Section 1. General

400.                      General. The FAA has the responsibility to establish instrument procedures used for terminal operations at civil airports within the United States and its possessions. The FAA also provides or approves instrument procedures used by U. S. flag carriers at foreign airports.

401.                      Categories of Instrument Approach Procedures. Procedures published in the Federal Register under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) Part 97 are identified as "standard instrument approach procedures" (SIAPs). These procedures are available to all users. Instrument flight procedures authorized for use only by air carriers or some other segment of the aviation industry are not published in the Federal Register and are identified as "Special Procedures." Special Procedures may be developed for public and private use based on aircraft performance, aircraft equipment, or crew training, and may also require the use of landing aids, communications, or weather services not available for public use [see paragraph 872].

402.                      Airspace requirements.

a.          Public use procedures and Special procedures at Part 139 airports must be contained within controlled airspace to the maximum extent possible as specified in Order 7400.2, Procedures for Handling Airspace Matters.

b.          Where an airport does not qualify for a Class B/C/D/E surface area, designate Class E 700-ft airspace. In the latter case, landing minimums may be established below the floor of controlled airspace. Requirements for minor adjustment to existing controlled (Class B/C/D/E) airspace, to fully encompass an instrument procedure, will not form the basis for withholding procedure publication. An approach procedure may be published prior to obtaining the optimum configuration of controlled airspace when the following conditions exist [see Order 8260.26, Establishing and Scheduling Standard Instrument Procedure Effective Dates, paragraph 7d(2)]:

(1)        The centerline of all terminal routes is located within existing controlled airspace.
(2)        The procedure turn area out to the appropriate distance specified in chapter 5 is contained within existing controlled airspace.
(3)        The final approach fix is contained within existing controlled airspace.

c.            Special procedures other than those noted in paragraph 402a, should, where possible, be contained within controlled airspace in accordance with Order 7400.2. Special procedures may be established and approved outside of controlled airspace where it is not possible to designate controlled airspace. In such cases, annotate the procedure: “Procedure not contained within controlled airspace,” and advise the appropriate Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) that controlled airspace will not be provided. Do NOT use special procedures as a temporary measure pending designation of controlled airspace for public use procedures.

403.                      Contractual Use of Private Facilities. An air operator may arrange for the use of a privately owned navigational aid (NAVAID). Such an arrangement requires a contractual agreement between the sponsor and the user regarding facility use. Flight Standards Service (AFS) must coordinate all requests for contractual use of private navigation aids with the sponsor. Approval of the special instrument procedure for an operator is contingent upon the Regional Flight Standards Division (RFSD) receiving a copy of an acceptable contractual agreement. Refer to paragraph 708 for procedures for the first time approval of a non-Federal NAVAID.

404.                      TERPS Application. Develop all instrument approach procedures, except foreign procedures developed in accordance with Order 8260.31.

a.          Reserved.

b.          Volume 1, paragraph 122a, Airport. The runway lighting requirement does not apply to night instrument takeoff procedures.

c.            Volume 1, paragraph 122c, Obstacle Marking and Lighting. Do NOT deny instrument approach procedures due to inability to mark and light or remove obstacles that violate Part 77 surfaces. Exception: See Order 8260.3, Volume 1, paragraph 251b(2)(c). Objects that penetrate these surfaces are normally studied by the National Flight Procedures Office (NFPO) prior to construction or alteration. The NFPO recommendations for marking, lighting, or removal are made at that time.

d.          Volume 1, paragraph 151, Coordination Conflicts. The NFPO must make every effort to resolve coordination conflicts, and must thoroughly evaluate objections received as a result of coordination or by direct inquiry. This evaluation should determine the validity of the comments and the course of action to be taken:

(1)        Acknowledge the comments and amend or withdraw the procedure; or
(2)        Determine that the procedure is correct as submitted. All adverse comments received, through formal coordination, must be answered in writing. Conflicts, which cannot be resolved by the region, must be forwarded to the Flight Procedure Standards Branch, AFS-420, with an information copy to the commenting agency.

e.          Volume 1, paragraph 160, Identification of Procedures.

(1)        When developing procedures at a location that requires the use of the “Z” and “Y” naming convention, the procedure with the lowest minimums will be identified with the “Z.” The next lowest will be “Y,” etc.
(2)        Military operators have stated a requirement for tactical area navigational aid (TACAN) instrument approach capability to a limited number of airports. These airports have a prescribed very high frequency omni-directional radar range (VOR) procedure, based on a VOR collocated with tactical area navigational (VORTAC) facility, where TACAN-equipped aircraft are expected to operate. TACAN-equipped aircraft may execute VOR procedures at these locations when the procedure is identified as "VOR or TACAN." This informs both the pilot and the controller that an approach may be executed with aircraft equipped with only VOR or with only TACAN. Approval for the use of individual VOR procedures by TACAN-equipped aircraft is subject to review for compliance with TERPS and flight-check criteria. Take the following actions to implement this program:
(a)  Designate VOR/distance measuring equipment (DME) procedures , predicated upon the use of VORTAC, as "VOR/DME or TACAN" provided flight inspection has determined that the TACAN and VOR components will support the procedure. These procedures require DME. Establish the missed approach clearance limit at a radial/DME fix in lieu of the VORTAC facility to accommodate aircraft equipped with only TACAN.
(b)  Establish a VOR type procedure when a VOR procedure (no TACAN requirements) is required to accommodate non-DME-equipped aircraft, and is predicated upon a VORTAC facility. However, establish combination very high frequency (VHF)/DME fixes, where possible, for optional use by DME-equipped aircraft.
(c)  Make provision for TACAN-only equipped aircraft to use VOR approach procedures when requested by the appropriate military authority and procedure design and facility performance will permit. Where approval can be authorized, rename VOR procedures based on VORTAC facilities in accordance with the following examples: "VOR or TACAN RWY 30, or VOR or TACAN-A." Before this identification is used, flight inspection must determine that the TACAN azimuth alignment is satisfactory. Review and modify the procedure as necessary to fully support its use by TACAN-equipped aircraft:

1.            Establish the missed approach clearance limit at a combination VHF/DME fix for TACAN aircraft.

2.            Add DME fix capability to VHF intersections where required for TACAN use.

3.            Ensure that the procedure can be flown satisfactorily by reference to TACAN-only equipment.

4.            Ensure that the procedure can be flown satisfactorily by reference to VOR-only equipment.

5.            Ensure that holding is not authorized for TACAN-equipped aircraft at the VORTAC. This also applies to VOR/DME or TACAN procedures.

f.              Volume 1, paragraph 161, Straight-in Procedure Identification. When approaches meet straight-in criteria for parallel/multiple runways, name the procedures accordingly.





g.          Volume 1, paragraph 162, Circling Procedures.

(1)        Do not duplicate the alphabetical suffix for circling procedures at an individual airport to identify more than one circling procedure. If more than one circling procedure exists, and regardless of the final approach alignment or type of facility, use successive suffixes.



(2)        The alphabetical suffix for circling procedures must not be duplicated at airports with identical city names within one state. Regardless of the airport name, successive suffixes must be used for all airports that serve the same city.


















h.          Volume 1, paragraph 172, Effective Dates . See Order 8260.26. FAA policy does not permit the issuance of complete civil instrument approach procedures by Notice to Airmen (NOTAM).

i.              Volume 1, paragraph 220, Feeder Routes. Whenever a feeder route meets NoPT alignment and descent gradient limitations, all or part of the feeder must be constructed as an initial segment. An IAF must be established and the route annotated NoPT [see paragraph 805g(1)].

Note: The entire length of a feeder route should not be constructed as an initial approach segment in designated mountainous areas if the segment length will exceed 50 miles or if it will traverse mountainous terrain significantly higher than the airport.

j.              Volume 1, paragraph 221b, Emergency Safe Altitudes . This paragraph does not apply to civil procedures.

k.            Volume 1, paragraph 240, Intermediate Approach Segment. An intermediate segment must be developed and depicted on all graphically published instrument approach procedures. In determining intermediate altitudes and intermediate fix locations, consideration must be given to Air Traffic requirements and the establishment of an approximate 3-degree descent for the nonprecision final approach segment.

l.              Volume 1, paragraph 241, Altitude Selection. The final approach fix (FAF) altitude must not be less than the highest straight-in or circling minimum descent altitude (MDA), including adjustments.

m.      Volume 1, paragraph 250, Final Approach Segment. For nonprecision approaches, the final approach segment area considered for obstacle clearance begins at the FAF and ends at the runway or missed approach point, whichever is encountered last. This concept applies to Order 8260.3, Volume 1, paragraphs 513, 523, 713, 903, and 1044. For precision approaches, the area considered for obstacle clearance begins at the precise final approach fix (PFAF) (i.e., glide slope intercept point) and ends at a point 200 ft outward from the threshold [see Order 8260.3, Volume 3].

n.          Volume 1, paragraph 261, Circling Approach Area not Considered for Obstacle Clearance. Sectorize the circling area only to deny circling within a prescribed area.

o.          Volume 1, paragraph 270, Missed Approach Segment. The missed approach altitude must not be less than the highest minimum descent altitude (MDA), including adjustments.

p.          Volume 1, paragraph 283. Fixes Formed by Radar. Coordinate with the appropriate air traffic facility before establishing a radar fix to assure the facility agrees to provide radar fix service when requested or required. When an air traffic facility advises that they can no longer provide radar fix service, revise procedures to remove the radar fix.

q.          Volume 1, paragraphs 275, 277b, 1033, and 1035b, Turning Missed Approach/Turning Area.

(1)        The missed approach segment must be constructed with consideration given to all categories of aircraft. Plotting only the highest or heaviest authorized aircraft category area will not assure proper area evaluation for lower categories. Construct turning areas for the lowest and highest aircraft categories for turns at the missed approach point (MAP); or for turns at the end of the straight portion of the combination straight and turning missed approach. Where obstacle penetrations exist, evaluate the appropriate area for each category to determine specific aircraft category impact.
(2)        Section 2 boundary terminates at point B (or point C for ILS or PAR) only if a fix exists at the end of section 1 and if course guidance is provided in section 2.

r.              Volume 1, paragraph 287c, Final Approach Fix. If the buffer or 40:1 surface evaluation identifies an obstacle penetration, you may clear the problem by increasing the MDA by the amount of obstacle penetration. When applying the buffer to a straight missed approach segment with positive course guidance, the area between the MAP and the 40:1 rise-starting point is considered missed approach primary area. The 12:1 surface begins where the 40:1 rise starts.

s.            Volume 1, paragraph 311. When Category (CAT) E minimums are required on civil procedures, use Order 8260.3, Volume 1, chapter 3, table 10 to establish visibility minimums. CAT E minimums must not be less than that required by Order 8260.3, Volume 1, chapter 3, table 9.

t.              Volume 1, paragraph 323b, Remote Altimeter Setting Source. Whether the use of a remote altimeter setting is primary or full-time, or secondary to a local source, establish the required visibility as stated in Order 8260.3, Volume 1, chapter 3.

u.          RESERVED.

v.            Volume 1, paragraph 333, Runway Visual Range (RVR). RVR must be authorized on adjacent runways, when segments of those runways are located within a 2,000-ft radius of the transmissometer location and the requirements of Order 8260.3, Volume 1, paragraph 334, are met.

(1)        RVR must be authorized in accordance with the following. See Order 6560.10, Runway Visual Range (RVR):
(a)  CAT II/III Rollout RVR. Threshold plus 2,000 ft of runway required within the 2,000-ft circle.
(b)  CAT I ILS and Nonprecision Touchdown RVR. Threshold plus 1,200 ft of runway required within the 2,000-ft circle.
(c)  Mid-field RVR. Two thousand feet coverage of runway centerline including the runway midpoint required within the 2,000-ft circle.
(2)        When a transmissometer serves more than one runway and a CAT II/III runway is involved, the touchdown RVR will be sited with respect to the CAT II/III runway. RVR installations meeting requirements for use on adjacent runways may be used for reducing standard take-off visibility.
(3)        The NFPO must determine , in conjunction with the Technical Operations Service the following:
(a)  Planned RVR installations, proposed commissioning dates, and runways to be served.
(b)  Runways that meet the requirements for authorizing RVR.
(c)  RVR installations that are to be used to report RVR for adjacent runways and the effective date of the procedures.
(4)        The NFPO must revise affected procedures by the normal abbreviated or full amendment process.

w.        Volume 1, paragraph 334, Runway Requirements for Approval of RVR. If runway markings are removed or obliterated subsequent to the commissioning of the RVR, the RVR minimums may require adjustment. However, before an adjustment is made to the minimums, the NFPO should advise the airport sponsor of the proposed course of action. Where corrective action cannot be accomplished within a reasonable length of time, the NFPO must submit a revised procedure reflecting the adjustment to landing minimums.

x.          Volume 1, paragraph 343, Visibility Reduction . The runway alignment indicator light (RAIL) portion of a minimum intensity approach lighting system with runway alignment indicator lights (MALSR) or short simplified approach lighting system with runway alignment indicator lights (SSALR) must be operating in order to retain visibility reductions authorized in Order 8260.3 table 9. Unattended approach light systems that have a radio control device for a pilot to exercise control over the system, qualify for the same minimums as light systems that are controlled from a ground position.

y.            Volume 1, paragraph 360, Standard Alternate Minimums. Do not authorize alternate minimums when the facility providing final approach guidance is a CAT 3 monitored facility. If a procedure has a stepdown fix predicated on a CAT 3 monitored facility, establish alternate minimums no lower than the minimum altitude without the fix [see paragraphs 213c(1) and (2)]. Standard alternate minimums provide a margin of safety over basic straight-in landing minimums. Where higher than basic landing minimums are required, consider an equivalent increase for the alternate minimums, particularly at remote airport locations. Similar consideration should be given when establishing alternate minimums at airports served by a single instrument approach, which authorizes circling minimums only.

z.            Volume 1, paragraphs 413a(2), 513a(2)(b), 613a(2), and 713a(2)(b). Circling approach alignment criteria, using on-airport facilities, permits the use of all radials (360 ° ). It is not a requirement for the final approach course to pass through a portion of the landing surface.

aa.  Volume 1, paragraphs 613c, 613e, and 713c. These paragraphs allow military procedures to apply a reduced required obstacle clearance (ROC) on non-directional radio beacon (NDB) approach procedures. Military procedures developed using this reduced ROC are for military use only. Develop civil procedures at joint civilian/military airports utilizing civil TERPS criteria. Where the military requests development of instrument approach procedures, or military use of existing civil procedures utilizing reduced ROC at joint civilian/military airports, annotate these procedures "NOT FOR CIVIL USE," and effect documentation under appropriate FAA/ military directives for separate Department of Defense (DOD) publication.

bb.  Volume 1, paragraph 907, and Volume 3, paragraph 3.9, Missed Approach Segment. The missed approach area dimensions for the localizer differ from those of the full ILS, unless the MAPs are collocated. Evaluate both missed approach areas for obstacle clearance requirements. Provide a single missed approach procedure to serve both ILS and localizer approaches. A localizer type directional aid (LDA), localizer only, localizer back course, or simplified directional facility (SDF) missed approach point must be at least 3,000-ft prior to the localizer facility. For precision approaches, or where a glide slope is used, the DA/MAP must be no closer to the localizer antenna than a point where the localizer is 400 ft wide. See Order 8200.1, United States Standard Flight Inspection Manual, paragraph 15.20f(3)(c).

cc.    Volume 4, paragraph 1.2, Departure Criteria Application .

(1)        Apply diverse departure criteria to all runways at airports where public or special instrument flight procedures (IFPs) exist and the FAA is the approving authority. If restrictions are not imposed, expect aircraft departures in all directions from all runways.
(2)        If restrictions (40:1 surface penetrations) are identified for a specific runway in the diverse review, apply guidance established in Order 8260.46, Departure Procedure Program.

dd.  Volume 1, paragraph 1501r. Interpolate tables 15-1 and 15-2 or use the next higher values.

ee.  Volume 1, paragraph 1502g. Establish only one stepdown fix in a long-range navigation (LORAN) SIAP final segment.

ff.          Volume 1, paragraph 1512a . The 120-degree turn limitation does NOT apply for a feeder-to-initial segment connection where the initial segment is a course reversal.

405.                      Sidestep Maneuvers. A sidestep maneuver is the visual alignment maneuver, required by a pilot executing an approach to one runway and cleared to land on a parallel runway. The following conditions must exist:

a.          Runway centerlines are separated by 1,200 ft or less.

b.          Only one final approach course is published

c.            Course guidance is provided on the runway centerline or within 3 degrees of the runway centerline of the primary runway.

d.          The procedure is identified in accordance with Order 8260.3, Volume 1, paragraph 161.

e.          Final approach areas must be established for both runways and must be determined by the approach guidance provided. Both final approach areas must be used to determine the MDA to the sidestep runway.

f.              Utilize the same nonprecision obstacle clearance used for the primary runway to determine the published MDA for the sidestep maneuver.

g.          Establish published visibility in accordance with Order 8260.3, Volume 1, chapter 3, table 6 or 11, whichever is higher.

(1)        One-half mile visibility reduction is authorized if approach light system (ALS), MALSR, or SSALR is installed to the sidestep runway. The minimum visibility after applying credit for lights must be no less than 1 mile.
(2)        Visibility must be increased ¼ mile when the "sidestep" runway threshold is over 1,000 ft closer to the FAF than the runway with course guidance.

Note: If descent gradient is exceeded, the sidestep maneuver must NOT be authorized.

h.          Sidestep minimums must be published in accordance with the examples below:

Minimums block:











406.                      Temporary Displaced Threshold Procedures. Temporarily displacing or moving the threshold may have an adverse effect on instrument approach/departure procedures. If an instrument procedure to the affected runway is required during the time of threshold displacement, evaluate existing instrument procedures as follows:

a.          Once the new threshold/departure end has been established, obstacles that lie within the displaced area (machinery, vehicles, etc.) must be evaluated to ensure the procedure continues to meet TERPS criteria. If used at night or in instrument flight rules (IFR) conditions, runway lighting must include threshold lighting for the displaced threshold.

b.          Approach lights will not be usable for taking a reduction in visibility minimums. Re-compute no-light minima, adding the amount of displacement to the “MAP-to-threshold” distance.

c.            Suspend vertically guided approach operations by NOTAM. This includes area navigation (RNAV) procedures that contain lateral precision performance with vertical guidance (LPV) and/or lateral navigation/vertical navigation (LNAV/VNAV) minima. Technical Operations Service, AJW-0, is responsible for turning off the instrument landing system/ microwave landing system (ILS/MLS) glide slope until the normal runway configuration is restored.

(1)        There may be situations where the threshold is displaced only a short distance without affecting vertically guided approach capability. To determine if such procedures can remain useable, the relocated threshold crossing height (TCH) must be computed and be in compliance with Order 8260.3 table 2. Consideration must also be given to what may be located in the closed portion of the runway and the TERPS obstacle identification surface (OIS) must be evaluated to ensure proper obstacle clearance.
(2)        Special instrument procedures must also be afforded the same assessment as standard instrument procedures. The results must be provided to the Regional Flight Standards Division All Weather Operations Program Manager (RFSD-AWOPM) so that the change information is provided to all the recipients of the Special procedure affected.

d.          Visual glide slope indicator systems (VASI/PAPI/PLASI) may be unavailable for the same reason as the vertically guided approach.

e.          The elevation of the new threshold, touchdown zone, and airport will more than likely change. In this case, evaluate the revised HAT/HAA for visibility impact and NOTAM changes accordingly. The new temporary HAT/HAA/THLD/field elevation values must be NOTAMed only when necessary for safety of flight.

f.              Evaluate departure procedures for use during threshold displacement from the new departure end of runway (DER) to ensure compliance with TERPS.

407.-419.   Reserved.

Section 2. Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP)

420.                      General. SIAPs must be established in accordance with Order 8260.3, other specific FAA 8260-series orders, and the policies set forth in this order. FAA policy and instructions for completing FAA 8260-series forms are contained in this Order.

421.                      Coordination of Terminal Instrument Procedures. Coordination requirements for terminal instrument procedures are set forth in Order 8260.3, Volume 1, chapter 1, section 5 [see paragraph 811d].

422.                      Radar Instrument Approach Procedures. Air Traffic Control (ATC) personnel determine which runways require radar instrument approach procedures and coordinate these requirements through the NFPO.

423.-429.   Reserved.

Section 3. Visual Descent Point (VDP)

430.                      Establishment . The VDP defines a point on a straight-in, nonprecision approach, where a normal descent from the MDA would commence if the required visual references were acquired.

a.          Establish a VDP provided the SIAP meets the requirements of Order 8260.3, Volume 1, paragraphs 251, 252, and 253. This provision includes a localizer procedure when combined on an ILS chart and a LNAV procedure when combined with LNAV/VNAV and/or LPV.

b.          For chart clarity, a VDP should be no less than 1 mile (OPTIMUM) 0.5 miles (MINIMUM) from a final segment fix or MAP. If proximity closer than 0.5 miles is required, consider one of the following actions:

(1)        Do NOT establish a VDP.
(2)        Relocate the fix to the VDP location, and do NOT establish a VDP.
(3)        Relocate the fix to accommodate the 0.5 mile (or greater) requirement.

Note: Option (2) above increases MDA and descent angle. Option (3) increases S/D altitude.

c.            Do NOT adjust visibility minimums to accommodate a VDP.

d.          Where used, the DME source must be the same as the DME source for DME fixes in the final segment.

431.                      Multiple Altimeter Sources. If the MDA can be based on more than one altimeter source and the resulting MDAs are different, then the published VDP is not valid when the alternate source is used. A note must be published to NA the VDP when the alternative altimeter source is used. See paragraph 855e(9).

432.                      FAA Form 8260-9 Entries . To facilitate review, entries may be required in the REMARKS section. Where a VDP is not established, give the reason; e.g., obstacles penetrate VDP surface, descent gradient, proximity to final approach segment (FAS) fix, etc. [see paragraphs 857r and 860c].

433.-439. Reserved .

Section 4. Special Instrument Procedures Processing

440.                      Initiating a Request for Special Instrument Procedures. Proponents will initiate Special instrument procedure requests using the Internet Web site Proponents having already developed instrument procedures must submit them through their principal operations inspector (POI) or Aviation Safety Inspector (ASI) prior to submitting the package to the applicable RFSD-AWOPM for approval and submission to the Regional Airspace and Procedures Team (RAPT) for action. See figure 4-1 for procedure processing flow diagram and paragraph 442 for procedure package content requirements.

Note 1: Responsibilities of the RAPT are identified in the latest edition of Order 8260.43, Flight Procedures Management Program.

Note 2: See Order 8260.31, for processing Special Foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures (FTIPs).

441.                      Processing Requests.

a.          Flight Standards District Office (FSDO)/Certificate Management Office (CMO)/Operator Action.

(1)        Participate in RAPT meetings as an FAA participant at the request of the RFSD-AWOPM, and RAPT chairman.
(2)        Perform a preliminary assessment, based on the proponent’s package content, as to the operational acceptability of the proposed procedure for further action, and make recommendations to the RAPT through the RFSD-AWOPM.
(3)        Forward the proponent’s package, along with any recommendations to the RFSD-AWOPM.
(4)        Validate the operator’s documentation (when required) for requirements or limitations listed on the Form 8260-10, or for any special or unique normal, abnormal or emergency procedures needed to accommodate any unique, local operating environmental concerns as required by the issuing RFSD-AWOPM.
(5)        With RFSD-AWOPM approval, issue the approved procedure under Order 8400.10, Air Transportation Operations Inspector’s Handbook, Volume 4, chapter 2, section 9. If additional users will be authorized, the applicable POIs and RFSD-AWOPMs must be notified.
(6)        Forward a copy of the proponent’s approved charted procedure to AFS-420, the NFPO, the originating RFSD-AWOPM, and the controlling ATC facility.
(7)        When a Special procedure is not maintained by the FAA [see paragraph 442a], it is the proponent/operator’s responsibility to notify the FAA (POI or RFSD-AWOPM) if procedure maintenance responsibilities can no longer be met. The procedure must be suspended until such time maintenance has been restored and the procedure has been re-evaluated to ensure currency. If maintenance cannot be restored within 60 days, the procedure must be canceled [see paragraph 444].
(8)        Obtain approval to use the procedure from the issuing RFSD-AWOPM before authorizing any additional aircraft type (by Type design) and/or any aircraft that has modified its avionics package.

b.          RFSD-AWOPM Action.

(1)        Participate as CORE RAPT member.
(2)        Complete the “Special Procedure Checklist” [See figure 4-2] prior to submitting the procedure to the Flight Procedures Field Office (FPFO). Ensure that the “priority number” assigned by the RAPT has been placed in the applicable block.

Note: The RSFD-AWOPM may provide the checklist to the proponent/developer to have them ensure all the items have been completed prior to submission.

(3)        When Special procedures are received, that were developed by the proponent/contractor, ensure all applicable coordination with the Air Traffic Organization and/or FSDO has been completed in accordance with RAPT procedures.
(4)        Participate as a member of the AFS-400 procedures review board (PRB) to assist in the development of FAA Form 8260-10. Recommend to AFS-410/470, when an operator should meet specific normal, abnormal, or emergency operational requirements relative to any unique, local environmental conditions prior to issuance of a Special instrument approach procedure (IAP) by the POI; e.g., proof of one engine inoperative capability, etc.
(5)        Provide oversight for issuance of all Special procedures within the region.
(6)        Authorize issuance of approved Special procedures to additional requesters through the Flight Standards District Office (FSDO)/Certificate Management Office (CMO).

Note: Obtain AFS-400 pre-authorization for specifically identified procedures prior to issuance to additional operators. Provide copy of enabling correspondence to AFS-460, including charted procedure. (Specifically identified procedures are those for which AFS-400 has developed aircraft equipment and performance requirements, and/or specific operations including dispatch and pilot training requirements.)

(7)        Coordinate with POI concerning the operator meeting specific normal, abnormal, or emergency operational requirements in the operators’ operations manual and training program relative to any unique, local environmental conditions prior to authorizing POI’s issuance of a Special IAP; e.g., proof of one engine inoperative capability for missed approach (MA), etc. Authorization may be via e-mail or memorandum. The RFSD-AWOPM must maintain a copy of the proof of operator’s capability relative to the Special IAP and e-mail/ memorandum authorizing the POI issuance to the operator.
(8)        )Maintain a list by location, procedure, and operator(s), of all Special procedures issued within the jurisdiction of the region and provide that information to AFS-400 upon request.
(9)        Distribute the approved procedure as noted in paragraph 445. (Distribution to ALPA and APA applies for air carrier Specials.)
(10) When a proponent sells/ transfers procedure responsibility to a new owner/operator, the procedure must be canceled and reissued to the new proponent. All user agreements must then be re-negotiated.
(11) The AWO has the authority to rescind the issuing authorization from the POI if the operator deviates from the “Operations and Training Requirements” for the procedure or when the RFSD-AWOPM becomes aware of any additional operational and/or training requirements.

c.            National Flight Procedures Office (NFPO) Action.

(1)        The Western, Central, or Eastern Service Area FPFO serves as RAPT Chairperson. The FPFO must ensure the “Special Procedure Checklist” (figure 4-2) has been completed prior to submission to the NFPO for development and/or quality assurance (QA) review or prior to submitting a proponent/ contractor developed procedures for QA and Flight Check. If the checklist is not complete, return the package to the RFSD-AWOPM for action.
(2)        Coordinate reimbursable agreements as appropriate.
(3)        Forward requests for procedures not covered by current criteria to AFS-460 for criteria development and processing.
(4)        Develop waiver request in coordination with the proponent and the FSD/FSDO/CMO and forward to AFS-460 for further action. Provide flight inspection report (on request).
(5)        Develop the Special procedure with current, waived, or new criteria as appropriate.
(6)        Perform quality assurance review of Special procedures developed by the proponent, or internally within the NFPO.
(7)        Coordinate flight inspection of the procedures.
(8)        Forward completed procedure package to AFS-460 for approval coordination. The procedure checklist [figure 4-2] must be submitted as part of the completed package [see paragraph 442 for package content]. When forwarding packages that contain revisions to existing procedures, the cover letter must include a paragraph describing all changes made. When forwarding a new procedure, the cover letter must state the reason/justification that the procedure needs to be a Special and include the date that the initial request was made by the proponent.
(9)        Maintain a file of appropriate correspondence for each Special procedure.
(10) Perform, as necessary and appropriate, biennial review, environmental assessment, obstacle evaluation (OE), routine maintenance, and NOTAM action to ensure the safety, currency, and validity of the procedure(s) for which they have jurisdiction.

Note: These functions may be performed by a commercial service specified in the Special procedures checklist [see figure 4-2].

(11) Document for permanent file on a separate Form 8260-10, the Office of Primary Interest (OPI) - including non-Governmental proponents/developers regarding responsibility for actions in paragraph 441c(10), with a brief explanation of the process for accomplishment of each action item.

d.          Flight Technologies and Procedures Division (AFS-400) Action.

(1)        Participate as a NAPT member.
(2)        Provide signature-approving authority for all Special procedures.
(3)        Approve development of standards and criteria to support requests for Special procedures where no criteria exist.
(4)        Provide signature-approving authority for all waivers required for Special procedures.

e.          AFS-200/800 Action.

(1)        Participate in PRB as deemed necessary.
(2)        Assist AFS-410/470 in evaluating procedure packages from an operational standpoint to determine actions required where special training or aircraft equipment and/or performance may exist.
(3)        Include in the operation evaluation of the procedure package flyability, regulatory compliance, complexity, specific crew qualifications, equipment and/or demonstrated performance requirements, recommendations for training, or other special operating requirements or considerations deemed necessary to execute the procedure.

f.              Flight Operations Branch (AFS-410) and/or Performance Based Flight Systems Branch (AFS-470) Action.

(1)        Conduct detailed technical procedural evaluation, as required, using aircraft and/or flight simulator evaluation, risk modeling, and Airspace Simulation and Analysis for TERPS (ASAT).

Note: Per paragraph 201b in Volume 1 of Order 8260.3, ALL criteria are predicated on normal aircraft operations for considering obstacle clearance requirements. Normal aircraft operation means all aircraft systems are functioning normally, all required navigational aids are performing within flight inspection parameters, and the pilot is conducting instrument operations utilizing instrument procedures based on the TERPS standard to provide ROC.

(2)        With AFS-460 and RFSD-AWOPM, develop and enter special authorization determination (including that no action is required) on Form 8260-10 and permanently attach to original package of all Special IAPs and waivers prior to approval signature.
(3)        Special procedures based on STANDARD published criteria.
(a)  Participate as a member of the Division PRB.
(4)        Special procedures requiring WAIVER of standard criteria or development of NEW CRITERIA.
(a)  Participate as a member of the Division PRB.
(b)  Evaluate waivers of CAT II/III published criteria.
(c)  Develop Flight Standards Information Bulletins as required.
(d)  Develop special authorization requirements with AFS-200/800, RFSD-AWOPM, FSD/FSDO, and AFS-400 branches, where special training or aircraft equipment and/or performance requirements may exist.
(e)  Enter special authorization determination (including that no action is required) on Form 8260-10 and permanently attach to original package prior to approval signature.

g.          Flight Procedure Implementation and Oversight Branch (AFS-460) Action.

(1)        Special procedures based on STANDARD published criteria.
(a)  Determine necessity for Division PRB reviews.
(b)  Provide a copy of procedures subject to PRB review to AFS-200, AFS-410/470, and RFSD-AWOPM prior to a PRB meeting.
(c)  Facilitate the Division PRB.
(d)  Coordinate AFS-400 signature/approval of procedure.
(e)  Maintain a record of all approved Special procedures.
(f)      Distribute the approved procedure as noted in paragraph 445.
(2)        Special procedures requiring WAIVER of standard criteria:
(a)  Provide a copy of procedures subject to PRB review to AFS-200, AFS-410/470, and RFSD-AWOPM prior to the PRB meeting.
(b)  Facilitate the Division PRB.
(c)  Coordinate with the appropriate RFSD-AWOPM to validate the assessed equivalent level of safety and/or participation on the Division PRB.
(d)  Evaluate the scope and validity of the waiver request.
(e)  Review the waiver request for adequate documentation.
(f)      Evaluate waiver “Equivalent Level of Safety” to determine if alternatives to criteria meet or exceed the level of safety provided by standard criteria.
(g)  Assist AFS-440 as required when a detailed technical procedure evaluation or analysis is required, using aircraft and/or flight simulator evaluation, risk modeling, and ASAT.
(h)  Assist AFS-410/470, as requested, in evaluating procedure packages where special training or aircraft equipment and/or performance requirements may exist, providing interpretation of design criteria as relates to waiver requirements.
(i)      Enter “Special Authorization Required” in AFS-400 endorsement block on original Form 8260-1 (if required).
(j)      Enter “Proponent’s approval for use of this procedure which requires compliance with the memorandum issued to the POI by the RFSD-AWOPM” in the “Air Carrier Notes” block on the back of the Form 8260-7.
(k)  Coordinate AFS-400 approval/signature of the waiver package.
(l)      Distribute the approved procedure as noted in paragraph 445.
(3)        Special procedures requiring development of NEW CRITERIA.
(a)  Develop procedural design standards for criteria based on operational and equipment requirements.
(b)  Draft criteria from standards provided from within AFS.
(c)  Facilitate Division PRB evaluation and coordination of new criteria.
(d)  Coordinate with the RFSD-AWOPM regarding implementation of new Special procedure criteria to assess the Air Traffic Organization or Airport issues.
(e)  Process criteria for AFS-1 or AFS-400 signature, as appropriate, and distribute to the NFPO for use in design/ re-design of proposed procedure.
(f)      Facilitate Division PRB to evaluate the final procedure.
(g)  Assist in evaluating the procedure packages where special training or aircraft equipment and/or performance requirements may exist.
(h)  Enter “Special Authorization Required” in AFS-400 endorsement block on original Form 8260-1 (if required).
(i)      Include a copy of new criteria in procedure package and copy of the AFS-400 approval to use.
(j)      Coordinate AFS-400 approval/signature of the procedure.
(k)  Distribute the approved procedure as noted in paragraph 445.

442.                      Procedure Package Content.

a.          Special instrument procedures may be developed by the proponent/operator (PO) or an agent hired by the PO. In addition to the completion of applicable 8260-series forms, certain levels of coordination, maintenance, protection, and periodic review are required. The PO is responsible for providing to the RAPT the following actions and plans for the procedure:

(1)        Obstruction Evaluation (OE) Study Plan. A plan in place to accommodate OE proposals. An assessment for aeronautical effect on the Special instrument procedure will be conducted and appropriate action taken as necessary.

Note: If public procedures exist at the same airport and an OE plan is in existence, a memorandum from the applicable FPFO must accompany the package stating that the Special procedure will be included in the OE process.

(2)        NOTAM Plan. The Flight Data Control (FDC) NOTAM system is used to disseminate NOTAMs on Special procedures when all system requirements (e.g., location identifier assigned and in the NOTAM database, etc.) are in place. Locations that are not in the NOTAM database are incapable of FDC NOTAM service and a plan must be established and in place for notification of, and compliance with, safety of flight changes to procedure courses, fixes, altitudes, or minimums that are necessary.
(3)        Periodic Review Plan. A plan is in place for the periodic review and amendment process of the procedure as required by this order, chapter 2, section 8. The plan must identify who will be responsible for routine procedure maintenance, and completing/ documenting the periodic (biennial) review.
(4)        Flight Inspection Plan. A plan is in place so that after the initial flight inspection of the procedure has been completed, periodic flight inspections are accomplished as specified in Order 8200.1, chapter 4, section 2.
(5)        Environmental Plan. All environmental studies must be conducted and an appropriate checklist completed in accordance with Order 1050.5E, Environmental Impacts: Policies and Procedures.
(6)        Air Traffic and Airspace. Appropriate documentation indicating coordination was affected with the parent Air Traffic control facility to ensure acceptance of the developed procedure and appropriate airspace requirements have been met in accordance with this order, chapter 5, section 2.
(7)        Airport/Heliport Acceptance. Appropriate documentation indicating airport/heliport management acceptance of the Special instrument procedure.
(8)        POI or FSDO. Name, office routing, and phone numbers of POI or appropriate FSDO inspector.
(9)        User(s). Identify user(s) of the procedure, to include points of contact.

Note: If the proponent/operator later decides to authorize additional users, the POI and RFSD-AWOPM must be notified.

(10) Plans (1) through (5) may be omitted from submitted packages as agreed to and individually specified in a memorandum submitted to and approved by AFS-460.

Note: Memorandum submitted requesting permission to omit these plans must contain justification to do so.

(11) Provide a graphic portrayal of the procedure.

b.          All special procedure packages submitted for AFS approval must contain the following: applicable 8260-series forms, maps graphically depicting obstacles in relation to obstacle evaluation areas (OEAs), and graphic depiction of the procedure.

Note: Additionally, see Order 8200.1, section 214, for additional flight inspection requirements.

c.            Special procedures packages must include a copy of the Special Procedure Checklist [see figure 4-2].

d.          A package without the required information listed above will be returned to the submitter without action.

443.                      Minor Revisions of Special Procedures. Minor changes to Special IAPs may be made by processing an abbreviated Form 8260-7 amendment. For those Special procedures at locations that are in the U.S. NOTAM system, a T-NOTAM must be used to initiate the change and followed up with an abbreviated Form 8260-7 amendment. For those Special procedures at locations not in the U.S. NOTAM system, notify the users (as described in the NOTAM plan for the procedure) of the applicable changes and process an abbreviated Form 8260-7 amendment. When processing an abbreviated Form 8260-7, apply the following:

a.          Increment the amendment number using an alphanumeric format; e.g., AMDT 3B.

b.          Complete the Notes Continued block on the reverse side of the form indicating the changes described in the T-NOTAM. Include cancellation instructions for the T-NOTAM. Be specific in indicating the changes, e.g., MDA changed from 820 to 880 ft, and the reason, e.g., “New obstacle found in final segment.”

c.            Submit to AFS-460 for processing. AFS-460 will determine what coordination/ review action is necessary based on the nature of the change(s).

444.                      Cancellation of Special Procedures.

a.          The RFSD-AWOPM notifies the NFPO (or commercial organization that is maintaining the procedure) that the procedure is no longer required (include the reason for cancellation) and should be canceled [see paragraph 4.4.1a(7)].

b.          NFPO (or commercial organization that is maintaining the procedure) prepares an original Form 8260-7 per paragraph 812, completing only the type of procedure and the City, State line, entering the required notation on the front of the form, leaving the "effective date” blank. Additionally, on the front of the form in the “Notes” section, state the reason for cancellation. The form is then sent to AFS-460 for processing and distribution.

c.            AFS-460 processes the cancellation and forwards to AFS-400 for signature. Signed Form 8260-7 (original) is returned to AFS-420 for filing. A copy will be forwarded to the applicable RFSD-AWOPM.

445.                      Distribution. Responsible offices distribute forms as follows:



Original to:



Copies to:








Region FSD


Copies to:

FSDO/CMO for the proponent



FSDO for the airport



Non-Federal Developer

(as appropriate)





Airport Manager



Applicable Service Area






Other distribution

(As required)





Copy to:

Proponent(s) and other

approved operators



Applicable Service Area


Copy to:




ATCT (as appropriate)



Copy to:

Jeppesen, Inc.



Other Cartographic Companies

446.-449.                   Reserved.

Figure 4-1. Specials Processing Flow Diagram.

Figure 4 1. Specials Processing Flow Diagram.

Figure 4-2. Special Procedure Checklist.

Special Procedure Checklist




Type of Procedure/Name:

RAPT Priority:

Type Aircraft expected to use procedure:



Special Procedure Information Required

Why is this a Special?

(Example: Private airport; Nonstandard criteria; etc.)

Is there a similar Public Procedure?

(Example: No/Yes – {Name of procedure})

Is procedure use limited?

(Example: No/Yes – Limited to B-737 aircraft only; Limited to Part 121/135 Operations only; etc.)

Is the procedure developed using non-standard criteria?

(Example: No/Yes – {attach copy of criteria used})

Is a waiver and/or Flight Standards approval letter required?

(Example: No/Yes – FAA Form 8260-1/Flight Standards approval letter attached)

Obstruction Evaluation (OE) Study Plan *

(Example: “Attached” or “Conducted by the NFPO”)

NOTAM Plan *

(Action: Attach method to be used for notifying user)

Periodic Review Plan *

(Example: “Attached” or “Conducted by the NFPO”)

Flight Inspection Plan*

(Example: “Attached” or “Conducted by the FIOG”)

Environmental Assessment*

(Example: “Attached” or “Conducted by the NFPO”)

ATC and Airspace Coordination Completed*

(Action: Attach coordination documentation.)

Airport/Heliport Management Coordination Complete*

(Action: Attach coordination documentation.)

POI or FSDO Name and Contact Information*

(Example: {Name}, {Office symbol}, {Phone/e-mail contact})


(Example: {Name}, {Address}, {Phone/e-mail contact})

*Items required as specified in Order 8260.19D, paragraph 442.



Section 5. Direction Finder (DF) Procedures

450.                      General. DF facilities have been established at air traffic facilities. Many of these have the capability to provide emergency approach procedure support where the DF antenna is suitably located with respect to an airport. This section describes a modified procedure to provide maximum stability in the approach by using small degrees of turns and descents.

451.                      Format. The DF approach procedure must be documented and approved on Form 8260-10, Standard Instrument Approach Procedure, and restrictively identified for emergency use only. Include a diagram showing the planview of the procedure, including magnetic courses and minimum flight altitudes. Provide minimum safe altitudes to 100 miles from the DF antenna. Name the appropriate ATC facility on Form 8260-10 to identify the source of DF control.

452.                      Application of Criteria. Formulate the basic DF approach procedure in accordance with Order 8260.3, Volume 1, chapter 8. Modify the approach pattern in accordance with the following guidelines:

a.          Initial Approach Segment. The initial approach for on-airport facilities includes all portions of the approach between the station passage and the final approach course. Approach procedures for DF facilities located off the airport must have an intermediate segment, in accordance with Order 8260.3, Volume 1, paragraph 812. The following is a description of the modified low altitude triangular pattern:

(1)        A 30-degree angle of divergence exists between the outbound course and the reciprocal of the inbound course.
(2)        The outbound leg is established as a 3-minute leg.
(3)        The base leg is formed by a 120-degree turn to position the aircraft 90 degrees to the final approach course.
(4)        Two 45-degree turns are provided to place the aircraft on final approach. These turns are depicted on the diagram and executed at the discretion of the DF operator.

b.          Minimum Altitudes. Show minimum altitudes for each approach segment except for the portion between the 45-degree turns. Establish the minimum altitude for the final approach segment in accordance with Order 8260.3, Volume 1, paragraph 321. Since these are emergency procedures, do NOT establish ceiling and visibility minimums.

c.            Identification of Procedures . Normally, develop only one approach procedure for each DF location. More than one procedure may be developed when procedures for low and high performance aircraft are not compatible. Identify procedures in accordance with Order 8260.3, Volume 1, paragraph 161.

453.                      DF Vectoring Altitudes. Where a DF approach procedure is not authorized, DF vectoring altitudes may be developed for use by the controlling facility. Altitudes must be entered on Form 8260-10 and must be identified as DF vectoring altitudes. Required obstacle clearance is 1,000 ft. Round altitudes to the next higher 100-ft increment. Minimum accuracy standards for controlling obstacles are stated in paragraph 271b.

454.                      DF Vector Area.

a.          Criteria. Construct the DF Vector area in accordance with paragraph 451, and Order 8260.3, Volume 1, chapter 8.

b.          Sector Radii.

(1)        Outer sector radius is 100 NM.
(2)        Middle sector radius is 40 NM (Doppler) or 30 NM (VHF/DF).
(3)        Other distances may be used to sectorize around obstructions and otherwise, if operationally justified.
(4)        Use a 20 NM sector radius for a low altitude SIAP, and the 30/40 NM radius for high altitude penetrations.
(5)        Radii less than 10 NM should be used with caution due to the requirement for adjacent sector obstacle coverage stated in Order 8260.3, Volume 1, paragraph 810.

c.            Sector Reduction . Use a minimum number of sectors by combining sectors where possible.

Note: Remember that DF is for emergency use; and ATC is attempting to get the aircraft into radar coverage or a clear area where the aircraft can let down VFR.

d.          Minimum safe or sector altitudes may be increased and combined with adjacent higher sectors when a height difference does not exceed 500 ft - UNLESS an operational requirement exists for lower altitudes (e.g., initial approach altitude for DF SIAP).

455.                      Distribution. The NFPO must prepare and approve the Form 8260-10, assign the effective date, and distribute as described in chapter 8, table 8-1.

456.                      Cancellation of DF Procedures. When the DF procedure or DF vectoring area is no longer required, the NFPO must take action to cancel the procedure. Continued need must be determined during the biennial review.

457.-459. Reserved.

Section 6. Category II and III ILS

460.                      General.

a.          Guidance. The following directives (latest editions) contain criteria/guidance to be used in the development or amendment of ILS CAT II and III procedures:

(1)        Order 8260.3, United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS), Volume 3.
(2)        AC 120-28, Criteria for Approval of CAT III Landing Weather Minima for Takeoff, Landing, and Rollout.
(3)        AC 120-29, Criteria for Approval of CAT I and II Weather Minima for Approach.
(4)        Order 8200.1, United States Standard Flight Inspection Manual, chapter 15.
(5)        Order 6750.24, Instrument Landing System and Ancillary Electronic Component Configuration and Performance Requirements.
(6)        Order 8400.8, Procedures for Approval of Facilities for Part 121 and Part 135 CAT III Operations.
(7)        Order 8400.13, Procedures for the Approval of Special Authorization Category II and Lowest Standard Category I Operations.

b.          Advise the general public of airports authorized CAT I, II, and III minimums by publishing the appropriate Part 97 SIAP. CAT IIIc minimums must be included in the minimums format of the IAP [see paragraph 854k].

c.            A detailed explanation of the characters used to identify a facility’s class of performance is contained in Order 6750.24, appendix 2. The first character (I, II, or III), ILS International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards, is determined jointly by flight inspection and engineering personnel. The second character (A, B, T, D, or E), localizer course structure, is determined solely by flight inspection personnel. The third character (1, 2, 3, or 4), ILS integrity and continuity, is determined solely by engineering personnel.

d.          Irregularities on pre-threshold terrain or HGS/autoland system/radio altimeter characteristics might adversely affect radio altimeter indications and thus affect autoland performance of some aircraft. Until or unless these aircraft demonstrate normal radio altimeter readings and acceptable HGS/autoland operations on that runway, and this fact is listed in their operations specifications, they cannot conduct CAT III HGS/autoland operations. AFS-410/470 acts as the clearing house for listing which combinations of HGS/autoland systems/runways are or can be approved, and is positioned for receipt of information from Flight Inspection, AJW-0, ATC, Airports, and airport authorities regarding irregular underlying terrain situations at new runways or runways at which future CAT III procedures are proposed.

461.                      Action.

a.          Regions.

(1)        Applicable Technical Operations Service Areas and NFPO coordination is essential. The NFPO, having planned CAT II and III ILS runways in its area of responsibility, must assure the system meets the necessary ground system and obstacle clearance requirements [see Order 8400.8].

Note: The requirements for ensuring obstacle clearance with respect to aircraft/ vehicles on the ground and the marking of ILS glide slope (GS) and localizer (LOC) obstacle free zones are contained in AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design and AC 150/5340-1, Standards for Airport Marking.

(2)        RFSD-AWOPM coordinates the procedure request with the RAPT. The RFSD-AWOPM is also responsible for coordinating the CAT II/III checklists and will notify AFS-410/470 when CAT II or III checklists are complete. Notification must contain the information obtained from the NFPO [see paragraph 461b(1)].

b.          NFPO.

(1)        The NFPO must advise the regional FSD when a CAT II or III system has passed flight inspection. Notification must contain the following information:
(a)  Airport.
(b)  Runway.
(c)  Flight inspection completion date.
(d)  Facility classification.
(e)  Minimums:

·                CAT II DA and RA.

·                CAT III a/b/c RVR

·                (as appropriate).

(f)      Date approach procedure will be available.
(2)        Amend ILS SIAPs when CAT II, IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc minimums are authorized. Where only CAT II and IIIa are authorized, indicate CAT IIIb and IIIc as not authorized (NA) [see paragraph 854k].

c.            Flight Inspection Central Operations (FICO) Technical Services Sub-Team must maintain the current ILS performance classifications in the Aviation System Standards Information System (AVNIS) database. The applicable Technical Operations Service Area must notify the Flight Standards Division and Flight Inspection Technical Operation Group of individual ILS facility performance classification determinations, and any change in the performance class of a facility, so that changes in CAT III authorizations can be made.

d.          AFS-410/470 CAT II/III Status List Web Site. This notification will provide operators with the planned availability of the new minimums for preparation of operations specifications prior to publication of the SIAP.

462.                      NOTAM Requirements. When any component of the ILS system fails to meet the appropriate performance tolerances, the Air Traffic Vice President of Technical Operations issues a NOTAM (D) for suspension of CAT II/III minimums. If the suspension will exist longer than 224 days or will be permanent, the NFPO must submit an abbreviated or full amendment [see also paragraph 224d(8)].

463.-469.   Reserved.

Section 7. Departure Procedures (DP)

470.                      General. Use Order 8260.46, Departure Procedure (DP) Program, for guidance and standardization for initiating, processing, developing, and managing the DP program.

471.-479.   Reserved.

Section 8. Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR)

480.                      Introduction. STARs are developed and managed under the guidance provided in Order 7100.9, Standard Terminal Arrival Program and Procedures. The following guidance is provided in addition to what is contained in that order.

a.          Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC) submit STARs to the NFPO through the applicable Air Traffic Service Area for review. ARTCCs are responsible for issuance of NOTAMs for STARs.

b.          The NFPO’s review must ensure obstacle clearance requirements; accuracy of courses, distances, and coordinates; clarity and practicality of the procedures; and assurance of navigational guidance adequacy. The NFPO must coordinate any discrepancies, required adjustments, or improvements noted during the review process and/or flight inspection with the sponsoring air traffic facility.

481.                      NFPO Action.

a.          STARs.

(1)        Ensure that the STAR commences at a charted high or low altitude en route fix.
(2)        Verify , in conjunction with flight inspection, that minimum en route altitudes provide required minimum obstruction clearance altitudes (MOCA) and meet minimum reception altitudes (MRA), communication, and airspace requirements. Notify the appropriate ARTCC if NOTAM action is required.
(3)        Verify obstacle clearance requirements are met for lost communications instructions provided by the ARTCC. If the ARTCC did not provide lost communications instructions, and it is determined that obstacles/terrain presents a potential problem, coordinate with the ARTCC for resolution of the matter.
(4)        Incorporate , where possible, the STAR termination fix into the SIAP as a feeder/initial approach fix.
(5)        Verify entry in maximum authorized altitude (MAA) from available documentation; e.g., flight inspection reports, expanded service volume (ESV) reports, etc.

b.          General.

(1)        Review from the pilot’s standpoint . The procedure must be flyable and should be as simple as possible. Use clear, concise, and standard phraseology. Request flight inspection assistance.
(2)        Ensure, in conjunction with flight inspection, that facility performance will support the procedure. This may require preparation of materials such as maps and ESVs to support facility flight inspection.
(3)        Verify the accuracy of courses , distances, and coordinates.
(4)        Return the signed form to the applicable Air Traffic Service Area for further processing.
(5)        Retain a copy of each approved form with charts, computations, and supporting data to facilitate future reviews.
(6)        Include normal distribution copies of Form 8260-2 for the Aeronautical Information Management Group, AJR-32, and ARTCC in the package forwarded to the applicable Air Traffic Service Area.

482.-489. Reserved.

Section 9. RNAV Procedure Development

490.                      General. This section contains supplementary guidance for the development of RNAV instrument procedures. RTCA DO-201A, Standards for Aeronautical Information, has established operational requirements and standards that aviation authorities, procedure designers, and airspace planners must consider when developing en route, arrival, approach, departure, and aerodrome environments. This guidance provides a standardized method of processing RNAV instrument procedures using information from this RTCA document.

491.                      RNAV Approach Procedure Design. Criteria for the development of RNAV instrument procedures can be found in Order 8260.3 and other related 8260-series orders.

a.          All RNAV instrument approach procedures must be connected to the en route airway system in order to provide a seamless transition into the Terminal Area. Accomplish this by one of the following methods:

Note: This policy is recommended but not required for helicopter procedures.

(1)        Establish a feeder route from the en route airway to all initial approach fixes (IAFs) not on an airway.
(2)        Extend the "T" leg initial segment to place the IAF on an en route airway. Do not extend the "T" leg more than 10 miles from the intermediate fix.
(3)        Use a modified form of the basic "T" (L or I) or a route type approach.
(4)        Establish a Terminal Arrival Area (TAA) as prescribed in Order 8260.45, Terminal Arrival Area (TAA) Design Criteria.

b.          The RNAV procedure should, whenever and wherever possible, match the ILS at the same runway in the following respects: final and intermediate segment procedure ground track, missed approach, altitudes, fix locations/names, glidepath angles (GPAs), and threshold crossing heights (TCH). Nothing in this policy requires an RNAV procedure to emulate a procedure turn used on an underlying ILS procedure. Due to the many variables involved in procedure design, especially relating to the very different aspects of ILS and RNAV design, it is impractical to set standards for all possible ILS/RNAV designs; therefore, in lieu of hard and fast design standards, use the following design guidelines:

(1)        When designing an RNAV procedure at an ILS equipped runway, the RNAV procedure should emulate the ILS procedure to the maximum extent possible. In other words, if the ILS needs updating (i.e., PFAF placement to meet new/current standards), publish updated ILS and RNAV procedures concurrently. In emulating an ILS, do not include either a basic “T” or TAA in the RNAV IAP unless specifically requested by Air Traffic.
(2)        If the ILS PFAF occurs at the LOC FAF, emulation of the ILS by the RNAV procedure may be a simple matter. In this case, the RNAV PFAF can be placed at the LOC FAF location and thus coincidence will have been achieved for the ILS PFAF, LOC FAF and RNAV PFAF. Use the LOC FAF name for the RNAV PFAF name. Revising the ILS procedure will, in all likelihood, not be necessary.
(3)        For a variety of reasons, the situation described in paragraph 491b(2) is seldom found in practice. Where the ILS PFAF is not collocated with the existing LOC FAF, the associated LOC portion of the ILS procedure may have to be revised at the same time the new RNAV IAP is developed.
(a)  If the present LOC FAF is defined by DME, intersection or radar, revise the ILS procedure by relocating the LOC FAF to coincide with the RNAV PFAF which can be placed at the vertical descent angle interception point for the given ILS glide slope angle/TCH and LOC FAF altitude. Use the LOC FAF name for the RNAV PFAF name.
(b)  If the present LOC FAF is defined by a facility such as an outer marker (OM) or locator outer marker (LOM) and localizer DME is available, define the LOC FAF using DME and collocate the LOCFAF and RNAV PFAF as in the option of paragraph 491b(3)(a). If possible, retain the present facility name for use at the LOC/RNAV FAF.

c.            Establish an LNAV FAF for all new RNAV procedures at a location that will support a collocated PFAF for future RNP, LNAV/VNAV, and/or WAAS/LAAS procedures.

d.          RNAV RNP procedures may be designed to support minimums with different RNP values in the final approach segment. The largest RNP value is the one that will be coded into the avionics database (pilots will have the ability to enter the lower values if their equipment permits).

492.                      Developing RNAV Waypoint.

a.          In establishing the position of a waypoint fix, determine which category of fix will best meet the airspace, route of flight, obstacle clearance, and operational requirements. Fly-by and Fly-over fixes are the two basic types of waypoint fixes that are used in transitioning from one route segment to another when conducting instrument approach, en route arrival, or departure procedures.

(1)        Fly-by (FB) waypoint fixes identify a position where a change in course occurs from one specified route segment to another. Turn anticipation is required and expected as the aircraft executes the turn maneuver. The FB waypoint fix is the most desired and useful type for use in RNAV procedure design due to the conservation of airspace. Unless otherwise required by the procedure design, all waypoint fixes defining a course change must be coded in the navigation database as FB.
(2)        Fly-over (FO) waypoint fixes may or may not identify a change in course from one specified route segment to another. Turn anticipation is not permitted. FO fixes require substantially more airspace to protect for the turn than FB fixes, and should be used only where special design problems necessitate.

b.          FAA 8260-series forms must document waypoint type and waypoint description codes for all waypoint fixes used in RNAV procedure design. Because of the different obstacle assessments conducted, FO and FB information is critical to flight crews and should be consistently displayed on aeronautical charts and in navigational databases. The waypoint type (FO/FB) is documented on Forms 8260-3/5/7 as applicable [see paragraph 851a(6)]. For agencies providing a complete ARINC record printout of a procedure on Form 8260-10, waypoint description codes entries are not required.

c.            En Route. Do NOT establish RNAV WPs at National Airspace System (NAS) en route facilities. Do NOT establish RNAV WPs at en route fixes when used as feeder fixes for RNAV procedures.

d.          Terminal. Develop terminal use RNAV WPs based on usage as follows:

(1)        )Missed Approach Point (MAP). Normally the MAP is at the threshold but may be located prior to the threshold, on or off runway centerline.
(a)  MAP Located at Threshold. The landing threshold is contained in the runway file in the RNAV database, and identified by ARINC code for the threshold. Do NOT document a MAP located at the landing threshold on an 8260-2.
(b)  MAP not Located at Threshold. The landing threshold will be the reference point. True bearing is from reference point to MAP. If the MAP is on runway centerline extended, use the reciprocal of the landing runway true bearing. Distance is from reference point to MAP.
(2)        Final Approach Fix (FAF). Establish the location of the FAF as a true bearing and distance as follows:
(a)  Final approach course aligned through threshold. Use landing threshold as reference point.
(b)  Final approach course not aligned through threshold. Use MAP as reference point.
(3)        Intermediate Fix (IF). Establish the location of the IF as a true bearing and distance as follows:
(a)  No Course Change at FAF. Utilize the same reference point used to establish the FAF.
(b)  Course Change at the FAF. Use the FAF as the reference point.
(4)        Initial Approach Fix (IAF). Establish the location of the IAF as a true bearing and distance as follows:
(a)  No Course Change at the IF or FAF: Utilize the same reference point used to establish the FAF.
(b)  No Course Change at the IF, with a course change at the FAF. Use the FAF as the reference point.
(c)  Course Change at the IF. Use the IF as the reference point.
(5)        Feeder Fix. If a WP is required for use as a feeder fix, and will NOT be an en route fix, establish the location of the feeder fix as a true bearing and distance as follows:
(a)  No Course Change at the IAF. Utilize the same reference point used to establish the IAF.
(b)  Course Change at the IAF. Use the IAF as the reference point.
(6)        Missed Approach. For all WPs in the missed approach, after the MAP, use the preceding WP as the reference point.
(7)        Stepdown Fixes Within Segments. Establish the location of waypoints used as stepdown fix(es) within a segment as a bearing and distance FROM the waypoint/fix that marks the beginning of the next segment in the procedure sequence (e.g., IAF, IF, FAF, etc.). For example, the forward true bearing from IF to IAF is 290.34 degrees. Establish the coordinates for stepdown fix waypoints on bearing 290.34 degrees from the IF at the desired distance(s) between the IF and IAF.

Note: Use this method to determine stepdown fixes in ALL segments.

493.                      RNAV LEG TYPES.

a.          Different types of arrival, approach, departure, and en route segments are required for RNAV. Consideration of these requirements during procedure design will result in a more efficiently designed flight path for all operators using airspace; particularly those equipped with computer-based navigation systems. These systems require encoding RNAV route segment flight paths into a format usable in navigation databases.

b.          The aviation industry has adopted a route segment definition called "path and terminator." This concept is used for trans-forming arrival, approach, and departure procedures into coded flight paths that can be interpreted and used by a computer based navigation system. A path terminator instructs the aircraft to navigate from a starting point along a defined path to a specified point or terminating condition. The path terminators are identified by a set of two alpha-characters, each of which has a meaning when describing a flight maneuver to a navigation computer. The first character indicates the types of flight path to be flown, and the second indicates where the route segment terminates. For example, a designated route from a NAVAID to a fix would be coded as "TF." The "T" indicates that a track is to be flown, and the "F" indicates that the segment terminates at a fix. There are over twenty different path and terminator sets ("leg types") used by the aviation industry to accommodate the coding of procedure route segments. However, only a limited few are suitable for use in RNAV procedure design.

c.            Document leg type codes on 8260-series forms in accordance with applicable instructions in chapter 8 and Order 8260.46. For agencies providing a complete ARINC record printout of a procedure on Form 8260-10, these entries are not required.

494.                      RNAV LEG TYPE DESCRIPTIONS.

a.          Initial Fix (IF). This is the point or fix where a flight segment begins. An IF is not a route segment and does not define a desired track in and of itself. It is used in conjunction with other leg types such as a TF leg in order to define the desired segment.

Note: "IF" in this context is not to be confused with initial approach fix (IAF) or intermediate fix (IF); however, it may be located at one of these locations for coding purposes.

b.          Track-to-Fix (TF) Leg. This designates a track or geodesic path between two fixes. If the TF leg is the first route segment of a flight path, the TF leg begins at an IF; otherwise, the first fix of the TF leg is the termination fix of the previous route segment. The TF leg is the primary straight route segment for RNAV.

c.            Constant Radius to a Fix (RF) Leg. An RF leg defines a curved path route segment about a defined turn center that terminates at a fix. The RF leg begins at the termination fix of the previous route segment. The previous segment is tangent to the arc of the RF leg at that fix. An RF leg is the primary curved path route segment for RNAV RNP procedures. Waypoints defining the beginning and end point of the RF turn must be designated as “Fly-by.”

d.          Course-to-Altitude (CA) Leg. The CA leg is used to code the initial leg at the beginning of the missed approach segment. This leg type requires a stated course and altitude at the beginning of the missed approach. This altitude will be the lowest of DA, MDA, or 400-ft above airport elevation (for helicopter point-in-space procedures, use lowest DA or MDA). A DF leg must always follow a CA leg.

e.          Direct-to-Fix (DF) Leg. A DF leg is used to define a route segment (geodesic path) that begins at an aircraft present position, or unspecified position, and extends to a specified fix.

f.              Heading-to-an-Altitude (VA) Leg. The VA leg is used in a departure route segment where a heading rather than a track has been specified for climb. The VA segment terminates at a specified altitude without a terminating position defined.

g.          Course-to-Fix (CF) Leg. The CF leg is defined as a magnetic course that terminates at a fix. Although the CF leg is used in many traditional approach and departure procedures, this leg type is to be avoided in the design of RNAV procedures.

h.          Vector-to-Fix (VM) Leg. A VM leg is used for whenever a departure route description specifies a course or heading to fly in expectation of a radar vector.

i.              Vector-to-Intercept (VI) Leg. A VI leg defines a specified heading to intercept the subsequent leg at an unspecified position.

495.                      FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT (FAS) DATA.

a.          FAS data is described and attained using established TERPS criteria in Order 8260.3, Volume 3. This data is compiled and formed into what is called the FAS Data Block. The method of protection required for this flight data is known as the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC).

b.          Document FAS Data Block information on Form 8260-10 (future documentation and transmittal of this information will be via electronic means). Guidance on producing data that are placed on this form is located in appendix 11.

c.            FAS Data Block coordinates must be in WGS-84 coordinate system.

496.                      REMOTE ALTIMETER SETTING FOR BARO-VNAV. Baro-VNAV systems cannot fly to approach minimums based on a remote altimeter setting. See paragraph 855e(8) for appropriate notes on this procedure.

497.                      CRITICAL TEMPERATURE. Temperature limits above and below which Baro-VNAV operations are not authorized are published on RNAV instrument approach procedures. TERPS criteria provide the formulas to compute the critical temperatures for the airport of intended landing based on a given deviation from International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) for the airport elevation.

a.     For RNAV GPS procedures, use “Chart note: For uncompensated Baro-VNAV systems, LNAV/VNAV NA below ____°C (____°F) or above____°C (____°F).”

b.     For RNAV RNP procedures, use “Chart note: For uncompensated Baro-VNAV systems, Procedure NA below ____°C (____°F) or above____°C (____°F).”

c.     Maximum temperature published shall not exceed 54°C (130°F). Document actual high temperature in the remarks section of Form 8260-9. Document the ISA deviation value used, if other than standard, in the remarks section of the Form 8260-9.

Note 1: When the temperature values are calculated to a decimal point, round to the “colder” whole temperature unit for the maximum temperature value and to the “warmer” whole temperature unit for the minimum temperature value.

Note 2: Do not publish a maximum temperature in excess of 130 degrees Fahrenheit.

498.                      DME/DME SCREENING MODEL. Apply the RNAV-Pro DME screening model to ensure satisfactory availability and geometry of DME navigation signals for RNAV instrument approach and departure procedures and RNAV “Q” routes to support use of flight management system (FMS)-equipped aircraft that are DME/DME capable. Flight inspection will record the coverage and accuracy of the facilities identified by the screening model. Further analysis of the screening model will determine if the data obtained are satisfactory to support the procedure.


a.          Enter a 5-digit WAAS/LAAS channel number into the Additional Flight Data block of the 8260-series form [see paragraph 857l(3)]. A block of WAAS channel numbers is allocated to the National Flight Procedures Office by the National Flight Data Center. LAAS channel numbers must be calculated using a specific frequency that is currently obtained from Region Spectrum Management Office. LAAS channel numbers also must be obtained for each IAF. If there are no IAFs (e.g., a RADAR REQUIRED procedure), a single channel number is still required. This paragraph does not apply to RNAV RNP procedures.

b.          Enter Approach ID, e.g., W09A/L18A into the Additional Flight Data block of the 8260-series form [see paragraph 857l(3)]. This is the same as the Reference Path Identifier described in appendix 12 and is part of the FAS Data Block. This paragraph does not apply to RNAV RNP procedures.

c.            Enter “Critical Temp” data as specified in paragraph 497.

d.          Due to limited WAAS coverage at certain locations, a restriction may be required on procedures where WAAS can be used for vertical navigation on a procedure containing LNAV/VNAV minima. This restriction is portrayed on the instrument procedure chart with a negative-type “W” icon that signifies WAAS signal outages may occur daily and that these outages will not be NOTAM’d. At locations where LNAV/VNAV minima are published and it has been determined that there is no WAAS coverage whatsoever, a note will be placed on the approach plate that reads “WAAS VNAV NA. Document this in the Notes Section of the Form 8260-3/7 as: “Chart note: WAAS VNAV NA.

e.          For RNAV (GPS) procedures where DME/DME RNP-0.3 is not authorized, use "Chart note: DME/DME RNP- 0.3 NA.” Where DME/DME RNP-0.3 is authorized, use “Chart note: DME/DME RNP-0.3 Authorized.” Where DME/DME RNP-0.3 is authorized only when required facilities are necessary for proper navigation solution, use “Chart note: DME/DME RNP-0.3 Authorized; ABC and XYZ DMEs must be Operational.” For RNAV (RNP) procedures, the use of GPS is required; use “Chart note: GPS Required.

f.              Document the Approach Route Type Description and Qualifier Description in the Additional Flight Data Block. These descriptions are in the form of an alpha character and found in ARINC Standard 424, Navigation Database, paragraph 5.7. Also see paragraph 857l(3). For agencies providing a complete ARINC record printout of a procedure on Form 8260-10, these entries are not required.

g.          Enter Terminal Arrival Area (TAA) data as directed by Order 8260.45. Determine if the use of "(NoPT)" is appropriate and document accordingly.

h.          Document the Waypoint Description Code as defined in ARINC Standard 424 on the applicable 8260-series form [see paragraph 851a(6)]. For agencies providing a complete ARINC record printout of a procedure on Form 8260-10, these entries are not required.

i.              Document the RNP value (e.g., RNP 0.15) used for each segment (except the final segment) in the “TO” block of the “Terminal Routes” section on Form 8260-3 [see paragraph 851a(6)]. For agencies providing a complete ARINC record printout of a procedure on Form 8260-10, these entries are not required. Additionally, when the RNP for feeder, initial and/or intermediate segments are less than standard (RNP 2.0 for feeder, RNP 1.0 for initial and/or intermediate), a note must be placed adjacent to the feeder fix or IAF stating the required RNP value. Document this in the “Notes” section of Form 8260-3. Use “Chart planview note at (fix name): (RNP 0.XX).

j.              RNAV (RNP) speed restrictions [See Order 8260.52] must be noted on the chart. Use "Chart planview note at LUCIG: Max 190 KIAS." For missed approach, specify the point at which the restriction is no longer required. Use "Chart planview note at NILCI: Max 200 KIAS until HIVUD."

k.            Certain RNP equipped aircraft may not be capable of flying procedures that contain RF turns, so the entire procedure or segment of the procedure must be annotated with a “RF required” to alert the pilot of this limitation. Use either the note specified in paragraph 499k(1) or (2):

(1)        Use Chart note: RF Required” when ONE of the following conditions exist:
(a)  ALL terminal routes leading to the intermediate fix require an RF turn.
(b)  The intermediate, final, or missed approach segment requires an RF turn.


(2)        If an RNP procedure can be flown from an IAF without RF turns in any segment (including missed approach) and there are RF turns required when initiating the approach from other IAFs on the chart, a note must be placed adjacent to the IAF(s) affected. Use “Chart planview note adjacent to (name) IAF: RF Required.

l.              RNP criteria require a wingspan value to be used when calculating the Vertical Error Budget (VEB). When a 136-ft wingspan is selected for use in the calculations, a note must be placed on the approach chart to alert the pilot of this limitation. Use “Chart note: Procedure NA for aircraft with wingspan greater than 136 ft.

m.      Procedure development agencies may provide a complete ARINC packet printout on a separate Form 8260-10. The packet must include the procedure record and all supporting records, i.e., waypoints, airport or heliport runways, MSA or TAA, path point, etc. The printout will include column numbers for each record type. See ARINC Record Printout examples in appendix 3.