4/24/20

 

8900.1 CHG 702

VOLUME 3  GENERAL TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATION

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CHAPTER 19  FLIGHTCREW MEMBER TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION PROGRAMS

Section 8  Safety Assurance System: Special Training

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Source Basis:

    Section 121.401, Training Program: General.

    Section 121.415, Crewmember and Dispatcher Training Program Requirements.

    Section 121.419, Pilots and Flight Engineers: Initial, Transition, Conversion, and Upgrade Ground Training.

    Section 121.420, Pilots: Upgrade Ground Training.

    Section 121.429, Pilots in Command: Leadership and Command and Mentoring Training.

    Section 121.432, General.

    Section 121.683, Crewmember and Dispatcher Record.

    Section 135.293, Initial and Recurrent Pilot Testing Requirements.

    Section 135.297, Pilot in Command: Instrument Proficiency Check Requirements.

    Section 135.323, Training Program: General.

    Section 135.329, Crewmember Training Requirements.

    Section 135.335, Approval of Aircraft Simulators and Other Training Devices.

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3-1301    GENERAL. This section contains direction and guidance to be used by Principal Operations Inspectors (POI) for the evaluation of a certificate holder’s special training for approval. To conduct such an evaluation, POIs should be aware of the following distinction between basic training and special training. This section is related to Safety Assurance System (SAS) Subsystem 2.1, Training & Qualification.

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A.    Basic Training. The seven Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 training categories and the six 14 CFR part 135 training categories defined in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 1, Paragraph 3-1075, Categories of Training, contain the basic training required for flightcrew members for qualification in a specific duty position on a specified aircraft type. Training in the operations and procedures necessary to operate in the standard service volume to standard minimums is an integral part of these curricula. All certificate holders must conduct this basic training. Training methods and events are specified either in regulations or advisory circulars (AC).

B.    Special Training. “Special” training is training conducted by a certificate holder to qualify flightcrew members beyond the scope of basic training. Each certificate holder is required to conduct only the special training required for the certificate holder’s specific operations. Special training elements and events can be integrated into one or more of the defined training categories or conducted as a separate curriculum segment(s). Special training is normally required for operations that require specific authorization by the certificate holder’s operations specifications (OpSpecs), such as the following:

    Class II navigation,

    Category (CAT) II and CAT III approaches,

    Lower-than-standard minimums takeoffs,

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    Extended Operations (ETOPS),

    Use of an autopilot instead of a second in command (SIC),

    Airborne radar approaches, and

    Night vision goggle (NVG) operations.

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3-1302    SPECIAL TRAINING CONTENT. When evaluating a certificate holder’s training and qualification program, POIs must ensure that the certificate holder’s special training contains the necessary and appropriate elements and events. Since certificate holders may develop special training to accomplish almost any objective, the curriculum content is a result of the specific objective and should be no more or less than what is required to achieve the objective. Generally, POIs should ensure that a certificate holder’s special training has been developed from a clearly stated objective, a task analysis, and specified performance standards. Special training must be designed to develop each flightcrew member’s knowledge, skill, and judgment in the performance of the stated tasks. Special training must contain qualification criteria for the assessment of each flightcrew member’s ability to perform identified tasks to the specified standard. Special training curriculum segments may also be required to be conducted on a recurring basis.

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3-1303    SPECIAL TRAINING APPROVAL. POIs should follow the five-phase process described in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 2 for the approval of special training. The POI should evaluate a certificate holder’s curriculum outline to ensure that it includes appropriate segments, modules, elements, and events. ACs that describe the various special operations can also be aids to the POI in defining training requirements for those operations (see Table 3-84, List of Applicable Advisory Circulars, for a partial listing of these ACs). The POI should evaluate the curriculum outline using both the applicable ACs and this order. The POI may grant initial approval when the certificate holder’s outline is in compliance with such guidance. When such direction and guidance do not exist, the POI must have the certificate holder perform a task analysis to identify the required tasks and appropriate performance standards for the special training. The certificate holder should submit the task analysis and performance standards as supporting documentation along with the curriculum outline. The POI must evaluate the supporting documentation in conjunction with the outline before granting initial approval. When the certificate holder proposes a new or unique type of training, the Air Transportation Division must be informed for evaluation purposes.

Table 3-84.  List of Applicable Advisory Circulars

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Inspectors should consult the current editions of:

AC 20-138       Airworthiness Approval of Positioning and Navigation Systems

AC 90-80         Approval of Offshore Standard Approach Procedures, Airborne Radar Approaches, and Helicopter En Route Descent Areas

AC 90-96         Approval of U.S. Operators and Aircraft To Operate Under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) in European Airspace Designated For Basic Area Navigation (B-RNAV)/RNAV 5 and Precision Area Navigation (P-RNAV)

AC 90-100       U.S. Terminal and En Route Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations

AC 90-101       Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures with AR

AC 90-105       Approval Guidance for RNP Operations and Barometric Vertical Navigation in the U.S. National Airspace System and in Oceanic and Remote Continental Airspace

AC 90-106       Enhanced Flight Vision Systems

AC 90-107       Guidance for Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance and Localizer Performance Without Vertical Guidance Approach Operations in the U.S. National Airspace System

AC 90-114      Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Operations

AC 91-70        Oceanic and Remote Continental Airspace Operations

AC 91-85         Authorization of Aircraft and Operators for Flight in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) Airspace

AC 120-42       Extended Operations (ETOPS and Polar Operations)

AC 120-55       Air Carrier Operational Approval and Use of TCAS II

AC 120-118     Criteria for Approval/Authorization of All Weather Operations (AWO) for Takeoff, Landing, and Rollout

AC 135-42       Extended Operations (ETOPS) and Operations in the North Polar Area

3-1304    SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS OF SPECIAL TRAINING. POIs should know of several common situations in which special training is required. Some examples of specific applications of special training follow.

A.    Flag Operations. In flag operations, it is a requirement that flightcrew members possess knowledge of those procedures and OpSpecs applicable to these operations. For Class II navigation, it may be required for flightcrew members to have knowledge of specialized navigation procedures (such as North Atlantic High Level Airspace (NAT HLA)) and equipment (such as inertial navigation systems (INS)). POIs should ensure that in flag operations, flightcrew members are required to have supervised practice and to demonstrate their competence in these operations before performing them without supervision (see Volume 4, Chapter 1).

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B.    CAT II and CAT III Approaches. For training in CAT II and CAT III approaches, POIs must ensure that the required training includes special equipment, procedures, practice, and a demonstration of competency. While some certificate holders have successfully integrated this training into the defined categories of training, others have conducted this training as a separate curriculum segment. POIs may approve either method of organization (see Volume 4, Chapter 2).

C.    Lower-Than-Standard Minimum Takeoffs. Before pilots may conduct takeoffs with lower‑than‑standard minimums in revenue service, they must be given training and practice in, and have successfully demonstrated competence in, performing takeoffs in minimum authorized visibility conditions. POIs must ensure that training is given in: runway and lighting requirements; rejected takeoffs at, or near, takeoff decision speed (V1) with a failure of the most critical engine; taxi operations; and procedures to prevent runway incursions under low visibility conditions. This training must be conducted in a full flight simulator (FFS) (see Volume 4, Chapter 2, Section 4).

D.    Autopilot in Lieu of SIC. Pursuant to the applicable regulations, pilots conducting part 135 operations may be authorized to conduct instrument flight rules (IFR) operations without an SIC, provided they have completed special training for qualification in such operations. In accordance with part 135, § 135.297(g), a pilot qualifying for single-pilot IFR operations must demonstrate the ability to safely conduct IFR flight without an SIC during the required instrument proficiency check (IPC). The pilot must demonstrate that he or she can operate the airplane as proficiently as if an SIC were present to conduct the air traffic control (ATC) communications. Specifically, the pilot must demonstrate, both with and without using the autopilot, the ability to:

    Conduct instrument operations;

    Properly conduct communications with ATC; and

    Comply with complex ATC instructions.

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3-1305    AIRPLANE NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (ANVG) SPECIAL TRAINING. Before pilots may conduct operations utilizing NVG in airplane(s) used in part 135 operations, they must receive training and practice in, and successfully demonstrate competence in, ANVG operations. Pilots qualify for ANVG operations by completing an ANVG special training designed to meet the training and qualification program requirement found in § 135.323. Successful completion of the ANVG training and qualification will qualify the pilot to conduct ANVG operations under part 135. This paragraph provides detailed information on the processing of ANVG operations curriculum segment approval.

A.    Overview. The ANVG curriculum segment will contain three distinct modules that will include ground training, flight training, and qualification. The training may be integrated into existing curriculums or delivered as a standalone curriculum segment, depending on the needs of the certificate holder.

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1)    Requirements. The flight and ground training associated with ANVG operations must include the topics specific to the certificate holder’s ANVG operational environment. At a minimum, the ground training hours will consist of those found in Table 3-85, Planned ANVG Ground Training Hours, and the flight training hours are found in Table 3-86, Planned ANVG Flight Training Hours. As with all curriculum approvals, when the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) or certificate holder identifies hazards that impose risk unique to the operation (e.g., light-emitting diode (LED) obstacle and/or airport lighting on route of flight), training to address those hazards should be included in the curriculum segment.
2)    Training and Qualification Program Revision and ANVG Resources. The review and approval of ANVG operations curriculum segment is conducted in the same manner as other training and qualification program revisions; or, in the case of a new certificate holder requesting ANVG operations authority, concurrently with the initial request (see Volume 3, Chapters 19 and 20).
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3)    ANVG National Resource Specialist (NRS). Because of the uniqueness of ANVG operations, POIs reviewing ANVG curriculum segments should request an ANVG NRS, as needed. An ANVG NRS can be contacted through the Flight Standards Inspector Resource Program (FSIRP) (managed by the Specialty Aircraft Examiner Branch).
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B.    ANVG Ground Training Modules. ANVG training contains unique elements of training that may be taught as a standalone module or integrated into other airplane ground training. An acceptable ANVG ground training module includes three elements common to all ground training curriculum segments. These elements are airman specific, certificate holder specific, and airplane specific. These training modules should include those elements necessary for the pilot to become knowledgeable and proficient in the use and operations of ANVGs in the certificate holder’s airplane(s) and operations. Several references exist to aid in the development of these modules (e.g., the FAA Operational Suitability Report (OSR) for ANVGs for airplanes and the RTCA, Inc. DO‑295, Civil Operators’ Training Guidelines for Integrated Night Vision Imaging System Equipment). Several other publications are available pertaining to ANVG training. The modules should be adjusted for the specific certificate holder’s needs and intended use.

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1)    The airman-specific element should cover development of ANVGs; performance and limitations; aeromedical considerations; physiology; visual illusions; terrain interpretation; and risk management. While not all-inclusive, other areas should be included based on the specific certificate holder’s needs and use.
2)    The certificate holder-specific element should address the specific ANVG operations requested by the certificate holder. A review of the documentation of the certificate holder that governs ANVG policy and procedures is covered in this element. These areas include OpSpecs; the General Operations Manual (GOM); standard operating procedures (SOP); abnormal procedures, including minimum equipment list (MEL) procedures; forms; recordkeeping; and Crew Resource Management (CRM).
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3)    The airplane-specific element should address the specific make and model of airplane being trained. While the general titles may be the same for different airplane models, the course content will be different for each make and model (M/M) the certificate holder is authorized ANVG operations. Areas such as Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) content, including authorized models of NVGs; flight deck lighting modifications; external lighting utilization; and emergency procedures should be addressed. Certificate holders should include unique aspects of the area of operations authorized (e.g., desert operations, which include procedures that may not be necessary in Alaska). Operations items that a certificate holder wants to emphasize should be included in this element.
4)    Typical ANVG planned ground training hours are shown in Table 3-85 for respective categories of training. Hours listed in Table 3-85 are in addition to other certificate holder ground training hours found in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 6, Table 3-59, Flight Training Hours (National Norms) Two Pilots—FSTD; and Table 3-60, Flight Training Hours (National Norms) One Pilot—FSTD or When All Training is Conducted in an Aircraft.

Table 3-85.  Planned ANVG Ground Training Hours

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Category of Training

Initial New-Hire

Initial Equipment*

Transition*

Upgrade

Recurrent

ANVG Ground Training Hours

PIC – 8

SIC – 8

PIC – 2

SIC – 2

PIC – 2

SIC – 2

PIC – 4

PIC – 2

SIC – 2

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*These categories assume that the pilot is already ANVG qualified in another airplane with that certificate holder. If not, the pilot should complete initial new-hire ANVG training.

C.    ANVG Flight Training Modules and Events. ANVG training requires unique events during the conduct of flight training. The training may be taught as a standalone module or integrated into the other training; however, events should be trained unaided, when possible, prior to progressing to aided (ANVG). Proficiency should be demonstrated unaided and aided with ANVGs as part of the flight training curriculum. The core events that should be included in all training curricula include the items listed below. These are in addition to unaided training in the same areas and should follow unaided training.

1)    Preflight Inspection:

    ANVG Preflight.

    ANVG Inspection.

    ANVG Adjustment and Focus.

    ANVG Operational Checks.

    Airplane ANVG Preflight Inspection.

    Airplane ANVG Lighting and Filtration Check.

2)    Preflight Procedures:
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    Flight Deck Preflight (ANVG mounted, stowed up, and positioned for use).

    Normal Preflight, Before Start, Engine Start.

    Use of Airplane Lighting.

    Taxi.

    Pretakeoff Checks.

3)    Takeoff and Departure:

    Use of Airplane Lighting.

    Rejected Takeoff.

    Normal Takeoff.

    Powerplant Failure on Takeoff.

    Crosswind Takeoff.

    Special Runway Operations (if authorized).

    Illuminated Runway Takeoff (minimal and maximum runway lighting).

    Area Departure.

4)    In-Flight Maneuvers:

    ANVG Techniques During Normal Flight (cruise, climb, and descent).

    Light Use (interior and exterior).

    Steep Turns.

    Unusual Attitude Recovery.

    Effects of Ambient Light.

    Multiple Aided to Unaided to Aided Transitions.

5)    Visual Ground Reference (1,000 Feet (ft) Above Ground Level (AGL) and Below):

    Terrain and Obstruction Visual Surface Reference.

    Distinguish Obstructions and Congested Areas.

    Altitude Management (radar altimeter and visual reference).

    Estimating Horizontal Distances.

    Distinguish Open Water and Sparse Settled Areas.

    Distinguish Person, Vessel, Vehicle, Structure for Below 500 ft AGL.

    Area Arrival.

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NOTE:  Some LED lighting may not be visible to all night vision devices even when visible to the unaided eye; NVGs are unable to identify some LED obstacles and/or airport lighting. Certificate holders should address this concern with procedures and training.

6)    Emergency Procedures:

    Airplane Emergencies (forced landing).

    Single- and Dual-Tube ANVG Failure (various modes of flight).

    Inadvertent Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IIMC) Recovery.

    Maintaining Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC).

7)    Instrument Procedures (if Authorized IFR Operations):

    Circling Approach (visual maneuvering to landing).

    Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) to Breakout to Visual Navigation.

    Determine and Maintain IAP Visibility Minimums.

    Transition from Instrument Flight to Aided Flight.

8)    Approach and Landing:

    Traffic Pattern and Visual Approach.

    Use of Airplane Lighting.

    Visual Approach References (geometric perspective cues).

    Normal Landing.

    Landing with Powerplant Failure (if applicable).

    Balked Landing.

    Crosswind Landing.

    Special Runway Operations (if authorized).

    Illuminated Runway Landing (minimal and maximum runway lighting).

9)    Postflight:

    Taxi.

    Shutdown.

    ANVG Stowage.

D.    Completion of Flight Training Events. A flightcrew member may successfully complete a flight training curriculum segment without completing the specified number of planned training hours, provided all of the following conditions are met:

1)    The crewmember successfully completes all of the training events required by the curriculum segment.
2)    An instructor recommends the flight test be conducted before completion of the specified number of training hours by certifying that the pilot is proficient and competent in all areas of ANVG operations training provided.
3)    The training and recommendation are suitably documented in the pilot training records.
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E.    Use of Flight Simulation Training Devices (FSTD) for ANVG Training or Checking. Before an FSTD may be used for ANVG training or checking, it must be evaluated and qualified by the National Simulator Program Branch and approved by the certificate holder’s POI for use in the certificate holder’s training and qualification program. When airplane FSTDs are qualified for ANVG operations, POIs may approve the FSTD for use upon validating that the qualified events support the certificate holder’s training or checking objectives. Events that have been qualified for ANVG training will be listed in the FSTD Statement of Qualification (SOQ) issued by the National Simulator Program Branch. Before the certificate holder can utilize any FSTD, it must be evaluated by the POI or an Operations aviation safety inspector (ASI) delegated by the POI to determine that the FSTD supports the objectives of the training or checking to be performed. After successful evaluation, the POI may approve the FSTD for use by the certificate holder for the specific maneuvers.

Table 3-86.  Planned ANVG Flight Training Hours

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Category of Training

Initial New-Hire

Initial Equipment*

Transition*

Upgrade

Recurrent

ANVG Flight Training Hours

PIC – 5

SIC – 4

PIC – 3

SIC – 2

PIC – 3

SIC – 2

PIC – 3

PIC – 2

SIC – 2

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*These categories assume that the pilot is already ANVG qualified in another airplane with that certificate holder. If not, the pilot should complete initial new-hire ANVG training.

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F.    ANVG Qualification Segment Module. For ANVG qualification, the pilot can qualify for ANVG operations by completing the ANVG qualification module concurrently with a § 135.293 check or as an augmented § 135.293 check limited to validate the additional authorization associated with ANVG operations. If a flightcrew member fails to meet the qualification module requirements because of a lack of flight proficiency, he or she must complete other training prior to a recheck. The instructor or check pilot conducting the other training must certify the flightcrew member’s proficiency before the flightcrew member reaccomplishes the check. (See Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 11 for additional information regarding other training after an unsatisfactory check.) If a pilot is currently qualified as a pilot crewmember, but is not ANVG qualified, initial new-hire training hours are additional hours and associated events identified in Tables 3-85 and 3-86.

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G.    Qualification Segment—Flight Maneuvers and Procedures. Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 7, Table 3-70, Part 135 Checking Modules—Airplanes, outlines the minimum maneuvers to be evaluated in the Part 135 Checking Module—Airplanes ANVG. The qualification segment must include maneuvers consistent with ANVG operations found in Table 3-70. Detailed descriptions of these normal, abnormal, and emergency maneuvers must be a part of the ANVG module. These descriptions may be the same as those used for unaided visual flight rules (VFR) operations, but must be so indicated. If differences exist, they should be noted in the basic description package. The POI will verify that an adequate amount of time is allocated to meet the flight training curriculum segment and must be realistic in meeting the stated training objectives. The pilot being checked must be proficient in recognizing visual illusions, spatial disorientation, and performing the maneuvers listed in the “NVG TASKS” column of Table 3-70.

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3-1306    PART 121 PILOT IN COMMAND (PIC) LEADERSHIP AND COMMAND AND MENTORING TRAINING.

A.    Applicability.

1)    PICs. In accordance with § 121.429, beginning on April 27, 2023, no certificate holder conducting part 121 operations may use a pilot as PIC unless the PIC has completed leadership and command and mentoring ground training in accordance with §§ 121.419(c)(1) and (c)(2) or 121.420(b)(1) and (b)(2). See Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 5 for additional information regarding leadership and command and mentoring training.
2)    SICs. In accordance with §§ 121.429 and 121.432(a), beginning April 27, 2023, no certificate holder conducting part 121 operations may use a pilot as an SIC qualified to serve in an operation that requires three or more pilots unless the SIC has completed leadership and command ground training in accordance with §§ 121.419(c)(1) or 121.420(b)(1). See Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 5 for additional information regarding leadership and command training.

B.    Credit for Previous Leadership and Command and Mentoring Training. Section 121.429(b) allows the FAA to grant credit toward all or part of the requirements for leadership and command and mentoring training for PICs and SICs qualified prior to the April 27, 2020.

1)    Timeframe. A certificate holder who has voluntarily provided leadership and command or mentoring training to pilots may seek credit for all or part of the requirements for leadership and command and mentoring training for PICs and SICs. In accordance with § 121.429(b)(1), the credit must be based on leadership and command and mentoring training previously completed by the pilot with that certificate holder after April 27, 2017 and prior to the April 27, 2020.
2)    Approval Process. To ensure a consistent determination of whether the previous training met some or all of the requirements, the Leadership and Command and Mentoring Focus Team must evaluate all requests for credit. A POI may not approve or deny a request for credit.
a)    Request. When a certificate holder notifies the POI of its intent to request credit, the POI should provide the certificate holder with the following information. The request must be submitted to the POI. The request may be submitted via any method found acceptable to the POI (e.g., paper letter, electronic, or fax). The request may be in any format, but must include at least the following information:

1.    Name, air carrier certificate number, and business address of the certificate holder.

2.    Outline of the training module(s) for leadership and command training with sufficient detail to determine if some, or all, of the principal elements, as described in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 5, Paragraph 3-1207, Part 121 PIC Leadership and Command, were included;

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3.    Outline of the training module(s) for mentoring training with sufficient detail to determine if some, or all, of the principal elements, as described in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 5, Paragraph 3-1208, Part 121 PIC Mentoring, were included;

4.    Description of the training aids, devices, methods, and procedures used during leadership and command and mentoring training; and

5.    Description of the recordkeeping method used by the certificate holder to determine if each PIC and SIC has completed all or part of the requirements of leadership and command and mentoring training.

b)    POI Review. The POI must review the request for completeness. If complete, the POI must forward the request to the Leadership and Command and Mentoring Focus Team at the
9-AFS-200-Correspondence@faa.gov.
c)    Evaluation of Request. The Leadership and Command and Mentoring Focus Team will evaluate the request for credit. The focus team, through the POI, will request additional supporting information, such as courseware, lesson plans, or instructor guides, if necessary for a thorough evaluation.
d)    Notification. After completing the evaluation, the focus team, through the POI, will notify the certificate holder by letter whether credit is granted toward all or part of the requirements for leadership and command and mentoring training.
3)    Recordkeeping. If credit is granted, in accordance with § 121.683, the certificate holder must enter a record into the recordkeeping system for each PIC and SIC. The record must document the credit granted to meet all or part of the requirements of § 121.429. The record should reference the letter provided by the POI.

RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-1307 through 3-1310.