               ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] INSTRUCTOR:  William Brown                                ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] METHOD OF INSTRUCTION:  Lecture, Audio Visuals, and       ] ]        
      ] ]                         Demonstration                     ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] TITLE:  Flight line, Hangar, and Shop Safety              ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] OBJECTIVE No 1:  Recognize and neutralize or avoid        ] ]        
      ] ]                  (as appropriate) safety hazards that     ] ]        
      ] ]                  may be found in flight line, hangar,     ] ]        
      ] ]                  and maintenance shop areas.              ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] OBJECTIVE No 2:  Consistently apply safety practices on   ] ]        
      ] ]                  forming various aircraft maintenance     ] ]        
      ] ]                  functions.                               ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] MATERIALS YOU PLAN TO USE:                                ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Visuals:  Videos, overheads, and photographs showing      ] ]        
      ] ]           safe and unsafe practices/conditions and their  ] ]        
      ] ]           consequences.                                   ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Tools/Equipment:  Power and hand tools, aircraft and      ] ]        
      ] ]                   aircraft systems, parts, and            ] ]        
      ] ]                   appliances, test and inspection tools,  ] ]        
      ] ]                   protective clothing and equipment,      ] ]        
      ] ]                   fire extinguishers, and chemicals       ] ]        
      ] ]                   commonly used in performing aircraft    ] ]        
      ] ]                   maintenance.                            ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] References:  Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS),          ] ]        
      ] ]              aircraft maintenance manuals, government     ] ]        
      ] ]              and industry published safety data, and      ] ]        
      ] ]              equipment manufacturer's instructions.       ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] PRESENTATION:                                             ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Topics/Steps:  Personal Safety                            ] ]        
      ] ]     Key Points:    1.  Safety related terms.              ] ]        
      ] ]                    2.  General safety practices.          ] ]        
      ] ]                    3.  Causes of accidents.               ] ]        
      ] ]                    4.  Steps to be followed after an      ] ]        
      ] ]                        accident.                          ] ]        
      ] ]                    5.  Accident report completion.        ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Flight Line, Shop, and Hangar Safety                      ] ]        
      ] ]     Key Points:    1.  Recognizing and identifying safety ] ]        
      ] ]                        color codes and signs and their    ] ]        
      ] ]                        correct application.               ] ]        
      ] ]                    2.  Performing a safety inspection of  ] ]        
      ] ]                        flight line, hangar, and shop      ] ]        
      ] ]                        areas.                             ] ]        
      ] ]                    3.  Identifying hazardous parts of     ] ]        
      ] ]                        various power tools.               ] ]        
      ] ]                    4.  Rules for safe use of hand and     ] ]        
      ] ]                        power tools and shop equipment.    ] ]        
      ] ]                    5.  Demonstrate proper use of power    ] ]        
      ] ]                        tools and shop equipment.          ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Chemical Safety                                           ] ]        
      ] ]     Key Points:    1.  Using hazardous materials.         ] ]        
      ] ]                    2.  Using MSDS and manufacturer's      ] ]        
      ] ]                        instructions.                      ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] Fire Safety                                               ] ]        
      ] ]     Key Points:    1.  Classes of fire.                   ] ]        
      ] ]                    2.  Types of fire extinguishers and    ] ]        
      ] ]                        their inspection.                  ] ]        
      ] ]                    3.  Matching fire extinguishing        ] ]        
      ] ]                        agents to classes of fires.        ] ]        
      ] ]                    4.  Proper techniques for using fire   ] ]        
      ] ]                        extinguishers.                     ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] PRACTICE:     Identifying flight line, shop, and hangar   ] ]        
      ] ]               safety hazards.  Safe use of hand and power ] ]        
      ] ]               tools, and flight line, shop, and hangar    ] ]        
      ] ]               equipment.                                  ] ]        
      ] ]                                                           ] ]        
      ] ] ASSESSMENT:   Written test covering category key points.  ] ]        
      ] ]               Practical test covering practice items.     ] ]        
      ] ]___________________________________________________________] ]        
      ]_______________________________________________________________]        
        In this example, an aviation maintenance training lesson               
        plan emphasizes safety.                                                
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                 CHAPTER 11                                    
                                                                               
                          PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT                             
                                                                               
      Aviation is changing rapidly and aviation instructors must               
      continue to develop their knowledge and skills in order to teach         
      successfully in this environment.  This chapter addresses the            
      topic of how instructor can grow and develop as professionals and        
      as safety advocates, and also suggests some sources of                   
      information to assist in this development.                               
      GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT                                                   
                                                                               
      The aviation instructor is usually well respected by other               
      technicians and pilots because instructors must meet additional          
      training requirements in order to be certified.  Instructors have        
      had to undergo comprehensive evaluations and a practical test to         
      obtain a flight instructor certificate.  Title 14 of the Code of         
      Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 147 requires all instructors           
      teaching maintenance subjects to hold an FAA certificate as an           
      aircraft maintenance technician.                                         
                                                                               
      The presumption of detailed knowledge is true because, in most           
      cases, an instructor must know the aviation subject area to a            
      much greater depth in order to teach the subject.  The most              
      knowledgeable people in any subject area are the ones who are            
      teaching that subject.  With the aviation field constantly               
      changing, it is incumbent on the instructor to continually keep          
      up with current information.  Because instructors are regarded as        
      authorities, they are in a unique position to influence education        
      in the aviation field.                                                   
                                                                               
      THE INSTRUCTOR AS A SAFETY ADVOCATE                                      
                                                                               
      In Chapter 8, the instructor is portrayed as the person the              
      student will emulate.  This is especially true concerning safety.        
      The instructor who violates accepted safety procedures will              
      adversely affect the safety practices of the students who observe        
      such unsafe acts.  One of the most productive actions a flight or        
      maintenance instructor can take to enhance aviation safety is to         
      consistently emphasize safety by example.  Another way to further        
      safety is to actively participate in the FAA Aviation Safety             
      Program.  The program's objective is to improve safety in general        
      aviation by improving attitudes, increasing knowledge and                
      proficiency through education, and reducing environmental                
      hazards.  The Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) Safety             
      Program Manager is involved in all areas of safety within the            
      district.  The Aviation Safety Program has several features that         
      the instructor can use to promote safety.  The aviation                  
      instructor who is actively involved in the Aviation Safety               
      Program will be a more capable and professional instructor.              
                                                                               
      AVIATION SAFETY COUNSELORS                                               
                                                                               
      Aviation Safety Counselors are well known and highly respected           
      members of the aviation community who are selected by the Safety         
      Program Manager with the concurrence of the manager of the FSDO.         
      They generally are pilots, flight instructors, or aviation               
      maintenance technicians; however, this is not a prerequisite for         
      selection.  Counselors are volunteers who are willing to devote          
      time, energy, and thought toward the objective of solving                
      aviation safety problems in their community.  They assist the FAA        
      in the promotion of safety by organizing and participating in            
      safety programs, and helping to correct conditions that are              
      hazardous to aircraft and aviation personnel.  FAA-M-8740.3,             
      Aviation Safety Counselor Manual, outlines some of the specific          
      activities of the Aviation Safety Counselor, and provides                
      guidelines for performing those activities.  Some of the                 
      activities of the Aviation Safety Counselor, as outlined in the          
      manual, are listed below.                                                
                                                                               
      .    Counseling individuals who may have exhibited potentially           
           unsafe acts.                                                        
                                                                               
      .    Assisting pilots, aircraft owners, and aircraft maintenance         
           technicians on matters pertaining to proper maintenance of          
           aircraft and avionics equipment.                                    
                                                                               
      .    Counseling individuals following incidents requiring flight         
           assistance from Air Traffic Control (ATC) personnel.                
                                                                               
      .    Assisting the FAA in transmitting safety information to             
           pilots, aircraft owners, maintenance facilities, and                
           technicians.                                                        
                                                                               
      .    Conducting proficiency flights (when appropriately rated).          
                                                                               
      .    Providing information and assistance to the FAA in                  
           establishing local airport safety committees.                       
                                                                               
      .    Notifying the appropriate authorities of the need for               
           corrective action when hazardous conditions affecting safe          
           flight or ground operations are observed.                           
                                                                               
      .    Organizing and participating in safety meetings, workshops,         
           and seminars.                                                       
                                                                               
      CONTINUING EDUCATION                                                     
                                                                               
      Part of being a professional aviation instructor is being                
      knowledgeable on the subjects of aviation and instructing.               
      Instructors need to continually update their knowledge and               
      skills.  This effort to improve aviation knowledge and skills can        
      range from simply reading an article in a technical publication          
      to taking courses at a technical school or college.  There are           
      many different sources of information the aviation instructor can        
      use in order to further aviation knowledge.  Figure 11-1a               
                                                                               
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                  Figure 11-1.  The aviation instructor has                    
                many sources to use for continuing education.                  
                                                                               
                        CONTINUING EDUCATION SOURCES                           
                                                                               
           .  Government                                                       
             .  Educational/Training Institutions                              
               .  Commercial Enterprises                                       
                 .  Industry Organizations                                     
      ----------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      GOVERNMENT                                                               
                                                                               
      One of the first educational sources for the instructor is the           
      FAA and other governmental agencies.  The FAA either sponsors or         
      collaborates in sponsoring seminars and workshops that are               
      available to the public in the furtherance of knowledge of               
      aviation.  Some examples would be safety seminars conducted              
      around the country by the FAA in conjunction with industry.              
      These seminars, although directed at pilots, can be a useful             
      source of knowledge for aviation instructors.                            
                                                                               
      The FAA is a source of many documents which can be used to               
      further an instructor's knowledge.  Many of these are published          
      as advisory circulars and are available by mail.                         
                                                                               
      The requirements for a flight instructor's participation in the          
      Proficiency Award Program were outlined in Chapter 8.                    
      Participation in this program is a good way for a flight                 
      instructor to improve proficiency and to serve as an example to          
      students.  Another way is to work toward the Gold Seal Flight            
      Instructor Certificate.  Accomplishing the requirements of the           
      certificate is evidence that the instructor has performed at a           
      very high level as a flight instructor.  See AC 61-65,                   
      Certification:  Pilots and Flight Instructors, for a list of             
      requirements for earning this certificate.                               
                                                                               
      Similarly, the Aviation Maintenance Awards Program affords the           
      aviation maintenance instructor the opportunity for increased            
      education through attendance at FAA or industry maintenance              
      training seminars.  Details for the awarding of bronze through           
      diamond pins can be found in AC 65-25, Aviation Maintenance              
      Technician Awards Program.                                               
                                                                               
      The FAA approves the sponsors who conduct Flight Instructor              
      Refresher Clinics (FIRCs) in accordance with AC 61-83.                   
      Nationally Scheduled FAA-Approved Industry-Conducted Flight              
      Instructor Refresher Clinics (FIRC).  These courses are available        
      for flight instructors to complete the training requirements for         
      renewal of flight instructor certificates.                               
                                                                               
      The FAA co-sponsors Inspection Authorization (IA) seminars.              
      These seminars are open to all maintenance technicians, and are a        
      good source of additional training and education for maintenance         
      instructors.                                                             
                                                                               
      EDUCATIONAL/TRAINING INSTITUTIONS                                        
                                                                               
      Professional aviation instructors can further increase their             
      knowledge and skill in aviation specialties through FAA programs         
      and seminars.  They can also increase their professional                 
      knowledge and skills through post-secondary schools.  These range        
      from local community colleges to technical schools and                   
      universities.  These schools may offer complete degree programs          
      in aviation subjects as well as single-subject courses of benefit        
      to instructors.                                                          
                                                                               
      COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS                                                 
                                                                               
      Commercial organizations are another important source of                 
      education/training for the aviation instructor.  Some may be             
      publishers of training materials while others may provide                
      complete ground and flight training programs for professional            
      pilots and instructors.  These companies often provide a wide            
      variety of study programs including videos, computer-based               
      training, and printed publications.  Many offer training that can        
      be attended either at the home base of the company or in                 
      traveling classes/seminars so instructors can more easily attend.        
                                                                               
      There are numerous organizations around the country that offer           
      courses of training for aviation instructors.  These are                 
      generally courses that are available to all pilots and                   
      technicians, but are especially useful for instructors to improve        
      their abilities.  Examples of such courses include workshops for         
      maintenance technicians to enhance their skills in subjects such         
      as composites, sheet metal fabrication, and fabric covering.  For        
      pilots there are courses in mountain flying, spin training, and          
      tailwheel qualification.  Flight instructors also may increase           
      their aviation knowledge and experience by adding additional             
      category and class ratings to their certificates.                        
                                                                               
      INDUSTRY ORGANIZATIONS                                                   
                                                                               
      Other significant sources of ongoing education for aviation              
      instructors are the myriad of aviation organizations.  These             
      organizations not only provide educational articles in their             
      publications, but also present training programs or co-sponsor           
      such programs.                                                           
                                                                               
      Many industry organizations have local affiliated chapters that          
      make it easy to meet other pilots, technicians, and instructors.         
      These meetings frequently include presentations by industry              
      experts, as well as formal training sessions.  Some aviation             
      industry organizations conduct their own training sessions on            
      areas such as flight instructor refresher clinics and Inspection         
      Authorization (IA) seminars.  Properly organized safety                  
      symposiums and training clinics are valuable sources of refresher        
      training.  They also are an excellent opportunity to exchange            
      information with other instructors.                                      
                                                                               
      SOURCES OF MATERIAL                                                      
                                                                               
      An aviation instructor should maintain access to current flight          
      publications or maintenance publications.  For the flight                
      instructor, this includes current copies of regulations pertinent        
      to pilot qualification and certification, Aeronautical                   
      Information Manual (AIM), appropriate Practical Test Standards           
      (PTS), and pilot training manuals.  The aviation maintenance             
      instructor should have copies of applicable regulations, current         
      knowledge and practical test standards, and maintenance training         
      manuals.  Aviation instructors must be completely familiar with          
      current certification and rating requirements in order to provide        
      competent instruction.  AC 00-2 Advisory Circular Checklist, is a        
      listing of all current advisory circulars and other FAA                  
      publications sold by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.               
      Government Printing Office (GPO).  Many of the advisory circulars        
      should be considered by the aviation instructor for inclusion in         
      a personal reference library.  This checklist can be obtained            
      from U.S. Government Bookstores or from the U.S. Government              
      Printing Office.                                                         
                                                                               
      In addition to government publications, a number of excellent            
      handbooks and other reference materials are available from               
      commercial publishers.  Aviation periodicals and technical               
      journals from the aviation industry are other sources of valuable        
      information for instructors.  Many public and institutional              
      libraries have excellent resource material on educational                
      psychology, teaching methods, testing, and other aviation-related        
      subjects.                                                                
                                                                               
      The aviation instructor has two reasons to maintain a source of          
      current information and publications.  First the instructor needs        
      a steady supply of fresh material to make instruction interesting        
      and up-to-date.  Second, instructors should keep themselves well         
      informed by maintaining familiarity with what is being written in        
      current aviation publications.  Most of these publications are in        
      printed form, but increasingly, information is available through         
      electronic means.  Figure 11-2a                                         
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
       Figure 11-2.  AVIATION INSTRUCTORS CAN IMPROVE THEIR KNOWLEDGE          
           BY BECOMING FAMILIAR WITH INFORMATION ON THE INTERNET.              
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      PRINTED MATERIAL                                                         
                                                                               
      Printed materials have the advantage of portability.  In                 
      aviation, documentation in the form of flight publications or            
      maintenance data must be immediately available for referral while        
      flying or conducting maintenance.  Printed material makes this           
      possible, but hard copy can also be a disadvantage, taking up            
      space for storage and often becoming tedious to keep current.            
      While most periodicals are still available in hard copy, some are        
      starting to be available partially or totally in electronic form.        
      Most FAA regulations, standards, and guides are available either         
      in electronic form or as hard copy.                                      
                                                                               
      Non-FAA publications are available through the GPO and from the          
      National Technical Information Service (NTIS).  Publications not         
      printed by the U.S. Government Printing Office are available from        
      the many publishers and suppliers of books.  Commercial                  
      publishers usually provide catalogues and toll-free numbers or           
      web sites for ordering their products.                                   
                                                                               
      ELECTRONIC SOURCES                                                       
                                                                               
      Access to the Internet via personal computers has opened up a            
      vast storehouse of information for the aviation instructor.  In          
      the past, aviation instructors had limited access to information,        
      but the personal computer has greatly expanded sources of                
      aviation information.  This section will list some sources of            
      information on the Internet.  In the following discussion,               
      several sites for accessing FAA materials are explored, and some         
      non-FAA sites are included.  Once instructors begin to navigate          
      the Internet, they will find sites which provide the information         
      they use most frequently.  Figure 11-3a                                 
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
            Figure 11-3.  AVIATION INSTRUCTORS CAN IMPROVE THEIR               
            KNOWLEDGE BY BECOMING COMFORTABLE NAVIGATING THE WEB.              
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Obviously, some FAA publications are more important to the               
      aviation instructor than others.  Many of the publications of            
      interest to the aviation instructor can be accessed through the          
      FAA Flight Standards Service Aviation Information (AV-INFO) Web          
      Site (http://av-info.faa.gov).  These publications can be                
      accessed by clicking on the button marked Regulatory Support             
      Division (AFS-600).  At the AFS-600 site, selecting                      
      "Publications:  Training, Testing, and Technical" accesses Airman        
      Knowledge Test Question Banks, Knowledge Test Guides, Practical          
      Test Standards, and select Advisory Circulars.                           
                                                                               
      From the AV-INFO Web Site, aviation instructors have access to           
      the National Transportation Safety Board, Airworthiness                  
      Directives, Listings of FAA Certificated Maintenance and Pilot           
      schools, and FAA forms.  Once the instructor has located a site          
      of interest, the site can be saved by clicking on the Bookmark           
      option (or other designation such as "Favorite") provided by the         
      web browser used.  This allows the instructor to return to the           
      site without going through multiple links.                               
                                                                               
      The FAA home page can also be reached through the AV-INFO Web            
      Site.  After opening the FAA home page, one of the fastest ways          
      to view a variety of FAA materials is to select an option from           
      the prominent pulldown list.  Once an area of interest has been          
      selected, the instructor can click on the "GO!" button to link to        
      various FAA sites.  For example, an instructor can select                
      "Publications" from the list to locate all FAA publications              
      available from the Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S.              
      Government Printing Office (GPO), National Technical Information         
      Service (NTIS), and the Federal Depository Libraries.                    
                                                                               
      FAA web sites are not the only source of aviation or                     
      education-related information on the Internet.  The aviation             
      instructor can access a myriad of aviation-related publications          
      at other governmental or non-governmental web sites.  An easy way        
      to reach some of these sites is through the AV-INFO Web Site by          
      clicking on the button marked "Public Aviation Sites."  Others           
      can be accessed via published web addresses or by using the              
      search function of the web browser.  Conducting a search on the          
      word "aviation" gives the aviation instructor access to literally        
      thousands of related web sites.                                          
                                                                               
      Keep in mind that most sites on the Internet are updated                 
      periodically.  In addition, new sites are added and old sites are        
      discontinued on a regular basis.  The aviation instructor can            
      become more adept at obtaining information by entering and               
      navigating around the Internet to become informed about the              
      contents and how to best locate desired information.  The more           
      familiar aviation instructors become with the Internet, the              
      better they will be able to adapt to any changes that may occur.         
                                                                               
      Professional aviation instructors must continue to expand their          
      knowledge and skills in order to be competent instructors.  The          
      field of aviation is advancing, and the instructor also must             
      advance.  Instructors can best do this by taking advantage of the        
      wide variety of materials available from the FAA, other                  
      governmental agencies, commercial publishers and vendors, and            
      from industry trade groups.  These materials are available at            
      training sessions and seminars, from printed books, papers,              
      magazines, and from the Internet and other electronic sources.           
      Instructors who commit to continuing education will be able to           
      provide the highest quality instruction to their students.               
                                                                               
                                                                               
                       APPENDIX A - SAMPLE TEST ITEMS                          
                                                                               
      There are four types of test items in common use today.  They are        
      multiple-choice, matching, true-false, and supply-type.  The most        
      used type is the multiple-choice test item in one of several             
      forms.  Listed below are examples of some of the more widely used        
      forms.                                                                   
                                                                               
      MULTIPLE-CHOICE TEST ITEMS                                               
                                                                               
      Multiple-choice test items consist of a stem or question and             
      three or more alternative answers with the correct answer                
      sometimes called the keyed response and the incorrect answers            
      called distractors.  Detailed information on the writing of stems        
      and alternatives can be found in Chapter 6.                              
                                                                               
      Stem Presented as a Question.  This form is generally better than        
      the incomplete stem because it is simpler and more natural.              
                                                                               
      Who is primarily responsible for maintaining an aircraft in an           
      airworthy condition?                                                     
                                                                               
           A.   Pilot in command or operator.                                  
           B.   Owner or operator of the aircraft.                             
           C.   The lead mechanic responsible for that aircraft.               
                                                                               
      Stem as an Incomplete Statement.  When using this form, care must        
      be exercised to avoid ambiguity, giving clues, and using                 
      unnecessarily complex or unrelated alternatives.                         
                                                                               
      VFR cruising altitudes are required to be maintained when flying         
                                                                               
           A.   at 3,000 feet or more AGL, based on true course.               
           B.   more than 3,000 feet AGL, based on magnetic course.            
           C.   at 3,000 feet or more above MSL, based on magnetic             
                heading.                                                       
                                                                               
      Stem Supplemented by an Illustration.  This form is useful for           
      measuring the ability to read instruments, or identify objects.          
                                                                               
      (Refer to figure 1.)  The acute angle A is the angle of                  
                                                                               
           A.   attack.                                                        
           B.   dihedral.                                                      
           C.   incidence.                                                     
                                                                               
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                          Figure 1. - LIFT VECTOR.                             
                            FIGURE NOT INCLUDEDa                              
       ---------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                               
      Multiple Response is Required.  This form is a variation of the          
      previous forms in that it contains more than one correct answer,         
      and students are instructed to select all correct answers.               
                                                                               
      Which of the following statements is/are generally true regarding        
      the charging of several aircraft batteries together?                     
                                                                               
           1.   Batteries of different voltage (but similar capacities)        
                can be connected in series with each other across the          
                charger, and charged using the constant current method.        
           2.   Batteries of different ampere-hour capacity and same           
                voltage can be connected in parallel with each other           
                across the charger, and charged using the constant             
                voltage method.                                                
           3.   Batteries of the same voltage and same ampere-hour             
                capacity must be connected in series with each other           
                across the charger, and charged using the constant             
                current method.                                                
                                                                               
           A.   3.                                                             
           B.   1 and 2.                                                       
           C.   2 and 3.                                                       
                                                                               
      Negative Variety Type.  This form is not suggested but, if used,         
      always emphasize the negative word.                                      
                                                                               
      Which of the following is NOT considered a method of heat                
      transfer?                                                                
                                                                               
           A.   Diffusion.                                                     
           B.   Conduction.                                                    
           C.   Convection.                                                    
                                                                               
      Association Type.  This form is useful if a limited number of            
      associations are to be made.                                             
                                                                               
      Which aircraft has the right-of-way over the other aircraft              
      listed?                                                                  
                                                                               
           A.   Airship.                                                       
           B.   Gyroplane.                                                     
           C.   Aircraft towing other aircraft.                                
                                                                               
      Definition Type.  This form is used to determine knowledge of a          
      specific definition.                                                     
                                                                               
      Aspect ratio of a wing is defined as the ratio of the                    
                                                                               
           A.   wingspan to the wing root.                                     
           B.   wingspan to the mean chord.                                    
           C.   square of the chord to the wingspan.                           
                                                                               
      MATCHING TEST ITEMS                                                      
                                                                               
      Matching test items are used to test a student's ability to              
      recognize relationships and to make associations between terms,          
      parts, words, phrases, clauses, or symbols in one column with            
      related alternatives in another column.  When using this form of         
      test item, it is a good practice to provide alternatives in the          
      response column that are used more than once, or not at all, to          
      preclude guessing by elimination.  Matching test items may have          
      either an equal or unequal number of selections in each column.          
                                                                               
      Matching-Equal Columns.  When using this form, providing for some        
      items in the response column to be used more than once, or not at        
      all, can preclude guessing by elimination.                               
                                                                               
      Directions:  In the blank before each electrical term in the             
      left-hand column, write the letter corresponding to the unit of          
      measurement which is most closely associated with that term.             
      Each unit of measurement may be used more than once and some             
      units may not be used at all.                                            
           1.  _____  Electromotive force             a.  Watt                 
           2.  _____  Electrical power, apparent      b.  Volt                 
           3.  _____  Electrical power, true          c.  Ampere               
           4.  _____  Resistance                      d.  Coulomb              
           5.  _____  Capacitance                     e.  Ohm                  
           6.  _____  Inductance                      f.  VAR                  
           7.  _____  Current                         g.  Farad                
           8.  _____  Impedance                       h.  Henry                
                                                                               
      Matching-Unequal Columns.  Generally preferable to equal columns.        
                                                                               
      Directions:  In the blank before each phrase in the left-hand            
      column, write the letter(s) corresponding to the type(s) of drag         
      which is/are most closely associated with that phrase.  Each type        
      of drag may be used more than once, and some types may not be            
      used at all.                                                             
                                                                               
           1.  _____  Occurs when varied currents     a.  Form drag            
                      over an airplane meet and       b.  Induced drag         
                      interact.                       c.  Skin friction        
           2.  _____  Results from the turbulent          drag                 
                      wake caused by the separation   d.  Static drag          
                      of airflow from the surface     e.  Interference         
                      of a structure.                     drag                 
           3.  _____  Caused by the roughness of      f.  Rolling drag         
                      the airplane's surfaces.        g.  Sliding drag         
           4.  _____  Generated by the airflow                                 
                      circulation around the                                   
                      airfoil as it creates lift.                              
                                                                               
      TRUE-FALSE TEST ITEMS                                                    
      A True-False test item requires the student to determine whether         
      a statement is true or false.  The chief disadvantage of this            
      type is the opportunity for successful guessing.                         
                                                                               
      Directions:  Circle the correct response to the following                
      statements.                                                              
                                                                               
           1.   True or False.  To operate within Class B airspace, the        
                aircraft must have two-way radio communication                 
                capability and a Mode C transponder.                           
                                                                               
           2.   True or False.  An aviation maintenance technician must        
                hold an Inspection Authorization to legally conduct            
                annual inspections on small aircraft.                          
                                                                               
      SUPPLY-TYPE TEST ITEMS                                                   
                                                                               
      The aviation instructor is able to determine the students' level         
      of generalized knowledge of a subject through the use of                 
      supply-type questions.  Short-answer essay test items are the            
      most common.                                                             
                                                                               
           1.   Describe the position of the elevator and ailerons when        
                taxiing a tricycle-gear airplane into a right                  
                quartering headwind. _________________________________         
                ______________________________________________________         
                ______________________________________________________         
                                                                               
           2.   What conditions are used in determining the published          
                value of V sub MC? ___________________________________         
                ______________________________________________________         
                ______________________________________________________         
                                                                               
                                                                               
                    APPENDIX B - INSTRUCTOR ENDORSEMENTS                       
                                                                               
      14 CFR section 61.189 requires that instructors sign the logbook         
      of each person they have given ground or flight training.                
      AC 61-65 contains suggested endorsements, and this appendix              
      reprints several of the more commonly used endorsements.  All of         
      these examples contain the essential elements, but it is not             
      necessary for endorsements to be worded exactly as those in the          
      AC.  For example, changes to regulatory requirements may affect          
      the wording or the instructor may customize the endorsement for          
      any special circumstances of the student.                                
                                                                               
      STUDENT PILOT ENDORSEMENTS                                               
      Pre-solo aeronautical knowledge:  Section 61.87(b)                       
                                                                               
      I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has satisfactorily            
      completed the pre-solo knowledge exam of Section 61.87(b) for the        
      (make and model aircraft).  S/S datea J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI          
      Exp. 12-31-00                                                            
                                                                               
      Pre-solo flight training at night:  Section 61.87(c) and (m)             
                                                                               
      I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the              
      required pre-solo training in a (make and model aircraft).  I            
      have determined that he/she has demonstrated the proficiency of          
      Section 61.87(m), and is proficient to make solo flights at night        
      in a (make and model aircraft).  S/S datea J.J. Jones 987654321         
      CFI Exp. 12-31-00                                                        
                                                                               
      Solo flight (each additional 90-day period):  Section 61.87(n)           
                                                                               
      I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the              
      required training to qualify for solo flying.  I have determined         
      he/she meets the applicable requirements of Section 61.87(n), and        
      is proficient to make solo flights in a (make and model                  
      aircraft).  S/S datea J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00            
                                                                               
      Initial solo cross-country flight:  Section 61.93(c)(1)                  
                                                                               
      I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the              
      required solo cross-country training.  I find he/she has met the         
      applicable requirements of Section 61.93, and is proficient to           
      make solo cross-country flights in a (make and model aircraft).          
      S/S datea J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00                        
                                                                               
      Solo cross-country flight:  Section 61.93(c)(2)                          
                                                                               
      I have reviewed the cross-country planning of (First name, MI,           
      Last name), I find the planning and preparation to be correct to         
      make the solo flight from (location) to (destination) via (route         
      of flight) with landings at (name the airports) in a (make and           
      model aircraft) on (date).  May list any appropriate conditions          
      or limitations.  S/S datea J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp.                
      12-31-00                                                                 
                                                                               
      Solo flight in Class B airspace:  Section 61.95(a)                       
                                                                               
      I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the              
      required training of Section 61.95(a).  I have determined he/she         
      is proficient to conduct solo flights in (name of Class B)               
      airspace.  May list any applicable conditions or limitations.            
      S/S datea J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00                        
                                                                               
      Solo flight to, from, or at an airport located in Class B                
      airspace:  Sections 61.95(b) and 91.131(b)(1)                            
                                                                               
      I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the              
      required training of Section 61.95(b)(1).  I have determined that        
      he/she is proficient to conduct solo flight operations at (name          
      of airport).  May list any applicable conditions or limitations.         
      S/S datea J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00                        
                                                                               
      PRIVATE PILOT ENDORSEMENTS                                               
                                                                               
      Aeronautical knowledge test:  Sections 61.35(a)(1), 61.103(d),           
      and 61.105                                                               
                                                                               
      I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the              
      required training of Section 61.105.  I have determined he/she is        
      prepared for the (name the knowledge test).  S/S datea JJ Jones         
      987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00                                              
                                                                               
      Flight proficiency/practical test:  Sections 61.103(f),                  
      61.107(b), and 61.109                                                    
                                                                               
      I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the              
      required training of Sections 61.107 and 61.109.  I determined           
      he/she is prepared for the (name the practical test).  S/S datea        
      J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00                                   
                                                                               
      FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR ENDORSEMENTS                                           
                                                                               
      Spin training:  Section 61.183(i)(1)                                     
      I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the              
      required training of Section 61.183(i).  I have determined that          
      he/she is competent and proficient on instructional skills for           
      training stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin recovery           
      procedures.  S/S datea J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp. 12-31-00           
                                                                               
      ADDITIONAL ENDORSEMENTS                                                  
                                                                               
      Completion of a flight review:  Section 61.56(a) and (c)                 
                                                                               
      I certify that (First name, MI, Last name), (pilot certificate)          
      (certificate number) has satisfactorily completed a flight review        
      of Section 61.56(a) on (date).  S/S datea J.J. Jones 987654321          
      CFI Exp. 12-31-00                                                        
                                                                               
      Completion of an instrument proficiency check:  Section 61.57(d)         
                                                                               
      I certify that (First name, MI, Last name), (pilot certificate)          
      (certificate number) has satisfactorily completed the instrument         
      proficiency check of Section 61.57(d) in a (list make and model          
      of aircraft) on (date).  S/S datea J.J. Jones 987654321 CFI Exp.        
      12-31-00                                                                 
                                                                               
      Re-testing after failure of a knowledge or practical test                
      (pilot):  Section 61.49                                                  
                                                                               
      I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the              
      additional (flight and/or ground) training as required by Section        
      61.49.  I have determined that he/she is prepared for the (name          
      the knowledge/practical test).  S/S datea J.J. Jones 987654321          
      CFI Exp. 12-31-00                                                        
      Re-testing after failure of a knowledge or oral and practical            
      test (mechanic):  Section 65.19                                          
                                                                               
      I have given Mr./Ms. (First name, MI, Last name) additional              
      instruction in each subject area shown to be deficient and               
      consider the applicant competent to pass the test.                       
                                                                               
      Last name ____________________     First name __________________         
      Cert. No. ____________________     Type/Rating(s) ______________         
      Signature ____________________     Date ________________________         
                                                                               
      Completion of a phase of an FAA-sponsored pilot proficiency award        
      program (WINGS):  Section 61.56(e)                                       
                                                                               
      I certify that (First name, MI, Last name), (pilot certificate)          
      (certificate number) has satisfactory completed Phase No. _____          
      of a WINGS program on (date).  S/S datea J.J. Jones 987654321           
      CFI Exp. 12-31-00                                                        
                                                                               
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      Davis, J.R., 1993:  Better Teaching, More Learning:  Strategies          
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      Boston, MA.  Allyn & Bacon.                                              
                                                                               
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      Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration,           
      Washington, DC.                                                          
                                                                               
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      Administration, Washington, DC.                                          
                                                                               
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      Washington, DC.                                                          
                                                                               
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      Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration,           
      Washington, DC.                                                          
                                                                               
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      Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC.         
                                                                               
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      Transition Training Guidelines for High Performance Aircraft,            
      AC 61-103.  U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation          
      Administration, Washington, DC.                                          
                                                                               
      FAA, 1991:  Operations of Aircraft at Altitudes Above 25,000 Feet        
      MSL and/or MACH Numbers (Mmo) Greater than .75, AC 61-107.  U.S.         
      Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration,           
      Washington, DC.                                                          
                                                                               
      FAA, 1993:  Aviation Maintenance Technician Awards Program,              
      AC 65-25.  U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation           
      Administration, Washington, DC.                                          
                                                                               
      FAA, 1995:  Crew Resource Management Training, AC 120-51.  U.S.          
      Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration,           
      Washington, DC.                                                          
                                                                               
      FAA, 1987:  Aeronautical Decision Making for Students and Private        
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      Service, Springfield, VA.                                                
                                                                               
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      Springfield, VA.                                                         
                                                                               
      FAA, 1987:  Aeronautical Decision Making for Instrument Pilots.          
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      Springfield, VA.                                                         
                                                                               
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      Springfield, VA.                                                         
                                                                               
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      Springfield, VA.                                                         
      FAA, 1989:  Aeronautical Decision Making/Cockpit Resource                
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      FAA, 1995:  Private Pilot Practical Test Standards.                      
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      Aviation Administration, Washington, DC.                                 
                                                                               
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      Aviation Administration, Washington, DC.                                 
                                                                               
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      U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation                      
      Administration, Washington, DC.                                          
                                                                               
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      Design.  New York, NY.  Holt, Reinhart and Winston.                      
                                                                               
      Garland, Daniel J., Will, John A., & Hopkins, V. David, 1999:            
      Handbook of Aviation Human Factors.  Mahwak, NJ.  Lawrence               
      Erlbaum Associates.                                                      
                                                                               
      Gredler, M.E., 1997:  Learning and Instruction:  Theory into             
      Practice.  Upper Saddle River, NJ.  Prentice-Hall.                       
                                                                               
      Hawkins, F.H., 1987:  Human Factors in Flight.  Brookfield, VT.          
      Ashgate.                                                                 
                                                                               
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      Factors Training.  Brookfield, VT.  Ashgate.                             
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      Effectively.  San Francisco, CA.  Jossey-Bass.                           
                                                                               
      Jeppesen Sanderson, 1990 - 1999:  CFI Renewal Program, Volumes 1         
      through 6.  Englewood, CO.  Jeppesen Sanderson.                          
                                                                               
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      NY.  Harper & Row.                                                       
                                                                               
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      S. Lake Publishers                                                       
                                                                               
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      Saddle River, NJ.  Prentice-Hall.                                        
                                                                               
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                                  GLOSSARY                                     
                                                                               
      ABSTRACTIONS - Words that are general rather than specific.              
      Aircraft is an abstraction; airplane is less abstract; jet is            
      more specific; and jet airliner is still more specific.                  
                                                                               
      AERONAUTICAL DECISION MAKING (ADM) - A systematic approach to the        
      mental process used by aircraft pilots to consistently determine         
      the best course of action in response to a given set of                  
      circumstances.                                                           
                                                                               
      AFFECTIVE DOMAIN - A grouping of levels of learning associated           
      with a person's attitudes, personal beliefs, and values which            
      range from receiving through responding, valuing, and                    
      organization to characterization.                                        
                                                                               
      AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC) - A service provided by the FAA to             
      promote the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic.          
                                                                               
      AIRCRAFT CHECKOUTS - An instructional program designed to                
      familiarize and qualify a pilot to act as pilot in command of a          
      particular aircraft type.                                                
                                                                               
      ANXIETY - Mental discomfort that arises from the fear of                 
      anything, real or imagined.  May have a potent effect on actions         
      and the ability to learn from perceptions.                               
                                                                               
      APPLICATION - A basic level of learning where the student puts           
      something to use that has been learned and understood.                   
                                                                               
      APPLICATION STEP - The third step of the teaching process, where         
      the student performs the procedure or demonstrates the knowledge         
      required in the lesson.  In the telling-and-doing technique of           
      flight instruction, this step consists of the student doing the          
      procedure while explaining it.                                           
                                                                               
      AREAS OF OPERATION - Phases of the practical test arranged in a          
      logical sequence within the PTS.                                         
                                                                               
      ATTITUDE - A personal motivational predisposition to respond to          
      persons, situations, or events in a given manner that can,               
      nevertheless, be changed or modified through training as a sort          
      of mental shortcut to decision making.                                   
                                                                               
      ATTITUDE MANAGEMENT - The ability to recognize ones own hazardous        
      attitudes in oneself and the willingness to modify them as               
      necessary through the application of an appropriate antidote             
      thought.                                                                 
                                                                               
      AVIATION SAFETY COUNSELORS - Volunteers within the aviation              
      community who share their technical expertise and professional           
      knowledge as a part of the FAA Aviation Safety Program.                  
                                                                               
      BASIC NEED - A perception factor that describes a person's               
      ability to maintain and enhance the organized self.                      
                                                                               
      BEHAVIORISM - Theory of learning that stresses the importance of         
      having a particular form of behavior reinforced by someone, other        
      than the student, to shape or control what is learned.                   
                                                                               
      BOOKMARK - A means of saving addresses on the World Wide Web             
      (WWW) for easy future access.  Usually done by selecting a button        
      on the web browser screen, it saves the current web address so it        
      does not have to be input again in a lengthy series of                   
      characters.                                                              
                                                                               
      BRANCHING - A programming technique which allows users of                
      interactive video, multimedia courseware, or online training to          
      choose from several courses of action in moving from one sequence        
      to another.                                                              
                                                                               
      BRIEFING - An oral presentation where the speaker presents a             
      concise array of facts without inclusion of extensive supporting         
      material.                                                                
                                                                               
      BUILDING BLOCK CONCEPT - Concept of learning that new knowledge          
      and skills are best based on a solid foundation of previous              
      experience and/or old learning.  As knowledge and skills                 
      increase, the base expands supporting further learning.                  
                                                                               
      COGNITIVE DOMAIN - A grouping of levels of learning associated           
      with mental activity which range from knowledge through                  
      comprehension, application, analysis, and synthesis to                   
      evaluation.                                                              
                                                                               
      COMPACT DISK (CD) - A small plastic optical disk which contains          
      recorded music or computer data.  Also, a popular format for             
      storing information digitally.  The major advantage of a CD is           
      its capability to store enormous amounts of information.                 
                                                                               
      COMPREHENSIVENESS - Is the degree to which a test measures the           
      overall objective.                                                       
                                                                               
      COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION - Synonymous with computer-based           
      training or instruction emphasizing the point that the instructor        
      is responsible for the class and uses the computer to assist in          
      the instruction.                                                         
                                                                               
      COMPUTER-BASED TRAINING (CBT) - The use of the computer as a             
      training device.  CBT is sometimes called computer-based                 
      instruction (CBI); the terms and acronyms are synonymous and may         
      be used interchangeably.                                                 
                                                                               
      CONDITIONS - The second part of a performance-based objective            
      which describes the framework under which the skill or behavior          
      will be demonstrated.                                                    
                                                                               
      CONFUSION BETWEEN THE SYMBOL AND THE SYMBOLIZED OBJECT - Results         
      when a word is confused with what it is meant to represent.              
      Words and symbols create confusion when they mean different              
      things to different people.                                              
                                                                               
      COOPERATIVE OR GROUP LEARNING - An instructional strategy which          
      organizes students into small groups so that they can work               
      together to maximize their own and each other's learning.                
                                                                               
      CORRELATION - A basic level of learning where the student can            
      associate what has been learned, understood, and applied with            
      previous or subsequent learning.                                         
                                                                               
      COURSE OF TRAINING - A complete series of studies leading to             
      attainment of a specific goal, such as a certificate of                  
      completion, graduation, or an academic degree.                           
                                                                               
      CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (CRM) - The application of team                 
      management concepts in the flight deck environment.  It was              
      initially known as cockpit resource management, but as CRM               
      programs evolved to include cabin crews, maintenance personnel           
      and others, the phrase crew resource management has been adopted.        
      This includes single pilots, as in most general aviation                 
      aircraft.  Pilots of small aircraft, as well as crews of larger          
      aircraft, must make effective use of all available resources;            
      human resources, hardware, and information.  A current definition        
      includes all groups routinely working with the cockpit crew who          
      are involved in decisions required to operate a flight safely.           
      These groups include, but are not limited to:  pilots,                   
      dispatchers, cabin crewmembers, maintenance personnel, and air           
      traffic controllers.  CRM is one way of addressing the challenge         
      of optimizing the human/machine interface and accompanying               
      interpersonal activities.                                                
                                                                               
      CRITERIA - The third part of a performance-based objective which         
      describes the standards which will be used to measure the                
      accomplishment of the objective.                                         
                                                                               
      CRITERION-REFERENCED TESTING - System of testing where students          
      are graded against a carefully written, measurable standard or           
      criterion rather than against each other.                                
                                                                               
      CURRICULUM - May be defined as a set of courses in an area of            
      specialization offered by an educational institution.  A                 
      curriculum for a pilot school usually includes courses for the           
      various pilot certificates and ratings.                                  
                                                                               
      CUT-AWAY - Model of an object that is built in sections so it can        
      be taken apart to reveal the inner structure.                            
                                                                               
      DEFENSE MECHANISMS - Subconscious ego-protecting reactions to            
      unpleasant situations.                                                   
                                                                               
      DEMONSTRATION-PERFORMANCE METHOD - An educational presentation           
      where an instructor first shows the student the correct way to           
      perform an activity and then has the student attempt the same            
      activity.                                                                
                                                                               
      DESCRIPTION OF THE SKILL OR BEHAVIOR - The first part of a               
      performance-based objective which explains the desired outcome of        
      instruction in concrete terms that can be measured.                      
                                                                               
      DETERMINERS - In test items, words which give a clue to the              
      answer.  Words such as "always" and "never" are determiners in           
      true-false questions.  Since absolutes are rare, such words              
      usually make the statement false.                                        
                                                                               
      DIRECT QUESTION - A question used for follow-up purposes, but            
      directed at a specific individual.                                       
                                                                               
      DISCRIMINATION - Is the degree to which a test distinguishes the         
      differences between students.                                            
                                                                               
      DISTRACTORS - Incorrect responses to a multiple-choice test item.        
                                                                               
      DISUSE - A theory of forgetting that suggests a person forgets           
      those things which are not used.                                         
                                                                               
      EFFECT - A principle of learning that learning is strengthened           
      when accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling, and that           
      learning is weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling.         
                                                                               
      ELEMENT OF THREAT - A perception factor that describes how a             
      person is unlikely to easily comprehend an event if that person          
      is feeling threatened since most of a person's effort is focused         
      on whatever is threatening them.                                         
                                                                               
      EXERCISE - A principle of learning that those things most often          
      repeated are best remembered.                                            
                                                                               
      FLIGHT REVIEW - An industry-managed, FAA monitored currency              
      program designed to assess and update a pilot's knowledge and            
      skills.                                                                  
                                                                               
      FLIGHT TRAINING DEVICES (FTD) - A full-size replica of the               
      instruments, equipment, panels, and controls of an aircraft, or          
      set of aircraft, in an open flight deck area or in an enclosed           
      cockpit.  A force (motion) cueing system or visual system is not         
      required.                                                                
                                                                               
      FOLLOW-UP QUESTION - In the guided discussion method, a question         
      used by an instructor to get the discussion back on track or to          
      get the students to explain something more thoroughly.                   
                                                                               
      FORMAL LECTURE - An oral presentation where the purpose is to            
      inform, persuade, or entertain with little or no verbal                  
      participation by the listeners.                                          
                                                                               
      GOALS AND VALUES - A perception factor that describes how a              
      person's perception of an event depends on beliefs.  Motivation          
      toward learning is affected by how much value a person puts on           
      education.  Instructors who have some idea of the goals and              
      values of their students will be more successful in teaching             
      them.                                                                    
                                                                               
      GUIDED DISCUSSION METHOD - An educational presentation typically         
      used in the classroom where the topic to be covered by a group is        
      introduced and the instructor participates only as necessary to          
      keep the group focused on the subject.                                   
                                                                               
      HEADWORK - Is required to accomplish a conscious, rational               
      thought process when making decisions.  Good decision making             
      involves risk identification and assessment, information                 
      processing, and problem solving.                                         
                                                                               
      HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS - A listing by Abraham Maslow of needs          
      from the most basic to the most fulfilling.  These range from            
      physical through safety, social, and ego to self-fulfillment.            
                                                                               
      HUMAN FACTORS - A multidisciplinary field devoted to optimizing          
      human performance and reducing human error.  It incorporates the         
      methods and principles of the behavioral and social sciences,            
      engineering, and physiology.  It may be described as the applied         
      science which studies people working together in concert with            
      machines.  Human factors involve variables that influence                
      individual performance, as well as team or crew performance.             
                                                                               
      ILLUSTRATED TALK - An oral presentation where the speaker relies         
      heavily on visual aids to convey ideas to the listeners.                 
                                                                               
      INSIGHT - The grouping of perceptions into meaningful wholes.            
      Creating insight is one of the instructor's major                        
      responsibilities.                                                        
                                                                               
      INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS - Devices that assist an instructor in the            
      teaching-learning process.  They are supplementary training              
      devices and are not self-supporting.                                     
      INSTRUMENT PROFICIENCY CHECK - An evaluation ride based on the           
      instrument rating practical test standard which is required to           
      regain instrument flying privileges when the privileges have             
      expired due to lack of currency.                                         
                                                                               
      INTEGRATED FLIGHT INSTRUCTION - A technique of flight instruction        
      where students are taught to perform flight maneuvers by                 
      reference to both the flight instruments and to outside visual           
      references from the time the maneuver is first introduced.               
      Handling of the controls is the same regardless of whether flight        
      instruments or outside references are being used.                        
                                                                               
      INTENSITY - A principle of learning where a dramatic or exciting         
      learning experience is likely to be remembered longer than a             
      boring experience.  Students experiencing the real thing will            
      learn more than when they are merely told about the real thing.          
                                                                               
      INTERACTIVE VIDEO - Software that responds quickly to certain            
      choices and commands by the user.  A typical system consists of a        
      compact disk, computer, and video technology.                            
                                                                               
      INTERFERENCE - (1) A theory of forgetting where a person forgets         
      something because a certain experience overshadows it, or the            
      learning of similar things has intervened.  (2) Barriers to              
      effective communication that are caused by physiological,                
      environmental, and psychological factors outside the direct              
      control of the instructor.  The instructor must take these               
      factors into account in order to communicate effectively.                
                                                                               
      INTERNET - An electronic network which connects computers around         
      the world.                                                               
      JUDGMENT - The mental process of recognizing and analyzing all           
      pertinent information in a particular situation, a rational              
      evaluation of alternative actions in response to it, and a timely        
      decision on which action to take.                                        
                                                                               
      LACK OF COMMON EXPERIENCE - In communication, a difficulty which         
      arises because words have different meanings for the source and          
      the receiver of information due to their differing backgrounds.          
                                                                               
      LEAD-OFF QUESTION - In the guided discussion method, a question          
      used by an instructor to open up an area for discussion and get          
      the discussion started.                                                  
                                                                               
      LEARNING - A change in behavior as a result of experience.               
                                                                               
      LEARNING PLATEAU - A learning phenomenon where progress appears          
      to cease or slow down for a significant period of time before            
      once again increasing.                                                   
                                                                               
      LEARNING STYLE - The concept that how a person learns is                 
      dependent on that person's background and personality, as well as        
      the instructional methods used.                                          
                                                                               
      LECTURE METHOD - An educational presentation usually delivered by        
      an instructor to a group of students with the use of                     
      instructional aids and training devices.  Lectures are useful for        
      the presentation of new material, summarizing ideas, and showing         
      relationships between theory and practice.                               
                                                                               
      LESSON PLAN - An organized outline for a single instructional            
      period.  It is a necessary guide for the instructor in that it           
      tells what to do, in what order to do it, and what procedure to          
      use in teaching the material of a lesson.                                
                                                                               
      LINK - On the Internet, a particular site may have additional            
      locations which can be accessed by merely clicking on words              
      identifying the new site.  They are usually identified by a              
      different color type, underlining, or a button (picture or icon)         
      indicating access to a new site.                                         
                                                                               
      LONG-TERM MEMORY - The portion of the brain that stores                  
      information which has been determined to be of sufficient value          
      to be retained.  In order for it to be retained in long-term             
      memory, it must have been processed or coded in the working              
      memory.                                                                  
                                                                               
      MATCHING - A test item consisting of two lists where the student         
      is asked to match alternatives on one list to related                    
      alternatives on the second list.  The lists may include a                
      combination of words, terms, illustrations, phrases, or                  
      sentences.                                                               
                                                                               
      MOCK-UP - Three-dimensional working model used where the actual          
      object is either unavailable or too expensive to use.  Mock-ups          
      may emphasize some elements while eliminating nonessential               
      elements.                                                                
                                                                               
      MODEL - A copy of a real object which can be life-size, smaller,         
      or larger than the original.                                             
                                                                               
      MOTIVATION - A need or desire that causes a person to act.               
      Motivation can be positive or negative, tangible or intangible,          
      subtle or obvious.                                                       
      MULTIMEDIA - A combination of more than one instructional medium.        
      This format can include audio, text, graphics, animations, and           
      video.  Recently, multimedia implies a computer-based                    
      presentation.                                                            
                                                                               
      MULTIPLE-CHOICE - A test item consisting of a question or                
      statement followed by a list of alternative answers or responses.        
                                                                               
      NAVIGATE - With respect to the Internet, to move between sites on        
      the Internet.  Navigation is often accomplished by means of links        
      or connections between sites.                                            
                                                                               
      NORM-REFERENCED TESTING - System of testing where students are           
      ranked against the performance of other students.                        
                                                                               
      OBJECTIVITY - Describes singleness of scoring of a test; it does         
      not reflect the biases of the person grading the test.                   
                                                                               
      OVERHEAD QUESTION - In the guided discussion method, a question          
      directed to the entire group in order to stimulate thought and           
      discussion from the entire group.  An overhead question may be           
      used by an instructor as the lead-off question.                          
                                                                               
      PERCEPTIONS - The basis of all learning.  Perceptions result when        
      a person gives meaning to external stimuli or sensations.                
      Meanings which are derived from perceptions are influenced by an         
      individual's experience and many other factors.                          
                                                                               
      PERFORMANCE-BASED OBJECTIVES - A statement of purpose for a              
      lesson or instructional period that includes three elements:  a          
      description of the skill or behavior desired of the student, a           
      set of conditions under which the measurement will be taken, and         
      a set of criteria describing the standard used to measure                
      accomplishment of the objective.                                         
                                                                               
      PERSONAL COMPUTER-BASED AVIATION TRAINING DEVICES (PCATD) - A            
      device which uses software which can be displayed on a personal          
      computer to replicate the instrument panel of an airplane.  A            
      PCATD must replicate a type of airplane or family of airplanes           
      and meet the virtual control requirements specified in                   
      AC 61-126.                                                               
                                                                               
      PERSONALITY - The embodiment of personal traits and                      
      characteristics of an individual that are set at a very early age        
      and are extremely resistant to change.                                   
                                                                               
      PHYSICAL ORGANISM - A perception factor that describes a person's        
      ability to sense the world around them.                                  
                                                                               
      PILOT ERROR - Means that an action or decision made by the pilot         
      was the cause of, or contributing factor which led to an accident        
      or incident.  This definition also includes failure of the pilot         
      to make a decision or take action.                                       
                                                                               
      POOR JUDGMENT CHAIN - A series of mistakes that may lead to an           
      accident or incident.  Two basic principles generally associated         
      with the creation of a poor judgement chain are:  (1) one bad            
      decision often leads to another; and (2) as a string of bad              
      decisions grows, it reduces the number of subsequent alternatives        
      for continued safe flight.  Aeronautical decision making is              
      intended to break the poor judgement chain before it can cause an        
      accident or incident.                                                    
                                                                               
      PRACTICAL TEST STANDARDS (PTS) - An FAA published list of                
      standards which must be met for the issuance of a particular             
      pilot certificate or rating.  FAA inspectors and designated pilot        
      examiners use these standards when conducting pilot practical            
      tests and flight instructors should use the PTS while preparing          
      applicants for practical tests.                                          
                                                                               
      PREPARATION - The first step of the teaching process, which              
      consists of determining the scope of the lesson, the objectives,         
      and the goals to be attained.  This portion also includes making         
      certain all necessary supplies are on hand.  When using the              
      telling-and-doing technique of flight instruction, this step is          
      accomplished prior to the flight lesson.                                 
                                                                               
      PRESENTATION - The second step of the teaching process, which            
      consists of delivering information or demonstrating the skills           
      which make up the lesson.  The delivery could be by either the           
      lecture method or demonstration-performance method.  In the              
      telling-and-doing technique of flight instruction, this is where         
      the instructor both talks about and performs the procedure.              
                                                                               
      PRETEST - A test used to determine whether a student has the             
      necessary qualifications to begin a course of study.  Also used          
      to determine the level of knowledge a student has in relation to         
      the material that will be presented in the course.                       
                                                                               
      PRIMACY - A principle of learning where the first experience of          
      something often creates a strong, almost unshakable impression.          
      The importance to an instructor is that the first time something         
      is demonstrated, it must be shown correctly since that experience        
      is the one most likely to be remembered by the student.                  
                                                                               
      PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN - A grouping of levels of learning associated         
      with physical skill levels which range from perception through           
      set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response, and             
      adaptation to origination.                                               
                                                                               
      READINESS - A principle of learning where the eagerness and              
      single-mindedness of a person toward learning affect the outcome         
      of the learning experience.                                              
                                                                               
      RECEIVER - In communication, the listener, reader, or student who        
      takes in a message containing information from a source,                 
      processes it, reacts with understanding, and changes behavior in         
      accordance with the message.                                             
                                                                               
      RECENCY - A principle of learning that things learned today are          
      remembered better than things that were learned some time ago.           
      The longer time passes, the less will be remembered.  Instructors        
      use this principle when summarizing the important points at the          
      end of a lecture in order for students to better remember them.          
                                                                               
      RELAY QUESTION - Used in response to a student's question, the           
      question is redirected to the group in order to stimulate                
      discussion.                                                              
                                                                               
      RELIABILITY - Is the degree to which test results are consistent         
      with repeated measurements.                                              
                                                                               
      REPRESSION - Theory of forgetting where a person is more likely          
      to forget information which is unpleasant or produces anxiety.           
                                                                               
      RESPONSES - Possible answers to a multiple-choice test item.  The        
      correct response is often called the keyed response, and                 
      incorrect responses are called distractors.                              
                                                                               
      REVERSE QUESTION - Used in response to a student's question.             
      Rather than give a direct answer to the student's query, the             
      instructor can redirect the question to another student to               
      provide the answer.                                                      
                                                                               
      REVIEW AND EVALUATION - The fourth and last step in the teaching         
      process, which consists of a review of all material and an               
      evaluation of the students.  In the telling-and-doing technique          
      of flight instruction, this step consists of the instructor              
      evaluating the student's performance while the student performs          
      the required procedure.                                                  
                                                                               
      RHETORICAL QUESTION - A question asked to stimulate group                
      thought.  Normally answered by the instructor, it is more                
      commonly used in lecturing rather than in guided discussions.            
                                                                               
      RISK ELEMENTS IN ADM - Take into consideration the four                  
      fundamental risk elements:  the pilot, the aircraft, the                 
      environment, and the type of operation that comprise any given           
      aviation situation.                                                      
                                                                               
      RISK MANAGEMENT - The part of the decision making process which          
      relies on situational awareness, problem recognition, and good           
      judgment to reduce risks associated with each flight.                    
                                                                               
      ROTE LEARNING - A basic level of learning where the student has          
      the ability to repeat back something learned, with no                    
      understanding or ability to apply what was learned.                      
                                                                               
      SAFETY PROGRAM MANAGER - Designs, implements, and evaluates the          
      Aviation Safety Program within the FAA Flight Standards District         
      Office (FSDO) area of responsibility.                                    
                                                                               
      SELECTION-TYPE TEST ITEMS - Questions where the student chooses          
      from two or more alternatives provided.  True-false, matching,           
      and multiple-choice type questions are examples of                       
      selection-type test items.                                               
                                                                               
      SELF-CONCEPT - A perception factor that ties together how people         
      feel about themselves with how well they will receive further            
      experiences.                                                             
                                                                               
      SENSORY REGISTER - That portion of the brain which receives input        
      from the five senses.  The individual's preconceived concept of          
      what is important will determine how much priority the register          
      will give in passing the information on to the rest of the brain         
      for action.                                                              
                                                                               
      SELF-CONCEPT - A perception factor that ties together how people         
      feel about themselves with how well they will receive further            
      experiences.                                                             
                                                                               
      SENSORY REGISTER - That portion of the brain which receives input        
      from the five senses.  The individual's preconceived concept of          
      what is important will determine how much priority the register          
      will give in passing the information on to the rest of the brain         
      for action.                                                              
                                                                               
      SITES - Internet addresses which provide information and often           
      are linked to other similar sites.                                       
                                                                               
      SITUATIONAL AWARENESS - The accurate perception and understanding        
      of all the factors and conditions within the four fundamental            
      risk elements that affect safety before, during, and after the           
      flight.                                                                  
                                                                               
      SKILLS AND PROCEDURES - The procedural, psychomotor, and                 
      perceptual skills used to control a specific aircraft or its             
      systems.  They are the stick and rudder or airmanship abilities          
      that are gained through conventional training, are perfected, and        
      become almost automatic through experience.                              
                                                                               
      SOURCE - In communication, the sender, speaker, transmitter, or          
      instructor who composes and transmits a message made up of               
      symbols which are meaningful to listeners and readers.                   
                                                                               
      STEM - The part of a multiple-choice test item consisting of the         
      question, statement, or problem.                                         
                                                                               
      STRESS MANAGEMENT - The personal analysis of the kinds of stress         
      experienced while flying, the application of appropriate stress          
      assessment tools, and other coping mechanisms.                           
                                                                               
      SUPPLY-TYPE TEST ITEMS - Questions where the student supplies            
      answers as opposed to selecting from choices provided.  Essay or         
      fill-in-the-blank type questions are examples of supply-type test        
      items.                                                                   
                                                                               
      SYMBOLS - In communication, simple oral and visual codes such as         
      words, gestures, and facial expressions which are formed into            
      sentences, paragraphs, lectures, or chapters to compose and              
      transmit a message that means something to the receiver of the           
      information.                                                             
                                                                               
      TASKS - Knowledge areas, flight procedures, or maneuvers within          
      an area of operation in a practical test standard.                       
                                                                               
      TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES - A systematic classification         
      scheme for sorting learning outcomes into three broad categories         
      (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor) and ranking the desired          
      outcomes in a developmental hierarchy from least complex to most         
      complex.                                                                 
                                                                               
      TEACHING LECTURE - An oral presentation that is directed toward          
      desired learning outcomes.  Some student participation is                
      allowed.                                                                 
                                                                               
      TELLING-AND-DOING TECHNIQUE - A technique of flight instruction          
      that consists of the instructor first telling the student about a        
      new procedure and then demonstrating it.  This is followed by the        
      student telling and the instructor doing.  Third, the student            
      explains the new procedure while doing it.  Last, the instructor         
      evaluates while the student performs the procedure.                      
                                                                               
      TEST - A set of questions, problems, or exercises for determining        
      whether a person has a particular knowledge or skill.                    
                                                                               
      TEST ITEM - A question, problem, or exercise that measures a             
      single objective and calls for a single response.                        
                                                                               
      TIME AND OPPORTUNITY - A perception factor where learning                
      something is dependent on the student having the time to sense           
      and relate current experience in context with previous events.           
                                                                               
      TRAINING COURSE OUTLINE - Within a curriculum, describes the             
      content of a particular course by statement of objectives,               
      descriptions of teaching aids, definition of evaluation criteria,        
      and indication of desired outcome.                                       
                                                                               
      TRAINING MEDIA - Any physical means that communicates an                 
      instructional message to students.                                       
                                                                               
      TRAINING SYLLABUS - A step-by-step, building block progression of        
      learning with provisions for regular review and evaluations at           
      prescribed stages of learning.  The syllabus defines the unit of         
      training, states by objective what the student is expected to            
      accomplish during the unit of training, shows an organized plan          
      for instruction, and dictates the evaluation process for either          
      the unit or stages of learning.                                          
                                                                               
      TRANSITION TRAINING - An instructional program designed to               
      familiarize and qualify a pilot to fly types of aircraft not             
      previously flown such as tailwheel aircraft, high performance            
      aircraft, and aircraft capable of flying at high altitudes.              
                                                                               
      TRUE-FALSE TEST ITEMS - Consist of a statement followed by an            
      opportunity for the student to determine whether the statement is        
      true or false.                                                           
                                                                               
      UNDERSTANDING - A basic level of learning where a student                
      comprehends or grasps the nature or meaning of something.                
                                                                               
      USABILITY - Refers to the functionality of tests.                        
                                                                               
      VALIDITY - Is the extent to which a test measures what it is             
      supposed to measure.                                                     
                                                                               
      VIRTUAL REALITY (VR) - A form of computer-based technology that          
      creates a sensory experience that allows a participant to believe        
      and barely distinguish a virtual experience from a real one.             
      VR uses graphics with animation systems, sounds, and images to           
      reproduce electronic versions of real life experience.                   
                                                                               
      WEB BROWSER - Any software program that provides access to sites         
      on the World Wide Web (WWW).                                             
                                                                               
      WORKING OR SHORT-TERM MEMORY - The portion of the brain that             
      receives information from the sensory register.  This portion of         
      the brain can store information in memory for only a short period        
      of time.  If the information is determined by an individual to be        
      important enough to remember, it must be coded in some way for           
      transmittal to long-term memory.                                         
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                    INDEX                                      
                                                                               
                                      A                                        
                                                                               
      ACCIDENT PREVENTION, 8-11                                                
      ADVISORY CIRCULAR CHECKLIST (AC 00-2), 11-3                              
      AERONAUTICAL DECISION MAKING (ADM), 8-13, 9-8                            
           ADM definitions, 9-10                                               
           DECIDE Model, 9-11                                                  
           decision-making process, 9-10                                       
           evaluating student decision making, 9-18                            
           factors affecting decision making, 9-13                             
           hazardous attitudes, 9-13                                           
           I'M SAFE Checklist, 9-13                                            
           operational pitfalls, 9-17                                          
           origins of ADM, 9-9                                                 
           risk elements, 9-12                                                 
           stressors, 9-15                                                     
      AIRPLANE CHECKOUTS/TRANSITIONS, 8-9                                      
      ANALYZING THE STUDENT, 8-2                                               
      AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN AWARDS PROGRAM, 11-2                     
      AVIATION SAFETY COUNSELORS, 11-1                                         
      AVIATION SAFETY PROGRAM, 11-1                                            
                                                                               
                                      B                                        
                                                                               
      BLOCKS OF LEARNING, 10-2                                                 
           presolo training, 10-2                                              
      BUILDING BLOCK CONCEPT, 1-16, 10-2                                       
                                                                               
                                      C                                        
                                                                               
      CHALK OR MARKER BOARDS, 7-3                                              
      COMMUNICATION BARRIERS, 3-3                                              
      COMMUNICATION - BASIC ELEMENTS, 3-1                                      
           receiver, 3-2                                                       
           source, 3-1                                                         
           symbols, 3-2                                                        
      COMMUNICATION SKILL DEVELOPMENT, 3-5                                     
           role playing, 3-5                                                   
           instructional communication, 3-5                                    
      COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION, 5-11                                      
      COMPUTER-BASED MULTIMEDIA, 7-7                                           
           advantages, 7-8                                                     
           CD, 7-7                                                             
           disadvantages, 7-8                                                  
           virtual reality, 7-10                                               
      COMPUTER-BASED TRAINING (CBT), 5-10                                      
      CONTINUING EDUCATION, 11-2                                               
      COURSE OF TRAINING, 10-1                                                 
      CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (CRM), 9-9                                      
      CRITERION-REFERENCED TESTING, 6-7                                        
      CRITIQUE, 6-1                                                            
           characteristics, 6-2                                                
           ground rules, 6-4                                                   
           methods, 6-3                                                        
           purpose, 6-1                                                        
      CUT-AWAYS, 7-9                                                           
                                                                               
                                      D                                        
                                                                               
      DEFENSE MECHANISMS, 2-3                                                  
           aggression, 2-4                                                     
           compensation, 2-3                                                   
           denial of reality, 2-3                                              
           flight, 2-3                                                         
           projection, 2-3                                                     
           rationalization, 2-3                                                
           reaction formation, 2-3                                             
           resignation, 2-4                                                    
      DISTRACTIONS, 9-8                                                        
                                                                               
                                      E                                        
                                                                               
      EMPHASIZING THE POSITIVE, 8-3                                            
      ENHANCED TRAINING MATERIALS, 7-5                                         
           computer-based training, 7-5                                        
           maneuvers guides and handbooks, 7-5                                 
           syllabi, 7-5                                                        
      EVALUATION, 6-4, 8-4                                                     
                                      F                                        
                                                                               
      FAA FORM 8710-1, 8-6                                                     
      FACTORS AFFECTING DECISION MAKING, 9-13                                  
           pilot self-assessment, 9-13                                         
           situational awareness, 9-17                                         
           use of resources, 9-15                                              
           workload management, 9-16                                           
      FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR ENDORSEMENTS, 8-6                                      
           sample endorsements, Appendix B, B-1                                
      FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR REFRESHER CLINIC (FIRC), 11-2                          
      FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR RESPONSIBILITIES, 8-4                                  
      FLIGHT REVIEWS, 8-6                                                      
      FLIGHT TRAINING DEVICE (FTD), 5-11                                       
      FORGETTING, 1-15                                                         
                                                                               
                                      G                                        
                                                                               
      GOLD SEAL FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR CERTIFICATE, 11-2                            
      GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE (GPO), 11-3                                   
                                                                               
                                      H                                        
                                                                               
      HABIT FORMATION, 1-16                                                    
      HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS, 2-2                                            
      HUMAN BEHAVIOR, 2-1                                                      
      HUMAN FACTORS, 9-8                                                       
      HUMAN NEEDS, 2-2                                                         
           ego, 2-2                                                            
           physical, 2-2                                                       
           safety, 2-2                                                         
           self-fulfillment, 2-3                                               
           social, 2-2                                                         
                                                                               
                                      I                                        
                                                                               
      INSIGHT, 1-7                                                             
      INSPECTION AUTHORIZATION (IA) SEMINARS, 11-2                             
      INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS, 7-1                                                  
           guidelines for use, 7-2                                             
           reasons to use, 7-2                                                 
           theory, 7-1                                                         
           types, 7-3                                                          
      INSTRUCTIONAL ENHANCEMENT, 3-7                                           
      INSTRUCTOR AS A CRITIC, 6-1                                              
      INSTRUCTOR RESPONSIBILITIES, 8-4                                         
      INSTRUMENT PROFICIENCY CHECKS, 8-9                                       
      INTEGRATED FLIGHT INSTRUCTION, 9-3                                       
           flight instructor qualifications, 9-5                               
           precautions, 9-4                                                    
           procedures, 9-4                                                     
      INTERNET, 11-4                                                           
                                                                               
                                      J                                        
                                                                               
      JUDGMENT, 9-10                                                           
                                                                               
                                      K                                        
                                                                               
      KNOWLEDGE TESTS, 6-13                                                    
                                                                               
                                      L                                        
                                                                               
      LANGUAGE, 8-12                                                           
      LEARNING, 1-1                                                            
           characteristics, 1-2                                                
           definitions, 1-2                                                    
           how people learn, 1-5                                               
           learning styles, 1-3                                                
           physical skills, 1-11                                               
           transfer, 1-16                                                      
      LEARNING DOMAINS, 1-10                                                   
           affective, 1-10                                                     
           cognitive, 1-10                                                     
           psychomotor, 1-10                                                   
      LEARNING LEVELS, 1-9                                                     
           application, 1-9                                                    
           correlation, 1-9                                                    
           rote, 1-9                                                           
           understanding, 1-9                                                  
      LEARNING PLATEAU, 1-12                                                   
      LEARNING PRINCIPLES, 1-5                                                 
           effect, 1-5                                                         
           exercise, 1-5                                                       
           intensity, 1-5                                                      
           primacy, 1-5                                                        
           readiness, 1-5                                                      
           recency, 1-5                                                        
      LEARNING THEORY, 1-1                                                     
           behaviorism, 1-1                                                    
           cognitive, 1-1                                                      
           combined approach, 1-2                                              
      LECTURE, 5-3                                                             
           advantages and disadvantages, 5-5                                   
           formal versus informal, 5-5                                         
           teaching lecture, 5-3                                               
      LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY OF FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR, 2-6                           
      LESSON PLANS, 10-5                                                       
           characteristics, 10-6                                               
           formats, 10-7                                                       
           how to use, 10-6                                                    
           objectives, 10-1                                                    
           purpose, 10-5                                                       
           standards, 10-1                                                     
      LEVELS OF LEARNING, 1-9                                                  
      LISTENING, 3-6                                                           
           instructor, 3-6                                                     
           student, 3-7                                                        
                                                                               
                                      M                                        
                                                                               
      MATCHING TEST ITEM, 6-12                                                 
      MEMORY, 1-13                                                             
           long-term, 1-14                                                     
           sensory register, 1-13                                              
           short-term, 1-13                                                    
      MOCK-UPS, 7-9                                                            
      MODELS, 7-9                                                              
      MOTIVATION, 1-8                                                          
           negative, 1-8                                                       
           positive, 1-8                                                       
      MULTIPLE-CHOICE TEST ITEM, 6-10                                          
           sample test items, Appendix A, A-1                                  
                                                                               
                                      N                                        
                                                                               
      NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE (NTIS), 11-4                      
      NORM-REFERENCED TESTING, 6-7                                             
                                                                               
                                      O                                        
                                                                               
      OBSTACLES TO LEARNING DURING FLIGHT INSTRUCTION, 9-5                     
           anxiety, 9-7                                                        
           apathy due to inadequate instruction, 9-6                           
           fatigue, 9-6