9/12/18

 

8900.1 CHG 619

VOLUME 11  FLIGHT STANDARDS PROGRAMS

CHAPTER 10  AVIATION TRAINING DEVICE

Section 1  Approval, Oversight, and Authorized Use Under 14 CFR Parts 61 and 141

11-10-1-1    PROGRAM TRACKING AND REPORTING SUBSYSTEM (PTRS) ACTIVITY CODES. Use activity codes 1351 EVAL SIM/TNG DVC or 1630 SURVL/TRNG DEVICE.

11-10-1-3    OBJECTIVE. This section provides guidance for the approval and oversight of Aviation Training Devices (ATD) and authorized use under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 61 and 141 pilot schools, and provides guidance to aviation safety inspectors (ASI) for the evaluation, approval, and authorized use of an ATD. Inspectors can find detailed approval criteria and guidance in the current edition of Advisory Circular (AC) 61-136, FAA Approval of Aviation Training Devices and Their Use for Training and Experience. This guidance does not apply to flight simulation training devices (FSTD) approved by the National Simulator Program (AFS-205) and regulated under 14 CFR part 60.

11-10-1-5    ATD OVERVIEW. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) categorizes the ATD into two types of approval: basic and advanced. Each ATD category is specifically defined and has standards established for its approval and authorized use. All ATDs must have an approved Qualification and Approval Guide (QAG), be evaluated by the FAA, and receive a letter of authorization (LOA) before they can be used for pilot training and experience requirements. The General Aviation and Commercial Division (AFS-800) is responsible for FAA policy regarding basic aviation training devices (BATD) and advanced aviation training devices (AATD). AFS-800 is the office responsible for the approval of ATDs, as well as for specifying their authorized use. ATDs that are approved by the Administrator may be used for certain pilot certificate and rating experience requirements under parts 61 and 141, and specific instrument experience and training conducted under part 61, § 61.57. The LOA provided for each FAA-approved ATD will describe the specific allowances for pilot training and experience. ATDs may not be used for practical tests or aircraft-type-specific training. FAA‑approved ATDs used exclusively for pilot training under part 61 do not require any further FAA approval or acceptance for use. However, ATDs used for training by a part 141 pilot school must also receive approval for use by the operator’s jurisdictional Flight Standards District Office (FSDO). This must be in the form of an FAA‑approved training course outline (TCO) and syllabus.

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11-10-1-7    OTHER DEVICES: GROUND TRAINING DEVICE (GTD), PERSONAL COMPUTER‑BASED AVIATION TRAINING DEVICE (PCATD), AND LEVEL 1, 2, OR 3 FLIGHT TRAINING DEVICE (FTD).

A.    Previous Approvals. The FAA no longer issues PCATD or Level 1, 2, or 3 FTD approvals. Training device manufacturers can seek new or revised approvals and otherwise request a BATD or AATD approval for their training devices, if they qualify. As of January 1, 2015, previously issued LOAs without an expiration date are no longer valid. (Refer to Federal Register (FR) Docket No. FAA-20130809, Notice of Policy Change for the Use of FAA Approved Training Devices.) Using the standards defined in AC 61-136, training device manufacturers may request BATD or AATD approval for devices previously approved and accepted as a GTD, PCATD, or Level 1, 2, or 3 FTD.

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B.    Apply for a New Authorization. Training devices that have received FAA approval prior to 2004, such as a GTD, PCATD, or FTD (Level 1–3), can apply for a new authorization under the standards required for approval as described in AC 61-136. All LOAs issued by AFS-800 will be valid for 60 calendar-months.

11-10-1-9    FULL FLIGHT SIMULATORS (FFS) AND FTDs. The Air Transportation Division (AFS-200) is responsible for the qualification standards, authorized use, and policy regarding all FSTDs, which includes Level A–D FFSs and Level 4–7 FTDs. Evaluation, qualification, and approval for FSTDs is provided by AFS‑205 and regulated under part 60.

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11-10-1-11    ATD DESIGN CRITERIA. To qualify as a BATD or an AATD, the device must meet the approval criteria prescribed in AC 61-136. The following design criteria and capabilities must be fully described in the QAG.

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A.    BATD Criteria. The following items are required for all ATD approvals.

1)    General Control Requirements.
a)    The aircraft physical flight and associated control systems must be recognizable as to their function and how they are manipulated solely from their appearance. These physical flight control systems cannot use interfaces such as a keyboard, mouse, or gaming joystick to control the aircraft model in simulated flight.
b)    Virtual controls are those controls used to set up certain aspects of the simulation (such as selecting the aircraft configuration, location, weather conditions, etc.) and otherwise program, affect, or pause the training device. These controls are often part of the instructor station or independent computer interface.
c)    Except for the initial setup, a keyboard or mouse may not be used to set or position any feature of the ATD flight controls for maneuvers or training tasks to be accomplished. See the control requirements listed below as applicable to the aircraft model represented. The pilot must be able to operate the controls in the same manner as it would be in the actual aircraft. This includes the landing gear, wing flaps, cowl flaps, carburetor heat, mixture, propeller, and throttle controls appropriate to the aircraft model represented.
d)    The physical arrangement, appearance, and operation of controls, instruments, and switches required by this appendix should closely model the aircraft represented. Manufacturers are expected to recreate the appearance, arrangement, operation, and function of realistically placed physical switches and other required controls representative of an aircraft instrument panel that includes at least the following:

    Master/battery;

    Magnetos for each engine (as applicable);

    Alternators or generators for each engine;

    Auxiliary power unit (APU) (if applicable);

    Fuel boost pumps/prime boost pumps for each engine;

    Avionics master;

    Pitot heat; and

    Rotating beacon/strobe, navigation, taxi, and landing lights.

e)    When an FAA-approved ATD is in use, only the software evaluated by the FAA may be loaded for use on that computer system. This does not preclude providing software updates that do not otherwise change the appearance of the systems operation.
2)    Additional Controls and Functional Requirements. Physical flight and aircraft control systems must be provided as follows:
a)    For airplane:

1.    A self-centering displacement yoke or control stick that allows continuous adjustment of pitch and bank.

2.    Self-centering rudder pedals that allow continuous adjustment of yaw and corresponding reaction in heading and roll.

3.    Throttle or power control(s) that allows continuous movement from idle to full-power settings and corresponding changes in pitch and yaw, as applicable.

4.    Mixture/condition, propeller, and throttle/power control(s) as applicable to the aircraft or family of aircraft represented.

5.    Controls for the following items, as applicable to the category and class of aircraft represented:

    Wing flaps

    Fuel selector

    Pitch trim,

    Communication and navigation radios,

    Clock or timer,

    Gear handle (if applicable),

    Transponder,

    Altimeter,

    Carburetor heat (if applicable), and

    Cowl flaps (if applicable).

b)    For helicopter:

1.    A cyclic control stick that tilts the main rotor disk by changing the pitch angle of the rotor blades in their cycle of rotation.

2.    A collective pitch control that changes the pitch angle of all main rotor blades simultaneously.

3.    Throttle/power control that allows continuous movement from idle to full power settings and which controls engine (rotor) revolutions per minute (rpm).

4.    Antitorque pedals used to control the pitch of the tail rotor that allow continuous adjustment of the helicopter heading.

5.    Mixture/condition control applicable to the helicopter model represented.

6.    Controls for the following items, as applicable to the helicopter represented:

    Communication and navigation radios,

    Clock or timer,

    Transponder,

    Altimeter, and

    Carburetor heat (if applicable).

3)    Control Input Functionality and Response Criteria.
a)    Time from control input to recognizable system response must be without delay (i.e., not appear to lag in any way). The manufacturer must verify this performance criteria in the QAG submitted for FAA approval.
b)    The control inputs must be tested by the computer and software program at each startup and displayed as a confirmation message of normal operation or a warning message that the transport delay time or any design parameter is out of tolerance. It should not be possible to continue the training session unless the problem is resolved and all components are functioning properly.
4)    Display Requirements.
a)    The following instruments and indicators must be replicated and properly located as appropriate to the aircraft represented:

1.    Flight instruments in a standard configuration representing the traditional “round” dial flight instruments. An electronic primary flight display (PFD) with reversionary and backup flight instruments is also be acceptable.

2.    A sensitive altimeter with incremental markings each 20 feet or less, operable throughout the normal operating range of the make and model (M/M) of aircraft represented.

3.    A magnetic direction indicator.

4.    A heading indicator with incremental markings each 5 degrees or less, displayed on a 360‑degree circle. Arc segments of less than 360 degrees may be selectively displayed if desired or required, as applicable to the M/M of aircraft represented.

5.    An airspeed indicator with incremental markings as shown for the M/M of aircraft represented; airspeed markings of less than 20 knots need not be displayed.

6.    A vertical speed indicator (VSI) with incremental markings each 100 feet per minute (fpm) for both climb and descent, for the first 1,000 fpm of climb and descent, and at each 500 fpm climb and descent for the remainder of a minimum ±2,000 fpm total display, or as applicable to M/M of aircraft being represented.

7.    A gyroscopic rate-of-turn indicator or equivalent with appropriate markings for a rate of 3 degrees per second turn for left and right turns. If a turn and bank indicator is used, the 3 degrees per second rate index must be inside of the maximum deflection of the indicator.

8.    A slip and skid indicator with coordination information displayed in the conventional inclinometer format where a coordinated flight condition is indicated with the ball in the center position. A split image triangle indicator as appropriate for PFD configurations may be used.

9.    An attitude indicator with incremental markings each 5 degrees of pitch or less, from 20 degree pitch up to 40 degree pitch down or as applicable to M/M of aircraft represented. Bank angles must be identified at “wings level” and at 10, 20, 30, and 60 degrees of bank (with an optional additional identification at 45 degrees) in left and right banks.

10.    Engine instruments as applicable to the M/M of aircraft being represented, providing markings for the normal ranges including the minimum and maximum limits.

11.    A suction gauge or instrument pressure gauge with a display applicable to the aircraft represented.

12.    A flap setting indicator that displays the current flap setting. Setting indications should be typical of that found in an actual aircraft.

13.    A pitch trim indicator with a display that shows zero trim and appropriate indices of airplane nose down and airplane nose up trim, as would be found in an aircraft.

14.    Communication radio(s) with a full range of selectable frequencies and displays of the radio frequency in use.

15.    Navigation radio(s) with a full range of selectable frequencies displaying the frequency in use and capable of replicating both precision and nonprecision instruments, including approach procedures (each with an aural identification feature), and a marker beacon receiver. For example, an instrument landing system (ILS), non-directional radio beacon (NDB), Global Positioning System (GPS), Localizer (LOC), or very high frequency omni-directional range (VOR). Graduated markings as indicated below must be present on each course deviation indicator (CDI) as applicable. The marking should include:

    One-half dot or less for course/glideslope (GS) deviation (i.e., VOR, LOC, or ILS), and

    Five degrees or less for bearing deviation for automatic direction finder (ADF) and radio magnetic indicator (RMI), as applicable.

16.    A clock with incremental markings for each minute and second, or a timer with a display of minutes and seconds.

17.    A transponder that displays the current transponder code.

18.    A fuel quantity indicator(s) that display the fuel remaining, either in analog or digital format, appropriate for M/M of aircraft represented.

NOTE:  The minimum instrument and equipment requirements specified under 14 CFR part 91, § 91.205 for day visual flight rules (VFR) and instrument flight rules (IFR) must be functional during the training session. This does not prohibit simulating failures for training purposes.

b)    All instrument displays listed above must be visible during all flight operations. Allowances can be made for multifunction electronic displays that may not display all instruments simultaneously. All of the displays must provide an image of the instrument that is clear and:

1.    Does not appear to be out of focus or illegible.

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2.    Does not appear to “jump” or “step” during operation.

3.    Does not appear with distracting jagged lines or edges.

4.    Does not appear to lag relative to the action and use of the flight controls.

c)    Control inputs should be reflected by the flight instruments in real time and without a perceived delay in action. Display updates must show all changes (within the total range of the replicated instrument) that are equal to or greater than the values stated below:

1.    Airspeed indicator: change of 5 knots.

2.    Attitude indicator: change of 2 degrees in pitch and bank.

3.    Altimeter: change of 10 feet.

4.    Turn and bank: change of standard rate turn.

5.    Heading indicator: change of 2 degrees.

6.    VSI: change of 100 fpm.

7.    Tachometer: change of 25 rpm or 2 percent of turbine speed.

8.    VOR/ILS: change of 1 degree for VOR or of 1 degree for ILS.

9.    ADF: change of 2 degrees.

10.    GPS: change as appropriate for the model of GPS based navigator represented.

11.    Clock or timer: change of 1 second.

d)    Displays must reflect the dynamic behavior of an actual aircraft (e.g., a VSI reading of 500 fpm must reflect a corresponding movement in altitude, and an increase in power must reflect an increase in the rpm indication or power indicator.)
5)    Flight Dynamics Requirements.
a)    Flight dynamics of the ATD should be comparable to the way the represented training aircraft performs and handles. However, there is no requirement for an ATD to have control loading to exactly replicate any particular aircraft.
b)    Aircraft performance parameters (such as maximum speed, cruise speed, stall speed, maximum climb rate, and hovering/sideward/forward/rearward flight) should be comparable to the aircraft being represented. A performance table will need to be included in the QAG for each aircraft configuration for sea level and 5,000 feet using standard atmosphere and gross weight conditions. An alternate performance altitude for 6,000 feet can be used if the manufacturer of that aircraft has a performance chart reflecting that altitude, otherwise the ATD manufacturer will need to interpolate the performance for the altitude performance chart. Performance at altitude for turboprop or turbojet configurations should reflect 18,000 ft.
c)    Aircraft vertical lift component must change as a function of bank comparable to the way the aircraft or family of aircraft being represented performs and handles.
d)    Changes in flap setting, slat setting, gear position, collective control, or cyclic control must be accompanied by changes in flight dynamics comparable to the way the aircraft represented performs and handles.
e)    The presence and intensity of wind and turbulence must be reflected in the handling and performance qualities of the simulated aircraft and should be comparable to the way the aircraft represented performs and handles.
6)    Instructor Management Requirements.
a)    The instructor must be able to pause the system at any time during the training simulation for the purpose of administering instruction or procedural recommendations.
b)    If a training session begins with the “aircraft in the air” and ready for the performance of a particular procedural task, the instructor must be able to manipulate the following system parameters independently of the simulation:

    Aircraft geographic location,

    Aircraft heading,

    Aircraft airspeed,

    Aircraft altitude, and

    Wind direction, speed, and turbulence.

c)    The system must be capable of recording both a horizontal and vertical track of aircraft movement during the entire training session for later playback and review.
d)    The instructor must be able to disable any of the instruments prior to or during a training session and be able to simulate failure of any of the instruments without stopping or freezing the simulation to affect the failure. This includes simulated engine failures and the following aircraft systems failures: alternator or generator, vacuum or pressure pump, pitot static, electronic flight displays, or landing gear or flaps, as appropriate.
e)    The ATD must have at least a navigational area database that is local (25 nautical miles (NM)) to the training facility to allow reinforcement of procedures learned during actual flight in that area. All navigational data must be based on procedures as published per 14 CFR part 97.

B.    AATD Criteria. The following additional items are required for AATD approvals.

1)    A realistic shrouded (enclosed) or unshrouded (open) cockpit design and instrument panel arrangement representing a specific model aircraft cockpit.
2)    Cockpit knobs, system controls, switches, and/or switch panels in realistic sizes and design appropriate to each intended functions, in the proper position and distance from the pilot’s seated position, and representative of the category and class of aircraft being represented.
3)    Primary flight and navigation instruments appropriately sized and properly arranged that exhibit neither stepping nor excessive transport delay.
4)    Digital avionics panel.
5)    GPS navigator with moving map display.
6)    Two-axis autopilot, and, as appropriate, a flight director (FD). This is only required for aircraft when the autopilot is original standard equipment from the manufacturer.
7)    Pitch trim (manual or electric pitch trim) permitting indicator movement either electrically or analog in an acceptable trim ratio (airplane only).
8)    An independent visual system, panel, or screen that provides realistic cues in both day and night VFR and IFR meteorological conditions to enhance a pilot’s visual orientation in the vicinity of an airport including:

    Adjustable visibility parameters; and

    Adjustable ceiling parameters.

9)    A fixed pilot seat appropriate to the aircraft configuration, including an adjustable height and an adjustable forward and back seat position.
10)    Rudder pedals secured to the cockpit floor structure, or that can be physically secured to the floor beneath the device in proper relation to cockpit orientation.
11)    Push-to-talk switch on the control yoke.
12)    A separate instructor station to permit effective interaction without interrupting the flight in overseeing the pilot’s horizontal and vertical flight profiles in real time and space. This must include the ability to:
a)    Oversee tracks along published airways, holding entries and patterns, and LOC and GS alignment/deviation (or other approaches with a horizontal and vertical track).
b)    Function as air traffic control (ATC) in providing vectors, etc., change in weather conditions, ceilings, visibilities, wind speed and direction, light/moderate/severe turbulence, and icing conditions.
c)    Invoke failures in navigation and instruments, radio receivers, landing gear and flaps, engine power (partial and total), and other aircraft systems (pitot, electric, static, etc.) by using either a keyboard or mouse.
13)    The following features and components are not required for the FAA’s approval of an AATD, but are encouraged:

    Multi-panel or wrap around visual system providing 120 degrees or more of horizontal vision.

    Automated ATC communications, scenario-based training (SBT), or line-oriented type training in which the instructor can evaluate pilot performance without having to act as ATC.

    Simulated loss of performance and aerodynamic changes from ice accretion.

    Realistic aircraft engine sound appropriate to the aircraft configuration, power settings, and speed.

    A magnetic compass with incremental markings each 5 degrees, that displays the proper lead or lag during turns, and displays incremental markings typical of that shown in the aircraft.

NOTE:  The FAA will allow touch screen functionality to be used in an ATD for those functions or tasks executed in an aircraft that are simple push button actions (or similar) to replicate similar actions on the instrument panel or flight deck, to control aircraft systems or avionics. However, for actions that require a twisting or turning action of a physical knob, and/or require a gripping or pulling action of a physical lever or handle to actuate a system in the aircraft, the trainer must have a similar physical knob/lever/handle representation in the AATD.

11-10-1-13    QAG. The QAG is a manufacturer’s detailed description of the model’s design, possible aircraft configurations, and the functional capabilities for the BATD or AATD. The QAG must contain the content described in AC 61-136 and include detailed pictures enabling easy identification of the trainer any optional configurations. ATDs must meet the standards prescribed in AC 61-136 and be approved by the Administrator. In addition, the manufacturer must ensure that all ATDs it produces continue to match the design and otherwise meet the criteria as stated in the FAA-approved QAG for that model. Any change in design and subsequent revision to the QAG must be submitted to and approved by the FAA. Any changes or alterations to the design or configuration that are not approved in writing by AFS-800 can result in withdrawal of the manufacturer’s LOA.

11-10-1-15    ATD APPROVAL PROCESS.

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A.    Request Process. To request FAA approval of an ATD, manufacturers must provide AFS-800 with an application letter, a QAG, an ATD operations manual for the trainer, and demonstration video executing the functions and maneuvers described in the table in AC 61-136. Evaluation requests should be sent by one of the following methods:

1)    Email the evaluation request to 9-AFS-800-Correspondence@faa.gov with the necessary documents attached (formal signed application letter requesting an evaluation, and the QAG document). Videos should be provided via YouTube. This is the preferred correspondence method.
2)    Mail the request, using a service that can track the delivery, to:

FAA Flight Standards Service

General Aviation and Commercial Division, AFS-800

Aviation Training Device (ATD) Review & Authorizations

800 Independence Ave., S.W.

Washington, DC 20591

NOTE:  The FAA must receive application letters requesting evaluation and approval at least 90 days (120 days is recommended) in advance of any planned use for logging pilot training or experience requirements. These training devices must be fully functional and tested by the manufacturer to the standards described in AC 61-136 prior to requesting an evaluation.

3)    Contact AFS-800 by phone at 202-267-1100 for any questions or additional instructions.
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B.    Evaluation Process. Evaluation of the functionality and use of an ATD is accomplished by a program managed by AFS-800. This process is described in detail in AC 61-136. The approval process begins when the device manufacturer submits a formal request for an evaluation of an ATD. The approval of the ATD is initially based on the QAG document, which the manufacturer develops and submits in advance for FAA review. The QAG includes a detailed description of model design including all components, functions, and capabilities for the training device. Once AFS-800 has accepted the QAG, a functionality test (onsite evaluation) of the ATD will be conducted.

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C.    Inspector Participation. AFS-800 will solicit assistance from a local FSDO Operations inspector with the appropriate aircraft M/M experience. This will ensure an effective onsite evaluation and facilitate any possible followup inspections and corrections. An ASI based in a Regional Office (RO) or FSDO located near the manufacturer will normally be enlisted to assist with the onsite evaluation. There is no requirement for an inspector to complete on-the-job training (OJT) in advance of an ATD functional evaluation, other than following the guidance and recommendations provided by AFS-800. See the ATD evaluation job aids that inspectors should use when accomplishing on-site functional evaluations (see Figure 11-10-1A, Aviation Training Device (ATD) Inspector Evaluation Guide (Airplane), and Figure 11-10-1B, Aviation Training Device (ATD) Inspector Evaluation Guide (Helicopter)).

D.    Approval Process. Following a successful onsite evaluation, AFS-800 will issue an LOA. The QAG and LOA become the controlling documents for the approval. If a manufacturer modifies an approved ATD, a revised QAG must be resubmitted for approval. As a result of the modification, an operator may not use a modified ATD until such time as AFS-800 has approved the revised QAG and issues a new LOA. AFS-800 will maintain a list of FAA-approved ATDs and the manufacturer’s associated LOA and QAG documentation. Operators must ensure that the LOA is available with the ATD when in use. The LOA will be valid for 60 calendar-months. Policy information for FAA approvals can be found in AC 61-136.

11-10-1-17    AUTHORIZED ATD USES. ATDs may be authorized for use for certain flight training and experience activities in accordance with parts 61 and 141.

A.    Part 61 Pilot Training. For pilot training conducted solely under part 61, the allowed use for a specific model of an ATD will be found in the LOA issued to the manufacturer by AFS-800. FSDOs do not need to provide any additional authorization for pilot training conducted solely under part 61.

B.    Part 141 Pilot Training. For pilot training conducted under part 141, the jurisdictional FSDO must approve how the ATD is to be used in a certificate holder’s part 141 pilot school training curriculum. This approval would be in the form of an FAA-approved TCO and syllabus for the part 141 pilot school.

C.    Prohibition of Aircraft-Type-Specific Training. An ATD is not authorized for aircraft‑type‑specific training and certification requirements. However, a pilot or training provider may use an ATD as a procedural task trainer to support the required training that will be accomplished in an airplane or FSTD.

D.    Specific ATD Authorized Uses. The following are the authorized uses for a BATD or an AATD.

1)    BATD. A BATD may be approved and authorized for use in accomplishing certain required operations, maneuvers, or procedures as applicable under parts 61 and 141. The FAA will specify the allowable training and experience credit in the BATD LOA for the private pilot certificate, the instrument rating, and instrument recency of experience.
2)    AATD. An AATD may be approved and authorized for use in accomplishing certain required operations, maneuvers, or procedures as applicable under parts 61 and 141. The FAA will specify the allowable training and experience credit in the AATD LOA for the private pilot certificate, the instrument rating, instrument recency of experience, instrument proficiency check (IPC), the Commercial Pilot Certificate, and the Airline Transport Pilot (ATP) Certificate.

NOTE:  The flight experience allowance for the use of an ATD, FTD, or FFS toward obtaining an instrument rating may be combined. However, that combination may not exceed that allowed under § 61.65 and may not exceed that allowed under part 141 appendix C (50 percent maximum) of the required training.

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11-10-1-19    INSPECTOR OVERSIGHT. The jurisdictional FSDO may conduct an inspection or surveillance of any FAA-approved ATD located within its geographical area if the owner or operator uses the trainer to satisfy experience or training requirements for pilot certificates or ratings. This would be similar to accomplishing an aircraft inspection and verifying airworthiness compliance and the required documentation. This would include examination of the signed FAA LOA and QAG that must accompany the trainer when in use. A digital version/copy of the LOA and QAG is acceptable for reference. Operators who use these trainers to satisfy pilot training or experience requirements are obligated to allow FAA inspection ensuring acceptable function and compliance. If an inspector has concerns with compliance as the result of an onsite inspection, he or she should contact AFS-800 at 202-267-1100.

11-10-1-21    TRAINING CONTENT AND LOGGING PROVISIONS.

A.    Integrated Training Curriculum.

1)    This is a training program that can use an ATD for training flight tasks where an instructor teaches the required knowledge in the classroom and then follows it with procedural training. For example, within an integrated ground, simulation, and flight instrument training curriculum, an authorized instructor first teaches the required concepts and knowledge for an ILS approach with classroom training. After the student has gained the required knowledge and understands the procedures, the instructor then moves to practicing the psychomotor skills of the task. The instructor does this by providing a simulated flight environment and training scenarios in an FAA-approved ATD. When the student becomes proficient in the training device, the instruction would then transition to the aircraft to complete the flight training and demonstrate competency in the aircraft.
2)    The FAA recommends that an instructor who intends to use an ATD for training pilot candidates obtain training from the manufacturer (or person proficient with its use) on all aspects of the training device operation. This training should include a complete review of the available databases, aircraft configurations, systems review (avionics, aircraft systems, and performance), weather simulations, systems failure capabilities, instructor station use, and support available from the manufacturer. This would be similar to someone becoming familiar with and proficient in a new aircraft, as described for transition or differences training.

B.    Course Content. The FAA suggests that the instrument tasks listed below be incorporated into an approved integrated ground and flight training curriculum in which an ATD is used. Inspectors can use this list of tasks to ensure that training programs include important elements of procedural training that can be successfully accomplished in ATDs. Procedural training for private, instrument, commercial, and ATP operational tasks can be emphasized. Tasks can include traffic pattern/airport operations, navigation, slow flight and stalls, basic and advanced instrument maneuvers, and practice emergency procedure scenarios. Preparation for a flight review could also be accomplished. Flight instructors providing training under part 61 are encouraged to use a standardized course syllabus and specify which lessons would be accomplished in the ATD. Pilot training should incorporate the use of ATDs in an FAA-approved TCO for a part 141 pilot school and utilize FAA/Industry Training Standards (FITS).

1)    Flight by Reference to Instruments:

    Straight and level flight;

    Change of airspeed;

    Constant airspeed climbs;

    Constant airspeed descents;

    Constant rate climbs;

    Constant rate descents;

    Level turns, including standard rate turns;

    Climbing turns;

    Descending turns;

    Steep turns; and

    Stall recognition, prevention, and recovery.

2)    Abnormal and Emergency Procedures:

    Partial panel;

    Timed turns;

    Compass turns (and associated errors);

    Instrument failures;

    Automation failures (e.g., PFD, GPS navigation, or systems management);

    Flight automation failures (such as autopilot failure) including recovery from potential loss of control;

    Encounters with unexpected weather conditions;

    Electrical, systems, or equipment failures;

    Procedures for turbulence;

    Loss of control procedures (e.g., due to weather conditions, equipment failure, or flight automation);

    Unusual attitude recovery;

    Engine failure(s) (partial or complete); and

    Hydraulic or boost failures.

3)    Radio Navigation Procedures:

    Use of VOR, LOC, ILS, and Area Navigation (RNAV) including GPS;

    Holding patterns (VOR, ILS, LOC, GPS, intersection, and waypoints (WPT));

    Use of distance measuring equipment (DME);

    Use of ADF/NDB (optional); and

    Use of autopilot/FD.

4)    Instrument Approach Procedures (IAP):

    Precision;

    ILS;

    Wide area augmentation system (WAAS) with vertical navigation (VNAV);

    Nonprecision;

    VOR;

    LOC;

    RNAV (including GPS);

    WAAS;

    ADF/NDB (optional);

    ILS/LOC back course (LOC BC); and

    Missed Approach Procedures (MAP) for all of the procedures above.

5)    Communication Procedures:

    ATC clearances;

    Taxi clearance and instructions (emphasis on runway incursion prevention);

    Departure Clearance (DCL);

    En route clearances;

    Holding instructions;

    Arrival clearances;

    Missed approach instructions and clearances;

    Radio advisories and warnings;

    Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) and common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF); and

    Significant meteorological information/Airmen’s Meteorological Information (SIGMET/AIRMET), Notices to Airmen (NOTAM), Flight Service Station (FSS), communications, and flight plan changes.

6)    Cross-Country Procedures:

    Departure;

    En route;

    Diversion to alternate;

    Arrival; and

    MAPs.

C.    Logging Training Time and Experience.

Indicates new/changed information.
1)    There are no restrictions on the amount of training time a pilot can log in an ATD. However, there are regulatory limitations on the maximum credit permitted toward specific minimum training requirements for a certificate or rating, as specified in parts 61 and 141 and further prescribed in the specific LOAs. Authorized instructors and pilots utilizing an FAA-approved ATD for required flight training, pilot time, or experience requirements are required to log the time as BATD or AATD time. Any columns in a pilot record that reference flight time should remain blank when logging ATD time. Simulated instrument time can be logged in an ATD, but only during the time when the visual component of the training session is configured for instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) and the pilot is maintaining control solely by reference to the flight instruments. Logging time in this fashion will allow a pilot to credit this time toward the aeronautical experience and recent experience requirements specified in part 61 or 141 and as permitted by the LOA for the ATD used. Section 61.51(b)(1)(iv) requires that the type and identification of the ATD be included in the logging of pilot time as described in the LOA. Evaluators such as Designated Pilot Examiners (DPE) are instructed to request a copy of the LOA from applicants logging ATD pilot time, to verify the time acquired in the trainer qualifies for the minimum experience requirements for a certificate or rating.
2)    ATD time can only be logged as total time, instruction received (dual), and/or instrument time, as provided on FAA Form 8710-1, Airman Certificate and/or Rating Application, Section III, Record of Pilot Time. It is highly recommended that DPEs and ASIs administering a practical test require the applicant to provide a copy of the ATD LOA when using ATD credit for minimum pilot experience or training requirements for a certificate or rating.

NOTE:  Minimum training requirements for pilot certification specific to cross-country, solo, night, takeoff and landings, and the 3 hours of training within 2 calendar-months of the practical test cannot be accomplished in ATDs. Some training and experience requirements must be accomplished in an aircraft. For example, the 3 hours of flight time specified in § 61.109(a)(3) for a private pilot must be accomplished in a single engine airplane. Similarly, the 10 hours of solo flight time required by § 61.109(c)(4) must be accomplished in a helicopter.

Indicates new/changed information.
3)    The following conditions and limitations for FAA-approved ATDs apply:
a)    An ATD must maintain its performance and function without degradation. The minimum instrument requirements specified under § 91.205 for day VFR and IFR must be functional during the training session.
b)    Only the aircraft configurations that are in the approved QAG can be utilized.
Indicates new/changed information.
c)    A copy of the LOA must be readily available in a location near the device when in use. A digital version/copy of the LOA and QAG is acceptable for reference. Additionally, a copy must be provided to the person using the above training or experience credits for pilot certification or ratings.
d)    When an ATD is used for instructional purposes, only an appropriately qualified FAA certificated flight instructor (CFI) may make any subsequent endorsements and/or pilot logbook entries.
e)    Any changes or modifications to an ATD that have not been individually reviewed, evaluated, and approved in writing by AFS-800 will terminate the LOA.
f)    The FAA reserves the right to revoke the LOA at any time if the Administrator determines that an ATD has been used in a manner contrary to FAA regulation, guidance, or safety.
Indicates new/changed information.
4)    It is the responsibility of the flight instructor or certificated pilot to verify the device is qualified and FAA-approved for use when using an ATD to satisfy FAA regulatory experience requirements.
Indicates new/changed information.

Figure 11-10-1A.  Aviation Training Device (ATD) Inspector Evaluation Guide (Airplane)

Overview

There are two specific levels of ATD approval – Basic (BATD) and Advanced (AATD). Some of the significant differences between the BATD and AATD approval include the following additional advanced trainer requirements: independent instructor station, an IFR GPS moving map navigation system, airplane style adjustable seat, and independent visual system.

More detailed information concerning ATD evaluation and approvals can be found in Advisory Circular (AC) 61‑136, FAA Approval of Aviation Training Devices and Their Use for Training and Experience, and FAA Order 8900.1, Volume 11, Chapter 10, Section 1.

The operational evaluation has three distinct sections for completion and documentation – (1) The BATD listed requirements, (2) the additional AATD requirements (if applicable), and (3) the Procedures and Tasks Test Checklist.

Plan of Action (8 AM)

Conduct this evaluation as if you were considering using this training device for your own flight school or training operation. This requires a full day for the evaluation, but can be shorter if no issues or discrepancies are discovered during the evaluation. It may be necessary to return for a followup visit if some part of the evaluation was not satisfactory and corrective action or modification is required by the manufacturer. After everything is up and running, take several digital pictures of the trainer, instrument panel, visuals, etc.

It is recommended that, after the trainer is started, you complete the verification of the checklist items that can be done before the VFR takeoff. (Has all the required switches, controls, displays, instruments, indicators, instrument currency statement, etc.) This should include intentionally disabling a control input and verifying that the self-check requirement is working. If some part of the trainer is not working (e.g., the rudder pedals), it should not be possible to continue the training session until the problem is resolved.

Please take a digital photo of the flight deck instrument panel and simulated visual before takeoff for our records.

Start with a VFR departure scenario and execution of a variety of Private and Commercial Pilot maneuvers and then return for a landing. This is a good time to become familiar with the general operation of the trainer and execute several departures and arrivals. I would expect that some simulated instrument or equipment failures, emergency procedures, and single engine operations (if applicable) would be accomplished during this initial evaluation. Please include at least the following tasks:

1.    Takeoffs and landings with and without a crosswind.

2.    Slow flight at VS1 + 10 (extend flaps until fully deployed and then retract in increments).

3.    Approach and landing and takeoff and departure stalls. Some with 30 degrees of bank.

NOTE:  Verify change in indicated stall speed with increased load factor.

4.    Normal cruise (check performance), then steep turns (with and without turbulence).

5.    Simulated engine failure and various emergency procedures.

[10 AM]

Next, depart on a predetermined IFR departure scenario. I would plan on a variety of local departure, en route, holding, instrument approaches, missed approaches, etc. (ILS, VOR, and GPS with various weather conditions, VFR/IFR/day/night, failure simulations, etc.). This is a good time to verify functionality of the avionics equipment and features. This is also a good time to pause the simulation on occasion to discuss the procedures and actions to come. Please include at least the following (some with a wind and turbulence component):

1.    ILS approaches in the following conditions, VFR, 1000 ft. ceiling, then to minimums.

2.    VOR approach at night with 1500 ft ceiling.

3.    GPS approach with low IFR and missed to holding.

4.    Autopilot use on one of these approaches (if installed).

[1:30 PM]

Finally, accomplish a third departure event for any followup items you might want to recheck or forgot to assess earlier. You can certainly modify this plan of action to accommodate any concerns or accomplish flight tasks you feel are important to do as the aircraft SME for this operational evaluation. You may choose to accomplish a maneuver not listed. It is important that we are satisfied that the device functions well and does not provide any negative training actions (i.e., does something the airplane does not). Call AFS-800 with any questions.

BASIC ATD CRITERIA CHECKLIST

Review the manufacturer’s Qualification and Approval Guide (QAG) to familiarize yourself with the airplane make/model platform and the optional configurations available.

Inspector Name ______________________________________________ Date _______________

Manufacturer Rep ______________________________________________ PH# _____________

Device Manufacturer and Model Name _______________________________________________

Verify the computer component self-check at startup as required in the AC. Ask the manufacturer to intentionally disable or disconnect a component before starting the device. If a component is not working or communicating properly with the training device (e.g., the rudder pedals are not working or disconnected), a warning message must appear. It should not be possible to continue the training session unless the problem is resolved and all components are functioning properly.

Simulated instrument time can be logged in an ATD, but only during the time when the visual component of the training session is configured for instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) and the pilot is maintaining control solely by reference to the flight instruments. It is likely that someone logging time in an ATD will have total time greater than instrument time in an ATD. Because of this important consideration we require the following “Screen Statement”:

All the flight instruments required for visual and instrument flight rules listed in § 91.205 must be functional at the start of the simulated flight session. Temporary instrument or equipment failures are permitted when practicing emergency procedures. If this simulated flight session will be used for instrument experience or currency requirements, the visual component must be configured to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) during the simulated flight session, including execution of instrument approaches from the final approach fix until reaching Decision Height (DH), Decision Altitude (DA), or Minimum Decent Altitude (MDA) as appropriate.

Criteria Verification List

Required Physical Controls

YES

NO

N/A

1

Master/battery switch

 

 

 

2

Magneto switch (for each engine)

 

 

 

3

Alternator or generator switch (for each engine)

 

 

 

4

Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) (if applicable)

 

 

 

5

Fuel boost pump switch (for each engine)

 

 

 

6

Avionics master switch

 

 

 

7

Pitot heat switch

 

 

 

8

Rotating beacon/strobe lights switch

 

 

 

9

Navigation, taxi, and landing light switch

 

 

 

Notes

 

Required Physical Controls

YES

NO

N/A

1

Self-centering control yoke or stick

 

 

 

2

Self-centering rudder pedals*

 

 

 

3

Throttle or power lever (each engine) that allows continuous movement from idle to full power settings*

 

 

 

4

Mixture or condition control (each engine)

 

 

 

5

Fuel selector

 

 

 

6

Propeller control (each engine)

 

 

 

7

Pitch trim control and indicator

 

 

 

8

Rudder trim (multiengine only)

 

 

 

9

Wing flap handle and position indicator (with appropriate increments 10, 20, etc.)

 

 

 

10

Gear handle and position indicator

 

 

 

11

Carburetor heat (each engine)

 

 

 

12

Cowl flaps (each engine)

 

 

 

13

Altimeter knob

 

 

 

14

Communication and navigation radios and control knobs

 

 

 

15

Transponder panel

 

 

 

16

Clock and/or timer

 

 

 

17

Microphone with push-to-talk switch

 

 

 

During the functional check, time from control input to recognizable system response must be without delay and not appear to lag in any way.

Notes

Indicates new/changed information.

 

Display Requirements: Instruments and Indicators

YES

NO

N/A

1

Sensitive altimeter and/or backup altimeter with incremental markings of 20 feet or less, operable throughout the normal operating range.

 

 

 

2

Flight instruments in a standard six pack “T” Configuration, OR an Electronic Flight Instrument Display, Primary Flight Display (PFD), and Multifunction Display (MFD) as appropriate.

 

 

 

3

Magnetic direction indicator which displays typical incremental markings.

 

 

 

4

A heading indicator (DG) with incremental markings each 5 or less, displayed on a 360 circle. Arc segments of less than 360 may be selectively displayed if desired.

 

 

 

5

Primary and/or backup airspeed indicator with incremental markings appropriate for the airplane represented.

 

 

 

6

Vertical speed indicator with incremental markings each 100 feet per minute (fpm) for both climb and descent, for the first 1,000 fpm of climb and descent, and at each 500 fpm climb and descent for the remainder of a minimum ± 2,000 fpm total display.

 

 

 

7

A gyroscopic turn coordinator indicator with appropriate markings for a rate of 3 per second left or right turn.

 

 

 

8

Slip and skid indicator with coordination information displayed in the conventional inclinometer format where a coordinated flight condition is indicated with the ball in the center position. A split image triangle indicator may be used typical of a Primary Flight Display (PFD).

 

 

 

9

Attitude Indicator with incremental markings each 5 of pitch or less, from 20 pitch up to 40 pitch down. Bank angles must be minimally identified at “wings level,” 10, 20, 30 and 60 of bank.

 

 

 

10

Engine instruments as applicable to the airplane being represented, providing markings for normal operating ranges and minimum and maximum limits.

 

 

 

11

Suction gauge or instrument pressure gauge, as applicable, with a display appropriate to the aircraft.

 

 

 

12

Airspeed indicator with proper incremental markings as shown for the aircraft represented.

 

 

 

13

Flap indicator which displays the current flap setting in degrees.

 

 

 

14

Pitch trim indicator with a display that shows zero trim and appropriate indices of airplane nose down and airplane nose up trim.

 

 

 

15

Communication radio(s) with the display of the radio frequency in use.

 

 

 

16

Navigation receiver(s) capable of replicating both precision and non‑precision approaches including approach procedures (with an aural ID feature), and a marker beacon receiver for ILS approaches.

 

 

 

17

Clock with sweep second hand and incremental markings for each minute and second, digital format, or a timer with a display of minutes and seconds.

 

 

 

18

Magnetic direction indicator with incremental markings each 10 or less.

 

 

 

19

Transponder panel which displays the current transponder code.

 

 

 

20

Fuel gauges display fuel remaining in analog or digital format.

 

 

 

All Instrument Displays Listed Above Must:

- Be properly located.

 

 

 

- Be clearly visible during all flight operations.

 

 

 

- Not appear to be out of focus or illegible.

 

 

 

- Not appear to “jump” or “step” or be distracting during operation.

 

 

 

- Not appear with distracting jagged lines or edges.

 

 

 

- Not appear to lag relative to the action and use of the flight controls.

 

 

 

Notes

 

Instruments and Indicators

Displays must reflect changes that are equal to or less than the values listed here or as appropriate for the production aircraft.

YES

NO

N/A

1

Airspeed indicator: change of 5 knots.

 

 

 

2

Attitude indicator: change of 5 in pitch and bank.

 

 

 

3

Altimeter: change of 20 feet or less.

 

 

 

4

Turn and bank: standard rate turn markings.

 

 

 

5

Heading indicator: change of 5 or less.

 

 

 

6

Vertical Speed Indicator: change of 100 fpm for first 1000 ft., then 500 fpm up to 2,000.

 

 

 

7

Tachometer: change increments of 25 rpm or 2% turbine speed.

 

 

 

8

VOR/ILS: change of 1 for VOR and 1/4 of 1 for ILS.

 

 

 

9

GPS change appropriate to the model represented.

 

 

 

10

ADF: change of 5 (if installed).

 

 

 

11

Clock or timer: change of 1 second.

 

 

 

12

Displays reflect dynamic behavior of an actual airplane display (e.g., VSI reading reflects a corresponding movement in altimeter, an increase in power reflects an increase in the rpm indication or power indicator).

 

 

 

Notes

 

Flight Dynamics – Representative of the way the airplane performs and handles.

YES

NO

1

Flight dynamics of the ATD must be comparable to the way the training airplane represented performs and handles. There is no requirement for an ATD to have control loading.

 

 

2

Airplane performance parameters (maximum speed, cruise speed, stall speed, maximum climb rate) appropriate for airplane represented.

 

 

3

Aircraft vertical lift component must change as a function of bank.

 

 

4

Changes in flap setting, slat setting (if any), and gear position (if any) must be accompanied by appropriate changes in flight dynamics.

 

 

5

Increase or decrease in power shows an appropriate effect on pitch.

 

 

6

Aircraft reaction must not appear to lag or delay following input on the aircraft flight or engine controls, other than what would normally be expected in the aircraft.

 

 

7

The presence and intensity of wind and turbulence must be reflected in the handling and performance qualities of the simulated airplane.

 

 

Notes

 

Instructional Management Requirements and Virtual Controls

YES

NO

1

Instructor is able to pause the system at any time during training.

 

 

If a training session will begin with the airplane already in the air and ready for the performance of a particular procedural task, the instructor must be able to manipulate the following system parameters independently of the simulation.

2

Airplane geographic location.

 

 

3

Airplane heading.

 

 

4

Airplane airspeed.

 

 

5

Airplane altitude.

 

 

6

Wind direction, speed, and turbulence.

 

 

- Additional Requirements

7

The system must be capable of recording both a horizontal and vertical track of airplane movement for the entire training session for later playback and review.

 

 

8

The instructor must be able to disable any of the instruments prior to or during a training session, and to simulate failure of any of the instruments during a training session without stopping the simulation. This includes simulated engine failures and the following aircraft systems failures: alternator or generator, vacuum or pressure pump, pitot static, electronic flight displays, or landing gear or flaps, as appropriate.

 

 

9

The ATD must have at least a navigational area database that is local to the training facility to allow reinforcement of procedures learned during actual flight in that area. All navigational data must be based on procedures as published in part 97 and up to date at the time of the evaluation.

 

 

Notes

Indicates new/changed information.

ADVANCED ATD EVALUATION CHECKLIST ITEMS (If Applicable). An AATD must display sufficient aircraft cockpit design, ergonomic features, and performance characteristics beyond that of the BATD approval criteria to qualify. Design features must significantly exceed those of a BATD cockpit layout.

Required Advanced Features (In addition to the basic requirements)

YES

NO

1

A realistic shrouded or unshrouded airplane flight deck design and instrument panel design representing a specific model airplane.

 

 

2

Flight panel knobs, system controls, switches, switch panels in realistic sizes and design appropriate to the intended function. Additionally, they must be in the proper position and distance from the pilot’s seated position, and representative of the aircraft model and configuration.

 

 

3

Primary flight and navigation instruments appropriately sized and properly arranged that exhibit clear detail without delay or pause.

 

 

4

Digital avionics panel with proper functionality.

 

 

5

IFR Global Positioning System (GPS) navigator with moving map display.

 

 

6

Two-axis autopilot, and, as appropriate, a flight director (FD), if original standard equipment from the factory for that airplane model.

 

 

7

Pitch trim (manual or electric pitch trim) providing position indicator movement in an acceptable trim ratio.

 

 

8

An independent visual system, panel, or screen that provides realistic cues in both day and night visual flight rules (VFR) and instrument flight rules (IFR) meteorological conditions to enhance a pilot’s visual orientation in the vicinity of an airport, including:

    Adjustable visibility parameters; and

    Adjustable ceiling parameters.

 

 

9

A pilot seat fixed to the floor appropriate to the aircraft configuration including adjustable height and forward and aft position adjustments.

 

 

10

Rudder pedals secured to the cockpit floor structure, or that can be physically secured to the floor beneath the device in proper relation to the instrument panel.

 

 

11

Push-to-talk switch on the control yoke.

 

 

12

A separate instructor station to permit effective interaction without interrupting the flight in overseeing the pilot’s horizontal and vertical flight profiles in real time and space. This must include the ability to:

(a)   Oversee tracks along published airways, holding entries and patterns, and Localizer (LOC) and glideslope (GS) alignment/deviation (or other approaches with a horizontal and vertical track).

(b)   Function as air traffic control (ATC) in providing vectors, etc., change in weather conditions, ceilings, visibilities, wind speed and direction, light/moderate/severe turbulence, and icing conditions.

(c)   Invoke failures in navigation and instruments, radio receivers, landing gear and flaps, engine power (partial and total), and other aircraft systems (pitot, electric, static, etc.) by using either a keyboard or mouse.

 

 

Notes

Procedures and Tasks Test Checklist

Airplane Maneuvers and Tasks

Yes, No, or N/A

a. Pretakeoff

 

(1) Engine start

 

(2) Taxi and brake operation

 

 

 

b. Takeoff

 

(1) Run-up and powerplant checks

 

(2) Acceleration characteristics

 

(3) Nosewheel and rudder steering

 

(4) Effect of crosswind

 

(5) Instrument

 

(6) Landing gear, wing flap operation

 

 

 

c. In-Flight Operations

 

(1) Climb

 

(i) Normal and max. performance

 

(ii) One-engine-inoperative procedures (multiengine)

 

(2) Cruise

 

(i) Performance characteristics (speed vs. power)

 

(ii) Normal and steep turns

 

(iii) Approach to stalls (i.e., stall warning), stalls, and recovery.

Execute from takeoff, cruise, and approach and landing configurations.

 

(iv) In-flight engine shutdown (multiengine)

 

(v) Fuel selector function

 

(vi) In-flight engine start

 

(3) Approach

 

(i) Normal (with and without flaps) (check gear warning, if applicable)

 

(ii) Best glide no power

 

(4) Landings

 

 

 

d. Instrument Approaches

 

(1) Nonprecision

 

(i) GPS and LPV

 

(ii) GPS WAAS (optional)

 

(iii) All engines operating

 

(iv) One or more engines inoperative

 

(v) Approach procedures (VOR, VOR/DME, LOC procedures on an ILS, LDA, RNAV (RDP) or RNAV (GPS) to LNAV, LNAV/VNAV or LPV)

 

(2) Precision

 

(i) ILS

 

(ii) GLS (optional)

 

(ii) Effects of crosswind

 

(iii) With engine inoperative (multiengine)

 

(iv) Missed approach

 

(A) Normal

 

(B) With engine(s) inoperative (multiengine)

 

 

 

e. Surface Operations (Post Landing)

 

(1) Approach and landing roll

 

(2) Braking operation

 

(3) Reverse thrust operation, if applicable

 

 

 

f. Any Flight Phase

 

(1) Aircraft and Powerplant systems

 

(i) Electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic

 

(ii) Flaps

 

(iii) Fuel selector and oil temp/pressure

 

(iv) Landing gear

 

(2) Flight management and guidance systems

 

(i) Autopilot (if standard equipment)

 

(ii) Flight Director (AATD only)/system displays (if installed)

 

(iii) Navigation systems

 

(iv) Stall warning systems avoidance

 

(v) Multi-function displays (if applicable)

 

(3) Airborne procedures

 

(i) Uncoordinated turns – slipping and skidding demo

 

(ii) Configuration and power changes and resulting pitch changes

 

(iii) Compass turns and appropriate errors (optional)

 

(4) Engine shutdown and parking

 

(i) Systems operation

 

(ii) Parking brake operation (if installed)

 

 

 

g. Can simulate engine failure, including failures due to simulated loss of oil pressure or fuel starvation.

 

 

 

h. Can simulate the following equipment or system failures:

 

(1) Alternator or generator failure.

 

(2) Vacuum pump/pressure failure and the associated flight instrument failures.

 

(3) Gyroscopic flight instrument failures.

 

(4) Pitot/static system malfunction and the associated flight instrument failures.

 

(5) Electronic flight deck display malfunctions.

 

(6) Landing gear (if retractable) or flap malfunctions.

 

 

 

i. Separate Instructor Station Requirements (AATD Only)

 

(1) Displays published airways and holding patterns.

 

(2) Displays aircraft position and track.

 

(3) Displays aircraft altitude and speed.

 

(4) Displays NAVAIDs and airports.

 

(5) Can record and replay aircraft ground track history for entire training session.

 

(6) Can invoke instrument or equipment failures.

 

Notes, discrepancies, and any followup items

Indicates new/changed information.

Please date/sign/scan and forward this ATD functional evaluation form to the Airman Certification and Training Branch (AFS-810).

Figure 11-10-1B.  Aviation Training Device (ATD) Inspector Evaluation Guide (Helicopter)

Overview

There are two specific levels of ATD approval – Basic (BATD) and Advanced (AATD). Some of the significant differences between the helicopter BATD and AATD approval include the following additional advanced requirements: independent instructor station, an IFR GPS moving map navigation system, adjustable helicopter style seat, and independent visual system.

More detailed information concerning ATD evaluation and approvals can be found in Advisory Circular (AC) 61‑136, FAA Approval of Aviation Training Devices and Their Use for Training and Experience, and FAA Order 8900.1, Volume 11, Chapter 10, Section 1.

The operational evaluation has three distinct sections for completion and documentation – (1) The BATD listed requirements, (2) the additional AATD requirements (if applicable), and (3) the Procedures and Tasks Test Checklist.

Plan of Action (8 AM)

Conduct this evaluation as if you were considering using this training device for your own flight school or training operation. This requires a full day for the evaluation, but can be shorter if no issues or discrepancies are discovered during the evaluation. It may be necessary to return for a followup visit if some part of the evaluation was not satisfactory and corrective action or modification is required by the manufacturer. After everything is up and running, take several digital pictures of the trainer, instrument panel, visuals, etc.

It is recommended that after the trainer is started, you complete verification of the checklist items that can be done before the takeoff. (Has all the required switches, controls, displays, instruments, indicators, instrument currency statement, etc.) This should include intentionally disabling a control input and verifying that the self‑check requirement is working. If some part of the trainer is not working (e.g., the antitorque pedals), it should not be possible to continue the training session until the problem is resolved.

Please take a digital photo of the flight deck instrument panel and simulated visual before takeoff for our records.

Start with a VFR departure scenario and execution of a variety of Private and Commercial Pilot maneuvers and then return for a landing. This is a good time to become familiar with the general operation of the trainer and to execute several departures and arrivals. I would expect that some simulated instrument or equipment failures, emergency procedures, and single engine operations (if applicable) should be accomplished during this initial evaluation. Please include at least the following tasks:

1.    Vertical takeoffs and landings with and without a crosswind.

2.    Surface, hover, and air taxiing operations.

3.    Maximum performance takeoff and climb.

4.    Steep approach and go-arounds.

5.    Rapid deceleration.

6.    Normal cruise (check performance), then steep turns (with and without turbulence).

7.    Simulated engine failure and autorotation and various emergency procedures.

[10 AM]

Next, depart on a prearranged IFR departure scenario. I would plan on a variety of departure, en route, holding, instrument approaches, and missed approach procedures (ILS, VOR, and GPS with various weather conditions, VFR/IFR/day/night, failure simulations, etc.). This is a good time to shake out the avionics equipment functions and features. This is also a good time to pause the simulation on occasion to discuss the procedures and actions to come. Please include the following:

1.    ILS approach in the following conditions, VFR, 1000 ft. ceiling, then to minimums.

2.    VOR approach at night with 1500 ft ceiling.

3.    GPS approach with low IFR and missed to holding.

4.    Autopilot use on one of these approaches (if installed).

[1:30 PM]

Finally, accomplish a third departure scenario for any followup items that you might want to recheck or forgot to assess earlier. You can certainly modify this plan of action to accommodate any concerns or accomplish flight tasks you feel are important to do as the aircraft SME for this operational evaluation. You may choose to accomplish a maneuver not listed. It is important that you are satisfied that the device functions well and does not provide any negative training actions (i.e., does something the helicopter does not). Call AFS-800 with any questions.

BASIC ATD CRITERIA CHECKLIST

Review the manufacturer’s Qualification and Approval Guide (QAG) to familiarize yourself with the helicopter make/model platform and any configurations available.

Inspector Name ______________________________________________ Date _______________

Manufacturer Rep ______________________________________________ PH# _____________

Device Manufacturer and Model Name _______________________________________________

Verify the computer component self-check at startup as required in the AC. Ask the manufacturer to intentionally disable or disconnect a component before starting the device. If a component is not working or communicating properly with the training device (e.g., the antitorque pedals are not working or disconnected), a warning message must appear. It should not be possible to continue the training session unless the problem is resolved and all components are functioning properly.

Simulated instrument time can be logged in an ATD, but only during the time when the visual component of the training session is configured for instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) and the pilot is maintaining control solely by reference to the flight instruments. It is likely that someone logging time in an ATD will have total time greater than instrument time in an ATD. Because of this important consideration we require the following “Screen Statement”.

All the flight instruments required for visual and instrument flight rules listed in § 91.205 must be functional at the start of the simulated flight session. Temporary instrument or equipment failures are permitted when practicing emergency procedures. If this simulated flight session will be used for instrument experience or currency requirements, the visual component must be configured to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) during the simulated flight session, including execution of instrument approaches from the final approach fix until reaching Decision Height (DH), Decision Altitude (DA), or Minimum Decent Altitude (MDA) as appropriate.

Criteria Verification List

Required Physical Controls

YES

NO

N/A

1

Master/battery switch

 

 

 

2

Magneto switch (for each engine)

 

 

 

3

Alternator/generator switch (for each engine)

 

 

 

4

Fuel boost pump switch (for each engine)

 

 

 

5

Avionics master switch

 

 

 

6

Pitot heat switch

 

 

 

7

Rotating beacon/strobe lights switch

 

 

 

8

Navigation, taxi, and landing light switch

 

 

 

Notes

 

Required Physical Controls

YES

NO

N/A

1

A cyclic control stick appropriate for the make and model of helicopter

 

 

 

2

A collective pitch control

 

 

 

3

Throttle/power control that allows continuous movement from idle to full power settings

 

 

 

4

Antitorque pedals

 

 

 

5

Mixture or condition control

 

 

 

6

Trim or cruise trim, if standard equipment of model represented

 

 

 

7

Gear handle and indicator (if applicable)

 

 

 

8

Carburetor heat (if applicable)

 

 

 

9

Altimeter knob

 

 

 

10

Communication and navigation radio with control knobs and buttons

 

 

 

11

Transponder panel

 

 

 

12

Clock and timer

 

 

 

13

Microphone with push-to-talk switch

 

 

 

During the functional check, time from control input to recognizable system response must be without delay and not appear to lag in any way.

Notes

Indicates new/changed information.

 

Display Requirements: Instruments and Indicators

YES

NO

N/A

1

Sensitive altimeter and/or backup altimeter with incremental markings of 20 feet or less, operable throughout the normal operating range.

 

 

 

2

Flight instruments in a standard six pack “T” Configuration, OR an Electronic Flight Instrument Display, Primary Flight Display (PFD), and Multifunction Display (MFD) as appropriate.

 

 

 

3

Magnetic direction indicator which displays typical incremental markings.

 

 

 

4

A heading indicator (DG) with incremental markings each 5 or less, displayed on a 360 circle. Arc segments of less than 360 may be selectively displayed if desired.

 

 

 

5

Primary and/or backup airspeed indicator with incremental markings appropriate for the helicopter represented.

 

 

 

6

Vertical speed indicator with incremental markings each 100 feet per minute (fpm) for both climb and descent, for the first 1,000 fpm of climb and descent, and at each 500 fpm climb and descent for the remainder of a minimum ± 2,000 fpm total display.

 

 

 

7

A gyroscopic turn coordinator indicator with appropriate markings for a rate of 3 per second left or right turn.

 

 

 

8

Slip and skid indicator with coordination information displayed in the conventional inclinometer format where a coordinated flight condition is indicated with the ball in the center position. A split image triangle indicator may be used typical of a Primary Flight Display (PFD).

 

 

 

9

Attitude Indicator with incremental markings each 5 of pitch or less, from 20 pitch up to 40 pitch down. Bank angles must be minimally identified at “wings level,” 10, 20, 30 and 60 of bank.

 

 

 

10

Engine instruments applicable to the helicopter being represented, providing markings for normal operating ranges and minimum and maximum limits.

 

 

 

11

Suction gauge or instrument pressure gauge, as applicable, with a display appropriate to the aircraft.

 

 

 

12

Airspeed indicator with proper incremental markings as shown for the aircraft represented.

 

 

 

13

Communication radio(s) with the display of the radio frequency in use.

 

 

 

14

Navigation receiver(s) capable of replicating both precision and nonprecision approaches including approach procedures (with an aural ID feature), and a marker beacon receiver for ILS approaches.

 

 

 

15

Clock with sweep second hand and incremental markings for each minute and second, digital format, or a timer with a display of minutes and seconds.

 

 

 

16

Magnetic direction indicator with incremental markings each 10 or less.

 

 

 

17

Transponder panel which displays the current transponder code.

 

 

 

18

Fuel gauges display fuel remaining in analog or digital format.

 

 

 

All Instrument Displays Listed Above Must:

- Be properly located.

 

 

 

- Be clearly visible during all flight operations.

 

 

 

- Not appear to be out of focus or illegible.

 

 

 

- Not appear to “jump” or “step” or be distracting during operation.

 

 

 

- Not appear with distracting jagged lines or edges.

 

 

 

- Show action without delay relative to the use of the flight controls.

 

 

 

Notes

 

Instruments and Indicators

Displays must reflect changes that are equal to or less than the values listed here or as appropriate for the production aircraft.

YES

NO

N/A

1

Airspeed indicator: change of 5 knots

 

 

 

2

Attitude indicator: change of 5 in pitch and bank

 

 

 

3

Altimeter: change of 10 feet

 

 

 

4

Turn and bank: standard rate turn shown

 

 

 

5

Heading indicator: change of 5

 

 

 

6

Vertical Speed Indicator: change of 100 fpm

 

 

 

7

Tachometer: change increments of 25 rpm or 2% turbine speed

 

 

 

8

VOR/ILS: change of 1 for VOR and 1/4 of 1 for ILS

 

 

 

9

ADF: change of 5 (if installed)

 

 

 

10

Clock or timer: change of 1 second

 

 

 

11

Displays reflect dynamic behavior of an actual helicopter display (e.g., VSI reading reflects a corresponding movement in altimeter, an increase in power reflects an increase in the rpm indication or power indicator)

 

 

 

Notes

 

Flight Dynamics – Representative of the Way the Helicopter Performs and Handles.

YES

NO

1

Flight dynamics of the ATD must be comparable to the way the training helicopter represented performs and handles. There is no requirement for an ATD to have control loading.

 

 

2

Helicopter performance parameters (maximum speed, cruise speed, maximum climb rate, etc.) is appropriate for helicopter represented.

 

 

3

Aircraft vertical lift component must change as a function of bank.

 

 

4

Aircraft reaction must not appear to lag or delay following input on the aircraft flight or engine controls, other than what would normally be expected in the aircraft.

 

 

5

The presence and intensity of wind and turbulence must be reflected in the handling and performance qualities of the simulated helicopter.

 

 

Notes

 

Instructional Management Requirements and Virtual Controls

YES

NO

1

Instructor is able to pause the system at any time during training.

 

 

If a training session will begin with the helicopter already in the air and ready for the performance of a particular procedural task, the instructor must be able to manipulate the following system parameters independently of the simulation.

2

Helicopter geographic location.

 

 

3

Helicopter heading.

 

 

4

Helicopter airspeed.

 

 

5

Helicopter altitude.

 

 

6

Wind direction, speed, and turbulence.

 

 

- Additional Requirements:

7

The system must be capable of recording both a horizontal and vertical track of helicopter movement for the entire training session for later playback and review.

 

 

8

The instructor must be able to disable any of the instruments prior to or during a training session, and to simulate failure of any of the instruments during a training session without stopping the simulation. This includes simulated engine failures and the following aircraft systems failures: alternator or generator, vacuum or pressure pump, pitot static, electronic flight displays, or landing gear, as appropriate.

 

 

9

The ATD must have at least a navigational area database that is local to the training facility to allow use of the published procedures and charts appropriate to that geographic area. All navigational data must be based on procedures as published in part 97 and up to date at time of the evaluation.

 

 

Notes

ADVANCED ATD EVALUATION CHECKLIST ITEMS (if applicable). Must display sufficient aircraft cockpit design, ergonomic features, and performance characteristics beyond that of the BATD approval criteria to qualify as an AATD. Design features must significantly exceed those of a BATD cockpit layout and appearance.

Indicates new/changed information.

Required Advanced Features (In Addition to the Basic Requirements)

YES

NO

1

A realistic shrouded or unshrouded helicopter flight deck design and instrument panel design representing a specific model helicopter.

 

 

2

Flight panel knobs, system controls, switches, switch panels in realistic sizes and design appropriate to the intended function. Additionally they must be in the proper position and distance from the pilot’s seated position, and representative of the aircraft model and configuration.

 

 

3

Primary flight and navigation instruments appropriately sized and properly arranged that exhibit clear detail without delay or pause.

 

 

4

Digital avionics panel with proper functionality.

 

 

5

IFR Global Positioning System (GPS) navigator with moving map display and representative of production avionics.

 

 

6

Two-axis autopilot, and, as appropriate, a flight director (FD). Optional for an ATD representing a helicopter.

 

 

7

Cruise trim (manual or electric pitch trim) providing indicator movement either electrically or analog in an acceptable trim ratio (if installed).

 

 

8

An independent visual system, panel, or screen that provides realistic cues in both day and night visual flight rules (VFR) and instrument flight rules (IFR) meteorological conditions to enhance a pilot’s visual orientation in the vicinity of an airport, including:

    Adjustable visibility parameters; and

    Adjustable ceiling parameters.

 

 

9

A pilot seat fixed to the floor appropriate to the aircraft configuration including adjustable height and forward and aft position adjustments.

 

 

10

Foot pedals secured to the cockpit floor structure, or that can be physically secured to the floor beneath the device in proper relation to the instrument panel.

 

 

11

Push-to-talk switch on the control yoke.

 

 

12

A separate instructor station to permit effective interaction without interrupting the flight in overseeing the pilot’s horizontal and vertical flight profiles in real time and space. This must include the ability to:

(a)   Oversee tracks along published airways, holding entries and patterns, and Localizer (LOC) and glideslope (GS) alignment/deviation (or other approaches with a horizontal and vertical track).

(b)   Allow instructor to function as air traffic control (ATC) in providing vectors, etc., affect change in weather conditions, ceilings, visibilities, wind speed and direction, light/moderate/severe turbulence, and icing conditions.

(c)   Invoke failures in navigation and instruments, radio receivers, landing gear, engine power (partial and total), and other aircraft systems (pitot, electric, static, etc.) by using either the keyboard or mouse.

 

 

Notes

Procedures and Tasks Test Checklist

Helicopter Maneuvers and Tasks

Yes, No, or N/A

a. Pretakeoff

 

(1) Engine start and rotor engagement

 

(2) Before takeoff check

 

 

 

b. Helicopter Takeoff

 

(1) Powerplant checks

 

(2) From hover

 

(3) From ground

 

(4) Vertical

 

(5) Running

 

 

 

c. Helicopter In-Flight Operations

 

1) Hovering and air taxi

 

(a) Forward

 

(b) Rearward

 

(c) Sideward

 

(d) Turns

 

2) Climb

 

3) Cruise

 

(a) Performance characteristics (speed vs. power)

 

(b) Turns

 

(i) Recovery

 

(ii) Skidding

 

(iii) Slipping

 

(iv) Steep turns

 

(c) In-flight engine shutdown and start (multiengine)

 

(d) Descents

 

(e) Straight in and 180 autorotation

 

(f) Landings

 

 

 

d. Instrument Approaches

 

(1) Nonprecision

 

(i) GPS and LPV (IFR GPS moving map required for AATD)

 

(ii) GPS WAAS (optional)

 

(iii) All engines operating

 

(iv) One or more engines inoperative

 

(v) Approach procedures (VOR, VOR/DME, LOC procedures on an ILS, LDA, RNAV (RDP) or RNAV (GPS) to LNAV, LNAV/VNAV or LPV)

 

(2) Precision

 

(i) ILS

 

(ii) GLS (optional)

 

(ii) Effects of crosswind

 

(iii) With one engine inoperative (multiengine)

 

(iv) Missed approach

 

(A) Normal

 

(B) With engine(s) inoperative (multiengine)

 

 

 

e. Surface Operations

 

(1) Landings

 

(2) Landing area operations

 

 

 

f. Emergency Operations

 

(1) Power failure at hover

 

(2) Power failure at altitude

 

(3) System and equipment malfunctions

 

(4) Settling with power (optional)

 

(5) Low rotor RPM recovery (optional)

 

(6) Antitorque system failure

 

(7) Dynamic rollover (optional)

 

 

 

g. Any Flight Phase

 

(1) Aircraft and powerplant systems

 

(i) Electrical

 

(ii) Fuel and oil

 

(iii) Landing gear (if applicable)

 

(2) Flight management and guidance systems

 

(i) Autopilot (optional)

 

(ii) Flight Director (optional)

 

(iii) Navigation systems

 

(iv) Multi-function displays

 

(3) Airborne procedures

 

(i) Holding

 

(4) Engine shutdown and parking

 

(i) Systems operation

 

 

 

h. Can simulate engine failure, including failures due to simulated loss of oil pressure or fuel starvation.

 

 

 

i. Can simulate the following equipment or system failures:

 

(1) Alternator or generator failure.

 

(2) Vacuum pump/pressure failure and the associated flight instrument failures.

 

(3) Gyroscopic flight instrument failures.

 

(4) Pitot/static system malfunction and the associated flight instrument failures.

 

(5) Electronic flight deck display malfunctions.

 

(6) Landing gear malfunctions (if retractable).

 

 

 

j. Independent Instructor Station Requirements (AATD Only)

 

(1) Displays published airways and holding patterns.

 

(2) Displays aircraft position and track.

 

(3) Displays aircraft altitude and speed.

 

(4) Displays NAVAIDs and airports.

 

(5) Can record and replay aircraft ground track history for entire training session.

 

(6) Can invoke instrument or equipment failures.

 

Notes, discrepancies, and any followup items

At completion of the evaluation, please date/sign/scan and forward this ATD functional evaluation form to AFS‑810.

11-10-1-23 through 11-10-1-37 RESERVED.