8900.1 CHG 9

VOLUME 3  General Technical Administration


Section 6  Part 142 Training Centers: Evaluate Training Programs, Curricula, Flight Training Equipment, and Recordkeeping Requirements

3-4433   GENERAL.. The information in this section provides guidance for the approval of a center’s training program and associated curricula/courses. Regulatory requirements demand sufficient content and detail to enable a training center to meet the standards required to ensure the highest level of flight training is achieved. The successful development of program curricula and courses forms the basis of each center’s certificate. The successful evaluation of the curricula, syllabi, courseware, and flight training equipment is critical to the success of the program.

3-4434   COMPONENTS OF A TRAINING PROGRAM. A training program consists of all of the curricula, syllabi, supporting courseware and materials, facilities, flight training equipment, recordkeeping, and personnel necessary to accomplish a specific training objective(s) (e.g., a Boeing B-737-200 training program). A training program may include core curricula, specialty curricula, or both. Other curricula may be used to augment the training covered under a core or specialty curriculum. The technical evaluation of components of a training program must involve the assistance of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) inspector qualified in the particular aircraft. Should the Training Center Program Manager (TCPM) be unqualified in the aircraft or lack the expertise to conduct a review of this type, support should be requested form other national resource specialist.

Figure 3-147B, Components of a Training Programm


Figure 150-1 depicts the six components of a training program: facilities, flight training equipment, personnel (instructor/evaluator), courseware, curriculum/syllabus, and recordkeeping.

Curricula submitted for approval must be presented in a format that describes the content of the proposed training in sufficient detail to enable a clear understanding of subject matter and events to be accomplished. The content of each curriculum or course segment is outlined by listing the main subject areas. Each subject area contains individual training modules for each topic to be covered.

Figure 3-147C, Sample Curriculum Format



Initial Pilot in Command (PIC)—Gulf Stream 550 Type Rating










G-550 Initial System Training

General Operational Subjects

FMS training

G-550 Differences

G-550 PIC Initial Simulator Flight Training

NOTE: Appropriate guidelines for the format and content of a curriculum, segments, modules, events, and elements may be found in 8900.1, Volume 3, Chapter 19.

NOTE: A sample curriculum that represents appropriate format and level of detail to be included in an approved curriculum has been posted on the Air Carrier Training Branch’s, AFS-210, part 142 training center Web site.

B.        Training center curricula that are approved in accordance with part 142 are divided into two basic types: core (airman certification) or specialty (other regulatory training requirements).

1)          A training center may also develop a third type of curriculum; that is, a curriculum that does not satisfy any specific requirement of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61 and 63. These curricula describe training that may be used to augment or supplement other required training (such as training in international flight procedures). Should a training center choose to seek approval for such a curriculum it may do so under the provisions of part 142, § 142.81. As a prerequisite for approval such a curriculum should include a statement saying that no requirements of part 61 are satisfied by its completion; however, it is acceptable to reference an advisory circular (AC) or other guidance around which the curriculum has been developed.
2)          Curricula other than those listed above, which are not designed to satisfy any requirement of 14 CFR chapter 1, and for which the training center has not chosen to seek approval pursuant to § 142.81 do not require approval under part 142 and do not generate a surveillance requirement for the FAA.

C.        General Characteristics of a Curriculum.

1)          Each approved curriculum must be supported by a revision system that includes:

·        Sufficient detail to evaluate the proposed revision including substantiation for the proposed revision and any associated instructor training and qualification requirements;

·        Margin side-bars that mark changed areas; and

·        The revision number and date on each revised page.

NOTE: Except when required for safety reasons, revisions should be submitted a minimum of 60 days before the expected implementation date.

2)          The curricula must represent the flight training equipment to be used by the training center. This must include training in systems (including installed equipment, modifications, and avionics), as well as maneuvers and procedures appropriate to the make, model, series, and in some cases, serial number of the aircraft represented by the flight training equipment. Training in other variants of the same make/model aircraft not represented by the flight training equipment should not be approved.
3)          Curriculum terminology should be consistent with that used in FAA guidance documents and materials (part 142, Order 8900.1, practical test standards, etc.). Use of terminology such as “as required”, “as applicable” and other terms that indicate training in that topic is a variable is not acceptable for inclusion in training modules or elements.
4)          Curricula must include an introduction that provides a general overview of the training to be accomplished and state a specific training objective. The objective should support the expected outcomes. Course objectives must identify the certification expected, what flight training equipment will be used, as well as the regulatory requirements that will be met. The objective should indicate which particular aircraft variant(s) will be covered.
5)          The curricula must state the specific student prerequisites for entry into the curriculum. This should include specific flight experience (including currency), previous training, minimum pilot certification, and qualifications. Common errors include allowing an applicant with an airplane multiengine class rating that is limited to center-line thrust, to enroll in a 100 percent simulator course for a multiengine airplane type rating.
6)          The curricula must specify in sufficient detail what ground training will be accomplished. The ground training segment of a curriculum that leads to airman certification or proficiency consists of training in general operational subjects, aircraft systems, and systems integration. Each module must list a sufficient number of elements to describe main topic areas to be covered within that module. Ground training must be predicated on the flight training equipment to be used in the course. The curricula must indicate what criteria and standard will be used to determine satisfactory completion (e.g., completion of a written test on systems and procedures with a grade of 80 percent, which will be corrected to 100 percent).

NOTE: Ground training conducted under a curriculum leading to airman certification must be satisfactorily completed before the start of flight training.

NOTE: The curricula development guidelines in 8900.1, Volume 3, Chapter 19, Sections 1, 2, and 9, are the acceptable standards for training program development and should be followed to the maximum extent practical.

7)          Part 142 does not specify programmed hours for flight crewmembers however, Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 5, Table 3-52, Flightcrew Aircraft Ground Training Hours National Norms (Thresholds), provides guidelines for training times that should be considered when evaluating a training center’s curricula. When approving curriculum segments and their associated training hours as proposed by the training provider, TCPMs must consider the complexity of the operation and specific aircraft make, model, and series. For example, training hours for a complex operation may need to exceed national norms, while training hours below the national norms may be acceptable for a less complex type of operation. When granting approval of a core curriculum with training hours below the established threshold training hours, TCPMs must notify AFS-210, through the regional Flight Standards division, that such initial approval has been granted. This notification is necessary for tracking and standardization purposes on a national basis. This notification may be by letter or e-mail and should:
a)          Describe the reasons resulting in the grant of the curriculum’s initial approval with fewer hours than the national norms or threshold hours;
b)          Include a copy of the initially approved aircraft ground training curriculum segment; and
c)          Include any additional supporting information provided by the operator.

NOTE: Briefing and/or debriefing times for flight or simulated flight sessions must not be considered part of the programmed instruction time to meet recommended national norms or threshold hours.

8)          The curricula must provide an outline of the flight training (maneuvers and procedures) and practice that will be accomplished during each flight-training period. Flight training sessions/periods are referred to as training modules. Each module must be appropriate to the flight training equipment being used and reflect the specific maneuvers or procedures to be accomplished during that training session/period. The curricula must allow sufficient time for practice and review as well as provide the instructor sufficient opportunity to demonstrate the use of all equipment identified in the training session.
9)          The curricula must indicate the individual maneuvers and procedures that will be practiced during each training period. It is common for a particular maneuver to appear in multiple training sessions depending on the maneuver’s complexity. The curricula must indicate what standards will be used to determine student progress. If an aircraft is used, indicate only those events that will be accomplished in the aircraft. Training in specific types of instrument approach procedures must be identified for each session to ensure adequate training in all equipment, procedures, and techniques.
10)   A curriculum that provides training, testing, or checking to accomplish certification or proficiency requirements of part 61 must include all of the appropriate practical test standard (PTS)-required maneuvers. If the simulator or flight training device (FTD) is not qualified and approved to accomplish a particular maneuver, for example a circling approach, the student training record must reflect that the maneuver was not accomplished.
11)   Curricula may not include maneuvers or systems training in an area or event that the center does not have the courseware or training devices suitable for conducting the subject training. For example, global positioning system (GPS) approach training will not be approved for training if the center’s training devices (FTD or simulators) do not have an operable GPS installed.
12)   The training, testing, and checking presented by the curricula must be specific to that make, model, series (serial number, if applicable), and variant of the aircraft represented by the flight training equipment to be used by the center. Differences training between or among variants of the same type are not required of all students but if a curriculum is to satisfy training requirements for different variants, it should identify how differences training will be accomplished. A center may address differences training by:

·        Adding one or more modules to the core curricula, and allow for those modules in the programmed hours; or

·        Create a separate specialty curricula.

NOTE: In some cases a separate core or specialty curriculum may be necessary to describe the training for a variant of an aircraft type when the differences have been determined to be so significant that ground training, flight training, and checking are required. Some series of aircraft can be operated under the same type rating but require a dedicated simulator to provide the training for that particular variant. For example; L-25 vs. L-35, B-737-200 vs. B-737-800, etc.

13)  Curricula will also include qualification module(s) that state the basis and standards for satisfactory course completion and evaluation (testing/checking to be accomplished to what standard).
14)  A detailed curricula evaluation checklist has been developed to provide assistance with the evaluation of curricula involving airman certification or proficiency (part 61, §§ 61.58 and 61.157). Refer to AFS-210’s part 142 training center Web site.

3-4435   FLIGHT TRAINING EQUIPMENT (FTDS AND SIMULATORS). Training centers may use a variety of training devices in their approved curricula. However, each core curriculum must be supported by an advanced FTD (Level 6 or 7) or full flight simulator (Level A through D), which must be used to the maximum extent possible for all associated training and testing/checking.

A.        Qualifying Flight Training Equipment. Flight training equipment that is to be used to accomplish the flight training, testing or checking requirements of a core or specialty curriculum must be qualified by the National Simulator Program Office (NSP), AFS-205. The NSP will evaluate and assign the appropriate training device “level” to each FTD or simulator. The awarded training device level may be used to determine the training maneuvers that are permitted to be accomplished in the device. Appendix 1 of the appropriate practical test standard (except Private Pilot) identifies the tasks that may be credited through the use of an appropriately qualified training device.

B.        Evaluating and Approving Training Equipment. Following the NSP, AFS-205’s qualification of a particular simulator or FTD, the TCPM must evaluate and approve the device for use in the center’s training program. This approval will include the specific curriculum, particular maneuver, procedure, and/or crewmember function permitted to be performed in the device. Part 142 requires the training center’s flight training equipment to be appropriate for and adequate to support the curriculum goals and each curriculum. The flight training equipment must represent the specific aircraft make, model, series, variant, and in some cases, serial number of the aircraft represented by the training device and curriculum. When describing flight-training equipment, the curriculum must use terminology consistent with the level of qualification authorized for the particular device.

NOTE: Each approved flight-training device must be listed in the center’s training specifications by the TCPM.

C.        Flight Simulators.

1)          Flight simulators are qualified by the NSP office as a Level A, B, C, or D flight simulator. Simulators approved for use in training, checking, and testing under an approved curriculum must represent the make, model, series, variant, and in some cases serial number range of the aircraft training described by the curriculum. The simulator must be equipped/modified to include mandatory aircraft modifications. Each simulator must meet and maintain the standards under which they were originally qualified (i.e., under the provisions of AC 120-40, current edition, Airplane Simulator Qualification).

NOTE: When 14 CFR part 60 becomes effective the provisions within that rule will be controlling.

2)          Some curriculum modules or elements require a specific visual scene to accomplish a particular training event. These events may require an accurate representation of the airport, its lighting, the surrounding environment, etc. For example:

·        Special airports and approaches,

·        Approach and landing using visual (ground or airport) references,

·        Surface Movement Guidance and Control System training,

·        Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT),

·        Circling approaches, or

·        Other special circumstances.

3)          With respect to the circling approach, the NSP evaluates and qualifies the simulator’s ability to conduct the circling maneuver. However, the TCPM is responsible for evaluating and approving each proposed circling approach to be used for training, checking, or testing.

NOTE: The criteria for performing a circling approach during a certification flight (i.e., PTS) are different from the criteria for establishing terminal instrument procedures (TERPS). The PTS requires evaluation of circling approaches to a landing runway heading that is at least 90 degrees to the final approach course. TERPS criteria requires publishing a circling approach when there is more than a 30 degrees course difference between the landing runway and the course at the final approach fix position.

a)          Circling approach approval guidelines require:

1.          The proposed airport scene to represent an accurate airport visual presentation of the airport layout and environment.

2.          Only those combinations of instrument approach procedures and landing runway that meet the criteria of the airline transport pilot PTS (landing runway heading that is at least 90 degrees to the final approach course) to be approved for use in curriculum leading to airman certification or proficiency.

3.          The approach to be flown at the appropriate approach speed by an airman qualified and current in the aircraft.

4.          The aircraft should be at maximum landing weight and in the appropriate configuration.

5.          Evaluate night and day scenes (if day is available) with emphasis on airport and runway lighting.

6.          Ceiling and visibility should be set at the minimums for the aircrafts circling approach category.

7.          The simulator should be frozen in a position the represents the minimum descent altitude and visibility minimums for the approach and observe the airport environment and lighting to determine the appropriateness of the simulator’s visual cues.

8.          Conduct a circling maneuver by constant visual reference to the airport environment and to the landing runway. Freeze the simulator periodically as the maneuver is being accomplished to observe whether the airport environment, ceiling, and visibility are maintained.

9.          Conduct the approach and circling maneuver again in “real time” (without pause) to determine if the procedure requires any unusual maneuvering and if it is a viable approach and landing.

b)          Provided the evaluation parameters are acceptable, the TCPM will approve the simulator for the specific runway and circling approach combinations that may be used in the centers training curricula.
4)          In order for a training center to conduct training, testing, and checking with inoperative components, the center may elect to have an approved Simulator Component Inoperative Guide (SCIG). The SCIG outlines the training, checking, or testing that will not be permitted when a component is inoperative. Although similar in effect, the training center must not use an aircraft minimum equipment list (MEL) to determine the operational status of simulators or FTDs. If an SCIG is approved for use, the training center must develop as a part of the SCIG a management program for managing the repair of items, the use of the device in the degraded condition, and notification of the appropriate personnel. The SCIG management program must include procedures to ensure the reliability of the performance functions, and all other characteristics that were required for qualification for each flight simulator or FTD. SCIGs require the TCPMs approval in order to be used in an approved training curriculum. Once approved, the TCPM will authorize the use of an SCIG by entry in the center’s training specifications.

D.      Flight Training Devices.

1)          Advanced FTDs are those FTDs qualified as Level 6 or 7. These devices must meet and maintain the qualification standards set forth in AC 120-45, Airplane Flight Training Device Qualification, as amended. The NSP staff is responsible for all advanced FTD qualifications. Once the NSP qualifies the FTD, the TCPM may approve training, testing, and checking in those events that may be accomplished in that level of FTD in accordance with Appendix 1 of the appropriate PTS. The qualification and approval of an advanced FTD is the same process as that used to approve a simulator.
2)          The process for granting approval to a simulator or Level 6 or 7 FTD for use in training, checking, and testing is a two-step process.
a)          The first step requires the NSP to evaluate and qualify flight-training equipment in accordance with technical standards. Upon completion of an evaluation, the NSP reports its findings (qualifications and limitations) and recommendations to the TCPM. The NSP report does not constitute approval of a simulator or FTD.
b)          The second step in the process requires the TCPM to evaluate the NSP report and recommendations. Before approval, the TCPM must determine if the flight training equipment is capable of performing each particular maneuver, procedure, or crewmember function required by the curriculum and that the equipment represents the specific category and class of aircraft, type of aircraft, and particular variation within the type of aircraft addressed by the curriculum. Training, testing, and checking in aircraft not of the same model, series, and variant (including, in some cases, similar serial numbers), and not equipped the same as the simulator or FTD must not be approved.
3)          After determining that the flight training equipment is appropriately equipped and capable of accomplishing the curriculum requirements, the TCPM issues approval for the simulator or FTD to be used in a training program. The approval must specify any limitations that are appropriate. Approval to use a particular FTD (simulator or FTD) is authorized through the center’s training specifications.
4)          Levels 4 and 5 FTDs. These devices are qualified by the NSP in accordance with the qualification test guide submitted by the training center and accepted by the NSP. Each device must meet and maintain the qualification standards set forth in AC 120-45. These devices are limited in capability and may only be used to conduct those maneuvers identified in Appendix 1 of the appropriate PTS.
5)          Levels 1 through 3 FTDs. These devices are approved by the General Aviation and Commercial Division AFS-800.
6)          Daily Inspection Requirements. Each simulator or FTD must be given a functional preflight inspection each day before use. As part of the approval process, the TCPM must determine if the training center has a procedure for accomplishing and documenting required preflight inspections. Preflight inspections will be conducted in accordance with a predetermined list of inspection items that are acceptable to the TCPM and must include a method of logging deficiencies.
7)          Operating Deficiencies (Simulator or FTD). Regulations require that each simulator and FTD have a method to log discrepancies and to advise instructors and evaluators that training must not be conducted in events that rely on the inoperative equipment. TCPMs must determine how the training center will identify, record, and resolve discrepancies. Training center must have in place a quality control system for discrepancies that provides instructors and evaluators with information on equipment status prior to the conduct of evaluations or instruction.
8)          As part of the process for maintaining the FTDs/simulators qualification, the NSP also conducts periodic evaluations to insure standards and performance of the equipment are being maintained.
a)          NSP evaluations may discover deficiencies that require a restriction to training, checking, or testing be imposed. A list of all deficiencies will be provided to the FTD’s sponsor and the TCPM. The TCPM will review all forwarded discrepancies and determine if the training approval for the device will need to be restricted until the training center resolves the discrepancies. TCPMs are responsible for the continued surveillance of the centers simulators and FTDs and may also place a limitation/restriction on training, testing, and testing at any time when deficiencies are noted.
b)          The resolution of discrepancies is the responsibility of the sponsor. It is also the responsibility of the sponsor to advise the NSP and the TCPM in a timely manner that discrepancies, which have led to maneuver restrictions, have been repaired.

E.        Aircraft Training.

1)          Aircraft only training programs or core curricula will not be authorized or approved for use by a training center certificated under part 142. It is Flight Standards policy that when approving pilot training, checking, and testing under part 142, the primary form of flight training and testing/checking will be based on advanced FTDs (Level 6 and 7) or flight simulators Level A through D. An aircraft may only be approved for use to supplement the training, testing, or checking that cannot be accomplished in a simulator or advanced FTD. Limited training and testing as permitted by the regulations may be accomplished in an aircraft to avoid issuing a pilot certificate with limitations (e.g., supervised operating experience). If an aircraft is approved for use, each training center must insure that each aircraft is maintained and inspected in accordance with 14 CFR part 91 subpart E, an FAA-approved maintenance and inspection program, maintenance requirements approved by the country of registry, or air carrier approved maintenance program. Each training center certificate holder must ensure that each aircraft that it proposes to use is equipped and capable of conducting all maneuvers and procedures required by the approved training curriculum in which it is to be used.
2)          Training centers that employ the use of an aircraft in their curricula as a means of completing required certification tests/checks, due to the use of training devices or simulators that do not qualify for 100 percent training/checking are not required to designate the aircraft as a training site. The aircraft and its location are considered a part of the principals or satellites center for the purposes of the regulation. The aircraft and or the facilities where the aircraft is located are not considered as an individual training site in the context of the rule and are not required to be individually designated as a remote training site. The facilities where an aircraft is located must, however, be suitable for pre- and post-briefings in the context of the regulation and must be appropriate for their intended purpose.

F.          Line Operational Simulation (LOS)—AC 120-35, Line Operational Simulations: Line Oriented Flight Training, Special Purpose Operational Training, Line Operational Evaluation.

1)          LOS is a broad classification of activities that can be accomplished in a simulator to represent/duplicate/validate real-life flight situations. LOS is an integral and necessary part of any training curriculum that leads to issuance of an initial pilot certificate or the addition of the type rating to an existing certificate entirely in a Level C or level D simulator. It is included in an airman certification curriculum as an alternative to flight time in the actual aircraft before qualification.
2)          LOFT is a specific type of LOS. LOFT is designed to provide training and to transition the pilot from maneuver-oriented flight training (in which systems knowledge and operating skills are initially learned and practiced) to operational flying, which involves the application of skills and knowledge, crew coordination, and all other aspects of operating the aircraft in typical service. It provides the opportunity to observe crewmember actions, including areas such as Crew Resource Management (CRM), standard operating procedures (SOP), practical application of aircraft knowledge, and other training areas. LOFT provides a good opportunity to ensure training in the special-emphasis areas in the PTS and other FAA guidance is accomplished. It may also help determine if an airman requires additional training in a particular area.
a)          A curriculum that is approved under part 142 and that accomplishes 100 percent of the required training and testing for initial airman certification or additional rating in a Level C or D simulator must contain LOFT. LOFT is not required if an actual aircraft is to be used for part of the practical test. LOFT is required on an annual basis for certain simulator instructors approved under part 142 and may be required to meet certain training and qualification requirements under part 121.
b)          LOFT is training; it is a learning experience in which errors will be made. It is not a checking program in which errors are unacceptable. To ensure that maximum benefit from LOFT is obtained, the session must be scheduled after satisfactory completion of the maneuvers-based portion of the curriculum and prior to the certification test and constructed in accordance with the guidelines in AC 120-35.
3)          Characteristics of LOFT.
a)          Training Time. A LOFT session should use realistic routing between airports so as to encompass a normal simulator training period (e.g., if the normal period is 2 hours per crewmember, the LOFT in the simulator should be 2 hours for each crewmember exclusive of any breaks). Comprehensive briefing and debriefing are essential to effective LOFT exercises. However, the briefing and debriefing time is not considered part of the flight training time. The preflight briefing time should be used to brief the applicant and allow the crewmembers to perform preflight planning. The planned hours of instruction specified in a curriculum/syllabus must exclude LOFT except for the time the applicant is participating in the flight portion of the LOFT. Because PIC duties, functions, and capabilities are the emphasis during LOFT, only time spent at controls during LOFT is creditable toward programmed curriculum time. Any LOFT conducted after airman certification cannot be credited toward the curriculum times.
b)          Crew Qualifications. Participating crewmembers must be fully qualified in accordance with the requirements of part 142 and the curriculum being trained. They must be knowledgeable and proficient in all aspects of the training that is being taught by the center as part of the curriculum, including checklists and SOP.
c)          Stated Objective. The LOFT must state training objectives. Objectives may be broad in scope such as CRM, workload management, etc., and/or can have a specific objective such as a specific area of operation that has been determined to require special emphasis. The problems presented during the LOFT scenario can be further categorized into two types:

1.          A simple problem that has no further impact on the conduct of the flight once it has been diagnosed and corrected.

2.          A complex problem that is not correctable and continues for the duration of the flight. LOFT requires the flight to continue to the ultimate outcome without stopping unless a crew action corrects the abnormal or emergency situation.

d)          Scenario description. LOFT scenarios must be highly structured and simulate flight from startup to shutdown in real time without any freeze, slow motion, or other activity that might not be accomplished in an actual flight in an aircraft. LOFT should include the following:

1.          The flight should represent the type of operations reflected in the training being conducted (e.g., applicants being trained under a part 61 curriculum would accomplish LOFT that represents part 91 operations, not air carrier).

2.          LOFT should reflect training in knowledge and skills required by the training center’s approved core curricula—not those unique to a particular operator.

3.          A complete scripted scenario simulating total line operational environment must be developed by the training center. This would include a detailed script that includes all communications expected during the flight. Scenario communications should consider that the LOFT instructor is functionally not present in the simulator but is available for communications as ATC, maintenance, flight service, ground operations, etc.

4.          LOFT scenarios should be designed based on the stated objectives and desired outcomes and must include normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures. If two PIC students train together, LOFT may consist of two segments in which one segment is conducted with normal procedures and a separate segment incorporates abnormal and emergency procedures. Alternatively, different scenarios may be developed for each student to prevent repetition. If the curriculum permits a single PIC student to train, LOFT may consist of one flight segment that contains normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures.

4)          Preflight Planning and Briefing. Comprehensive preflight planning appropriate to the type of operations being conducted must be part of LOFT to enhance realism and represent actual aircraft operations. This will require a complete navigation and weather package, including Notices to Airmen that may affect the flight. This should include en route, alternate, and departure airports as well as destination weather. Flight planning for the LOFT must consider fuel planning, weight and balance, and aircraft performance for a realistic route from departure to destination airport and support the stated objective(s) of the LOFT.
5)          Simulator Capability. LOFT may be conducted in Level C and level D simulators only. Dedicated airport scenes revised to represent current airport facilities, including runways/taxiways and navigation facilities must be used for realism (generic visual representation of airports is not acceptable). Both en route and terminal navigation facilities must agree with navigation charts. LOFT should be developed for the make, model, series, and modification status of the aircraft represented by the simulator.
6)          Instructor Training. For LOFT to be a valuable training experience, instructors must be given specialized specific instruction on the scenarios, the techniques for conducting LOFT, and the post flight evaluation. The briefing/debriefing process is extremely important and requires special techniques and training for instructors. Instructor training programs must include documented training in these areas.
7)          Approval. In accordance with FAA policy, all materials used to conduct LOFT as part of a part 142 curriculum will be evaluated and approved by the TCPM. Such items as instrument navigation charts (approach and en route) are not part of that approval since navigation procedures and airport facilities at an airport may change. Only current and accurate representation of airport and navigation facilities will be permitted during LOFT. The training center should periodically review and revise LOFT scenarios to prevent complacency or to accomplish a different objective.


A.        Background.

1)          Advancements in electronic media have made the presentation of educational information second hand to many of our educators. It has become the norm as opposed to the novelty it was just a few years ago. The aviation industry has been one of the largest benefactors of the revolution in digital presentations and interactive media. Systems now include modern training products, many of which are being effectively used in aviation courses conducted by accredited universities and in air carrier training programs approved by the FAA. Collectively, those products fall under a relatively new heading that has been called “distance learning” or “distance education.” As the quality of those products continues to improve, the training/learning process stands to benefit even more.
2)          Previous FAA guidance seemed to presume that traditional classroom training was inherently superior to other delivery methods. Besides the proven effectiveness of modern training products, distance learning affords a low-cost alternative to classroom ground training, an alternative that is timely and appropriate in today’s challenging economic environment. The use of new technology and alternative training methods can, and often does, improve the quality of training. However, alternative training must meet or exceed the training standards that it is intended to replace.

B.        Applicability.

1)          Approval of distant learning methods for credit towards the completion of an approved core or specialty curriculum in excess of that granted by canceled Air Transportation Handbook Bulletin (HBAT) 98-09 may be applied for by the training center. This section applies only to flightcrew (pilots and flight engineers) training curricula/courses that have been approved by the center’s TCPM in accordance with the requirements of part 142 and/or 8900.1, Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 2, Training Approval. Only cognitive or knowledge-based training is eligible for consideration under the provisions of this section.

NOTE: Currently approved training curricula/courses that have an integrated distance-learning module, which was approved in accordance with the guidance found in canceled HBAT 98-09 may continue to be acceptable provided the curriculum is and continues to meet the policy guidance outlined in canceled HBAT 98-09. Training curricula/courses that contain distance-learning module(s) that were approved prior to the issuance of Change 43 to FAA Order 8400.10 on 08/03/06 should be reviewed to ensure they are in compliance with the canceled HBAT. Those curricula/courses that are found to be inconsistent with previous guidance, regulatory or policy requirements or to be ineffective, must be appropriately modified by the training center, or the approval must be withdrawn in accordance with the guidance in 8900.1, Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 2. Specific attention should be placed on the authorized curriculum/course and permitted hours and/or percent of time authorized as permitted by canceled HBAT 98-09 (8 hours not to exceed 50 percent of recurrent, requalification, or refresher training).

C.        Application.

1)          Training centers requesting the inclusion of distance learning must submit a curriculum module or element that qualifies for distance learning. All such request must include:
a)          Specific detail outlining the curriculum module or element(s) proposed.
b)          The center’s implementation and evaluation plan.
c)          All training and study materials, including clearly defined training objectives, phase test, final exams, and the validation testing and methodology proposed for verifying the knowledge gained through approved distance learning modules.

NOTE: Each student that participates in an approved curriculum/course of training that incorporates distance learning must complete a “validation exam,” in person and under the supervision of a qualified instructor or the Administrator prior to the commencement of any flight- or skill-related training at the center. Validation exam(s) are used to verify the knowledge objectives of distance learning module(s) and are in addition to any testing that may have been a part of the distance-learning module. (Refer to subparagraph G2)c) for specific guidance on validation exam requirements.)

2)          When a request is received from a center, the TCPM will observe the classroom module(s) for which the operator has requested a home study substitution. The purpose of this observation is to determine both the quality and quantity of the current training. Based on personal observations and review of the training materials, the TCPM will be better prepared to determine that the proposed home study will effectively duplicate the classroom training it has been designed to replace.
3)          Distant learning will not be credited or considered for any required flight training modules/elements.
4)          Scope of Creditability of Distance Learning. Distance learning credit is currently only available for knowledge and cognitive skill objectives. Creditability of distance learning for psychomotor skills outside of the provisions and limitations described in HBAT 98-09 are not authorized by this section.

D.      Limits on Creditability of Distance Learning. The FAA recognizes the great training potential of distance learning that is well planned and effectively validated. That potential is already being exploited under the Advanced Qualification Program. Ground training developed in accordance with an implementation plan (described below) is subject to FAA approval. Distance learning may be as much 100 percent creditable toward the knowledge and cognitive skill training objectives defined in the ground training segment of a center’s approved curriculum(s).

NOTE:           Initial implementation of distance learning by a training center should be approved cautiously. The substitution of ground training previously conducted in a classroom environment by the center in favor of distance learning modules should be integrated into the center’s curriculum in steps that are based on the center’s demonstrated ability to design and implement a distance learning system. It is recommended that distance-learning modules be approved in phases or through an initial approval process followed by a trial period prior to issuing final approval. The initial versus final approval process for approving training programs is described in 8900.1, Volume 3, Chapter 2, Section 2.

E.        Ground Training Media. The general nature and specific characteristics of training media used for distance learning vary widely. Examples include paper media, videotape, computer-based training, CDs, Web-based training, and virtual classroom. The media used should meet the requirements of the respective training objective. Validation of training effectiveness is one of the most important components of the implementation plan described below.

F.          Implementation Plan. Any proposal for ground training to be accomplished by distance learning must include a plan for start-up, validation, operation, and maintenance of that training. This plan must include at least the following elements:

1)          Startup. The start up phase must identify the knowledge and cognitive training objectives of the distance learning curriculum/course. Ground training objectives can be reduced to simple terms such as being able to:

·        Recall,

·        Recognize,

·        Comprehend,

·        Apply, and

·        Identify the media to be used for ground training and testing.

2)          Validation strategy. Centers must develop a distance learning validation strategy that addresses the effectiveness of the ground training itself, and the learning accomplished by each person trained. Key features of a satisfactory validation strategy include:
a)          Measuring the effectiveness of the ground training being conducted.

1.          Setting a Reference. One validation method is to establish a performance baseline from which to measure the effectiveness of the ground training proposed. Baselines exist in most on-going training programs. Examples of performance baselines include average ground training hours a trainee spends in learning a certain subject, average pass–fail rates for tests of ground training content, median scores, average pass–fail rates for flight checks, and many others. A performance baseline may be set by using an existing baseline or by referring to some other existing standard.

2.          Maintaining the Currency of the Curriculum/Course. Validation depends upon maintaining the currency of the ground training to be conducted. A reliable method to do so is an essential part of a ground training proposal.

3.          Tracking. A method for keeping test results and tracking overall performance of the students.

b)          Learning accomplished by each person trained.

1.          A Strategy for Testing. Testing should be designed to determine that training objectives are being met by each trainee.

2.          Integrity of Tests. A method should be developed to ensure integrity of tests, including integrity of test questions and test answers, and controlled access to tests and test results.

3.          Tracking. A method for keeping test results and tracking each individual’s performance.

c)          Validation Exam(s). Validation of the ground training objectives for distance learning will be accomplished through written exams. These exams must determine that the training proposed actually succeeds in meeting the performance objectives for the subject training.

NOTE: Validation exams should not be confused with the oral/written testing required by the appropriate PTS. Validation exams are intended to authenticate the effectiveness of approved distance learning modules. They are not a substitute for nor do they replace the required testing outlined in the appropriate PTS document.

1.          The validation of a center’s distance learning module(s) must be designed to evaluate the student’s technical systems knowledge and cognitive skill (if appropriate). For example, a student’s ability to list the items that are considered appropriate when accomplishing a takeoff and/or landing performance calculation is a measure of the student’s technical knowledge. The appropriate use of those items in the calculation of a takeoff and/or landing performance problem is a measure of the student’s cognitive skill.

2.          Validation exam procedures must be submitted to the TCPM and designed to:

·        Collect data related to the student’s performance for the purposes of verifying the effectiveness of the training;

·        Identify the specific questions taken and student responses to the validation exam; and

·        Provide a basis for documenting that the distance learning module is as effective as the center’s previously used classroom training module, (if appropriate).

3.          Passing Grade—80 Percent. The minimum passing score for all distance learning validation exams is 80 percent. Distance learning validation exams must be conducted in a proctored environment and observed by a qualified instructor or the Administrator. All students that meet or exceed the minimum grade of 80 percent will have their test corrected to 100 percent immediately following the exam. A score of less than 80 percent will require the student to be retrained and tested in the substandard areas by a qualified instructor in a proctored environment. Distance learning techniques or procedures may not be used to accomplish any required retraining resulting from an unsatisfactory exam. Subsequent reexamination will be accomplished using a random test generator to ensure the individual is not subjected to the same test that was originally taken. All training and testing must be satisfactorily accomplished before the student may continue their training course.

4.          Integrity of Test Questions.

a.            Scope. A library of questions should be developed that thoroughly cover the training objectives.

b.          Multiple Questions. Multiple questions must be developed for each training objective. A question bank that includes at least five questions at the element level for each subject within the training module should be developed whenever practical.

NOTE: An element is a subgroup of related content within a training module. It is the fourth level of curriculum detail: curriculum, curriculum segment, training module, and element. For example, “Hydraulic System” is one training module; the yellow system, the green system, and the standby system are elements. In this example the center’s question bank would contain at least 15 questions relating to the hydraulic system (i.e., five for the yellow system, five for the green system, and five for the standby system).

c.            Uniqueness. Tests must be generated by random selection of questions from the library, so that no two tests are alike. This uniqueness does not refer to merely switching the order of the answers to a particular question without changing the question itself. Random answers to the same question do not qualify the question as being different for the purposes of this requirement.

d.          Currency. Test questions must be reviewed as often as necessary to assure their relevancy, and to incorporate new or changed material. The center must have a quality procedure in place to ensure currency of their question banks.

e.            Integrity of Test Answers. Trainers must develop measures by which the identity of a person taking the test may be confirmed. Printed or electronic test answers must not be able to be reproduced and distributed among trainees so as to beat the test.

d)          Operations and Maintenance. The operation and maintenance of the distance learning approval includes the quality control procedures for the collection, protection, and analysis of data for tracking ground training effectiveness; also, a strategy for equipment upgrade, program update, and program adjustments driven by data and feedback from trainers and trainees.

G.      Interactivity. Training centers must provide for interactivity between trainees and authorized ground instructors, and between the trainees themselves when practical.

1)          When in the Field. In particular, a trainee should have ready access to an authorized ground instructor during normal business hours to resolve questions encountered during distance learning and associated testing.
2)          When at a Centralized Training Location. Before flight training, trainees should be convened in a proctored classroom setting with an authorized ground instructor to resolve any remaining issues arising during distance learning. This interactivity is particularly beneficial in respect to the standardization of trainees enrolled in the same curriculum/course.

3-4437   COURSEWARE.

A.        Courseware is the instructional material developed for each curriculum. It consists of lesson plans, instructor guides, computer-based training, audiovisual materials, training manuals, workbooks, aircraft operating manual(s), handouts, and any other materials used to support the training curriculum. Courseware must accurately represent and support the proposed training curriculum.

B.        All courseware used to accomplish training must be evaluated by the TCPM as an integral part of the overall training program. When reviewing courseware, the TCPM should not accept the use of computerized and tabulated performance figures, proprietary weight and balance data, minimum equipment lists that require a call to a proprietary maintenance base, and use of a dispatch service that may not be available to the student upon completion of training at the training center.

C.        Courseware must be acceptable to the FAA prior to and during the time curriculum approval is in effect, and must be identified (revision status) in a manner that ensures that only current materials are used to accomplish training. The training center must present courseware (including revisions) to the TCPM before use for review and approval. The TCPM must notify the training center in writing of any courseware that is determined to be unacceptable. Courseware is subject to the revision provisions of part 142, § 142.37(e) and (f).

D.      Pictorial Aircraft Preflight Inspection Courseware.

1)          The preferred method to accomplish aircraft preflight inspection training, testing, and checking is to use an actual aircraft. In situations when an aircraft is not available, a training center must have approved pictorial courseware for each curriculum to conduct training, checking, or testing. In situations when an aircraft is used to complete any training, checking, or testing, the actual aircraft must be used.
2)          The TCPM must approve pictorial courseware for preflight training, checking, and testing. A review of the content must be accomplished with the assistance of an FAA inspector qualified in the aircraft.
3)          In addition to Exemption 4901, which is specific to flight engineer certification requirements for pictorials, the following guidance for pictorial courseware will apply:
a)          Strategy for Use of Pictorial Courseware. The strategies for training are different from the strategies for checking and testing when using pictorial courseware. The optimum training results may be achieved through the use of video, interactive computer-based instruction, and pictorial displays of the make, model, and series of the aircraft represented by the flight training equipment being used. To allow for positive learning transfer, the trainee should view preflight items in the same configurations as they would be viewed when using a static airplane. However, it is also beneficial to discuss abnormal conditions in training.
b)          For checking and testing, slides are effective pictorial courseware. When used during checking and testing, pictorials should include abnormal conditions in a sufficient number to permit a reliable evaluation of the applicant’s knowledge and ability to conduct a preflight inspection.
4)          Required Content. The following are required to be part of an approved pictorial preflight inspection courseware:
a)          Detailed pictures of each interior and exterior aircraft preflight checklist item, including pictorials of the overall aircraft and major sections of the aircraft, showing the location and relationship of specific inspection items.
b)          Capability for random, rapid access to any picture.
c)          The opening, closing, and securing of entrance or baggage/cargo doors. Video may be used to train in these or any areas that require an understanding of how a component operates.
d)          Internal and external items and any preparatory or safety related items, such as positioning or securing landing gear doors or landing gear locks before or after the inspection, or cockpit safety check.
e)          Pictures of each passenger compartment and each preflight inspection item.
f)              Depiction of normal and abnormal conditions.
g)          Sequence of pictures should match the sequence of the preflight inspection.
h)          Use of models, mockups, components, cutaways, and expanded views to depict details or function of inspection items.
5)          Specific Characteristics.
a)          Pictorial courseware must contain pictures of each item on the aircraft preflight checklist.
b)          The opening, closing, and securing of aircraft doors must be trained and evaluated.
c)          The aircraft should be shown in a typical prior-to-flight condition, which may include the support people and equipment, (e.g., fueling, cleaning, and catering) normally associated with flight preparation.
d)          Nothing should obstruct the view of the preflight item (jetways, fuel trucks, workstands, etc.).
e)          The pictorial series should feature the same or identical aircraft as represented by the flight training equipment be used for training. In some cases, use of a dissimilar aircraft may be justified to depict differences. Pictures should be representative of the specific aircraft in which the pilot certification will be conducted. For example, pictures of an LR-55 are not representative and should not be used for training or testing based on the LR-25 aircraft.
f)              Text or voice manuscript should be available for and match each picture used for training when an instructor is not presenting the training.
g)          The courseware should be high quality, and projection equipment should have random and rapid access capability. Examples of unacceptable quality include low-resolution copies of photographs, videotape systems without random and rapid access capability, or any other pictorial system that is markedly inferior to use of a static airplane.
h)          For optimum effective training, the pictorial preflight courseware used in training should be different from that used during evaluation. Some of the pictures used for testing or checking should be different from those used for training. Abnormal conditions of preflight items must be introduced during evaluations and in sufficient number to permit a reliable evaluation of the applicant’s preflight ability.
i)              For checking and testing, abnormal features should not be shown in pictures intended to depict normal aircraft conditions.
j)              Pictures of abnormal conditions should be maintained to permit comprehensive coverage. In particular, pictures should include those abnormal conditions that are likely to be encountered during preflight inspection and those which are potentially unsafe.
k)          Unless an abnormal condition is intentionally depicted for checking and testing, pictorials illustrate as follows:

1.          All permanent parts should be in place and in normal condition, such as windows and doors, windshield wipers, antennas, panels, etc;

2.          All removable parts, such as engine cowls and access panels, should be in place and in normal condition (engine inlets should be shown with covers removed);

3.          Aerodynamic surfaces, wheel well doors, flaps, slats, and other devices should be in the configuration that they are normally before flight; and

4.          People and equipment associated with assembly or maintenance work should not be in the illustration.

l)              The preflight procedures contained in the FAA-approved Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) or Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM) is the standard references for the preflight visual inspection. They are primary for determining essential preflight items and the sequence in which those items should be inspected.
m)      Approval is granted by the TCPM in writing. To ensure continuity, the TCPM must require pictorial courseware to be identified with a title and control number or revision to which an approval is tied. Pictorial preflight courseware is subject to the revision requirements of § 142.37(e) and (f).

E.        Lesson Plans.

1)          A lesson plan is a written, organized outline that provides detailed content of a single instructional period. It provides the instructor with a guide as to what specific knowledge or skills are to be taught as well as completion standards. It includes planned instruction time and sequence to ensure effective use of time.

NOTE: Some centers may develop and use other materials such as “Expanded Instructor Actions” to support the lesson plans. These materials typically provide additional support for the instructor and are considered as courseware, similar to lessons plans.

2)          Each training center must have lesson plans to implement each curriculum and syllabus and must be developed by the training center to support the curriculum with appropriate content and programmed training times. Lesson plans must contain detailed information concerning the conduct of each flight or ground training session to ensure consistency of training throughout the training center and standardization among instructors. The lesson plans should provided detailed information on all elements and events specified in the curriculum and indicate training times that equal or exceed the times specified for the curriculum.
3)          Lesson plans are courseware and are the indicators that the instruction will flow in a logical sequence and in concert with the other training aids and the approved curriculum. They must cover the same information as required by the curriculum and syllabus. Lesson plans must be reviewed as part of the courseware and must be acceptable to the FAA prior to issuing training specifications that authorize the curriculum to be taught. Deficient lesson plans are subject to the revision provisions of § 142.37(e) and (f).

NOTE: A job aid that may be used to compare individual lesson plans and curriculum content and assist with the lesson plan evaluation titled “Flight Training Maneuvers Job Aid” is located on AFS-210’s part 142 training center Web site.

F.          Aircraft Operating Manuals, Checklists, and Quick Reference Handbooks.

1)          The training center must use the FAA-approved AFM or RFM as the basic training reference for systems information, description, operation, performance planning, checklists, and weight and balance.
2)          The training center must provide as part of the curriculum courseware any aircraft operating manuals, checklists, and quick reference handbooks (QRH) that will be used for training, testing, and checking under a part 142 approved curriculum. As with any courseware, the checklist/QRH used for training, testing, or checking under an approved curriculum must be reviewed and accepted. The evaluation of a checklist or QRH proposed by the training center must be conducted by the TCPM using the AFM/RFM. A checklist or QRH that differs from the center’s accepted version may only be used in accordance with subparagraph 3) below.
3)          The aircraft operating checklists used in flight simulators, FTDs, and aircraft, under approved training center programs must be reviewed and becomes a portion of the approved courseware for use in those programs. When training, testing or checking is being conducted under an approved curriculum, the following general guidelines should be followed:
4)          Training centers that are conducting training for certificated air operators are required to follow that operator’s standard operating procedures during all training and checking on behalf of that operator. Certificated operators are required to use their approved/accepted checklist for all training and checking and as a result, their checklist policies and procedures are governed by their respective POI and not subject to revision by the operator or training center without specific approval. Checklists authorized for use in part 142 training courses must:
a)          Be the checklist approved by the TCPM as a part of the training center’s approved curriculum for the specific aircraft make/model/series;
b)          When used in a Level 1 through 7 FTD or level A through D full flight simulator (FFS) by noncertificated operators, accurately reflect the configuration and systems of the FTD or FFS and not deviate from the aircraft manufacturer’s current checklist or a checklist determined in compliance with requirements listed below; and
c)          When used in an aircraft, is the aircraft manufacturer’s current checklist, a checklist approved by the aircraft manufacturer, or a checklist determined in compliance with requirements listed below.
5)          Exceptions to the checklist requirements specified above may be made for training and evaluation of flight crewmembers of noncertificated operators conducted in an FTD or simulator. Pilots operating for noncertificated operators may obtain training and/or checking using checklists that differ from the training center’s approved checklist under the following conditions:

NOTE: The operator must determine before submission that the checklist matches the center’s equipment and is capable of meeting the center’s approved curriculum and training, testing, and checking requirements.

a)          The operator must provide the training center a copy of the checklist and a written statement indicating that the operator has determined that the submitted checklist meets all the following performance standards:

1.          The checklist satisfies the requirements of part 91, § 91.503;

2.          The checklist is appropriate to the equipment in which the operator’s pilots are being trained and/or checked;

3.          Areas of differences between the centers approved version of the checklist and the operators checklist are documented and appropriate training provided to the center personnel; and

4.          The operator certifies that their checklist meets the applicable AFM requirements for the specific equipment.

NOTE: The operator’s certification must include a copy of the appropriate FAA/manufacturer letter of no objection to the proposed checklist. Certificated operators will need an acceptance/approval letter from their POI. Noncertificated operators will need a letter of acceptance/no objection from the FAA or manufacturer as appropriate.

b)          The operator’s certification and proposed checklist must normally be presented to the center 15 days before any scheduled training/evaluations. A shorter time may be acceptable under certain conditions. However, the operator’s submission must be made in sufficient time to permit the center to conduct appropriate training and permit their instructor(s)/training center evaluator(s) (TCE) to become operationally familiar with the procedures contained in the checklist. All such training will be documented and become a part of the instructor(s) and TCE(s) training record. The center’s documentation must include at least the following information:

1.          Date of the training or familiarization;

2.          Name of instructor who conducted the training/familiarization;

3.          Checklist revision status used for the training/familiarization;

4.          Name of the operator; and

5.          Aircraft make, model, and series.

c)          Seven days before the subject training/evaluation, the training center must provide notification to the TCPM when an operator’s checklist has been received and the dates of intended use.
d)          Checklists that fully meet the performance standards in this paragraph may be used in place of the checklist in the training center approved curriculum courseware.
6)          Military flight crewmembers and crewmembers of public-use aircraft may use their organization’s checklist when attending a part 142 training center.

NOTE: Only one version of an approved checklist will be used by the crewmembers paired during training, testing, or checking in part 142 approved training courses. Crewmembers from different operators that have agreed to be paired for training, testing, and/or checking will determine which checklist will be followed throughout their training/evaluation process. The checklist being used must conform to the policy and procedures outlined above.

G.      Audiovisual Programs, Computer Software Programs, Training Manuals, Workbooks, Handouts, and Other Courseware.

1)          These training materials are approved as an integral part of the overall training program subject to the revision provisions of § 142.37(e) and (f). They should be identified with a control date or other form of revision control.
2)          The TCPM must evaluate all courseware used to accomplish training as an integral part of the overall training program. Courseware must be acceptable to the FAA prior to and during the time curriculum approval is in effect and should be identified in a manner to ensure that only current materials are used to accomplish training. Courseware must be presented to the TCPM before introduction (including revisions) for review and acceptance. The TCPM must notify the training center in writing of any courseware that is determined to be unacceptable. Courseware is subject to the revision provisions of § 142.37(e) and (f).

H.      Facilities. Each training center and training center applicant must have a training room, training booth, or other space used for instructional purposes that is heated, lighted, and ventilated to conform to local building, sanitation, and health codes. Each training facility must provide students with an environment free from the distraction of other classrooms or flight and maintenance operations.

I.            Maneuvers/Procedures Descriptions (Including SOP).

1)          To facilitate learning, the training center must develop and provide to students descriptions (written and/or visual) of how to perform each maneuver or procedure to be accomplished during training. This should include SOPs that state the briefing procedures, crew callouts, etc. to be used in training, testing, and checking for each course involving flight-training events.
2)          Descriptions of the maneuvers and procedures (also referred to as profiles, or flight maneuvers and procedures document) explain how these events will be performed. Descriptions must be provided for each training program. They should follow the guidelines in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 2. The descriptions must comply with all limitations of the AFM or RFM and be consistent with requirements and conditions of the PTS and the regulations.
3)          SOPs should be developed and evaluated using the current edition of AC 120-71, Standard Operating Procedures for Flight Deck Crewmembers, as guidance.
4)          The maneuvers/procedures descriptions and SOPs are courseware and must be developed and evaluated as part of the approval process for any new or revised curriculum. Maneuvers/procedures are knowledge and skills related to the transport of dangerous goods.
5)          Security Procedures.
6)          Recurrent training program including an examination to determine competence approved by the TCPM as an integral part of the overall training program and are subject to the revision provisions of § 142.37(e) and (f).

J.          Training, Testing, and Checking.

1)          Under part 142, training, testing, and checking can be accomplished in four categories:
a)          Initial Training. This category includes initial training for an air transportation pilot certificate, a type rating, or initial training as second in command (SIC).
b)          Upgrade Training. This category of training applies to an airman who is currently serving as an SIC who wishes to become PIC qualified on the same aircraft. This category of training may include foreign pilots with a foreign type rating applying for a U.S. certificate with an appropriate type rating.

NOTE: Designated examiners, including TCEs may only examine U.S. citizens or applicants trained under a training center’s approved program, or individuals employed as flight crewmembers of a part 121 or part 135 air carrier and trained under that operator’s approved training program.

c)          Requalification Training. This category of training is for those airmen that are PIC (or SIC)‑qualified, but who are not currently operating the aircraft, or whose PIC proficiency check has expired. Guidelines for the training times that should be used for a requalification curriculum can be found in Volume 3, Chapter 19, Section 11. Tables 3-75 through 3-77 should be used to determine the minimum ground and flight training time for the appropriate aircraft.
d)          Recurrent Training. This category of training is for PICs (or SICs) who are currently operating the aircraft or have a valid PIC proficiency check.
2)          Ground training time for airman certification may not include training in ground training subject areas that occur after the ground training course or segment has been completed and completion/qualification standards have been accomplished. Specifically, using briefing time preceding or following a simulator training session as programmed ground instruction time is not acceptable.
3)          For any curriculum involving airman certification, the appropriate ground training modules or segment must be satisfactorily completed before start of the associated flight training lesson(s).
4)          In addition, a legal interpretation of part, 142 § 142.49(c)(1), dated August 27, 1999, ruled in part that restricting instructors to “no more than 8 hours of instruction in any 24-consecutive hour period” applies only to flight instructors, flight simulator instructors, and FTD instructors while they are providing instruction in an aircraft, a flight simulator, an FTD, or any combination thereof. Consequently, instruction time has an impact on the maximum duty time per day for an instructor, except for time spent conducting briefing and debriefing associated with flight training.
5)          Time spent completing or attempting to complete a practical test does not count toward the minimum programmed time.
6)          Training completed after the qualification segment of a curriculum has been completed may not be credited toward the curriculum programmed hours.
7)          The time spent by the airman actually manipulating the controls from the PIC seat during LOFT may be a part of the minimum programmed hours.
8)          Crew pairing for training and evaluations.
a)          Training centers often provide services to air carriers, which are required to meet the operating rules of the particular operator. These training programs include checklists, callouts, profiles, approach procedures, and other features that are specifically approved for that carrier by its assigned POI. Occasionally an operator may not be able to assign a complete crew for their training and checking activities at training centers. When this situation occurs, the training center may provide other qualified crewmembers, subject to the criteria outlined below.
b)          The FAA promotes the crew concept in air carrier training and checking to ensure that crew coordination and other flight management issues are adequately addressed. Flight training must address performance of duties as the pilot flying and as the pilot not flying, as described in the air carrier’s approved procedures. To meet both training needs, each required cockpit crew position must be occupied by a permissible crewmember as outlined below.
c)          It is desirable that each flight training session be scheduled so that two pilots from the same air carrier may be trained during a single flight training session. The preferred crew pairing is a PIC and a SIC. Other acceptable crew pairings are two PICs or two SICs. In accordance with FAA safety policy, a pilot should have completed the appropriate aircraft ground training, including basic indoctrination, prior to beginning the flight-training segment.
d)          Permissible Crew Pairings for Part 135. Part 135 air carriers often operate with small pilot rosters or with pilots who are widely dispersed. This policy allows crew pairings for flight training and/or checking in a simulator at a training center using an appropriate crewmember. An appropriate crewmember must be one of the following:

1.          One of the air carrier’s line qualified pilots,

2.          A contract flight instructor (airplane or simulator) or a contract check airman (airplane or simulator) who is authorized to serve in that air carrier’s training program or in an air carrier training program that is essentially similar.

NOTE: Training programs may be viewed as essentially similar when they include the same curriculum, the same checklists, and the same callouts and include cockpit configurations, operational procedures, and flight manuals which are compatible in the judgment of the TCPM and the appropriate POI.

3.          A part 135 air carrier pilot being trained in a training program which is FAA-approved for another part 135 air carrier, but which is otherwise essentially similar. The following conditions apply:

a.            Each air carrier pilot must be trained in accordance with the training program approved by the POI of his/her own air carrier.

b.          Two pilots training for operations with different carriers may be paired provided their respective training programs are essentially similar. MELs, OpSpec/MSpec, and other features specific to each air carrier’s operations must be addressed during flight training. When the training curricula are not essentially similar, pilots may not be paired; similarly, when operational differences between carriers are too pronounced or too numerous, at the discretion of the POI or TCPM, pilots may not be paired.

c.            When only one pilot is receiving flight training, the other pilot’s seat must be occupied by a person who is line qualified or line familiar in the specified duty position (refer to AC 120-35 for definition of terms), unless the flight training is being conducted for single-pilot operations.

4.          Pilots must have completed the operator’s applicable ground training curriculum segments prior to starting the flight-training curriculum segments.

e)          Pairing pilots in flight training and evaluation for operations under different parts. When pilots from different operators are paired in training programs that are essentially similar, the operator-specific features (e.g., as MELs and OpSpec/MSpec) of each operator must be addressed. Pilots in training for part 135 operations should not routinely be paired with pilots training for operations under part 91. These crew pairings should be avoided in favor of the pairings outlined in subparagraph 8)d) above. However, such crew pairings are permissible if the following conditions are met:

1.          The part 91 pilot must conform to the training program of the part 135 pilot in every important respect. Specifically, checklists, profiles, approach procedures and callouts must be those used in the training program of the part 135 pilot (not vice versa), and the part 91 pilot must understand and apply CRM principles in accordance with the Air Transport Pilot Practical Test Standards.

2.          Each certificated air carrier’s crewmember must complete the appropriate air carrier’s evaluation module. Part 135 pilots may support the part 91 pilot’s training activities as appropriate.

3.          Part 91 pilots paired with an air carrier crewmember must use the air carrier’s approved curriculum. In these cases, the TCPM must concur with the part 91 pilot’s use of the air carrier’s curriculum to complete required training and currency.

4.          The part 91 pilot must have received differences training in the features of the part 135 training curricula that distinguish it from part 91 training curricula. That training should also include the operator’s OpSpecs and operational control procedures.

NOTE: In crew pairings involving pilots of different part 135 operators or pilots operating under different operating rules (part 135 and part 91) POIs and TCPMs must be especially vigilant. The part 135 operator’s training program must not be distorted or diminished in order to accommodate dissimilar training needs. If the integrity of the air carrier training program cannot be upheld the crew pairing must not be permitted.

3-4438   TRAINING FACILITIES. The training center must adequate facilities to assure that each training room or other space used for instructional purposes is heated, lighted, and ventilated to conform to local building, sanitation, and health codes. The training facility must also provides students with a learning environment free of distractions, such as instruction conducted in other rooms or flight and maintenance operations on an airport.


A.        A record is information preserved in a predetermined format as an account of the occurrence of an event. In general, a record must show what event occurred, when it occurred, who was involved, and proof of the event’s occurrence such as certification by individual signature.

1)          Records of airman, instructor, and evaluator training and qualification are an integral part of any training program. A training center certificated under part 142 is required by regulation to produce and maintain certain records and to have an approved recordkeeping system. Each student, instructor, or evaluator record consists of all documentation that is required to be maintained on a specific individual. Those documents must be maintained in the same approved location.
2)          The recordkeeping system must identify what records are to be used to meet each FAA and TSA regulatory requirement. The system must describe in detail the procedures and forms to be used by the training center for the generation and maintenance of required records. That description may be in an approved manual that is referenced in the training specifications or a detailed description of the records including specific forms must be entered into the training specifications. Each form on which a training or qualification record is kept must be identified by a control or revision number to identify that the current recordkeeping system is in use. Revisions to the recordkeeping system, including individual forms, must be approved by the TCPM.
3)          A training center may elect to develop and use an electronic recordkeeping system. The system must be capable of generating and maintaining the required records.

B.        Student Records. Recordkeeping requirements for students are stated in part 142, § 142.73 and should contain the following information:

1)          Whether prerequisites were met prior to enrollment, including airman certificates and previous experience.
2)          The curriculum in which the student is enrolled.
3)          Results of each test or check.
4)          Documentation of the student progress, daily flight training status, and curriculum/course completion.
5)          A requirement for each instructor who provides ground or flight instruction to record each student’s performance on each lesson (ground and flight). The record must also identify the name of the instructor as well as the training time accomplished.
6)          Proof that the student is eligible to accomplish 100 percent training and testing in a simulator or a statement with the appropriate limiting language for the certificate being sought.
7)          Recommended additional training in the event of an unsatisfactory test or check.
8)          Record of additional training received and the satisfactory accomplishment of the training before retesting following an unsatisfactory test or check.

C.        Instructor/Evaluator Records.

1)          Recordkeeping requirements for instructors and evaluators are stated in § 142.73. These records must document the qualification, training, and checking requirements of part 142, §§ 142.13, 142.45, 142.47, 142.49, and 142.53. The system should contain the following information:
a)          Eligibility requirements and prerequisites for the position § 142.47. This includes pilot certificates and detailed flight experience.
b)          Completion of instructor/evaluator training (§§ 142.49 and 142.53), including documentation that reflects curriculum content. Instructor and evaluator training are subject to the requirement that each instructor who provides ground or flight instruction under an approved curriculum must record each student’s performance on each lesson (ground and flight). The record must also indicate the name of the instructor as well as the training time. The program must include the initial and recurrent training and testing requirements of part 142, subpart C. Training time must be identified.
c)          Completion of the appropriate training curriculum or course in which that individual will instruct.
d)          Satisfactory completion of written testing requirements.
e)          Designation as an instructor to instruct in each approved course. The records must identify each and every course or curriculum assignment and document the duties of each instructor (e.g., ground instructor: Learjet initial and recurrent; differences; simulator instructor: PIC/SIC initial and recurrent, etc.). Designation should not just identify an aircraft type.
f)              Satisfactory completion of written testing requirements.
g)          Annual flight experience or line/flight observation, including verification by flightcrew of participation and time and LOFT.
2)          The center’s record keeping system must include a method to ensure instructors and/or TCEs are not scheduled to exceed 8 hours of instruction and/or evaluation duties in any continuous 24-hour period, excluding briefings and debriefings. This system must also identify the method the training center will use to prevent an instructor or TCE from being scheduled or accepting duty periods that will exceed the maximum allowed instruction and evaluation time in any continuous 24-hour period. (Refer to §§ 142.49 and 142.55).

NOTE: For example, a TCE assigned to instruct 4 hours of flight training followed by a 3-hour simulator evaluation will be considered to have accumulated 7 hours of time toward the 8-hour maximum permitted by the applicable regulation.

3)          The initial and annual instructor proficiency check must have been satisfactorily completed. The regulations require that each instructor must be checked annually “...in a representative segment of each curriculum (not aircraft type) for which that instructor is designated to instruct....”
4)          The records must show the initial and annual evaluation of instructional ability. An instructor authorized to instruct in multiple curricula must be evaluated and checked annually in each of those curricula for which he/she is authorized to provide instruction. Each curriculum may be evaluated separately or concurrently with another curriculum if the TCPM determines that there is sufficient commonality between the curricula to warrant crediting instruction in one as equivalent to the other. The records must, however, document that the instructor has been evaluated for each of the assigned curricula.

NOTE: Regulations require that air carriers keep adequate training records for instructors and check airmen at their principal place of business or other locations as approved by their POIs. Training centers that are providing training on behalf of an operator are considered part of the operator’s program and therefore are reasonable locations for an operator to maintain applicable training records. The records, however, must be maintained in compliance with the operator’s approved program and must be made available to the operator and/or the Administrator upon request. Records of crewmember training and checking are required to be furnished to the operator upon completion (within 24 hours) of any course of training and/or testing/checking in order to enable the operator to determine qualifications for crew assignment(s).

5)          If the training center provides air carrier training and checking and has agreed to maintain the contract check airman and/or contract instructor training records for the customer, the center’s recordkeeping system will need to accommodate the requirements of the customer’s operating rules which will vary from the center’s requirements. The training center is only required to maintain records in support of its (the training center’s) approved programs. Part 142, subpart E, requires training centers to maintain records for trainees, instructors, and evaluators for courses “…approved in accordance with subpart B of this part.” An air carrier may contract with the center and may have included a provision wherein the center will maintain certain portions of the operator’s training records. If the center has been approved to maintain the operator’s training records, it is being done under an agreement with the operator and the operator remains responsible for the accuracy and quality of the subject records. The fact that the center has agreed to maintain the subject records will require the center to keep an additional set of records to comply with the operator’s requirements. This becomes especially important when the operator is requesting the center to provide contract instructors and check airmen who are also employed by the center as instructors and/or TCEs.
6)          If the center will be providing contract instructors or contract check airmen to the operator, required instructor and TCE records will form the basis for qualifying those individuals as contract instructors and check airmen for the operator and will need to be available for review by the air carrier and its POI.
7)          Prior to approving the center’s record keeping system, the TCPM must review part 142 regulatory requirements for qualification, training, testing, and checking and ensure the proposed method(s) of recordkeeping meets applicable regulatory requirements. The location of required records as well as the person responsible for their management must also be identified.
8)          A job aid titled “Training Center Instructor Eligibility and Training Records” has been developed to assist the TCPM in determining if an instructor/evaluator training and record keeping system meets regulatory requirements. This is available AFS-210’s part 142 training center Web site.

D.      Permissible Crew Pairing During Training, Testing, or Checking.

1)          During testing, checking, or LOS conducted under a part 142-approved curricula; each crewmember seat will be occupied by:
a)          An airman who is FAA-qualified in the same aircraft category, class, and type. This could be a training center instructor who is not providing instruction, or another airman who is qualified in the particular curriculum/course requirements and procedures.
b)          A student who is enrolled in the same specific course (PIC initial training and SIC initial training for the same aircraft may not be the same specific course).
2)          The same crewmember pairing requirements should be used during training in view of the requirement that all training in the simulator or aircraft will be accomplished using the curriculum’s approved checklist/QRH. For standardization and effective training, all crewmembers should be using the same maneuvers/procedures, and operating procedures (including CRM) during a training session. Additional guidelines and acceptable crew pairing procedures are located on AFS-210’s part 142 training center Web site.


A.        Part 142 requires training centers to obtain approval of a new curriculum or a revision to a currently approved curriculum before the subject curriculum may be conducted. Inherent in the approval process is the FAA’s responsibility to deny approval of any training which does not meet regulatory requirements or which has been found deficient. Training curricula that have been granted approval and later found to be in conflict with regulatory requirements or to be ineffective must be appropriately modified by the center, or FAA approval must be withdrawn.

B.        The TCPM should discuss with the training center the sequence and timing of events which occur in the development and the granting of initial and final approval of a training curricula. If the center’s proposal involves complex operations, the TCPM should consult the appropriate sections of this handbook and other relevant documents and also determine whether assistance from an FAA specialist will be necessary.

C.        Training center curricula will be approved following a two-step process: initial and final.

1)          Initial Approval. Initial approval is granted by letter. Initial approval letters must include at least the following information:

·        Specific identification of the curricula and/or curriculum segments (ground or flight) initially approved, including page numbers and revision control dates;

·        A statement that initial approval is granted, including the effective and expiration dates;

·        Any specific conditions affecting the initial approval, if applicable; and

·        A request for advance notice of training schedules so that training may be evaluated in accordance with part 142, as appropriate.

a)          An initial approval letter serves as the primary record of curriculum or curriculum segment pages that are being approved. The TCPM and training center may agree to include the curriculum’s list of effective pages (LOEP) as an attachment to the approval letter in lieu of listing each page number in the body of the approval letter. If this method is used, the LOEP must be stamped or signed by the TCPM clearly indicating the initial approval date and expiration date.
b)          The original pages of the approved curriculum must be returned to the center with the transmittal letter. These documents must be retained by the center as their official record of the curriculum being initially approved. A copy of the training curriculum or curriculum segment, with a copy of the transmittal letter granting initial approval attached, must be maintained on file in the certificate-holding district office (CHDO) by the TCPM during the period that the initial approval is valid. This file must also include any additional relevant supporting information.
2)          Final Approval. Final approval may be granted following the center’s demonstration of their ability to successfully conduct the subject curriculum and evaluation of the curriculum’s effectiveness. Final approval is granted by letter and stamping the curriculum’s LOEP as shown in paragraph b) below. The final approval letter must contain at least the following information:

·        Specific identification of the curricula and/or curriculum segments (ground or flight) to be approved;

·        A statement that final approval is granted, including the effective date; and

·        Any specific conditions affecting the final approval, if applicable.

NOTE: If the TCPM is authorizing a reduction in the hours specified by part 61, a statement concerning the basis for reduction must also be included.

a)          Based on the results of evaluations conducted during the curriculum’s initial approval phase, the TCPM must determine whether to grant or deny final approval of a training curriculum. This determination must be made before the expiration date of the initial approval. If the TCPM decides not to grant final approval, he/she must make reasonable efforts to convince the center to make the necessary revisions. If the center fails to comply within a reasonable time, the TCPM must withdraw the centers initial approval for the subject curriculum. (Refer to volume 3, chapter 19 for guidance on terminating or failing to issue final approval for a curriculum.)
b)          Final approval of the training curriculum will be granted and documented by letter and stamping each page of the curricula LOEP as shown in Figure 3-147D.
c)          The original stamped LOEP and associated curriculum must be transmitted to the training center with an approval letter signed by the TCPM. This letter must specifically identify the curriculum or curriculum segment, contain a statement that final approval is granted, and provide the effective date of approval. This letter must also state that final approval must remain in effect until otherwise notified by the FAA that a revision is necessary in accordance with part 142 training center Web site.

Figure 3-147D, FAA Final Approval






RESERVED. Paragraphs 3-4441 through 3-4460.